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  • 501.
    Wagner, Leopold
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Almkvist, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bjurhager, Ingela
    Uppsala University.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Uppsala University.
    The influence of chemical degradation and polyethylene glycol on moisture-dependent cell wall properties of archeological wooden objects: a case study of the Vasa shipwreck2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1103-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell wall measures allow for direct assessment of wood modification without the adverse effect of varying density and microstructure. In this study, cell wall properties of recent and archeological oak wood from the Vasa shipwreck were investigated for cell wall stiffness, hardness and creep with respect to effects of chemical degradation, impregnation with a preservation agent, namely polyethylene glycol, and moisture. For this purpose, nanoindentation tests were performed at varying relative humidity, leading to different moisture contents in the wood samples. Concurrently, microstructural and chemical characterization of the mate- rial was conducted. Impregnated and untreated recent oak wood showed a softening effect of both moisture and preservation agent at the wood cell wall level. On the contrary, increased stiffness was found for non-impregnated Vasa oak, which can be explained by aging-related modifications in cell wall components. These effects were counteracted by the softening effect of polyethylene glycol in the impregnated Vasa material, where a lower overall stiffness was measured. The reverse effect of the preservation agent and moisture, namely increased indentation creep of the cell wall material, was revealed. The loss of acetyl groups in the hemicelluloses explained the decreased hygroscopicity of the Vasa oak. In the impregnated Vasa oak, this effect seemed to be partly counteracted by the presence of low-molecular polyethylene glycol contributing to higher hygroscopicity of the cell wall. Thus, the higher overall sorptive capacity of the impregnated Vasa material, with respect to the non-impregnated material, was detected, which has resulted in a sorptive behavior similar to that of recent oak wood. The proposed approach requires only small amounts of material, making it especially suitable for application to precious historical wooden artifacts. 

  • 502.
    Wagner, Leopold
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    de Borst, Karin
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Fungal degradation of softwood cell walls: Enhanced insight through micromechanical modeling2014In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 93, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Fungal degradation is among the greatest hazards for standing trees as well as timber constructions. Herein we aim at gaining more detailed insight into the degradation strategies of wood destroying fungi and the consequences on the mechanical performance of wood. At the macroscale, the occurring losses of mass and of mass density mask effects of altered chemical composition and microstructure. Thus, it is necessary to step down the hierarchical organization of wood to the cell wall scale in order to resolve these changes and their mechanical impact. We present a multiscale micromechanical model which is used to estimate the stiffnesses of the S2 cell wall layer and the compound middle lamella of fungal degraded wood. Data from a detailed chemical, microstructural and micromechanical characterization of white rot and brown rot degraded Scots pine sapwood is analyzed. Comparing predicted cell wall stiffnesses with measured ones confirms the suitability of the approach. The model enables to establish structure–stiffness relationships for fungal degraded wood cell walls and to test hypotheses on yet unknown effects of fungal decay. The latter include the evolution of porosity, modifications of the cell wall polymers resulting in changes of their stiffnesses, as well as increasing cell wall crystallinity. The model predictions in general showed good agreement with the predictions not considering pores in the cell wall. However, this finding does not rule out the formation of porosity. Other degradation related effects like modifications of the cell wall polymers as well as increased crystallinity have the potential to account for stiffness decreases upon the formation of pores.

  • 503.
    Walfridsson, Rickard
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    KONSTRUKTION AV FÄSTE TILL FÖNSTERLUCKA: Design of shutter attachment2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task given by Balco AB was to redesign the productsystem ”vikglas utan ram” and to make the shutter able to go pass a corner. Today the shutter can only be moved sideways. A prototype to test the shutter concept will be made. The final product will be used in Balco AB:s existing product family as a new product or as a choice. The shutter solution shall give a feeling of quality and easiness to fit in.

    A few of the demands to achieve this goal is by using special made shutter attachments and the use of bearings. The new shutter attachment has to be safe, reliable and have a low noise level.

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  • 504.
    Wessels, CB
    et al.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Crafford, PL
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    DuToit, B
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Grahn, T
    Innventia AB, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Lundqvist, S-O
    Innventia AB, Stockholm.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Seifert, Thomas
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Variation in physical and mechanical properties from three drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on the dry west coast of Southern Africa2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 563-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa, and specifically its western parts is dominated by low rainfall areas, and it is expected that the rainfall in most of these parts will in future decrease further due to climate change. Woodlots of fast-growing, non-invasive tree species can provide the opportunity to produce wood and release the pressure on natural woodlands, while creating much needed income to inhabitants. Over the last two decades several trials of Eucalyptus species that could potentially withstand arid conditions were established on the South African west coast. The three most promising genotypes according to their volume growth were selected among 46 pure and hybrid species from two 20-year-old trials for further evaluation. These included 10 Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid trees, 9 Eucalyptus gomphocephala trees, and 9Eucalyptus cladocalyx trees for a total of 28 trees. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the within-tree and between species variability of selected physical and processing properties determining the suitability of these three species for lumber production. The density, microfibril angle, spiral grain angle, MOE, MOR, radial and tangential shrinkage, twist, bow, splitting, and collapse were measured in a radial and longitudinal gradient. Valuable insights were gained which could provide decision support for planting, processing and further research on these species when grown in arid conditions. The E. grandis × camaldulensis hybrid was inferior in terms of most relevant properties to the other two species evaluated. The main shortcoming of both E. gomphocephala and E. cladocalyx was the high levels of twist in lumber.

  • 505.
    Wiberg, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Rindberg, Agnes
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Laserskanning och 3Dmodellering för rekonstruktion av ett medeltida kyrkorum2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is describing a 3D reconstruction of a medieval church located 25 kilometers south of Växjö. The church is very special as the appearance of the building is still very original. The church also has an unusual roof construction that this project wants to point out. However, the roof structure once visible from the church room, is today hidden by a ceiling which was erected later in an indefinite time. The purpose and goal with the 3D reconstruction is to recreate the original church hall and compare it with the contemporary interior design based on three aspects; experiences of light, - the room in general and the experiences of movement patterns in the church. The result of the project showed that the church hall earlier on was much darker inside due to the lack of windows, but the church hall was on the other hand very spacious in the middle ages because the interior was not furnished during this time. Today the church has received more and larger windows and the hall is furnished with pews and a pulpit, which have led the movement pattern to an aisle from west to east in the middle of the church hall. In future projects, about churches and older constructions, this study can be used as guideline and support for further studies. It is also a study that is open for additional development, as for example the 3D reconstruction can be translated into VRtechnology, so that people can experience the medieval church as it was in the 13th century, almost like they were there.

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    Laserskanning och 3Dmodellering för rekonstruktion av ett medeltida kyrkorum
  • 506.
    Wiberg-Bocek, Sebastian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Energisparande åtgärder för uppvärmning i en 70-tals villa: Energy-saving measures for heating in a 70-century detached house2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete på 15 högskolepoäng har som syfte att undersöka några åtgärder för minskade uppvärmningskostnader. Då det byggs mycket nytt idag får man inte glömma bort alla befintliga byggnader. Det första steget mot minskad energianvändning är att minimera uppvärmningsbehovet. I detta arbete har vissa utvalda åtgärder beräknats på en 70-tals villa för att se vad man sparar in. Genom mätningar och information från villans byggnadsbeskrivning beräknas byggnadsdelarnas U-värden. Köldbryggor beräknas med datorprogram. Genom vetskap om ortens gradtimmar kan de totala energiförlusterna beräknas, som är transmissionsförluster, köldbryggor och ventilationsförluster. Tillskott från gratisvärme räknas in.

    Åtgärder som beräknas är sänkt inomhustemperatur, som är en enkel lösning och inte kräver någon investering av pengar. Sänker man temperaturen i denna villa 1 ºC så sparar man ca. 9% energi varje år, vilket blir 2158 kr per år. Tilläggsisolering av vindsbjälklag är också relativt enkelt. För att uppnå en isoleringstjocklek på 500 mm används lösull. Denna åtgärd ger besparing på 2193 kr varje år vilket ger en återbetalningstid på knappt 6 år med arbete och materialkostnader inräknat. Att byta till nya fönster kostar desto mer och är inte lönsamt om de befintliga fönstren inte är i behov av att bytas ut. De fönster som används är 3-glasfönster med isolerruta. Med ett U-värde på 1,2 fås den lägsta återbetalningstiden på 24 år. Att byta till ett ventilationssystem av typen FTX har för denna villa en återbetalningstid på 10 år vilket är en rimlig åtgärd. Det förutsätter då att ventilationsaggregatet är i drift hela året och inte kräver någon eftervärmning av tilluften.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 507.
    Wiemer, Marcus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Lidby, Per
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Tillgänglighet på rastplatser: en fallstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about accessibility at rest areas. We have examined the aisles and furniture of seven rest areas with a focus on accessibility for disabled persons. At the end of the report, we provide suggestions on how some of the weaknesses we have discovered can be addressed.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 508.
    Wilander, Stina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Byggnadsekonomi: En jäförelse ellan passivhus och konventionella hus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Along with increasing energy costs, and effection on the environment, it is more and more important to save

    energy. One thing we can do is to build so called passivehouses, as the houses takes up almost 40 % of the

    total energy, spent in Sweden.

    Increasing production costs stands in the way of building low-energy buildings. Therefore it’s important not

    only to consider the cost of building the house, but also to look at what the yearly costs will be. If more money is

    spent, during the production of the house, at extra isolation and more effective installation systems, the yearly

    costs will decrease. That leads to the conclusion that the house is repaid in a certain amount of years. How long

    it takes and which factors it depends on the most, will be revealed in this paper.

    One of the conclusion is that the passivehouses works, and the extra money spent when building the house,

    is repaid in about 16 years. The repayment time, depends on a huge number of scenarios, but the money will

    still be repaid, it’s just a matter of time

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  • 509.
    Winton, Marcus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Engström, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Värmeisoleringsberäkningar av flerbostadshus: byggda 1996-20052009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1987, a new law of building became effective, Plan- och bygglagen(PBL). The building committees' inspection of construction sites and documents decreased. The final quality of the buildings now depended in greater extent on the property developers and the contractors internal control. Due to different interests within the municipality and because of strong connections between property developers and contractors, it is not always a matter of course that e.g. the inspection of thermal insulation and energy housekeeping is executed in a satifactory fashion. With the above in mind we examined four multi-dwelling buildings, two in municipality of Värnamo and two in Kristianstad. We examined if the buildings comply with the thermal insulation requirement according to BBR (the swedish building code) and which requirements that were stated in the different projects documents of inspection.Only one out of the four buildings complies with the requirements according to BBR. In the municipality documents there are requirements of thermal insulation calculations but there are no documents that verifies that such calculations have been executed.

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  • 510.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark ; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A review: Self-healing in cementitious materials and engineered cementitious composite as a self-healing material2012In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 571-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cementitious materials are the most widely used building materials all over the word. However, deterioration is inevitable even since the very beginning of the service life, then maintenance and repair work, which are often labor- and capital-intensive, would be followed. Thus, self-healing of the affected cementitious materials is of great importance. Self-healing phenomenon in cementitious materials has been noticed and been studying for a long time. The possible mechanisms for self-healing phenomenon in cementitious materials, which are summarized based on substantial experimental studies and practical experience, are reviewed. In order to endow or enhance the self-healing property of cementitious materials, many different and innovative strategies have been proposed and developed during the past decades. Then the different strategies employed for the self-healing of cementitious materials, i.e. the use of hollow fibers, microencapsulation, expansive agents and mineral admixtures, bacteria and shape memory materials, are reviewed and summarized. A comparison study is conducted subsequently on different strategies to self-healing and on different healing agents used as well. Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) is a new type of cement-based materials, which has unique properties compared with traditional cementitious materials. Further, a summary about the research status of self-healing on ECC is given. It shows that ECC bears great potential in realizing effective self-healing due to its unique micro-crack behavior and tight crack-width control property combined with its relatively high percentage of cementitious components and low water–binder ratio.

  • 511. Yamada, Kazuo
    et al.
    Hosokawa, Yoshifumi
    Mori, D
    Yamada, Y
    Johannesson, Björn
    Estimation of Effective Diffusion Coefficients and Non-linear Binding Parameters of Chloride by Reverse Analysis of Chloride Profiles2006In: SP-234: Seventh CANMET/ACI International Conference on Durability of Concrete / [ed] VM Malhotra, Montreal, Canada: American Concrete Institute, 2006, p. 39-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instead of the conventional method for evaluating an apparent diffusion coefficient of chloride ions (Cl-) from experimental Cl- concentration profile, this study introduces a novel method to estimate an effective diffusion coefficient (De) and non-linear binding parameters (a, b) of Cl- from a Cl- concentration profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). This estimation is made by the combination of numerical analysis by the finite-difference method of the non-linear diffusion equation and optimizing calculations. By using this method, De, a and b are estimated for several kinds of concrete having various type of cement and several levels of water-cement ratio. The estimated values of De show a positive linear relationship with values of De obtained by migration tests. The estimated values of a show a good correlation with the alumina content in cement as expected. These results indicate the validity of this method for estimating parameters required for predicting future Cl- concentration profiles.

  • 512. Ziethén, Rune
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Machine strength grading – a new method for derivation of settings2009In: CIB-W18 Timber Structures, Zürich, August 2009: Paper 42-5-1 / [ed] Blass, H J, Karlsruhe, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 513. Ziethén, Rune
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Machine strength grading – prediction limits – evaluation of a new method for derivation of settings2010In: Proceedings of the Final Conference of COST Action E53 “The Future of Quality Control for Wood & Wood Products”, May 4-7 2010, Edinburgh, UK, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 514. Ziethén, Rune
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Machine strength grading - prediction limits - evaluation of a new method for derivation of settings2010In: Proceedings of the 11th World conference of timber engineering. WCTE2010, June 20-24, Riva del Garda, Italy., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and analyses a new method for derivation of setting values for strength grading machines. The method uses a model for the relationship between indicating property (measured by a grading machine, IP) and the grade determining property (GDP). This model is of course not perfect and by summarising the errors in the model a confidence interval for the model can be calculated. The confidence interval is used for creating a prediction interval. The lower limit of the prediction interval, the prediction limit, is used to predict the GDP. The prediction limit method is analysed and evaluated by well defined input data. It is shown that fewer perimental data than required by the method in EN 14081-2 today is needed to determine reliable settings but the producer is awarded with less conservative settings with an increased number of experimental data. A weak correlation between IP and GDP or a high coefficient of variation also results in conservative settings. The settings are not dependent on average strength of the raw material used for deriving the settings.

  • 515. Ziethén, Rune
    et al.
    Lycken, Anders
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Machine strength grading – “output control” as a method for production control2010In: Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering, WCTE 2010, June 20-24, Riva del Garda, Italy, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the Output control method in EN 14081-3 as an alternative to the more common machine control method in EN 14081-2 for strength grading of timber. A newly developed program for analysing settings and varying input material is presented, as well as results from the analysis. If output control is used instead of machine control, it is possible to increase the yield, at the expense of making more proof-loading tests. The output control method can hardly catch a shift in input material quality, unless the shift stretches over several weeks. At present is the evaluation of the proof-loading results for MOR and MOE dependant of each other. If one of the properties goes out of control then both properties are evaluated according to the out-of-control procedure. This results in an inconsistent evaluation of the grading result. A pre-grading of logs gives a more reliable grading but results also in a lower yield.

  • 516.
    Ågren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    Technical Research Institute of Sweden, SP Trätek, Växjö, Sweden.
    Flanking transmission in light weight timber houses with elastic flanking isolators2012In: INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings, InterNoise12, New York City NY, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2012, p. 3593-3604Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 517.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandsäkra träfasader: europeisk översikt2019In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 8, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 518.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Europeisk brandklassning av CLT och LVL2017In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska brandklassningen av träbaserade produkter har nyligen utvidgats till att gälla även de två relativt nya träprodukterna CLT och LVL. Den täcker därmed praktiskt taget alla byggtillämpningar med träbaserade produkter. Brandklasserna har fastlagts genom ett system för förenklad europeisk brandklassificering för produkter som har ”känt och stabilt beteende vid brand”. Träprodukter är ett utmärkt exempel på sådana produkter. Brandklasserna avser både det europeiska systemet med så kallade Euroklasser A1-F och klasser för brandskyddande förmåga, så kallade K-klasser, se faktaruta.

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  • 519.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire safety in modern wooden houses: mapping of fire incidents in Sweden2017In: International fire protection, ISSN 1468-3873, no 71, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-storey timber frame houses have been built in Sweden since 1994, when performance-based building regulations were introduced. The construction technology is now well established and steadily growing. Life safety protection is clearly defined in the building regulations. Now, property protection is being discussed from new perspectives.

    As a first step in better understanding, fire incidents have been mapped. The survey shows that modern apartment buildings with wooden frames have a lower rate of fire incidents than the entire stock of apartment buildings.

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    fulltext
  • 520.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olika internationella krav på KL-trä påverkar den brandtekniska dimensioneringen2019In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 30-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 521.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    SP/RISE Research Institues of Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, no Special Issue, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

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  • 522.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Reasearch Institutes of Sweden.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner2018In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    CLT, korslaminerat trä eller KL-trä som det ofta kallas i Sverige är en relativt ny byggprodukt som snabbt blivit känd och uppskattad runt om i världen. Den används främst till stommar i både höga och låga byggnader och bidrar till stabilieringen som är viktig särskilt i högre byggnader.

    Brandegenskaperna hos CLT som synligt material i byggnader har klarlagts (Östman B&t 2017), medan forskning om brandteknisk dimensionering av CLT-konstruktioner fortfarande pågår. Denna artikel sammanfattar nuläget.

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  • 523.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, Sweden.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, Sweden.
    Branddimensionering av Br0-byggnader med trästomme2019In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 6, p. 24-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 524.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mikkola, Esko
    Fire safety of bio-based facades2019In: FSF 2019 3rd international symposium on fire safety of facades, Paris, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 525.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tsantaridis, L D
    SP/RISE Technical Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire-retardant-treated wood products in exterior applications: a 10-year report2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood products, but the long term durability needs to be addressed. Several long term studies of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated aging according to different procedures and natural weathering up to 10 years.

    Main conclusions are:

    • The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood products for most FRT wood products studied and used commercially

    • The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural aging if the The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood retention levels are high enough, but several products lose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering

    • Paint systems contribute considerably to weather protection and are usually needed to maintain the reaction to fire performance at exterior applications

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