lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
92939495969798 4701 - 4750 of 4912
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 4701.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Mälardalen University;Haraldsplass University College, Norway.
    The room as metaphor: next-of-kin's experiences in end-of-life care2015In: International Journal of Palliative Care, ISSN 2356-7074, Vol. 2015, article id 357827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “room” in end-of-life is a phenomenon that needs deeper understanding as it is a dimension that shows how health and suffering are shaped. Research on the concept of room was chosen as theoretical foundation in this study in order to reach a profound understanding of the next-of-kin’s “room” in end-of-life care. Lassenius’s hermeneutic interpretation inmetaphorical language was used as an deductive-inductive approach to the empirical data. The data material comprised 33 interviews with next-of-kin about their experiences of end-of-life care when being close to a relative dying from a cancer disease. The analysis of the data formed four cases: the Standby, the Asylum, the Wall, and the Place.These cases lend their voices to the experiences of the next-of-kin in the study.The findings of this study explain and may well assist nurses to understand the experiences of being next-of-kin in end-of-life care as forming a room of rest from the suffering, a room of controlling the suffering, a room of hiding from the suffering, and a room of belonging.

  • 4702.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roxberg, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Mälardalen University.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andershed, Birgitta
    Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Next of Kin's Experiences of Shame in End-of-Life Care2014In: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1522-2179, E-ISSN 1539-0705, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the experiences of shame of next of kin in end-of-life care. Seventeen next of kin who had lost a family member were interviewed. A method inspired by Gadamer's hermeneutic approach was used to interpret possible experiences of shame and to discuss these interpretations. The result showed that next of kin's experiences of shame are linked to their perception of the remaining time and are guided by views on morality and what is right and wrong. Shame can occur when the next of kin are involved and actually cause harm to the family member as well as in situations that are beyond their control. Shame can also involve actions that have nothing to do with what they have actually done but is instead a shame that is placed on them by others, for example, health professionals or relatives. Shame is interpreted as experiences of ignominy, humiliation, and disgrace. Second-order shame is also found. It is important that health professionals are aware of these experiences of unhealthy shame when they meet and support next of kin in end-of-life care.

  • 4703.
    Werkander Harstäde, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Confronting the Forthcoming Death: A Classic Grounded Theory2016In: Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, E-ISSN 2165-7386, Vol. 6, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory of patients in palliative care. Methods: A classic Grounded Theory methodology was used to conceptualize patterns of human behavior. Twenty-seven interviews with patients in palliative care and two autobiographies written by persons receiving palliative care were analyzed. Result: “Confronting the forthcoming death” emerged as the pattern of behavior through which patients deal with their main concern, living in uncertainty of a death foretold. The theory involves four strategies; Seeking concrete knowledge, Shielding off, Seeing things through, and Embracing life. Holding on to hope and Suffering are also ever present. Conclusion: The theory shows that there is no easy way straight ahead; patients strive to confront the situation as well as they can, both wanting and not wanting to know what lies ahead. For health professionals, knowledge about how patients use different strategies, which can be used in tandem or succession, or shifted back and forth between over time, to confront their imminent deaths, can create an awareness of how to encounter patients in this uncertainty.

  • 4704.
    Wernbro, Erika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    "Vi ska ju försöka bli vegana, stod det ju…" Elevers resonemangsförmåga och argument angående mjölk, havredryck och mandeldryck2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undervisningen i naturvetenskap ska bland annat bidra till att utveckla elevers förmåga att hantera olika källor och resonera naturvetenskapligt. Med utgångspunkt i olika argument för och emot mjölk och/eller vegetabiliska alternativ som måltidsdryck undersöks i denna studie hur elever i årskurs 5 diskuterar en fråga med naturvetenskaplig grund. Eleverna lyssnade i en liten grupp till några texter om mjölk och/eller vegetabiliska alternativ och fick sedan välja mellan mjölk, havre- och mandeldryck, samt diskutera och motivera sitt val. Eleverna hanterade i sina diskussioner inte data systematiskt utan bortsåg från data som inte stödde deras initiala val. De var inte heller kritiska mot de texter som de lyssnat till. Däremot ägnade de mycket tid åt att diskutera giltighet och relevans hos varandras argument. För att elever ska kunna resonera kring en fråga på ett naturvetenskapligt vis, krävs undervisning som ger dem möjlighet att träna på dessa förmågor.

  • 4705.
    Werner, Kirstin
    et al.
    Ohio State Univ, USA ; Korea Polar Res Inst, South Korea.
    Fritz, Michael
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany ; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Morata, Nathalie
    Univ Brest, France ; Akvaplan Niva, Norway.
    Keil, Kathrin
    Inst Adv Sustainabil Studies, Germany.
    Pavlov, Alexey
    Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Norway.
    Peeken, Ilka
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany.
    Nikolopoulos, Anna
    AquaBiota Water Res, Sweden.
    Findlay, Helen S.
    Plymouth Marine Lab, UK.
    Kedra, Monika
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Majaneva, Sanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Renner, Angelika
    Inst Marine Res, Norway.
    Hendricks, Stefan
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany.
    Jacquot, Mathilde
    Univ Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Nicolaus, Marcel
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholm University.
    Sampei, Makoto
    Hiroshima Univ, Japan.
    Wegner, Carolyn
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Germany.
    Arctic in Rapid Transition: Priorities for the future of marine and coastal research in the Arctic2016In: Polar Science, ISSN 1873-9652, E-ISSN 1876-4428, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 364-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and responding to the rapidly occurring environmental changes in the Arctic over the past few decades require new approaches in science. This includes improved collaborations within the scientific community but also enhanced dialogue between scientists and societal stakeholders, especially with Arctic communities. As a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARPIII), the Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) network held an international workshop in France, in October 2014, in order to discuss high-priority requirements for future Arctic marine and coastal research from an early-career scientists (ECS) perspective. The discussion encompassed a variety of research fields, including topics of oceanographic conditions, sea-ice monitoring, marine biodiversity, land-ocean interactions, and geological reconstructions, as well as law and governance issues. Participants of the workshop strongly agreed on the need to enhance interdisciplinarity in order to collect comprehensive knowledge about the modern and past Arctic Ocean's geo-ecological dynamics. Such knowledge enables improved predictions of Arctic developments and provides the basis for elaborate decision-making on future actions under plausible environmental and climate scenarios in the high northern latitudes. Priority research sheets resulting from the workshop's discussions were distributed during the ICARPIII meetings in April 2015 in Japan, and are publicly available online. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR. All rights reserved.

  • 4706.
    Werner, Sophia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjälpa eller stjälpa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om förstagångsmödrars upplevelser av betydelsen av socialt stöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilken betydelse socialt stöd har för förstagångsmödrar. Syftet var även att undersöka betydelsen av geografiskt avstånd i relation till socialt stöd. Tio stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes och analyserades genom en tematisk innehållsanalys. Utifrån materialet av intervjuerna identifierades tre stycken teman: Nätverket av viktiga personer, Internet – en hjälpande och stjälpande mötesplats och Betydelsen av avstånd och närhet. Varje tema hade två stycken kategorier och mellan två till fem stycken underkategorier. Resultatet visade betydelsen av socialt stöd, där partner och vänner identifierades som det viktigaste stödet. Resultatet visade även på skillnader utifrån det geografiska avståndet till socialt nätverk, i form av avsaknaden av praktiskt stöd. Informanternas upplevelser av den tillgängliga informationen på internet och utbudet av sociala forum för nyblivna mödrar, var delad.

  • 4707.
    Wester, Liza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekström, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mäns upplevelser av att leva med ätstörning: En systematisk litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Incidensen bland män som drabbas av ätstörning ökar. Trots detta finns det fortfarande en uppfattning om att det är främst kvinnor som drabbas. Sjuksköterskan behöver få en bättre förståelse för hur män upplever sin ätstörning, detta för att kunna erbjuda dem en god och likvärdig vård. 

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa mäns upplevelser av att leva med ätstörning.

    Metod: En systematisk litteratursökning utfördes i databaserna CINAHL, PsychINFO och PubMed. Antal inkluderade artiklar i studien var sex kvalitativa samt en artikel med mixad metod. Artiklarna analyserades med hjälp av ett induktivt analysförfarande, där författarna fokuserade på det manifesta innehållet i texterna. 

    Resultat: Studiens resultat belyser hur vuxna män upplever det att leva med en ätstörning. Resultatet består av de fem kategorierna Upplevelse av information, Bristande självkänsla,Upplevelse av skam, Upplevelse av krav från omgivningen och Upplevelse av vård. Resultatet visar att männen upplever det skamfyllt att leva med en ätstörning på grund av stigma och känslan av att inte känna sig accepterad. Att ätstörning ses som en kvinnlig sjukdom medförde att många av männen inte vågade berätta för andra om sin problematik eller att de hade svårt att koppla sina symtom till sin sjukdom. Vissa män uppger även att deras symtom inte tagits på allvar av vårdpersonal. 

    Slutsats: Resultet beskriver att det finns ett behov av information till både patient, vårdpersonal och närstående om ätstörningsproblematik bland män.

  • 4708.
    Westerblad, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur Effektivt är Behandling med Entecavir jämfört med Lamivudin mot Kronisk Hepatit B Infektion?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hepatit B är en virusinfektion som orsaks av Hepatit B virus (HBV). Hos de flesta människor orsakar detta virus inte några större problem men hos cirka 5-10% av de drabbade utvecklas en kronisk form som kan vara allvarlig. Detta beror på att vid den kroniska formen finns det en risk att levercirrhos och hepatocellulärt carcinom utvecklas. Idag finns det effektiv men ej botande behandling mot kronisk hepatit B. Målen vid behandlingen av kronisk hepatit B är att minimera risken för utveckling av cirrhos, leversvikt och hepatocellulärt carcinom, vilket görs genom inhibering av HBV virusreplikation. Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka effektiviteten av entecavir jämfört med lamivudin vid behandling av kronisk hepatit B. Undersökningen genomfördes genom utvärdering av fem randomiserade och kontrollerade studier, vilka hämtades från databasen PubMed. Studierna visade att entecavir var mer potent än lamivudin i att minimera virusreplikation vilket resulterade i omätbara nivåer av HBV DNA i proverna. Dessutom normaliserade entecavir koncentrationerna av leverenzymet alaninaminotransferas, ALAT, och resulterade i serokonversion mot HBV och förlust av cirkulerande HBeAg i större utsträckning än lamivudin. Ingen resistens mot entecavir upptäcktes i någon av studierna. Slutsatsen är att entecavir är mera effektivt än lamivudin i att inhibera HBV virusreplikationen och att reducera inflammationen i kronisk hepatit B. Däremot behövs det flera och längre studier som undersöker huruvida effekten av kombinationsbehandling av kronisk hepatit där entecavir är ett av de antivirala medlen som används.

  • 4709.
    Westerblom, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Thorén, Lars-Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans upplevelser av att åka på larm prehospitalt: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är idag ovanligt att anestesisjuksköterskor larmas ut på prehospitala larm. Det kan tänkas vara en stor utmaning eftersom det innebär arbete i främmande miljöer och med nya kollegor. Tidigare forskning inom området är knapphändig. Syftet med studien var att undersöka anestesisjuksköterskans upplevelse av att åka på larm prehospitalt. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats där semi-strukturerade intervjuer  användes för att svara på syftet. Tio anestesisjuksköterskor från två medelstora sjukhus i södra Sverige intervjuades. Materialet analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade på tre övergripande kategorier: Press, Otrygghet och Kontroll. Anestesisjuksköterskorna upplevde att det fanns en press på dem att ta rollen som luftvägsexpert men även att lösa andra problem uppstod i det prehospitala omhändertagandet av patienten. Dessa förväntningar motsvarade inte alltid anestesisjuksköterskornas syn på den egna kompetensen. För att möta dessa förväntningar använde sig anestesisjuksköterskorna av olika metoder. Det kunde innebära att kontrollera medhavd utrustning eller att förbereda sig mentalt. Anestesisjuksköterskorna upplevde att den viktigaste aspekten i det prehospitala arbetet var ett väl fungerande samarbete, innehållande respekt och ödmjukhet inför varandras kunskaper. Handledning samt interprofessionellt kunskapsutbyte mellan professionerna var aspekter som förslagsvis kan stärka och förbättra samarbetet ytterligare. 

  • 4710.
    Westergren, Albert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Broman, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Hellström, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola ; Blekinge Kompetenscentrum.
    Willman, Ania
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola ; Malmö Högskola.
    Hagell, Peter
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Measurement properties of the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS) as an insomnia screening tool among adults and the elderly2015In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The psychometric properties of the 3-item Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS) have been evaluated using classical test theory. Different cut-offs for identifying insomnia have been suggested in two age groups (≥6 and ≥7 among adult and elderly people, respectively). The aim of this study was to test the measurement properties of the MISS using the Rasch measurement model, with special emphasis on differential item functioning by gender and age.

    Methods: Cross-sectional MISS data from adult (age 20-64 years; n=1075) and elderly (age 65+; n=548) populations were analysed by the Rasch measurement model.

    Results: Data generally met Rasch model requirements and the scale could separate between two distinct groups of people, but there was differential item functioning by age. The difference between the adult and elderly samples was lower for the originally recommended ≥6 points cut-off (0.09 logits) than for the ≥7 points cut-off (0.23 logits), but greater at the lower and higher ends of the scale.

    Conclusions: This study provides support for the measurement properties of the MISS. However, caution should be exercised in comparing raw MISS scores between age groups, but applying a ≥6 cut-off appears to allow for valid comparisons between adults and elderly

  • 4711.
    Westerlund Andersson, Mariell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors självskattade kunskap och upplevelse av dokumentation kring konfusion hos äldre i sjukhusmiljö2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4712.
    Westin, Helen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kostiander, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att föra dagbok under patientens vårdtid på intensivvårdsavdelningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Anhöriga kan präglas av starka och obehagliga minnen när deras nära och kära vårdas på en intensivvårdsavdelning. Dessa minnen kan ha betydelse i ett senare skede i livet och kan då yttra sig som oro, ångest, sömnsvårigheter och overklighetskänslor. Detta kan bidra till att en försämrad livskvalitet upplevs. Vi tror att om de anhöriga får möjlighet att föra dagboksanteckningar kommer lidandet och uppkomsten av oro och ångest att minska, då deras nära och kära drabbats av akut kritisk sjukdom. Syftet med studien är att studera anhörigas upplevelser av att föra dagbok under patientens vårdtid på intensivvårdsavdelningen. Studien utgår ifrån en kvalitativ fenomenologisk forskningsansats som bygger på en litteraturöversikt över den valda studien, och där vi i en eventuell magisteruppsats har valt att i urvalet använda oss av en öppen intervju studie för att samla in våra data.

    Nyckelord: intensivvård, lidande, livsvärld, anhörig, dagbok.

     

  • 4713.
    Westman, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilhelmsson, Axel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implementering av IKBT: En intervjustudie om internetbehandlares erfarenheter av implementering.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) for different kinds of mental health issues has been presented as an alternative to traditional face-to-face treatment based on research from the last decade. Despite clinical relevance and several advantages for both patients and therapists the implementation of the method is progressing slowly in many European countries. The purpose of this study was to examine therapists’ experiences of implementing ICBT in their everyday work. Interviews were conducted with eight therapists in a Swedish public health care setting, after which a thematic analysis was made. Four main themes were defined: A new method, A new role, Premises and Learning. The therapists have an overarching mutual comprehension of ICBT and its use, which is an important aspect of the implementation. The therapists explained that colleagues that don't work with ICBT, but still have a role in the implementation, sometimes lack knowledge and have negative preconceptions which obstruct the work. Furthermore, therapists talked about organized collaboration between active therapists not being prioritized in the everyday clinical work. Results from the analysis are discussed by applying Normalization Process Theory to the findings. Further research could examine the experiences of ICBT-trained therapists who have not yet started working with ICBT and of colleagues who do not work with treatment in workplaces where ICBT is being implemented.

  • 4714.
    Wetzenstein, Odd
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kommunikationsverktyget SBAR: En litteraturstudie om SBAR2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Today's care work is often risky and complicated due to many severely ill

    patients, which in turn places high demands on good communication. In order to

    provide patients with a high quality and safe healthcare, communication between

    registered nurses and different professions in the law is an important part. Each time the

    information is passed on from a specialist nurse to another, the information is likely to

    be reshaped or lost. Today there is a lack of studies that demonstrate how a

    communication tool could improve health care and provide patient-care care.

    Purpose:

    The purpose is to investigate the nurse's experience of using the SBAR

    communication tool and how it affects patient safety, communication with different

    professions in the team work, communication with other nurses in the care work,

    communication with doctors and workflow.

    Method:

    The study is a systematic descriptive literature study and is based on a total of

    27 scientific articles with both a qualitative and quantitative approach. The data has

    been analyzed with an intergovernmental method.

    Result:

    The result shows that the nurse finds that SBAR increases patient safety. Few

    studies define and measure patient safety objectively. The study also shows that

    overreports became more structured. After the introduction of SBAR, the

    communication between the nurse and physicians increases.

    Conclusion:

    In the clinical care work, there are many factors that can both benefit and

    complicate a good and safe care, such as communication between nurses and the

    communication between different professions in a team work. As prospective anesthetic

    nurses, the authors consider that the study provides important angles of incentives that

    strengthen the introduction of SBAR as communication tools within anesthetic care. On

    the other hand, research is needed that further strengthens this.

  • 4715.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. KU Leuven.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    BoConnect – Reliable Assistive Technologies to Empower Elderly People to Live Independently Longer2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BoConnect was a multi-disciplinary collaborative research project between Linnaeus University and Växjö and Kalmarmunicipalities in Sweden. The project had a budget of 3 MSEK; it stated Jan. 2015 and ended Dec. 2016.The project studied reliable assistive technologies to support elderly people. In contrast to existing work in this areathatis often limited to small-scale technology-driven pilots that are poorly embedded in the social living context, the BoConnect project took a holistic perspective on assistive technologies and put user needs and reliability of the solutions in focus, both from a technological and organizational perspective. This report summarizes the main results of the project.

  • 4716.
    Whitcombe, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Kirsch, Nicole
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Molecular imprinting science and technology: a survey of the literature for the years 2004-20112014In: Journal of Molecular Recognition, ISSN 0952-3499, E-ISSN 1099-1352, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 297-401Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we present a survey of the literature covering the development of molecular imprinting science and technology over the years 2004-2011. In total, 3779 references to the original papers, reviews, edited volumes and monographs from this period are included, along with recently identified uncited materials from prior to 2004, which were omitted in the first instalment of this series covering the years 1930-2003. In the presentation of the assembled references, a section presenting reviews and monographs covering the area is followed by sections describing fundamental aspects of molecular imprinting including the development of novel polymer formats. Thereafter, literature describing efforts to apply these polymeric materials to a range of application areas is presented. Current trends and areas of rapid development are discussed. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4717.
    Wiberg, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Melin, Madelen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Man får hjärtklappning i hela kroppen: Hur sjuksköterskor i kommunal hemsjukvård uppfattar och erfar otillräcklighet och dess effekter.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Upplevelsen av otillräcklighet är ett vanligt förekommande fenomen hos sjuksköterskor. Att uppleva otillräcklighet kan leda till försämrad hälsa hos sjuksköterskan och därmed också risk för negativa effekter på vårdens kvalité. Mår sjuksköterskan bra, finns också förutsättningar att ge en god vård. Att undersöka hur sjuksköterskor i kommunal hemsjukvård uppfattar och erfar otillräcklighet och dess effekter blev därför viktigt att studera för att erhålla ökad förståelse. I dag finns inga studier som specifikt undersöker detta i kommunal hemsjukvård, därmed kan studien tillföra ny kunskap.

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur sjuksköterskor i kommunal hemsjukvård uppfattar och erfar otillräcklighet och dess effekter.

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ induktiv ansats med fokusgruppintervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004).

    Resultat: I resultatet framkommer fyra kategorier ”Individuella faktorer”, ”Organisatoriska faktorer”, ”Hur otillräcklighet hanteras” samt ”Effekter”. Deltagarna har uppfattningar om att individens personligheten och kompetens spelar en avgörande roll för hur otillräcklighet upplevs och hanteras. Organisatoriska faktorer är en bidragande orsak till otillräcklighet. Resurser, direktiv , mål, samarbete samt andras förväntningar och krav är viktigt. Upplevelsen av otillräcklighet hanteras på flera sätt. Upplevelsen av otillräcklighet har främst negativa effekter.

    Slutsats: Otillräcklighet förekommer hos sjuksköterskor som arbetar med kommunalt driven hemsjukvård. Den orsakas till viss del av organisatoriska brister, men är också beroende på viken personlighet sjuksöterskan har och hur hen är förmögen att hantera uppkomna stressorer. Förekomsten av stöd, både från kollegor och ledning, är viktiga komponenter för att minska otillräckligheten.

     

  • 4718.
    Wibroe, Peter Popp
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Anselmo, Aaron C
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Oslo, Norway ;Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, NorwayRikshospitalet.
    Sarode, Apoorva
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Gupta, Vivek
    St Johns Univ, USA.
    Urbanics, Rudolf
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungary.
    Szebeni, Janos
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungary.
    Hunter, Alan Christy
    Montfort Univ, UK.
    Mitragotri, Samir
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    University of Oslo, Norway ;Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, NorwayRikshospitalet ; Nordland Hosp, Norway ; Univ Tromso, Norway ; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Moghimi, Seyed Moein
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Univ Durham, UK.
    Bypassing adverse injection reactions to nanoparticles through shape modification and attachment to erythrocytes.2017In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 589-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravenously injected nanopharmaceuticals, including PEGylated nanoparticles, induce adverse cardiopulmonary reactions in sensitive human subjects, and these reactions are highly reproducible in pigs. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, roles for both the complement system and reactive macrophages have been implicated. Here, we show the dominance and importance of robust pulmonary intravascular macrophage clearance of nanoparticles in mediating adverse cardiopulmonary distress in pigs irrespective of complement activation. Specifically, we show that delaying particle recognition by macrophages within the first few minutes of injection overcomes adverse reactions in pigs using two independent approaches. First, we changed the particle geometry from a spherical shape (which triggers cardiopulmonary distress) to either rod- or disk-shape morphology. Second, we physically adhered spheres to the surface of erythrocytes. These strategies, which are distinct from commonly leveraged stealth engineering approaches such as nanoparticle surface functionalization with poly(ethylene glycol) and/or immunological modulators, prevent robust macrophage recognition, resulting in the reduction or mitigation of adverse cardiopulmonary distress associated with nanopharmaceutical administration.

  • 4719.
    Wickström, Hanna L.
    et al.
    Lund University;Blekinge Wound Healing Centre.
    Oien, Rut Frank
    Blekinge Wound Healing Centre;Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Blekinge Centre of Competence.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund Uniersity.
    Midlov, Patrik J.
    Lund University.
    Comparing video consultation with inperson assessment for Swedish patients with hard-to-heal ulcers: registry-based studies of healing time and of waiting time2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e017623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate differences in ulcer healing time and waiting time between video consultation and inperson assessment for patients with hard-to-heal ulcers. Setting Patients treated at Blekinge Wound Healing Centre, a primary care centre covering the whole of Blekinge county (150 000 inhabitants), were compared with patients registered and treated according to the Registry of Ulcer Treatment, a Swedish national web-based quality registry. Participants In the study for analysing ulcer healing time, the study group consisted of 100 patients diagnosed through video consultation between October 2014 and September 2016. The control group for analysing healing time consisted of 1888 patients diagnosed through inperson assessment during the same period. In the study for analysing waiting time, the same study group (n=100) was compared with 100 patients diagnosed through inperson assessment. Primary and secondary outcome measures Differences in ulcer healing time were analysed using the log-rank test. Differences in waiting time were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Median healing time was 59 days (95% CI 40 to 78) in the study group and 82 days (95% CI 75 to 89) in the control group (P<0.001). Median waiting time was 25 days (range: 1-83 days) in the study group and 32 days (range: 3-294 days) for patients diagnosed through inperson assessment (P=0.017). There were no significant differences between the study group and the control group regarding age, gender or ulcer size. Conclusions Healing time and waiting time were significantly shorter for patients diagnosed through video consultation compared with those diagnosed through inperson assessment.

  • 4720.
    Wickström, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Chniti, Maroua
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur aromaterapi via luktsinnet kan påverka livskvaliteten2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Aromaterapi kan användas i olika syften, exempelvis för avslappning, stimulering och för att lugna individer. Denna Komplementära- och Alternativa Metod (KAM) används väldigt begränsat i Sverige idag, men används som ett komplement inom hälso- och sjukvården i andra länder. Vårdens ansvar är att ge en god vård i samråd med patienten genom att ta hänsyn till individens livsvärld. I denna studie definieras livsvärld som en helhetssyn på människan och utgår från begreppet livskvalitet ur ett subjektivt och objektivt perspektiv. Den teoretiska förankringen utgick från ett humanvetenskapligt perspektiv knuten till Dahlberg och Segestens definition av livsvärldsperspektiv.

    Syfte: Att undersöka om Aromaterapi via luktsinnet kan påverka faktorer som kan vara av betydelse för livskvaliteten.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie av nio artiklar publicerade 2010-2015 och två artiklar publicerade 2000 och 2005 som kom till genom sekundärsökning. Samtliga artiklar granskades genom författartriangulering och analyserades sedan med ett induktivt arbetssätt.

    Resultat: I studien framkom skillnader i den upplevda effekten av aromaterapi och de objektiva värdena som mättes. Vår studie visade olika effekter av aromaterapi, beroende på i vilket syfte doftstimuleringen användes. Aromaterapi via luktsinnet med hjälp av eteriska oljor kan öka välbefinnandet hos människor, men fungerar inte på alla indikationer.

    Slutsats: Aromaterapi kan ha effekt beroende på indikation och har en större verkan på individens subjektiva upplevelser jämfört med de objektiva mätta värdena. Vidare forskning både ur ett vårdvetenskapligt och medicinskt perspektiv föreslås. 

  • 4721.
    Widlund, Sofie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindberg, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Möte med döden mitt i livet: Vad kan ge livskraft vid cancer?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4722.
    Wiederholm, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Syskonplacering och extroversion/introversion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4723.
    Wiger, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eiderbrant, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors sätt att hantera sina upplevelser av oförutsedda händelser såsomdödsfall på operationsbordet: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4724.
    Wiger, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    NÄR SMÄRTA FORMGER LIVET: EN KVALITATIV INTERVJUSTUDIE OM HUR PERSONER MED LÅNGVARIG SMÄRTA UPPLEVER SJUKVÅRDEN2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Smärta är en subjektiv upplevelse. Långvarig smärta påverkar personens livsvärld i många aspekter genom fysiska, affektivta och kognitiva dimensioner. Vid smärtanalys av långvarig smärta kan metoder användas som ger en inblick i samtliga dimensioner. Eftersom smärta är en personlig upplevese och endast kan förklaras av personen själv så bör sjukvården utgå från ett livsvärldsperspektiv.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur personer med långvarig smärta upplever att

    smärtproblematikens inverkan på livsvärlden uppmärksammats av sjukvården.

    Metod: Genom en kvalitativ ansats genomfördes intervjustudien med semistrukturerade frågor. Materialet analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys och presenterades i resultatet utifrån underkategorier och kategorier.

    Resultat: Upplevelserna hos informanterna var att sjukvården inte tillräckligt uppmärksammade livsvärlden. Sjukvården upplevdes otillräcklig i frågor om att se till helheten, lyssna på personen och se personen i dess sammanhang. Personer med långvarig smärta kände sig misstrodda och lämnade ensamma. Det upplevdes positivt de gånger sjukvården såg till livsvärlden genom att göra personerna delaktiga i vården och därmed ge tillbaka makt. Ett sätt att se till livsvärlden var att lyssna till personernas åsikter och upplevelser och därmed möjliggöra att beslut kunde fattas gemensamt.

    Slutsats: Sjukvårdspersonal ser bristfälligt till livsvärlden då personer som lever med långvarig smärta söker vård för smärtproblematiken.

  • 4725.
    Wigren, Felix
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Midtsund Nordbö, Arne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    UPPLEVELSER AV ATT LEVA MED ETT ALKOHOLBEROENDE: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på självbiografier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Omkring 446 000 svenskar har antingen ett missbruk eller ett beroende av alkohol. Ett missbruk är när drickandet blir ett problem för individen och ett beroende är när individen upplever det svårt att leva utan alkohol. De vanligaste behandlingsmetoderna för alkoholmissbruk och beroende är motiverande samtal, kognitiv beteende terapi, tolvstegsbehandling och farmakologisk behandling. Sjuksköterskans roll i arbetet med alkoholberoende är att förebygga ohälsa.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva patienters upplevelser av att leva med ett alkoholberoende.

    Metod: Studien baseras på fem självbiografier som analyserades med en manifest innehållsanalys av kvalitativa verk.

    Resultat: Tre huvudkategorier och nio underkategorier framkom efter analysen av självbiografierna. Huvudkategorierna var beroendets karaktär, en vändpunkt i livet och mötet med vården. De nio underkategorierna var sökandet efter välbefinnande, upplevelser vid frånvaro av alkoholpåverkan, skillnaden som gjorde skillnad, ambivalens, nya livsmål, misstro till vården, upplevelser av bemötandet, upplevelser av förbättring och upplevelser av försämring.

    Slutsats: Alkoholberoendet kan ge upphov till olika typer av lidande för den beroende. Missbruket skadar dem fysisk och psykosocialt samt kan leda till en existentiell kris. Beroendetillståndet upplevs motsägelsefullt för den drabbade, därför att det upplevda behovet att dricka och behovet för hälsa är oförenliga med varandra. Det går att ta sig ur ett beroendetillstånd, och det kan göras på flera sätt. Vårdinsatser med livsvärldsperspektiv kan stödja individen i den processen.

    Nyckelord: Alkoholberoende, alkoholmissbruk, livsvärld, levd kropp, lidande, vändpunkt.

  • 4726.
    Wijk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Heikkilä, Kristiina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kihlstroem, Lars
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Nordquist, Jonas
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital.
    Factors influencing effectiveness in postgraduate medical education - a qualitative study of experiences of the responsible clinical consultants2019In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 19, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMedical education leaders are important for educational quality in postgraduate medical education. Their work tasks are complex and contain different components. However, factors that are influencing leaders effectiveness in completing these tasks are unexplored. Understanding and developing these factors is most likely essential to strengthen postgraduate medical education and to consequently improve the quality in health care delivery. This study explores the experiences of factors that influence effectiveness of clinical consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education at clinical departments. Effectiveness was defined as fulfillment of work tasks.MethodsA qualitative study was performed with data gathered through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 17 consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education. Data was analyzed by qualitative content analysis.ResultsFindings clustered into four themes of factors influencing effectiveness: individual (being an expert, social competence), relational (support and cooperation, communication), attitudinal (shared vision, organizational values, colleagues' attitudes) and structural (organizational characteristics, regulations and guidelines, conditions for the role). The factors were experienced to influence effectiveness in a positive or a negative direction.Conclusions This study shed light on the complex and interrelated factors experienced to have impact on the role of consultant responsible for postgraduate medical education. Viewing the result through the concept of power, the role mainly relies on personal power sources like expert and referent power whereas power connected to the position often are lacking. To increase effectiveness of the role, a differentiated strategy which involves activities at both individual, group and organizational levels is needed.

  • 4727.
    Wijk, Madelene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Biologisk mångfald på Torhamns övnings- och skjutfält2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing exploitation of land and the changes in land use over the last few hundred years has led to a marked reduction in the biodiversity of the landscape. Species populations have diminished in number or even gone locally extinct due to habitat loss. Research has shown that military training areas have become a refuge for many endangered species, partly due to the fact that these areas have been spared from exploitation of the land and partly due to the fact that these species have thrived as a result of the disturbance of habitat caused by military activity.

     

    This study aims to clarify which types of disturbance have had a positive effect on the biodiversity of Torhamns udde in South East Blekinge through history. In this investigation biodiversity is analyzed at the landscape and species levels. Earlier results from a pollen analysis north of the study area show that the region has been affected by land use over a period of several thousand years. The military activity that has taken place in the area over the last hundred years, has contributed to the preservation of the unique natural environment that exists there today. An important conclusion from this study is that changes in biodiversity are strongly connected with changes in land use. The present composition in the flora and fauna may thus largely be explained by the historical land use. In order to positively influence the biodiversity of a military training area, it is important to have a palaeoecological approach, when conservation and management plans are being set up.

  • 4728.
    Wijk, Marlene
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Tim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Icke akut sjuka patienter transporteras till akutmottagningen: -en intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

     

    Bakgrund: Antalet ambulansuppdrag i Sverige har ökat med 30 % under en fyra års period. I korrelation med detta har arbetsbelastningen ökat på akutmottagningarna, vilket riskerar patientsäkerheten. Studier har påvisat att en viss mängd ambulanstransporter till akutmottagningar inte är nödvändiga ur ett medicinskt perspektiv.  

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva ambulanssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att ta patienter till akutmottagning trots att bedömning gjorts att något akut medicinskt vårdbehov ej föreligger.

     

    Metod: Studien baseras på en kvalitativ metod. Intervjuer med ambulanssjuksköterskor från södra Sverige låg till grund. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och senare analyserades i enlighet med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

     

    Resultat: Det finns flertal faktorer som leder till att icke akut sjuka patienter transporteras till akutmottagningen. Individuella egenskaper, externa faktorer såsom riktlinjer och att läkaren påverkar sjuksköterskans beslut. Miljö som antingen är dålig för patienten men också för personalen. Hot gentemot vårdpersonalen och risken att det egna anseendet påverkas. Samt att primärvården inte har möjlighet att ta emot patienten.

     

    Diskussion: Ambulanssjuksköterskans förmåga att kommunicera med patienten kan ha en inverkan som leder till transport, även om det inte finns ett akut vårdbehov. Studier har påvisat att många larm gällande patienter utan akut medicinskt vårdbehov kan leda till att ambulanssjuksköterskan förlorar empati. Något som skulle kunna vara relevant i beslutsfattandet om vilken vårdnivå som är lämpligast för patienten.

     

    Slutsats: Ambulanssjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö påverkar beslutsfattandet. Oavsett om det är patienten, anhöriga eller andra influenser. Primärvårdens belastning tvingar dem att neka patienter. Detta leder till en ökad arbetsbelastning på akutmottagningen vilket kan riskera patientsäkerheten. 

  • 4729.
    Wijkman, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindahl, Ilona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sömnstörande faktorer inom somatisk vård: ur ett patientperspektiv: -En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sömn är ett grundläggande behov som påverkar vår hälsa. Bristfällig sömn kan leda till försämrat minne, koncentrationssvårigheter och dåligt humör. Inneliggande patienter med sömnbrist får ofta sämre tålamod, har svårare att hantera oro, mobiliserar sig inte lika bra och ökar risken för skada och fall. En personcentrerad vård kan främja patientens sömn då omvårdnadsåtgärderna anpassas utefter patientens individuella behov.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva vuxna patienters erfarenheter av sömnstörande faktorer inom somatisk vård.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie bestående av åtta vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och det utfördes en innehållsanalys av artiklarnas resultat.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkom två kategorier: Patientrelaterade faktorer och Omgivningsrelaterade faktorer. Ett flertal faktorer påverkade inneliggande patienters sömn. Inom vårdmiljön var ljud och ljus de främsta faktorerna som påverkade sömnen negativt. Dåligt patientbemötande och brist på information från sjuksköterskan skapade oro och ångest hos patienten.

    Slutsats: Ett gott bemötande och bra information skapar trygghet hos patienten. Genom att arbeta personcentrerat kan sjuksköterskan synliggöra sömnstörande faktorer och därmed främja patientens sömn. 

  • 4730.
    Wikander, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Två linsrengöringsmetoders påverkan på hornhinnan i samband med användande av kontaktlinsvätskan Opti-Free® Express®2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of contact lens cleaning on cornea using two different methods. The study compared the manufacturer’s recommended usage for Opti-Free® Express®, with the alternative cleaning method that involves rubbing the lens, a method often recommended by Optometrists.

    The participants were seen twice to evaluate the cornea. The values found on the first visit were used as baseline values. The participants were given a new pair of contact lenses and were told to clean them in two different ways for the upcoming two weeks. The first method was to follow the recommended instructions by the manufacturer. A method that involves rinsing the lens for five seconds per side. The alternative method was to rub both sides in shape of the letter L. This procedure was repeated five times per side followed by rinsing for five seconds. The participants were seen for a second visit after two weeks. Evaluations were once again made. The values found were compared with the baseline values as well with each other. 

    In those cases where the lenses had been cleaned by rubbing, the value of found staining decreased from 140179 at the baseline to 12185 after two weeks (p = 0,68). The baseline value for the eyes where the lenses were cleaned by rinsing was 125149. Those values increased to 214179 after two weeks (p = 0,03).

    A comparison between the two groups later values showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two types of cleaning, where the eyes that were only rinsed contained a higher amount of staining (p = 0,046).

    In those eyes where lenses had been cleaned only by rinsing there were found a higher amount of staining compared to the ones cleaned by rubbing. The difference in found staining between the two cleaning methods were statistically significant.

  • 4731.
    Wikstrom, Lotta
    et al.
    Jönköping Univ.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    Jönköping Univ.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköpings Universitet, Ersta Sköndal Univ Coll.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping Univ.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping Univ.
    Healthcare Professionals' Perceptions of the Use of Pain Scales in Postoperative Pain Assessments2014In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe how healthcare professionals perceive the use of pain scales in postoperative care. Background: Pain scales are important but not an obvious choice to use in postoperative care. No study has explored how healthcare professionals experience the use of pain scales. Methods: An explorative design with a phenomenographic approach was used. The sample consisted of 25 healthcare professionals. Semistructured interviews were performed. Results: Four descriptive categories emerged - the use of pain scales facilitated the understanding of postoperative pain, facilitated treatment, demanded a multidimensional approach and was affected by work situations. Conclusions: Healthcare professionals described that pain scales contribute to the understanding of patient's postoperative pain. It is important to ensure patient understanding and be aware about variations in pain ratings. Dialogue and observations are necessary to be certain what the ratings mean to the patient. The use of pain scales depends on patient's needs and organization. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 4732.
    Wikström, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Amy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med migrän: En studie baserad på skriftliga berättelser2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4733.
    Wikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Jönköping University;Ryhov County Hospital.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    Jönköping University;Ryhov County Hospital.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Futurum Acad Hlth & Care, Jönköping.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University;University Hospital Linköping.
    The clinical applicability of a daily summary of patients' self-reported postoperative pain: A repeated measure analysis2017In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 26, no 23-24, p. 4675-4684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objectives(i) To determine whether a central tendency, median, based on patients' self-rated pain is a clinically applicable daily measure to show patients' postoperative pain on the first day after major surgery (ii) and to determine the number of self-ratings required for the calculation of this measure. BackgroundPerioperative pain traits in medical records are difficult to overview. The clinical applicability of a daily documented summarising measure of patients' self-rated pain scores is little explored. DesignA repeated measure design was carried out at three Swedish country hospitals. MethodsAssociations between the measures were analysed with nonparametric statistical methods; systematic and individual group changes were analysed separately. Measure I: pain scores at rest and activity postoperative day 1; measure II: retrospective average pain from postoperative day 1. ResultsThe sample consisted of 190 general surgery patients and 289 orthopaedic surgery patients with a mean age of 65; 56% were men. Forty-four percent had a pre-operative daily intake of analgesia, and 77% used postoperative opioids. A range of 49 pain scores seem to be eligible for the calculation of the daily measures of pain. Rank correlations for individual median scores, based on four ratings, vs. retrospective self-rated average pain, were moderate and strengthened with increased numbers of ratings. A systematic group change towards a higher level of reported retrospective pain was significant. ConclusionsThe median values were clinically applicable daily measures. The risk of obtaining a higher value than was recalled by patients seemed to be low. Applicability increased with increased frequency of self-rated pain scores and with high-quality pain assessments. Relevance to clinical practiceThe documenting of daily median pain scores at rest and during activity could constitute the basis for obtaining patients' experiences by showing their pain severity trajectories. The measures could also be an important key to predicting postoperative health-related consequences.

  • 4734.
    Wikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Jönköping University ; Ryhov County Hospital.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    Jönköping University ; Ryhov County Hospital.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University ; Linköping University Hospital.
    Broström, Anders
    Jönköping University ; Linköping University Hospital.
    Healthcare professionals' descriptions of care experiences and actions when assessing postoperative pain: a critical incident technique analysis2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 802-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pain is a common postoperative symptom, and length of hospital stay after surgery is short which highlights the importance of pain assessments. Experiences of assessing pain are mainly described from the perspective of nurses. In postoperative care, enrolled nurses and physicians also assess pain. It is therefore important to take note of their experiences to improve postoperative pain assessments.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was, through considering critical incidents, to describe care experiences and actions taken by healthcare professionals when assessing postoperative pain.

    METHODS: An explorative design employing critical incidents technique analysis was used. A total of 24 strategically selected enrolled nurses, nurses and physicians employed at orthopaedic or general surgery wards in four Swedish hospitals were interviewed. The intention was to reach variation in age, sex, profession and professional experience.

    FINDINGS: In pain assessments, patient-related facilitators were patients' verbal and emotional expressions including pain ratings, while lack of consistency with observed behaviours was a barrier. Clinical competence, continuity in care and time were healthcare-related facilitators. The actions healthcare professionals took were gathering facts about patients' pain manifestations and adapting to patients' communication abilities. Patient observations, either passive or active were used to confirm or detect pain. Collaboration between healthcare professionals, including consultations with pain experts, social workers and relatives, strengthened understanding of pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Communication skills and working conditions have an impact on performance of pain assessment. Patient comfort without compromising safety is reached by including healthcare professionals' dissimilar responsibilities when collecting patients' and relatives' perspectives on current pain.

  • 4735.
    Wilde Björling, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Informationsstöd i en applikation vid strålbehandling mot prostatacancer: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få ett cancerbesked är en omvälvande upplevelse. Kunskap kan underlätta att bemästra situationen. Sjukvården digitaliseras i allt större utsträckning. Det är av värde att sjuksköterskor är med i den utvecklingen för att få kunskap om och säkerställa att de eHälso-tjänster som utvecklas kommer patienter och närstående till nytta. Syfte: med studien är att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av att använda en applikation med  anpassad information, via en surfplatta, inför och under strålbehandling mot prostatacancer. Metod: Studien har genomförts med kvalitativ design med en induktiv ansats. Åtta informanter har intervjuats. Data har anlayserats med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.  Resultat: En del män som drabbas av prostatacancer uppger behov av mer information om sjukdom och behandling än de erhåller av sjukvården. Att få tillgång till anpassad och kvalitetssäkrad information via en app beskrevs som stödjande och tryggt, relaterat till att innehållet upplevdes pålitligt. Tillgång till app:en var värdefullt även för närstående. Kunskap om sjukdomen och vad den för med sig minskar oro för framtiden. Slutsats: Anpassad information via en applikation kan vara stödjande inför och under strålbehandling för män som drabbats av prostatacancer, men alla är inte redo för digital information och kommunikation.

  • 4736. Wilde Björling, Camilla
    et al.
    Lagerlund, Magnus
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Widell, Ingela
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Surfplattor stärker patienters ställning i vården : Ett samarbetsprojekt mellan patienter, vård och forskning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4737.
    Wilder, Jenny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hanson, Elizabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Professionals’ and parents’ shared learning in blended learning networks related to communication and augmentative and alternative communication for people with severe disabilities2015In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 367-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with severe disabilities (SD) communicate in complex ways, and their teachers, parents and other involved professionals find it difficult to gain knowledge and share their experiences regarding the person with SD’s communication methods. The purpose of this study is to contribute to our understanding of how parents and professionals share learning about communication and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for people with SD by participating in blended learning networks (BLNs). Thirty-six parents and professionals participated in online web-based BLNs according to a prepared format; four groups were formed, and all of the groups participated in four discussion sessions and an evaluation session. Detailed minutes from the 16 BLN sessions, an evaluation session and course evaluation data were thematically analysed. The theoretical frameworks were different perspectives on disability within communication research and special education research, and theories about shared learning in networks. The analyses revealed themes that focused on communication partners’ knowledge, attitudes and strategies regarding communicating with people with SD; the importance and power of using multimodal AAC; and the universality, user-friendliness and empowering aspects of iPads and apps. The findings suggest that participants perceive communication and AAC with people with SD from relational, dialogical and interactional perspectives, whereas the categorical perspective was less pronounced. In accordance with other professional competence research, the use of online web-based BLNs with mixed groups that was described in this paper yielded positive evaluations from the participants. The opportunity for meeting others involved in caring for people with SD, the actual blended groups and the sharing of technology and AAC experiences in particular were highlighted.

  • 4738.
    Wilhelmsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av svenska baljväxter som råmaterial vid växtbaserad glasstillverkning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The solution to current climate changes and lifestyle related diseases can partly be targeted by changing our diet into a more plant based. With the same consumption level and production methods, animal products are very resource demanding. More options are needed to encourage consumers into eating a more sustainable diet. Ice cream is traditionally made from animal products but there are plant based alternatives, of which the majority is imported. Swedish leguminous are easily cultivated in temperate climates and have been traditionally grown in Sweden for many years. Some of the Swedish leguminous are mostly cultivated for feed, but it is possible to use them for human food as well. The aim of this study was to investigate if Swedish leguminous can be utilized as raw material for plant based ice cream. Germination and choice of vegetable fat was evaluated. The parameters that were analyzed were protein content by Kjeldahl with modification and HPLC, total solid content by oven drying methods, buffer capacity by titration, pH by pH-meter, viscosity by capillary methods and melting rate by melting-time analysis. The results indicate that Swedish leguminous can be used as raw material for plant based ice cream. The fat type or germination did not seem to affect the properties of the ice cream. Finally, fermentation of the Swedish leguminous based ice cream was evaluated. The result indicates that more fermentation attempts are needed, perhaps with other types of lactic acid bacteria. Further studies is needed to determine a reliable result.

  • 4739.
    Wille, Michelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Viruses on the wing: evolution and dynamics of influenza A virus in the Mallard reservoir2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the evolution of avian influenza A viruses (IAV), as well as host-pathogen interactions between these viruses and their main reservoir host, the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). IAV is a genetically diverse, multi-host virus and wild birds, particularly dabbling ducks, are the natural reservoir. At our study site, up to 30% of migratory Mallards are infected with IAV during an autumn season, and host a large number of virus subtypes. IAV diversity is driven by two main mechanisms: mutation, driving genetic drift; and reassortment following co-infection, resulting in genetic shift.

     

    Reassortment is pervasive within an autumn season, both across multiple subtypes and within a single subtype. It is a key genetic feature in long-term maintenance of common subtypes, as it allows for independent lineage turn-over, generating novel genetic constellations. I hypothesize that the decoupling of successful constellations and generation of novel annual constellations enables viruses to escape herd immunity; these genetic changes must confer antigenic change for the process to be favourable. Indeed, in an experiment utilizing vaccines, circulating viruses escaped homosubtypic immunity, resulting in the proliferation of infections with the same subtype as the vaccine. While the host plays an important role in shaping IAV evolutionary genetics, one must consider that Mallards are infected with a multitude of other microorganisms. Here, Mallards were infected with IAV, gamma coronaviruses, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 simultaneously, and we found a putative synergistic interaction between IAV and gamma coronaviruses.

     

    Mallards occupy the interface between humans, poultry, and wild birds, and are the reservoir of IAV diversity. New incursions of highly pathogenic H5 viruses to both Europe and North America reaffirms the role of wild birds, particularly waterfowl, in diffusion of viruses spatially. Using European low pathogenic viruses and Mallard model, this thesis contributes to aspects of epidemiology, ecology, and evolutionary dynamics of waterfowl viruses, particularly IAV

  • 4740.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. CIRAD, F-34398 Montpellier, France.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Schager, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Borg, Olivia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala Univ.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Temporal dynamics, diversity, and interplay in three components of the virodiversity of a Mallard population: Influenza A virus, avian paramyxovirus and avian coronavirus2015In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN 1567-1348, E-ISSN 1567-7257, Vol. 29, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple infections, or simultaneous infection of a host with multiple parasites, are the rule rather than the exception. Interactions between co-occurring pathogens in a population may be mutualistic, competitive or facilitative. For some pathogen combinations, these interrelated effects will have epidemiological consequences; however this is as yet poorly incorporated into practical disease ecology. For example, screening of Mallards for influenza A viruses (IAV) have repeatedly revealed high prevalence and large subtype diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Other studies have identified avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) and coronaviruses (CoVs) in Mallards, but without making inferences on the larger viral assemblage. In this study we followed 144 wild Mallards across an autumn season in a natural stopover site and constructed infection histories of IAV, APMV-1 and CoV. There was a high prevalence of IAV, comprising of 27 subtype combinations, while APMV-1 had a comparatively low prevalence (with a peak of 2%) and limited strain variation, similar to previous findings. Avian CoVs were common, with prevalence up to 12%, and sequence analysis identified different putative genetic lineages. An investigation of the dynamics of co-infections revealed a synergistic effect between CoV and IAV, whereby Coy prevalence was higher given that the birds were co-infected with IAV. There were no interactive effects between IAV and APMV-1. Disease dynamics are the result of an interplay between parasites, host immune responses, and resources; and is imperative that we begin to include all factors to better understand infectious disease risk. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4741.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Australia.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Lund University.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Halpin, Rebecca
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Wentworth, David
    J Craig Venter Inst, USA.
    Fouchier, Ron A. M.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Raghwani, Jayna
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Pybus, Oliver G.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Olsen, Bjorn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Where do all the subtypes go?: Temporal dynamics of H8-H12 influenza A viruses in waterfowl2018In: Virus Evolution, E-ISSN 2057-1577, Vol. 4, no 2, article id vey025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is ubiquitous in waterfowl. In the northern hemisphere IAV prevalence is highest during the autumn and coincides with a peak in viral subtype diversity. Although haemagglutinin subtypes H1-H12 are associated with waterfowl hosts, subtypes H8-H12 are detected very infrequently. To better understand the role of waterfowl in the maintenance of these rare subtypes, we sequenced H8-H12 viruses isolated from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from 2002 to 2009. These rare viruses exhibited varying ecological and phylodynamic features. The Eurasian clades of H8 and H12 phylogenies were dominated by waterfowl sequences; mostly viruses sequenced in this study. H11, once believed to be a subtype that infected charadriiformes (shorebirds), exhibited patterns more typical of common virus subtypes. Finally, subtypes H9 and H10, which have maintained lineages in poultry, showed markedly different patterns: H10 was associated with all possible NA subtypes and this drove HA lineage diversity within years. Rare viruses belonging to subtypes H8-H12 were highly reassorted, indicating that these rare subtypes are part of the broader IAV pool. Our results suggest that waterfowl play a role in the maintenance of these rare subtypes, but we recommend additional sampling of non-traditional hosts to better understand the reservoirs of these rare viruses.

  • 4742.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Georgia, USA.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stallknecht, D. E.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    No evidence for homosubtypic immunity of influenza H3 in Mallards following vaccination in a natural experimental system2017In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is an important reservoir species for influenza A viruses (IAV), and in this host, prevalence and virus diversity are high. Studies have demonstrated the presence of homosubtypic immunity, where individuals are unlikely to be reinfected with the same subtype within an autumn season. Further, evidence for heterosubtypic immunity exists, whereby immune responses specific for one subtype offer partial or complete protection against related HA subtypes. We utilized a natural experimental system to determine whether homo- or heterospecific immunity could be induced following experimental vaccination. Thirty Mallards were vaccinated with an inactivated H3, H6 or a sham vaccine and after seroconversion were exposed to naturally infected wild conspecifics. All ducks were infected within 2days and had both primary and secondary infections. Overall, there was no observable difference between groups; all individuals were infected with H3 and H10 IAV. At the cessation of the experiment, most individuals had anti-NP antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against H10. Not all individuals had H3 neutralizing antibodies. The isolated H3 IAVs revealed genetic dissimilarity to the H3 vaccine strain, specifically substitutions in the vicinity of the receptor-binding site. There was no evidence of vaccine-induced homosubtypic immunity to H3, a likely result of both a poor H3 immune response in the ducks and H3 immune escape. Likewise, there was no observed heterosubtypic protection related to H6 vaccination. This study highlights the need for experimental approaches to assess how exposure to pathogens and resulting immune processes translates to individual and population disease dynamics.

  • 4743.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stallknecht, D.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Putative escape and poor humoral response to inactivatedvaccine in Mallards results in no homo- or heterosubtypic immunity againstH3 influenza A in a natural-experimental system.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4744.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Uppsala University.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0150198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving duck-smainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)-and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative.

  • 4745.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. CIRAD, Campusinternational de Baillarguet, Montpellier 34398, France.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wallerström, Sofie
    Karolinska institutet.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Frequency and patterns of reassortment in natural influenza A virus infection in a reservoir host2013In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, E-ISSN 1096-0341, Vol. 443, no 15, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) can dramatically alter both genotype and phenotype at a rapid rate as a product of co-infection and reassortment Avian IAV exhibit high levels of phylogenetic incongruence, suggesting high levels of reassortment in the virus reservoir. Using a natural-experimental system, we reconstructed relationships amongst 92 viruses across 15 subtypes from 10 Mallards in an autumn season. Phylogenetic analyses estimated that 56% of the isolated viruses were reassorted. Network analysis demonstrated different patterns of reassortment and limited exchange of segments between primary and secondary infections. No clear patterns of linkage between segments were found, and patterns within a season were likely the consequence of continued introduction ofnew constellations, high viral load and diversity in the wild bird reservoir, and co-infections. This is the first IAV study to implement multiple tools available for elucidating factors governing reassortment patterns in naturally infected Mallards.

  • 4746.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fouchier, R. A. M.
    Halpin, R. A.
    Wentworth, D. E.
    Ragwani, J.
    Pybus, O.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Limited diffusion of genome constellations and pervasive reassortment arefeatures of long-term circulation of H4N6 influenza A in European waterfowlManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4747.
    Wille, Michelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    van Run, Peter
    Erasmus Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kuiken, Thijs
    Erasmus Medical Centre, The Netherlands.
    Infected or not: are PCR-positive oropharyngeal swabs indicative of low pathogenic influenza A virus infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos?2014In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 45, p. Article ID: 53-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of influenza virus in oropharyngeal swabs collected during wild bird surveillance is assumed to representrespiratory infection, although intestine is the main site of infection. We tested this assumption by histologicalexamination of the respiratory tract of wild Mallards with virus-positive oropharyngeal swabs. Thirty-two of 125Mallards tested had viral-RNA positive oropharyngeal swabs. The respiratory tracts of four Mallards with the mostvirus were examined in detail by immunohistochemistry. None had detectable virus antigen in the respiratory tract,suggesting it was not infected. An alternative explanation is that the oropharynx was contaminated with virusthrough feeding in surface water or through preening.

  • 4748.
    Williams, C. M.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Dupont, A. M.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Loevenich, J.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Post, A. F.
    URI, USA.
    Dinasquet, Julie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Yager, P. L.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Pelagic microbial heterotrophy in response to a highly productive bloom of Phaeocystis antarctica in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica2016In: Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2325-1026, Vol. 4, p. 1-18, article id 000102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterotrophic bacteria play a key role in marine carbon cycling, and understanding their activities in polar systems is important for considering climate change impacts there. One goal of the ASPIRE project was to examine the relationship between the phytoplankton bloom and bacterial heterotrophy in the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP). Bacterial abundance, production (BP), respiration, growth efficiency, and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) were compared to nutrient and organic matter inventories, chlorophyll a (Chl a), viral and microzooplankton abundance, and net primary production (NPP). Bacterial production and respiration clearly responded (0.04-4.0 and 10-53 mu g C L-1 d(-1), respectively) to the buildup of a massive Phaeocystis antarctica bloom (Chl a: 0.2-22 mu g L-1), with highest rates observed in the central polynya where Chl a and particulate organic carbon (POC) were greatest. The highest BP rates exceeded those reported for the Ross Sea or any other Antarctic coastal system, yet the BP: NPP ratio (2.1-9.4%) was relatively low. Bacterial respiration was also high, and growth efficiency (2-27%; median = 10%) was similar to oligotrophic systems. Thus, the integrated bacterial carbon demand (0.8-2.8 g C m(-2) d(-1)) was a high fraction (25-128%; median = 43%) of NPP during bloom development. During peak bloom, activity was particle-associated: BP and EEA correlated well with POC, and size fractionation experiments showed that the larger size fraction (> 3 mu m) accounted for a majority (similar to 75%) of the BP. The community was psychrophilic, with a 5x reduction in BP when warmed to 20 degrees C. In deeper waters, respiration remained relatively high, likely fueled by the significant downward particle flux in the region. A highly active, particle-associated, heterotrophic microbial community clearly responded to the extraordinary phytoplankton bloom in the ASP, likely limiting biological pump efficiency during the early season.

  • 4749.
    Williams, Donald
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bürkner, Paul-Christian
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones and behavior: Inflated false positives and diminished power2017In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), ISSN 0091-3022, E-ISSN 1095-6808, Vol. 47, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates—rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures—natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress—entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE). We found that the assumption of independence was routinely violated (>85%), false positives (α = 0.05) exceeded nominal levels (up to 0.70), and power (1−β) rarely surpassed 0.80 (even for optimistic sample and effect sizes). Additionally, we show that MLMs and GEEs have adequate performance for common research designs. We discuss implications for the extant literature, the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, and provide recommendations.

  • 4750.
    Williams, Richard A. J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Kansas, USA.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Owens, Hannah L.
    Univ Kansas, USA;Univ Florida, USA.
    Clamp, John
    North Carolina Cent Univ, USA.
    Peterson, A. Townsend
    Univ Kansas, USA.
    Warren, Alan
    Nat Hist Museum, UK.
    Martin-Cereceda, Mercedes
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Endemicity and climatic niche differentiation in three marine ciliated protists2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2727-2736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogeographic pattern of single-celled eukaryotes (protists), including ciliates, is poorly understood. Most marine species are believed to have a relatively high dispersal potential, such that both globally distributed and geographically isolated taxa exist. Primary occurrence data for three large, easily identified ciliate species, Parafavella gigantea, Schmidingerella serrata, and Zoothamnium pelagicum, and environmental data drawn from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's World Ocean Atlas were used to estimate each species' spatial and environmental distributions using Maxent v3.3.3k. The predictive power of the models was tested with a series of spatial stratification studies, which were evaluated using partial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Differences between niches occupied by each taxon were evaluated using background similarity tests. All predictions showed significant ability to anticipate test points. The null hypotheses of niche similarity were rejected in all background similarity tests comparing the niches among the three species. This article provides the first quantitative assessment of environmental conditions associated with three species of ciliates and a first estimate of their spatial distributions in the North Atlantic, which can serve as a benchmark against which to document distributional shifts. These species follow consistent, predictable patterns related to climate and environmental biochemistry; the importance of climatic conditions as regards protist distributions is noteworthy considering the effects of global climate change.

92939495969798 4701 - 4750 of 4912
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf