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  • 451.
    Straatman, Ilse
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sylvén, Mikaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Samband mellan personlighetsfaktorer och substansberoende2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika studier har visat att det finns skillnader i personlighet mellan missbrukare och icke-missbrukare, men ingen studie har hittats där personlighet av individer som har ett substansberoende, individer som tidigare har haft ett substansberoende och individer som aldrig har haft ett substansberoende har jämförts. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det fanns skillnader i personlighetsdrag mellan individer som har ett substansberoende, individer som tidigare har haft ett substansberoende och individer som aldrig har haft ett substansberoende. Enkäten med 44 påståenden, där extraversion, vänlighet, samvetsgrannhet, neuroticism och öppenhet i enighet med femfaktormodellen har beräknats, har använts för att mäta personlighet. Enkäten har spridits i olika Facebookgrupper och totalt har 108 individer deltagit. En envägs-oberoende ANOVA har använts för att undersöka skillnaderna i personlighet mellan de tre grupperna. Resultaten visade att individer som har ett substansberoende hade en signifikant högre andel neuroticism än individer som aldrig har haft ett substansberoende. Individer som har ett substansberoende och individer som tidigare har haft ett substansberoende hade en signifikant lägre andel samvetsgrannhet än individer som aldrig har haft ett substansberoende. Efter kontroll av åldern (ANCOVA) hittades en signifikant skillnad i öppenhet i de tre grupperna.

  • 452.
    Strinic, Andrea
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jónsdóttir, Sólveig Dröfn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring a sleepiness framework: The effect of sleepiness on interpersonal adaptability, and the role of time pressure, chronotype, tenure, agreeableness and extraversion in the relationship2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People spend a great portion of their life either sleeping or working. The modern working environment is filled with hectic work schedules and an increasing demand for international teamwork which have wide variety of influences on an individual. As the connection between sleepiness and work outcomes hasn’t been thoroughly researched, this paper explored the relationship between time pressure and sleepiness, as well as an increasingly important work outcome, namely interpersonal adaptability. Other assessed relationships were with tenure acting as a moderator, and chronotype, extraversion and agreeableness as control variables. The assessed relationships were based on a sleepiness framework by Mullins and colleagues (2014). The convenience sample consisted of 125 students from a university in the south of Sweden. Data was collected using a self-report measure and analyzed using path analysis. Results gave support for two hypotheses out of six: (1) Time pressure is a significant predictor of daytime sleepiness, and (2) extraversion and agreeableness significantly predict interpersonal adaptability. It was concluded that time pressure, extraversion and agreeableness should be considered in future research of sleepiness and interpersonal adaptability. Additionally, it is recommended to use more behavior-based and less self-evaluative measures in future research.

  • 453.
    Ström, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att börja gymnasiet: en kvalitativ studie om förstaårselever på gymnasiets upplevelser om att börja gymnasiet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gymnasiestart innebär allt som oftast ny skolmiljö, nya klasskamrater och ett annorlunda studiesätt än vad eleverna tidigare är vana med. Nyblivna gymnasieelver befinner sig i en ålder där identifikation och tillhörighet är viktigt, detta gör det intressant att undersöka de nyblivna elevernas uppleverlser angående just identifikation och grupptillhörighet (McAdams & de St Aubin, 1998., Tanti et al., 2011). Föreliggande studies syfte är att studera gymnsieelvers upplevelser om grupperingar. studien har haft Social Identity Theory som utgångspunkt och i synnerhet aspekterna om in- och ut-grupper (Tanti et al., 2011., Turner & Rynolds, 2010). Sju nublivna elever från två olika städer har deltigit i semistrukturerade intervjuer angående deras upplevelser att börja gynasiet, grupperingar och deras egna identifikation. Resultatet av intervjuerna analyserades genom Burnards (1991) metodfem teman som representerar elevernas uppleveler: Mångfacetterad popularitet, Fördomar, Att skapa vänner, Identitetsskiftning samt Icke-genus grupper. Avslutningsvis diskuteras de fem temana med förankring i tidigare forskning. 

  • 454.
    Ström, Sanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen: En studie om socialt stöd vid arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många anställda känner sig stressade och en orsak till detta är personalnedskärningar. Det leder i sin tur till att de kvarvarande får tyngre arbetsbörda och risk för konflikter på arbetsplatsen ökar när dess personal är stressad (Rudenstam & Rudenstam, 2006). Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilket samband det upplevda sociala stödet har med de anställdas arbetsrelaterade stress. Ett fokus i studien var att undersöka om det sociala stödet från arbetskamrater och chefer var större än från vänner och familj, dvs privat. Studien har gjorts på en dagligvaruhandel i Småland där 48 anställda deltog, genom att deltagarna fyllde i delar av enkäten QPSNordic. Resultatet visar att männen visar sig uppleva ett större stöd än kvinnorna, samt att yngre personer upplever ett större stöd privat. Det finns också skillnader gällande arbetstagare och arbetsledare, där graden av upplevd stress är högre för arbetsledare. Undersökningens fynd bekräftar därmed till viss del den gängse uppfattningen om att det sociala stödet på arbetsplatsen har störst effekt på arbetsrelaterad stress. 

  • 455.
    Strömberg, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. 850529-2907.
    Carlén, Elina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upplevd diskriminering vid arbetsrekrytering   : En experimentell studie av upplevd diskriminering i ett könsneutralt yrke beroende av den arbetssökandes namn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett av de mest jämställda länder i världen när det kommer till arbetsmarknaden mellan kvinnor och män (Magnusson, 2002). Omfattande fältexperiment (Carlsson & Sinclair, 2017)  har visat att det förekommer mycket lite diskriminering utifrån kön när män och kvinnor med motsvarande meriter söker samma tjänster. Med tanke på att arbetsmarknaden trots detta är ojämställd i flera avseenden (Magnusson, 2002) är det möjligt att man trots allt upplever diskriminering vid anställning (Andersson, 2011). Studien är experimentell med syftet att undersöka upplevelse av diskriminering i anställningsprocessen. Frågeställningen  var  om det finns skillnader i upplevd diskriminering för ett typiskt kvinnligt-, manligt- samt könsneutralt namn på den arbetssökandes CV till ett könsneutralt yrke. 180 studenter besvarade en enkät med en fiktiv historia om en arbetssökande som blev nekad till 7 av 10 arbetsintervjuer. Tre olika formulär delades ut, ett med ett typiskt kvinnligt-, manligt och könsneutralt namn som sedan bearbetades statistiskt. Resultatet från studien tyder på att arbetssökande i scenariot med ett könsneutralt- och kvinnligt namn upplevdes mer diskriminerad än arbetssökande med ett manligt namn. Slutsatsen av studien är att arbetssökande med ett kvinnligt- samt könsneutralt namn upplevs bli mer diskriminerad under en arbetsrekrytering till ett könsneutralt yrke än vad en arbetssökande med ett manligt namn upplevs bli.

  • 456.
    Strömgren, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att vara en första linjens chef: En kvalitativ studie om första linjens chefers upplevelse av psykosocial arbetsmiljö2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role as a first-line manager is challenging due to demands and expectations from two directions that call for their attention. A functioning psychosocial work environment is of importance for a functioning working life, not least for the first-line managers to fulfill their tasks. Previous research has shown that a functional and promoting psychosocial work environment prevents mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe what the role of the first-line managers in the private sector entails; how the psychosocial work environment is experienced and what demands and challenges, and what resources they experience. The raw-data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews and the data material was analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The result showed that predominantly first-line managers perceived themselves to be happy in their role and their health to be good, but there are also indications that the psychosocial work environment should be given attention. The result also showed that in the role the first line managers greatest demands comes from high stress and time pressure, but also that they have a lack of resources as the main manifestation of a lack of support from senior managers and HR. Their main resources were collected from being supported by the colleagues and co-workers. The focus in the future should concentrate on the organization, where supportive leadership is paramount to the health of first-line managers.

  • 457.
    Sundström, Christopher
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Univ Regina, Canada.
    Eek, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gajecki, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Jakobson, Miriam
    Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Beckman, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    High- versus low-intensity internet interventions for alcohol use disorders: results of a three-armed randomized controlled superiority trial2020In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To test the efficacy of a therapist-guided high-intensity internet intervention compared with an unguided low-intensity internet intervention among individuals with alcohol use disorder. Design A three-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up assessments post-treatment (12 weeks) and 6 months post-randomization (primary end-point). Settings General population sample in Sweden. Participants A total of 166 on-line self-referred adults (49% males) with a score of 14 (females)/16 (males) or more on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a preceding week alcohol consumption of 11 (females)/14 (males) or more standard drinks and an alcohol use disorder according to a diagnostic interview. Interventions and comparators Both the high- (n = 72) and low-intensity internet interventions (n = 71) consisted of modules based on relapse prevention. Controls were on a waiting-list (n = 23), and were only followed until the post-treatment follow-up. Participants were randomized at a 7 : 7 : 2 ratio. Measurements Primary outcome was self-reported alcohol consumption in the preceding week measured as (1) number of standard drinks and (2) number of heavy drinking days at the 6-month follow-up. Findings Alcohol use disorders were largely in the severe category (74.7%), with the majority of participants having had alcohol problems for more than 5 years. Attrition was 13 and 22% at the post-treatment and 6-month follow-up, respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, an intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences in alcohol consumption between the high- and low-intensity interventions [standard drinks d = -0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.50 to 0.16; heavy drinking days: d = -0.07, 95% CI = -0.40 to 0.26]. Prevalence of negative effects was somewhat low (8-14%) in both intervention groups, as was deterioration (3-5%). Conclusions At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant differences between a therapist-guided high-intensity internet intervention and an unguided low-intensity internet intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among individuals with an alcohol use disorder.

  • 458.
    Surbevska, Olivera
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lärares upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress: En kvalitativ studie om stress bland lärare i grundskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 459.
    Svensson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Man ska kunna byta hårddisk på datorn, men man ska göra det med fina rödmålade naglar": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om unga kvinnors upplevda erfarenhet av kvinnoblivandet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the transition to womanhood are few, outdated or primarily quantitative, mainly focused on marginalized groups or studied with a pathological approach. To my knowledge, the transition to womanhood in Swedish women of the majority culture has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the lived experience of the transition to womanhood of the majority culture in Sweden. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews with women (nine with female sex, one with male sex) between the ages of 19-22 (mean = 19.8 years) were conducted and analyzed by thematic content analysis with a phenomenological approach. The analysis resulted in four themes: The transition, The body, The feelings and The womanhood. The findings revealed the transition to womanhood as a complex, active process consisting of several interacting developmental areas. Individual conditions, background experiences and sociocultural factors are of importance for what the transition contains, and how it is perceived. The current social perception of equality, gender-neutrality and the importance of self-worth, have a major impact on the experience of the transition to womanhood. The transition is primarily about shaping life and identity according to one's own needs and interests. This study also showed that social support and gender freedom contributes to well-being during the transition to womanhood. 

  • 460.
    Svensson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Påverkas utövandet av fysisk aktivitet av psykologiska faktorer?: En kvantitativ undersökning av HAPA-modellen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 461.
    Svensson, Harald
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallqvist, Katinka
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Joining a Social Club or Buying a Planner?: What predicts subjective wellbeing amongst Swedish university students?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that university students are at risk for developing psychiatric symptoms, but there is a lack of research targeting wellbeing amongst students in Sweden. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between social- and cognitive resilience factors and subjective wellbeing in university students in Sweden. Participants were 396 full-time students. The protective factors, measured by means of the test Scale of Protective Factors (SPF-24), social support, social skills, planning and prioritising behaviour and goal efficacy, were entered into a multiple regression analysis (MRA) with subjective wellbeing, measured by the test Personal Wellbeing Index Adult (PWI-A), as the criterion variable. A significant model emerged with an explanatory power of 41%, indicating that social support, social skills and goal efficacy were significant predictors of subjective wellbeing. Furthermore, employed students rated their goal efficacy higher than unemployed students, and females rated their resilience higher than males. Moreover, results indicate that females and males, as well as students who studied at university to different extents, have similar levels of social support, goal efficacy and wellbeing. Limitations and implementations are discussed.

  • 462.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Persson, Bengt A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading level and the prevalence of a dyslexic profile among patients in a forensic psychiatric clinic2015In: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, ISSN 1478-9949, E-ISSN 1478-9957, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 532-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate Swedish language reading ability of forensicpatients and the number of them that present a dyslexia profile. Anotheraim is to compare the reading level in different subtypes of psychiatricdiagnoses. Assessments were made of 185 patients by a battery of readingtests. They were also interviewed about their schooling and theirself-estimated reading and writing ability. The results show that thepatients’ reading level is below average for grade six children in Swedishcompulsory school, and that 16 per cent show a dyslexic profile. Malepatients with an immigrant background and a diagnosis of psychosis andanxiety disorders perform the lowest when measuring literacy skills. Thisproportionately low reading ability can cause difficulties in understandingtexts as presented in broadsheet newspapers, civic information and patientrecords, and might even jeopardize the understanding of adult spokenlanguage.

  • 463.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Persson, Bengt A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The Effect of Reading Interventions among Poor Readers at a Forensic Psychiatric Clinic2017In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 440-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a short period, 15 sessions, of reading interventions in a sample of adult forensic psychiatric patients: 61 patients with decoding difficulties – 44 in the experimental group and 17 in the comparison group – with an average age of 31.6 participated. Of these, 36% were female, and 29% had an immigrant background. The participants carried out a battery of reading tests. The results in the experimental group showed a medium effect size (d = .36 to .76) on all reading tests between pre- and post-test. The comparison group, however, showed no gain at all between the test occasions. The results indicate that a proportionally low reading intervention effort produces improvement in reading. This study discusses the importance of including reading assessment and offering remediation in order to reach optimal future social adjustment for patients in forensic clinics.

  • 464.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Tjus, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Mikael, Heimann
    Linköping university.
    Stefan, Gustafson
    Linköping university.
    Two-step tier three interventions for children in grade three with low reading fluency2019In: Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, ISSN 1471-3802, E-ISSN 1471-3802, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of a tier three intervention, response-tointerventiondesign, on children with low readingability in grade three. Twenty-eight children (12females and 16 males) participated in this study.The participants were given out a battery of readingtests including decoding and reading comprehensiontests, and in total, the children received20 reading intervention sessions in two waves, during4 weeks. The results showed substantial gainswith large effect sizes (d 0.78–2.95) on all thereading tests after the intervention period. A short,intensive and individualised intervention has a substantiallypositive effect on children’s reading ability.For a majority of the children, the increasedability sustains even 4 years after the end of theinterventions. However, as boys seem to have thegreatest problem to sustain their increased ability,the authors claim that it is important to continuethe intervention even after the research interventionshave ended.

  • 465.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Short and long-term effects of using assistive technology for students with reading and writing disabilities in compulory secondary school2017In: Language, Literacy and Learning Conference, Perth, Australia, March 30 - April 1, 2017, Perth, Australia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will discuss a study which investigated whether systematic and intensive use of assistive technology (AT) can improve reading skills and enhance the ability to assimilate and communicate text for students with reading disabilities. Participants of this RCT designed study took part in an intervention which involved daily use of reading and writing apps for tablets over six weeks. We will present data from immediately after the intervention and from the one-year follow-up of reading skills and self-esteem, using assistive technology and a teacher perspective.

  • 466.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Björn, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Sand, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almgren Bäck, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effects of assistive technology for students with reading and writing disabilities2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assistive technology has been used to mitigate reading disabilities for almost three decades, and tablets with text-to-speech and speech-to-text apps have been introduced in recent years to scaffold reading and writing. Few scientifically rigorous studies, however, have investigated the benefits of this technology.

    Purpose: The aim was to explore the effects of assistive technology for students with severe reading disabilities.

    Method: This study included 149 participants. The intervention group received 24 sessions of assistive technology training, and the control group received treatment as usual.

    Results: Both the intervention and control groups improved as much in 1 year as the normed population did. However, gains did not differ between the groups directly after the intervention or at 1 year of follow-up.

    Conclusions: The use of assistive technology seems to have transfer effects on reading ability and to be supportive, especially for students with the most severe difficulties. In addition, it increases motivation for overall schoolwork. Our experience also highlights the obstacles involved in measuring the ability to assimilate and communicate text.

  • 467.
    Svensson, Kent
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johari, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Går det att träna upp minnet på äldre dagar?: Stimulansträning med mindfulness för det episodiska minnet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study and our aim was to expand our collective knowledge and understanding of what can help to improve the memory by exercise in healthy elderly and contribute with a better wellness. In an aging population with increasing incidence of older individuals with physical and mental disabilities, may affect many worldwide. The master´s thesis question to study whether mindfulnesstraining (MT) can improve episodic memory, which is an important everyday cognitive function. In the statistical analysis, a group of participants (n=18) received stimulus condition mindfulnesstraining during 5 weeks in parallel with an active control group (n=19). The results showed a large effect on the improvement of episodic memory (measured with PAL) and the training explained 22 % of the variance. No statistical significances were identified in the control group and between groups. With the obtained data material in the thesis, we see the practical implications of mindfulness as a potential supplement for health and wellbeing of elderly people. We plead further several studies in the research field to ensure the evidence.

  • 468.
    Svensson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vägen mot kunskap: En kvantiativ studie om högstadieelevers motivationsgrad2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersöker elevers motivationsgrad i årskurs nio och består av 132 elever, samtliga över 15 år som besvarat ett frågeformulär. Datan analyserades genom en multipel regressionsanalys där prediktorerna, föräldraengagemang, lärarengagemang, umgängesattityder samt prestationsbehov användes för att predicera den beroende variabeln, motivationsgrad hos eleverna. Resultatet visade att bäst predicerade föräldraengagemang och lärarengagemang elevernas motivationsgrad, i en positiv riktning. Ju mer engagerad barnet upplever att föräldrarna är och ju mer engagerad eleverna upplever att läraren är desto högre motivationsgrad visar de.                            

  • 469.
    Svensson, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundin, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sambanden mellan smartphoneberoende, psykisk ohälsa och personlighet: En kvantitativ studie om smartphoneberoende2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones have become a natural part of our everyday life and smart applications constantly give us new possibilities. While there are many positive aspects of the technology, it is important to examine what the consequences could be of the technological development. Smartphones have increased in availability and we have become addicted to the opportunities everyday technologies such as smartphones offer us. This study examined the relationships between personality traits, symptoms of mental illness and smartphone addiction among students (n = 103) using web-based assessments. Smartphone addiction was assessed with SAS-SV. We found positive associations between mental symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress and smartphone addiction. Neuroticism had a positive relationship with smartphone addiction but other Big Five personality traits such as extraversion and conscientiousness showed negative association with smartphone addiction. Regression analysis showed that neuroticism positively, but conscientiousness negatively predicted smartphone addiction in our sample. We discussed our results according to the previous literature and suggest that further longitudinal research is needed to determine possible causality between the measured factors.

  • 470.
    Sæmundsdóttir, Ragnheiður Helga
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Well-being and work conditions of hospital employees in Iceland and Sweden: A cross-cultural comparison of job-demands, job resources, self-efficacy and intention to quit2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare job demand and resource perception of hospital employees in Iceland and Sweden as well as their self-efficacy and intention to quit. These variables have high predictability for attitudes and behavior. Since the two countries were impacted differently by the global financial crisis of 2008, it is interesting to investigate whether these factors differ between them. A cross-sectional data was collected in public hospitals among specialized and unspecialized healthcare employees who responded to a self-administrated questionnaire. Quantitative methodology was used to analyze the differences between the groups. A MANOVA revealed no significant differences in resource perception, self-efficacy and intention to quit. However, unexpectedly, perception of job demands was significantly higher in Sweden. The literature behind this comparison sheds a light on how work conditions and employee well-being can be improved by managing resources and demands. It yields insight into how improvements can be wrought in such a complex system as healthcare in times of financial restrictions. On a practical level, this study emphasizes the importance of fair demands and good resources as a key to well-being because balanced levels of these factors enable employees to respond effectively to their work environment, be more satisfied, motivated, have high self-efficacy and be less likely to quit their jobs. Finally, areas were identified where future research is needed.

  • 471.
    Södrup, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lorentzson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motiverande Samtal i Rättspsykiatrin: Kvalitativ studie av skötarens upplevelse av att arbeta med MI i rättpsykiatrisk arbetsmiljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motiverande samtal är en metod som kan användas för att hjälpa individer att finna motivation till förändring. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur skötare inom rättspsykiatrin ser på att använda motiverande samtal inom sitt arbete samt hur de använder sig av metoden. Semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes med informanter som jobbade aktivt med motiverande samtal på en rättspsykiatrisk klinik. Insamlade data analyserades tematiskt vilket resulterade i fem huvudkategorier med grenade underkategorier. Dessa kategorier visade att informanterna använde sig av både riktade motiverande samtal samt använde metodens förhållningssätt utanför dessa samtal. Majoriteten av informanterna uttryckte sig positivt om metoden, med en vilja att fortsätta lära sig om metoden, samt att de gärna ser att fler medarbetare börjar arbeta med metoden. Personlighet uppfattades vara en faktor som inverkade på uppfattad svårighetsgrad av moment inom motiverande samtal. Inga större brister uppfattades angående motiverande samtal utan det var brister som berodde på arbetsplatsen. De fem huvudkategorierna ansågs ge svar på studiens frågeställningar och dessa svar kan i sin tur hjälpa rättspsykiatrin att utveckla sin verksamhet.

  • 472.
    Södrup, Alexander
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lorentzson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motiverande Samtal i Rättspsykiatrin: Kvalitativ studie av skötarens upplevelser av att arbeta med MI i rättspsykiatrisk arbetsmiljö Författare:2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motiverande samtal är en metod som kan användas för att hjälpa individer att finna motivation till förändring. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur skötare inom rättspsykiatrin ser på att använda motiverande samtal inom sitt arbete samt hur de använder sig av metoden. Semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes med informanter som jobbade aktivt med motiverande samtal på en rättspsykiatrisk klinik. Insamlade data analyserades tematiskt vilket resulterade i fem huvudkategorier med grenade underkategorier. Dessa kategorier visade att informanterna använde sig av både riktade motiverande samtal samt använde metodens förhållningssätt utanför dessa samtal. Majoriteten av informanterna uttryckte sig positivt om metoden, med en vilja att fortsätta lära sig om metoden, samt att de gärna ser att fler medarbetare börjar arbeta med metoden. Personlighet uppfattades vara en faktor som inverkade på uppfattad svårighetsgrad av moment inom motiverande samtal. Inga större brister uppfattades angående motiverande samtal utan det var brister som berodde på arbetsplatsen. De fem huvudkategorierna ansågs ge svar på studiens frågeställningar och dessa svar kan i sin tur hjälpa rättspsykiatrin att utveckla sin verksamhet.

  • 473.
    Tegnhammar, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ”Barnen kommer ju inte med ett starter-kit; så här är en pojke och så här är en flicka”: En intervjustudie om lärares genusföreställningar och jämställdhetsarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att få en ökad förståelse för hur lärares genusföreställningar ser ut, samt hur deras jämställdhetsarbete yttrar sig utifrån dessa. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes där totalt sex lärare, alltifrån förskollärare till ämneslärare, deltog. Genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys kunde fyra teman identifieras: 1) Definition av genus, 2) Genusnormer, 3) Orsaker till genusnormer och 4) Metoder för att förändra genusnormer. Resultatet visade att genus och jämställdhet associerades med varandra, då båda begreppen syftar på att behandla alla som jämlika individer. Trots detta indikerade resultatet att det fortfarande råder olika förväntningar på och finns olika normer för killar och tjejer, samt att de bemöts olika. För att förändra detta krävs bland annat att som lärare tänka normkritiskt och få elever och kollegor att också göra det. Kognitiva scheman togs upp i diskussionsavsnittet som en eventuell förklaring till varför traditionella genusnormer lever kvar. En slutsats som drogs var att en medvetenhet om genus och jämställdhet är nödvändig för förändring.

  • 474.
    Tengstrand, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tvångssyndrom: En effectiveness-studie över behandlingsresultat på en allmänpsykiatrisk mottagning 2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Exponering med responsprevention (ERP) har i forskning visat god effekt i behandling för tvångssyndrom. Vissa forskare har dock problematiserat i vilken grad forskningsresultat kan generaliseras till klinisk miljö eftersom patienter som rekryteras till randomiserade kontrollerade studier (RCT) kan ha mindre komplex problematik än patienter i reguljär klinisk verksamhet. Följande uppsats är en effectiveness-studie vars syfte är att jämföra behandlingseffekten av ERP-behandling för tvångssyndrom i klinisk miljö med motsvarade behandlingar i RCT-studier. Uppsatsens andra syfte är att undersöka sambandet mellan initial depression, ångest och funktionsnivå och behandlingsresultat respektive avbrott. Till grund för analyserna var skattningsformulär från 74 patienter. Resultatet visar att gruppen från klinisk miljö erhåller mindre förändringar än patienter i RCT-studier. Gruppen från klinisk miljö hade förbättrats signifikant mellan före- och eftermätningar för skattningar på tvångssyndrom, depression, ångest och funktionsnivå. Initial depression, ångest och funktionsnivå hade inget signifikant samband med behandlingseffekt eller behandlingsavhopp. Slutsatsen är att kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) med ERP är en effektiv behandling för tvångssyndrom även i klinisk miljö. 

  • 475.
    Terjestam, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bengtsson, Hans
    Lund University.
    Jansson, Alexander
    Kristianstad University.
    Cultivating awareness at school. Effects on effortful control, peer relations and well-being at school in grades 5, 7, and 82016In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 456-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of a mindfulness-based program, Compassion and Attention in the Schools (Compas), were studied in 358 pupils in grades 5, 7, and 8 in Sweden. An experimental group undertook Compas practices in class three times a week during an eight-week period. A control group undertook content area academic lessons . Pre-/post-intervention analyses showed a significant improvement in the experimental group, but not in the control group, in pupils' capacity for effortful control, feelings of well-being at school and perceived peer relations. The positive effect of training increased with the number of times the participants took part in the training for all but one of the measures (general stress). Compas seems to be a useful tool for enhancing pupils' effortful control, well-being at school and peer relations.

  • 476.
    Thour, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansevi, Sophie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individers upplevelser av utmattningssyndrom och utmattningsdepression: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The category of diagnoses which include stress-related exhaustion disorder increased by 119 % during the period of 2010-2015 in Sweden. Previous research has related exhaustion to factors both in work life and in private life. Furthermore, stress-related exhaustion disorder is multifaceted with links to over a hundred symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals affected by stress-related exhaustion disorder/depression, and thereby obtain in-depth knowledge about subjective experiences associated with these diagnoses. The method of obtaining participants was convenience sampling. The sample consisted of five participants. The research material was gathered through interviews and the method of analysis being used was thematic analysis.

     

    In the result a variation in the exhaustion development among the participants emerged. Factors in work life as well as in private life could be linked to exhaustion. The most frequent occurring symptoms were sleep issues, sensitivity to sensory impressions and lack of ability to concentrate. A breaking point when the participants came to a realization about their condition could be identified among each participant. The result also revealed that social support and reactions from people in the participants surroundings had great impact on the development of exhaustion.  A majority of the participants stated that the time of recovery was insufficient. Currently there is no universal form of functioning treatment, due to a heterogeneity in the development process among individuals. An increased sensitivity to stress as a consequence of exhaustion could be a possible cause of future relapses.

  • 477.
    Thunberg, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gymnasieelevers skolmotivation i klassrummets sociala kontext: En kvantitativ studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka de sociala aspekterna av klassrumskontexten och hur dessa korrelerar med elevers motivation till skolarbetet. De sociala faktorerna utgjordes av lärarens stöd, klasskamraters stöd, elevens upplevda känsla av kompetens, samt akademiska förväntningar. Hypotesen var att samtliga faktorer i klassrumskontexten skulle ha en positiv korrelation med motivation, det vill säga att hög grad av respektive aspekt, innebär hög grad av motivation. En ytterligare hypotes följde även kring att det skulle finnas skillnader mellan könen. Detta undersöktes genom en enkätstudie baserat på tre olika instrument och genomfördes med ett urval bestående av 92 gymnasieelever i fyra klasser. Resultatet indikerade att det framförallt var känsla av kompetens och akademiska förväntningar som associeras med motivation, då lärarens och klasskamraters stöd var icke-signifikant. Det visade även på ett samspel mellan variablerna, vilket talar för att det sociala i klassrummet i stor utsträckning influerar motivation, samt att samspelet mellan de olika faktorerna är avgörande.

  • 478.
    Thurn, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Polisens omorganisation: Polisers upplevelser av den stora polisreformen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen studerade poliser i yttre tjänsts upplevelser av den storapolisreformen. Frågeställningarna berörde huruvida polisreformen fått konsekvenser påpolisernas motivation, engagemang och arbetsmiljö samt huruvida poliserna upplevdeatt polisomorganisationen uppnått de stipulerade målen om en mer flexibel myndighetoch en organisation närmare medborgarna. Uppsatsens huvudsakliga syfte var attgenom semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med nio poliser studera och redogörapolisernas upplevelser av polisomorganisationen och därigenom besvarafrågeställningarna. Den insamlade datan analyserades och kodades enligt tematiskinnehållsanalys. Utifrån deltagarnas svar i uppsatsen uppvisades sammantaget enproblematisk bild av polismyndigheten och dess organisatoriska brister som enligtdeltagarna var direkta konsekvenser av polisomorganisationen. Samtliga deltagaremenade att polisomorganisationen lett till ökad arbetsbelastning och en sämrefungerande polisorganisation gestaltat av minskad polisiär tillgänglighet förmedborgarna. Flertalet deltagare övervägde att byta tjänst, några letade aktivt efter enny arbetsplats utanför polismyndigheten.

  • 479.
    Titov, Nickolai
    et al.
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Dear, Blake
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Nielssen, Olav
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Staples, Lauren
    Macquarie Univ, Australia.
    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather
    Univ Regina, Canada.
    Nugent, Marcie
    Univ Regina, Canada.
    Adlam, Kelly
    Univ Regina, Canada.
    Nordgreen, Tine
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway;Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Bruvik, Kristin Hogstad
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Hovland, Anders
    Solli Dist Psychiat Ctr, Norway;Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Repal, Arne
    Vestfold Hosp, Norway.
    Mathiasen, Kim
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark;Mental Hlth Serv Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Kraepelien, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm County Council.
    Blom, Kerstin
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway;Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm County Council.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm County Council.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm County Council.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm County Council.
    ICBT in routine care: A descriptive analysis of successful clinics in five countries2018In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 13, p. 108-115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of internet delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for anxiety and depression. However, relatively little is known about the context, operations, and outcomes of ICBT when administered as part of routine care. This paper describes the setting, relationship to existing health services, procedures for referral, assessment, treatment, patients and outcomes of ICBT clinics in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Canada and Australia. All five clinics provide services free or at low cost to patients. All have systems of governance to monitor quality of care, patient safety, therapist performance and data security. All five clinics include initial assessments by clinicians and between 10 and 20 min of therapist support during each week. Published reports of outcomes all demonstrate large clinical improvement, low rates of deterioration, and high levels of patient satisfaction. Services that require a face to face assessment treat smaller numbers of patients and have fewer patients from remote locations. The paper shows that therapist-guided ICBT can be a valuable part of mental health services for anxiety and depression. Important components of successful ICBT services are rigorous governance to maintain a high standard of clinical care, and the measurement and reporting of outcomes.

  • 480.
    Tusch, Erich S.
    et al.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Alperin, Brittany R.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, USA.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Holcomb, Phillip J.
    Tufts Univ, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Changes in Neural Activity Underlying Working Memory after Computerized Cognitive Training in Older Adults2016In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, article id 255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five similar to 40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back). The anterior P3a served as an index of directing attention and the posterior P3b as an index of categorizationNVM updating. We hypothesized that adaptive CCT would be associated with decreased P3 amplitude at low WM demand and increased P3 amplitude at high WM demand. The adaptive CCT group exhibited a training-related increase in the amplitude of the anterior P3a and posterior P3b in response to target stimuli across n-back tasks, while subjects in the active control CCT group demonstrated a post-training decrease in the anterior P3a. Performance did not differ between groups or sessions. Larger overall P3 amplitudes were strongly associated with better task performance. Increased post-CCT P3 amplitude correlated with improved task performance; this relationship was especially robust at high task load. Our findings suggest that adaptive WM training was associated with increased orienting of attention, as indexed by the P3a, and the enhancement of categorization/WM updating processes, as indexed by the P3b. Increased P3 amplitude was linked to improved performance; however. there was no direct association between adaptive training and improved performance.

  • 481.
    Törnmarck, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yngvesson, Paul
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetssyndrom hos vårddömda patienter: Prevalens och diagnostisk (in)stabilitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a high prevalence of personality syndrome among mentally disordered offenders. Diagnostic stability regarding personality syndromes has been studied in clinical populations but has, to our knowledge, not been examined for patients within forensic psychiatric care. The following study is a retrospective register study based on three cohorts of forensic psychiatric patients. The aim of this thesis was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic stability of personality syndromes. Studying diagnostic stability is important as treatment decisions largely depend on a correct diagnosis and an understanding of the course of the disease. Medical records and case files were reviewed from the forensic psychiatric investigation and throughout the current treatment episode for the included patients (n=65). Personality disorders were common in the group, primarily within cluster B, while commorbidity was unexpectedly low. The diagnostic stability for personality syndromes were 54.5 %. Limitations of the study was primarily the small number of participants. Future research should investigate potential predictors for diagnostic stability such as age and length of treatment. 

  • 482.
    Törnquist, Ellinor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subjektivt välbefinnande: Kan personlighetsvariabler, stress och self-efficacy förklara graden av subjektivt välbefinnande?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 483.
    Velander, Runa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Generationer och ledarskap: En undersökning av generationsskillnader i ledarskapsstil2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the significance of generational differences for utilized leadership styles. Its goal was to contribute to the mapping of the significance of generations for working life. The issue was whether generation could predict results on the Full Range Leadership Model, including three leadership styles, transformational, transactional and laissez-faire. 274 leaders assessed their leadership style through a self-assessment form: MLQ Leader Form (5x Short) Results showed no statistically significant differences between the generations. In contrast, three other background factors turned out to predict transformational leadership: sector (private), gender (women) and leadership training (increased amount/extent), of which leadership training had a very high level of significance and sector rests on a questionable ground. The background variable sector turned out  to predict transactional leadership. It was concluded that it appears to be no differences between generations, but further research is needed.

  • 484.
    Vencel, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ella, Bivall
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negativ kroppsuppfattning hos unga män: En kvantitativ studie om negativ kroppsuppfattning och psykisk ohälsa hos unga män på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the prevalence of negative body image and the correlation between negative body image and psychological distress in young men. The research questions were how common negative body image was in young men in high schools in southern Sweden, and if negative body image correlated with psychological distress within the target group. The sample consisted of 116 participants ( M = 17 years), who answered a survey where negative body image and psychological distress was measured by Appearance Evaluation and General Health Questionnaire 12. Results showed that 23 % of the participants had a negative body image, and that there was a significant correlation with medium effect size between negative body image and psychological distress. The conclusion was that negative body image existed in young men in high schools in southern Sweden, and that there was a correlation between negative body image and psychological distress among these young men. However, the methodological difficulties contributed to the results not being generalizable. 

  • 485.
    Viberg, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av ett mansdominerat fritidsintresse: En intervjubaserad studie med fokus på fågelskådning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 486.
    Vulic, Stefania
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvärdering av Integrerad Beteendehälsa i primärvården med eller utan tillägg av vägledd självhjälp – effekter på generella och specifika symtom2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The national board of health and wellfare are stating that primary care faces a major challenge in providing available psychological treatment to an increasing need. One possible approach is Integrated Behavioral Health, which strives towards offering brief psychological interventions with great access. The purpose of the following study was to compare two different methods of Integrated Behavioral Health; an ordinary set up with Brief Interventions and one set up with extended assesment and the possibility of guided self-help treatment for a particular problem. This regarding general as well as specific symptoms for the particular problem the patient has received guided self-help for, or considered to have been suited for. The results showed that the general level of symptoms improved for all patients, merged into one group, and within the respective group. The level of the problem-specific symptom decreased for patients who received guided self-help and for patients who received Brief Interventions, but whose problem profile showed that they had fit for a specific self-help manual. No significant difference in symptom change, regardless of general or problem- specific, could be found. In the discussion, the internal validity is discussed, and the naturalistic environment is described as a strength.

  • 487.
    Wadsby, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University.
    Adolescents with alternating residence after parental divorce: a comparison with adolescents living with both parents or with a single parent2014In: Journal of Child Custody, ISSN 1537-9418, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 202-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study compared adolescents who alternate residences between their divorced parents with adolescents who live with both parents or with one divorced parent. Care was scored equally for adolescents with alternating residences and for those living with both biological parents but lower for adolescents living with a single parent. Overprotection showed the converse. Presence of psychiatric symptoms was equal for adolescents who alternate residences and for those living with both parents, but it was higher for those living with a single parent. Sense of coherence was noted to be higher among teens with alternating residences and teens living with both parents, but it was lower among those living with a single parent.

  • 488.
    Walter, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lunds universitet.
    "Det var en plågsam stund, en stund af indre smärta": En psykobiografi över Lina Sandells sorgebearbetning mellan åren 1858-18612013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 489.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Conceptualizing professionals' strategies in care pathways for neurodevelopmental disorders2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (ND), are complex neuropsychological functional impairments. About 3-5% of all children meet criteria for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and about 1% for autism spectrum disorder – along with intellectual developmental disorder the most common ND diagnoses. Degree and type of functional impairment vary greatly within and between patients, necessitating multi-professional assessment and treatment. Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), this thesis offers a new theory of professionals’ practices in care pathways for ND. It also contains a pilot evaluation of a new, tablet-based, clinical test of attention.

    Study I shows that care pathways for ND are characterized by social dilemmas. What is rational for an individual professional, team or clinic, is not always rational for the care pathway as a whole. Collective action therefor requires development and sustainability of inter-professional trust. The study highlights strategies used by professionals to decide on whether to act collectively or unilaterally. Such trust testing strategies are couched in the frameworks of social dilemma-theory and game-theory.  

    Study II emphasizes the importance of professional control over strategies, structures and methods in the care pathway for ND (unpacking control) to deal with ND-related complexity. Lack of such control can short-circuit the ability to work successfully as a professional. Unpacking control is understood mainly in the light of professions theory.

    Study III evaluates the new MapCog Spectra test as a rapid method to detect and assess clinical problems of attention. Four groups of children and adolescents took the test. Two groups were comprised of patients with either ND or other psychiatric problems. Two groups were comprised of school children without known clinical conditions. The MapCog Spectra test separated clinical from non-clinical groups with good precision.

    In the thesis, concepts from studies I and II are integrated and extended to form a unified theory about professional practices in care pathways for ND. The latters are suggested to be a particular form of commons, which can be collectively managed by professionals in more or less successful ways. A quantitative model for the dynamics in the care pathways is presented.

  • 490.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 31987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders ( ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods: Using classic grounded theory ( Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results: The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients' status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals' strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions: The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development.

  • 491.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Lund University, Swedn.
    Trust Testing in Care Pathways for Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Grounded Theory Study2016In: The Grounded Theory Review, ISSN 1556-1542, E-ISSN 1556-1550, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building care pathways for the expansive, heterogeneous, and complex field of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) is challenging. This classic grounded theory study conceptualizes problems encountered and resolved by professionals in the unpacking— diagnosis and work up—of ND. A care pathway for ND in children and adolescents was observed for six years. Data include interviews, documentation of a dialogue-conference devoted to the ND care pathway, 100+ hours of participant observations, and coding of stakeholder actions. Trust testing explores whether professional unpacking collaboration can occur without being “stuck with the buck” and if other professionals can be approached to solve own unpacking priorities. ND complexity, scarce resources, and diverging stakeholder interests undermine the ability to make selfless collaborative professional choices in the care pathway. ND professionals and managers should pay as much attention to trust issues as they do to structures and patient flows. The trust testing theory may improve the understanding of ND care pathways further as a modified social dilemma framework. 

  • 492.
    Wejkum, Peder
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Procrastination, grit and self-efficacy for self-regulation:: A correlational study in a student sample2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Procrastination or the tendency to delay various actions despite knowing that this delay will likely bring negative consequences, is a widespread phenomenon. It has been found to be especially common among college students and has been linked to various negative outcomes.

    Aim: The current study aimed to explore the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy for self-regulation (belief in ones ability to successfully self-regulate) and grit (to pursue important goals over long periods of time with passion and determination, despite setbacks or distractions) in a sample of 208 Swedish university students.

    Method: Self-report measures relating to the relevant constructs were administered to the students and analysed using correlational and partial correlational tests.

    Results: Results indicated that procrastination were strongly negatively correlated with both grit and self-efficacy for self-regulation. Self-efficacy for self-regulation were also found to be a partial mediator of the relationship between grit and procrastination.

    Conclusion: More research is needed on the relationship between self-efficacy for self-regulation and procrastination. Additionally, a more conceptually valid scale to measure grit should be developed.

  • 493.
    Werner, Sophia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjälpa eller stjälpa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om förstagångsmödrars upplevelser av betydelsen av socialt stöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilken betydelse socialt stöd har för förstagångsmödrar. Syftet var även att undersöka betydelsen av geografiskt avstånd i relation till socialt stöd. Tio stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades genom en tematisk innehållsanalys. Utifrån materialet av intervjuerna identifierades tre stycken teman: Nätverket av viktiga personer, Internet – en hjälpande och stjälpande mötesplats och Betydelsen av avstånd och närhet. Varje tema hade två stycken kategorier och mellan två till fem stycken underkategorier. Resultatet visade betydelsen av socialt stöd, där partner och vänner identifierades som det viktigaste stödet. Resultatet visade även på skillnader utifrån det geografiska avståndet till socialt nätverk, i form av avsaknaden av praktiskt stöd. Informanternas upplevelser av den tillgängliga informationen på internet och utbudet av sociala forum för nyblivna mödrar, var delad.

  • 494.
    Westman, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilhelmsson, Axel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implementering av IKBT: En intervjustudie om internetbehandlares erfarenheter av implementering.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) for different kinds of mental health issues has been presented as an alternative to traditional face-to-face treatment based on research from the last decade. Despite clinical relevance and several advantages for both patients and therapists the implementation of the method is progressing slowly in many European countries. The purpose of this study was to examine therapists’ experiences of implementing ICBT in their everyday work. Interviews were conducted with eight therapists in a Swedish public health care setting, after which a thematic analysis was made. Four main themes were defined: A new method, A new role, Premises and Learning. The therapists have an overarching mutual comprehension of ICBT and its use, which is an important aspect of the implementation. The therapists explained that colleagues that don't work with ICBT, but still have a role in the implementation, sometimes lack knowledge and have negative preconceptions which obstruct the work. Furthermore, therapists talked about organized collaboration between active therapists not being prioritized in the everyday clinical work. Results from the analysis are discussed by applying Normalization Process Theory to the findings. Further research could examine the experiences of ICBT-trained therapists who have not yet started working with ICBT and of colleagues who do not work with treatment in workplaces where ICBT is being implemented.

  • 495.
    Widegren, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindkvist, Emilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kvinnligt ledarskap: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga chefers upplevelser av ledarskap2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that females in leadership positions have increased. Women as leaders are associated with successful and effective organizations. The purpose of the study was to examine if there were mutual experiences and factors between different women in leadership positions in a regional council in Sweden. The study also aimed to develop knowledge about the experience of female leadership. A qualitative method was used to study this subject. Six participants with varied experience of female leadership were interviewed. Thenceforth the data was examined according to thematic analysis. The result of the study showed that there were mutual experiences and factors which resulted in ten different themes: motivation, support, trust and confidence, adjustment to the group, concern for the group, predisposition, development potential, organization, person over gender and pressure. All themes except person over gender responded to previous studies. However, the exception could be explained by differences in the social system between cultures. Future studies can find difficulties generalizing the result due to subjective interpretation and measurement at a specific workplace. Finally, the study aspired to inspire further studies in the area.  

  • 496.
    Wiederholm, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Syskonplacering och extroversion/introversion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 497.
    Williams, Donald
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bürkner, Paul-Christian
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones and behavior: Inflated false positives and diminished power2017In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), ISSN 0091-3022, E-ISSN 1095-6808, Vol. 47, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates—rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures—natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress—entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE). We found that the assumption of independence was routinely violated (>85%), false positives (α = 0.05) exceeded nominal levels (up to 0.70), and power (1−β) rarely surpassed 0.80 (even for optimistic sample and effect sizes). Additionally, we show that MLMs and GEEs have adequate performance for common research designs. We discuss implications for the extant literature, the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, and provide recommendations.

  • 498.
    Williamsson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Physical and psychosocial effects related to sleep inchildren with neurodevelopmental disorders: A study of the relationship between motor proficiency, sleep efficiency and possible influencing factors2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between sleep patterns, motor proficiency and commonly co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders in children, attitude to physical activity, mental health, and age. The study also looked at differences in sleep efficiency, as well as, perceived adequacy in physical activity between typically developing children and children with low motor proficiency. The sample consisted of 127 participants, 6-12 years old living in Perth, Western Australia. 51% participants were considered typically developing and 49% to have low motor proficiency. Motor proficiency, indications of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder and anxiety/depression, adequacy in, or predilection for physical activity did not show a relationship to sleep efficiency. Significant differences between groups in sleep efficiency or adequacy in physical activity were not found. No interaction effect of neurodevelopmental disorders were identified. Sleep in children with movement impairments caused by neurodevelopmental disorders is an area where continued studies are of great importance. Although no relationship was identified in the current study, previous research has suggested sleep may play an important role for development and optimal everyday functioning. A better understanding of physical and psychological consequences and possible contributing factors of low motor proficiency in childhood is important as the risk of long-term dysfunction in emotional, cognitive and physical areas may be reduced in an optimal environment.

  • 499.
    Winkler, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur hanterar lärare stress?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med inriktning på copingstrategier samt upplevelse av stress i arbetslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie undersöka hur lärare upplever och hanterar stress på arbetsplatsen och vad det är för stressande situationer som kan uppkomma i läraryrket. Tidigare forskning har visat att lärare är en av de yrkesgrupper som upplever mest stress på arbetsplatsen och att det är många lärare som byter yrke på grund av för höga stressnivåer. Forskning visar också att negativ stress kan påverka en person både psykiskt och fysiskt och att förhållningssätt till stress kan påverka hur skadlig stressen blir. Deltagare i studien var 8 lärare med olika undervisningsämnen som arbetat i olika lång tid och de fick under intervjuer dela med sig av sina erfarenheter och upplevelser av stress i läraryrket. Resultaten av de semistrukturerade intervjuerna visade de sex huvudkategorierna: 1) Negativ stress. 2) Ta med arbetet hem. 3) Problemfokuserad coping. 4) Känslofokuserad coping. 5) Krav från omvärlden. 6) Stöd från kollegor och skolledning. Kunskaperna kan användas för att förebygga stress på arbetsplatsen och för att angripa de problem som kan uppstå i läraryrket. Föreliggande studies resultat stämmer således överens med tidigare forskning och visar att läraryrket i många fall är mycket stressande och kräver god planering och stöd från kollegor för att undvika skadlig stress. 

  • 500.
    Wäppling, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holst, Misja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    En korrelationsstudie om stress: Är fysisk aktivitet och sömn effektiva medel för att reducera stress?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress can today be seen as one of the western world’s greatest health concerns, where the risk for developing stress-inducing illness is high. Research have found evidence that physical activity and sleep have a stress reducing effect, however, there are few studies that have combined these two variables to analyse students stress levels. The purpose of this essay is to analyse the correlation between university students sleeping behaviour, levels of physical activity and perceived stress. The study uses two hypothesis; 1. higher levels of physical activity reduces university students stress levels, 2. high quality sleep reduces university students stress levels. The job demand control model by Karasek and Theorell (1990) was used to understand the individuals stress reactions. The data was collected at a university in the south of Sweden using the instruments Perceived Stress Scale - 10 (PSS-10), Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ). The study found no significant correlation between the three variables stress, sleep and physical activity. 

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