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  • 501.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Quality of chest compressions during CPR: comparison between manual and automatic review2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 502.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Linköping University ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    von Wangenheim, Burkard
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Quality of chest compressions by healthcare professionals using real-time audiovisual feedback during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation2017In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A high quality of chest compressions, e.g. sufficient depth (5-6 cm) and rate (100-120 per min), has been associated with survival. The patient's underlay affects chest compression depth. Depth and rate can be assessed by feedback systems to guide rescuers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of chest compressions by healthcare professionals using real-time audiovisual feedback during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Method: An observational descriptive study was performed including 63 cardiac arrest events with a resuscitation attempt. Data files were recorded by Zoll AED Pro, and reviewed by RescueNet Code Review software. The events were analysed according to depth, rate, quality of chest compressions and underlay. Results: Across events, 12.7% (median) of the compressions had a depth of 5-6 cm. Compression depth of >6 cm was measured in 70.1% (median). The underlay could be identified from the electronic patient records in 54 events. The median compression depth was 4.5 cm (floor) and 6.7 cm (mattress). Across events, 57.5% (median) of the compressions were performed with a median frequency of 100-120 compressions/min and the most common problem was a compression rate of <100 (median=22.3%). Conclusions: Chest compression quality was poor according to the feedback system. However, the distribution of compression depth with regard to underlay points towards overestimation of depth when treating patients on a mattress. Audiovisual feedback devices ought to be further developed. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of their devices.

  • 503.
    Senra, Hugo
    et al.
    King's College London, UK.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho, Portugal.
    Nunes, Nuno
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Balaskas, Konstantinos
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK;University College London, UK.
    Aslam, Tariq
    University of Manchester, UK;Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, UK.
    Costa, Emilia
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review2019In: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry, ISSN 1064-7481, E-ISSN 1545-7214, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 755-773Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To review the current literature on psychosocial and psychological interventions to prevent and treat depression and anxiety in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature evaluating psychosocial and psychological interventions for depression and anxiety in AMD patients. Primary searches of PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct were conducted to include all papers published until April 21st. 2018. Results Of a total of 398 citations retrieved, we selected 12 eligible studies published between 2002 and 2016. We found 9 randomized controlled trials (RCT), and 3 non-randomised intervention (NRI) studies. RCT studies suggested that interventions using group self-management techniques, and individual behavioural activation plus low vision rehabilitation can be effective to treat and prevent depression in AMD patients, and one study suggested that a stepped-care intervention using cognitive-behavioural techniques can be effective to manage anxiety and depression over time. NRI studies highlighted a positive effect of self-help and emotion-focused interventions to reduce depression. Conclusions Clinical practice with AMD patients can rely on some tailored cognitive-behavioural therapeutic protocols to improve patients’ mental health, but further clinical trials will generate the necessary evidence-based knowledge to improve those therapeutic techniques and offer additional tailored interventions for AMD patients.

  • 504.
    Shahini, Negar
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Michelsen, Annika E
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ekholt, Karin
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Gullestad, Lars
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Broch, Kaspar
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Dahl, Christen P
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Aukrust, Pål
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Ueland, Thor
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Yndestad, Arne
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Louwe, Mieke C
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    The alternative complement pathway is dysregulated in patients with chronic heart failure2017In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 89, no SI: EMCHD2017, p. 127-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 505.
    Shahini, Negar
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Michelsen, Annika E
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Ekholt, Karin
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Gullestad, Lars
    University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Broch, Kaspar
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Dahl, Christen P.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Aukrust, Pål
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ueland, Thor
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    University of Oslo, Norway;Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Tromsø, Norway;Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Yndestad, Arne
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Louwe, Mieke C.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    The alternative complement pathway is dysregulated in patients with chronic heart failure2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, p. 1-10, article id 42532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement system, an important arm of the innate immune system, is activated in heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that HF patients are characterized by an imbalance of alternative amplification loop components; including properdin and complement factor D and the alternative pathway inhibitor factor H. These components and the activation product, terminal complement complex (TCC), were measured in plasma from 188 HF patients and 67 age- and sex- matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. Our main findings were: (i) Compared to controls, patients with HF had significantly increased levels of factor D and TCC, and decreased levels of properdin, particularly patients with advanced clinical disorder (i.e., NYHA functional class IV), (ii) Levels of factor D and properdin in HF patients were correlated with measures of systemic inflammation (i.e., C-reactive protein), neurohormonal deterioration (i.e., Nt-proBNP), cardiac function, and deteriorated diastolic function, (iii) Low levels of factor H and properdin were associated with adverse outcome in univariate analysis and for factor H, this was also seen in an adjusted model. Our results indicate that dysregulation of circulating components of the alternative pathway explain the increased degree of complement activation and is related to disease severity in HF patients.

  • 506.
    Sigfridsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med bröstcancer: Ur ett patientperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 507.
    Silfwerbrand, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Jämförande studie som utvärderar torra ögon med hjälp av Tearscope-plus och Ocular Surface Disease Index2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att med Tearscope-plus jämföra en objektiv undersökning av tårfilmens lipidlager med hur personer själva upplever sina ögon genom att besvara ett frågeformulär, Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI. OSDI-enkäten och lipidmönstret har även jämförts med NITBUT och TBUT.

    Metod: 29 personer deltog i studien och de undersöktes med Tearscope-plus och andra objektiva mätningar, bland annat NITBUT och TBUT, för att studera och bedöma tårfilmen. I slutet av undersökningen gjordes en subjektiv bedömning då de fick besvara en enkät om torra ögon.

    Resultat: Av de 29 deltagarna i studien var det sju personer som hamnade i symtomgruppen, dvs. graderades ha milda till allvarliga torrhetsbesvär, enligt OSDI-enkäten. Enligt NITBUT var det 16 personer, som bedömdes ha torra ögon varav tre hade torra ögon även enligt OSDI-enkäten. 22 personer hade torra ögon enligt TBUT och av dessa hade fem torra ögon även enligt OSDI-enkäten. Wave pattern var det lipidmönster som förekom flest gånger bland personerna som bedömdes ha torra ögon.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan personer med symtom på torra ögon och personer utan symtom, enligt OSDI-enkäten. Det framkom inte heller något samband mellan OSDI-enkät och lipidmönster, OSDI-enkät och NITBUT eller mellan OSDI-enkät och TBUT. Studien visade att knappt en fjärdedel (24 %) av deltagarna hade problem med torra ögon enligt OSDI-enkäten.

  • 508.
    Simonsson, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Påverkas corneas topografi av en silikonhydrogellins med högt modulus?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: 11 personer tillpassades med kontaktlinserna PureVision® alternativt PureVision Toric® för att se om bärandet av silikonhydrogellinser med högt modulus påverkar corneas topografi.

    Metod: Försökspersonerna bar kontaktlinserna under dagtid i minst 15 dagar. Mätdata från innan och efter linsbärande jämfördes och analyserades med hjälp av topografen Corneal Analyser CA-100F från Topcon. Totalt analyserades 9 punkter på cornea: apex samt 1 och 2 millimeter ut från apex i temporal, nasal, inferior och superior riktning. Dessutom jämfördes e-värden och överrefraktion mellan de olika besöken. Endast mätdata från höger öga analyserades, då vänster öga förväntades reagera likadant som höger.

    Resultat: Det var ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de olika mätningarna på de 9 analyserade punkterna, eller i e-värde. 5 av 11 personer hade en liten förändring i överrefraktion efter perioden med PureVision® / PureVision Toric®.

    Slutsats: PureVision® och PureVision Toric® påverkar inte corneas topografi när kontaktlinserna bärs dagtid i 15 dagar.

  • 509.
    Sivaramakrishnan, V. C.
    et al.
    Medical Research Foundation, India.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Medical Research Foundation, India.
    Bharadwaj, S. R.
    University of California, USA.
    Influence of convergence on vertical fusional vergence amplitude2005In: American Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 0002-9394, E-ISSN 1879-1891, Vol. 139, no 3 Suppl., p. S46-, article id EY313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Deficiency in vertical fusional vergence amplitude (VFVA) is known to cause asthenopia and oculomotor imbalances. The measurement of VFVA however is confounded by its increase with convergence (Hara et al., 1998). A quantitative relationship between the two vergences is thus necessary to predict the VFVA at a given convergence angle. Here, we sought to derive such a relationship by measuring the VFVA at a range of convergence angles. Methods: 30 subjects (17–21 yrs) wearing red-green goggles fused a pair of red-green concentric circles projected on a computer monitor at a distance of 50 cms in a dark room. The horizontal and vertical separation between the red-green circles determined the convergence and vertical vergence demand respectively. The VFVA was measured at 8 equally spaced convergence demands ranging from 0.58° to 11.13°. The convergence demands were either systematically increased or randomly varied across different sessions. in each session, the convergence demand was kept constant while the vertical vergence demand was varied in steps of 0.03°. The maximum vertical vergence demand that could be fused determined the VFVA. Results: The subjects’ data was divided into four groups based on the range of convergence demands that could be fused. in all the groups, the VFVA increased linearly with the systematic increase in convergence demand (mean regression equation: y 0.15x 0.49). Randomizing the convergence demands did not show any significant change in this relationship (y0.12x 0.80). Conclusion: The VFVA increases linearly in the range of convergence demands tested. The linear regression equation derived could be used in a clinical setup to predict the VFVA at a given convergence angle

  • 510.
    Sjöbäck, Anna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Stenopeiskt hål - hur bra är denna metod som kontrollmetod?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att värdera hur bra ett stenopeiskt hål fungerar som kontrollmetod av refraktionen.

    Metod: I studien användes 35 försökspersoner i olika åldrar och med varierande synfel. Det var endast höger öga som användes i studien, och vänster öga var därför ockluderad med en opak, svart lins under hela undersökningen. Först gjordes en refraktion på höger öga, för att få fram försökspersonernas rätta korrektion. Därefter mättes visus sex gånger; första gången med bästa korrektion, utan stenopeiskt hål, andra gången med bästa korrektion, med stenopeiskt hål, tredje gången med en ”dimning” på +2,0 D, utan stenopeiskt hål, fjärde gången med en ”dimning” på +2,0 D, med stenopeiskt hål, femte gången med en ”dimning” på +1,0 D, utan stenopeiskt hål, och sjätte gången med en ”dimning” på +1,0 D, med stenopeiskt hål. De sex visusmätningarna gjordes i provbåge och med ETDRS-tavla.

    Resultat: När den bästa korrektionen låg i provbågen och stenopeiskt hål sattes i sjönk visus med i genomsnitt 1,14 rader på ETDRS-tavlan. När den ”dimmande” +1.0-linsen var ilagd i provbågen blev det med stenopeiskt hål en genomsnittlig visusförbättring på 2,62 rader på ETDRS-tavlan, jämfört med visus utan stenopeiskt hål. Här var det dock en stor spridning mellan försökspersonernas värden. Med en ”dimning” på +2.0 D blev effekten av det stenopeiska hålet att visus, i genomsnitt, förbättrades med 6,48 rader på ETDRS-tavlan, då hålet sattes i provbågen.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen är att stenopeiskt hål som kontrollmetod inte är så bra för att få fram den exakta styrkan, men den fungerar för att avslöja stora felkorrigeringar (större än 1.0 D).

  • 511.
    Sjögren, Lina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    En jämförelse av compliance mellan de kontaktlinsbärare som köper kontaktlinserpå Internet och de som köper i butik2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Begreppet compliance används i optiker- världen för att benämna hur väl en kontaktlinspatient följer instruktioner för linsbärande.En debatt pågår om hur e-handel av kontaktlinser ska kunna skötas för att inte riskera patientsäkerheten. Motståndare till e-handel av kontaktlinser hävdar att det största hotet mot patientsäkerheten är icke-compliance.

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att undersöka om linsbärare som köper sina kontaktlinser på Internet skiljer sig i compliance gentemot de som köper kontaktlinser i butik

    Metod: En enkät med 27 frågor som berörde linsskötsel samt hur de medverkande såg på sitt linsbärande delades ut till 53 personer på bland annat kontor och offentliga platser. Enkätsvaren sammanställdes i ett poängsystem, där höga poäng betyder god compliance.

    Resultat: Totalt blev det 19 stycken Internetköpare och 28 stycken butiksköpare. Medelpoängen blev 23,68 för Internetköparna och 21,07 för butiksköparna. Alltså är de som köper sina kontaktlinser på Internet mer compliant än de som köper i optikerbutik enligt den här studien.

    Diskussion: Resultatet är mycket intressant och kan tyda på att det kanske är så att Internetköpare tar större ansvar för sitt linsbärande eftersom de känner av ett större ansvar.

  • 512.
    Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Jämtland County Council.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mid Sweden University.
    Back to work: evaluation of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program with emphasis on mental symptoms; A two-year follow up2012In: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, ISSN 1178-2390, E-ISSN 1178-2390, Vol. 5, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to analyze temporal changes in anxiety, depression, and stress in patients with musculoskeletal pain for a period of up to 2 years after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program, in relation to sick-listing (registered with The Swedish Social Insurance Agency [Forsakringskassan] for sickness benefit).

    Methods: Ten persons with full-time sick leave (absence from work for medical reasons) (group 1) and 49 with part-time or no sick leave (group 2) at the end of the 2-year study period participated. It was shown in a previous study that group 1 had higher pain rating and higher subjective physical disability than group 2, with little or no improvement during and after rehabilitation. In the present study, all participants were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and a self-rated stress test.

    Results: Participants with full-time sick leave during the study period (group 1) showed improved stress levels but no change in anxiety and depression levels. Anxiety, depression, and stress changed more favorably in participants with part-time or no sick leave than in those with full-time sick leave.

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that investigation and appropriate treatment of psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, are important in multidisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with musculoskeletal disorders

  • 513.
    Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Strömsund Health Centre.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund.
    Evaluation of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program with emphasis on musculoskeletal disorders: A 5-year follow-up2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a 5-year follow-up of a 7-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation program focusing on pain, physical disability, anxiety and depression as well as stress and sick leave and to compare the results from the baseline, a 2-year follow-up and this 5-year follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: Out of 60 participants of the original rehabilitation program 54 were followed-up after 5 years. METHODS: The rehabilitation program was individually adapted and consisted of physical activity in several forms as well as theoretical and practical education. At baseline (start of study) and 2 and 5 years after completion of the rehabilitation program all participants were evaluated in terms of sick leave, pain rating (Visual Analogue Scale), the Disability Rating Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Stress Test. RESULTS: Between the start of the program and the 5-year follow-up pain rating (P < 0.017) and the rate of full-time sick leave (P < 0.0005) decreased. Physical disability, anxiety, depression and stress were maintained from the 2-year follow-up until the 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The rehabilitation program seemed to have had an effect on the participant's ability to manage with symptoms long after the end of the rehabilitation program. Most participants had returned to work, and reported less pain. The improvements made in physical disability and mental health prior to the 2-year follow-up were maintained at the 5-year follow-up occasion.

  • 514. Skagerström, Janna
    et al.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsen, Per
    Prevalence of alcohol use before and during pregnancy and predictors of drinking during pregnancy: a cross sectional study in Sweden.2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 780-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on predictors for drinking during pregnancy among women in Sweden and reported prevalence rates differ considerably between studies conducted at different antenatal care centres. Since this knowledge is relevant for preventive work the aim of this study was to investigate these issues using a multicenter approach.

    METHODS: The study was conducted at 30 antenatal care centers across Sweden from November 2009 to December 2010. All women in pregnancy week 18 or more with a scheduled visit were asked to participate in the study. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic data, alcohol consumption prior to and during the pregnancy, tobacco use before and during pregnancy, and social support.

    RESULTS: Questionnaires from 1594 women were included in the study. A majority, 84%, of the women reported alcohol consumption the year prior to pregnancy; about 14% were categorized as having hazardous consumption, here defined as a weekly consumption of > 9 standard drinks containing 12 grams of pure alcohol or drinking more than 4 standard drinks at the same occasion. Approximately 6% of the women consumed alcohol at least once after pregnancy recognition, of which 92% never drank more than 1 standard drink at a time. Of the women who were hazardous drinkers before pregnancy, 19% reduced their alcohol consumption when planning their pregnancy compared with 33% of the women with moderate alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy. Factors predicting alcohol consumption during pregnancy were older age, living in a large city, using tobacco during pregnancy, lower score for social support, stronger alcohol habit before pregnancy and higher score for social drinking motives.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of drinking during pregnancy is relatively low in Sweden. However, 84% of the women report drinking in the year preceding pregnancy and most of these women continue to drink until pregnancy recognition, which means that they might have consumed alcohol in early pregnancy. Six factors were found to predict alcohol consumption during pregnancy. These factors should be addressed in the work to prevent alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

  • 515. Skoog, Peter
    et al.
    Stenström, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Självundersökning med hjälp av video bra för melanompatienter2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 1094-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Självundersökning efter operation för malignt melanom kan reducera mortaliteten.

    44 patienter, varav hälften förutom muntlig information fick en video om självundersökning efter malignt melanom, kontrollerades sex månader efter operation avseende kunskap om hur en korrekt självundersökning ska utföras. De fick även skatta sitt välbefinnande före och efter operation.

    Resultatet visade att de som erhöll videon hade bättre resultat vid kunskapskontrollen och förbättrade sitt välbefinnande jämfört med dem som erhöll endast muntlig information.

    Videon tycks vara ett verktyg i vården av dessa patienter som bidrar till att minska återbesöken och frigöra tid för nybesök.

  • 516.
    Solberg, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prevalens av binokulära syndrom bland ickepresbyopa skandinaver2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 517.
    Sonesson, Hannah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Immunhistokemi - Utvärdering av antikropp mot pHH3 som potentiell markör för mitos vid diagnostisering av duktal bröstcancer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common form of invasive breast tumours. The grading system for breast cancer is defined by Elston and Ellis and is based on three criterions. One of these criterions is the mitotic count in pathological sections of breast carcinomas stained with Hematoxylin Eosin. A common method often applied as a complement in diagnosis of breast carcinoma is immunohistochemical staining with use of antibodies directed against Ki67, a proliferation marker. Phosphohistone H3 is a histone protein that is located in the cell nucleus. The protein is believed to be a specific marker for mitosis since it only is phosphorylated during mitosis, and to some extent at the end of the G2-phase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pHH3 as a potential marker for mitosis when diagnosing ductal breast cancer. The purpose was also to compare the method to mitotic figuring and the count of Ki67-positive cells, and to study the inter-individual variability when assessing the histological sections. The material consisted of 20 biopsies containing invasive ductal breast cancer. The sections were stained using IHC and all sections were evaluated microscopically. Cells positive for pHH3, Ki67 and mitotic cells were quantified, by three doctors. From the doctors results an average value was determined for each case and method. To be able to compare the methods the coefficient of variation was calculated. The average value of the coefficient of variation was determined for each method and also the standard deviation (SD). The coefficient of variation showed average values of 0,21 for Ki67 +/- 0,10 SD, 0,33 for pHH3 +/- 0,14 SD and 0,46 for mitotic figuring +/- 0,34 SD. The correlation coefficients for the methods and each doctor showed dispersion. The correlations showed average values of r = 0,78 for Ki67 and pHH3, r = 0,74 for Ki67 and mitosis and r = 0,83 for pHH3 and mitosis. According to this study it seems as though anti-pHH3 could complement the other methods. However explicit criteria which defines a threshold value of which cells should be considered pHH3-positive needs to be established. The inter-individual differences seem to decrease using antipHH3 compared with mitotic counting, which is more time consuming. Although the minimum difference can be seen when assessing anti-Ki67 as a proliferation marker.

  • 518.
    Staxered, Pernilla
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The Dark Focus of Accommodation in Swedish Myopes2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The dark focus is a resting state of accommodation, which occurs when there are not enough stimuli for the eye to focus on. This means that the eye becomes more myopic and some people notice a blur for example at night time, more known as night myopia. In this study the dark focus in Swedish myopes is measured and any difference between early and late onset myopes is investigated.

    Method: The dominant eye of 56 myopes was first measured with static retinoscopy, using a distant target, and then with near retinoscopy, with the retinoscope beam as the target. The full working distance of 2.00 D was subtracted in both methods and the values were compared. The difference, if any, was the dark focus.

    Results: The mean value of dark focus was 0.53 D ± 0.26 for the entire group. The mean value for early onset myopes was 0.56 D ± 0.29 and for late onset myopes the mean value was 0.47 D ± 0.21. This showed no significant difference (p-value = 0.18). No significant correlation between amount of refractive error and dark focus was found.

    Conclusion: The Swedish myopes in this study have a smaller mean value of dark focus than mean values found in other studies using the same technique and the previous findings that early and late onset myopes differ in mean values of dark focus is not applied to this study.

  • 519.
    Stenberg, Li
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correlation between Retinoscopy andMonocular and Binocular SubjectiveRefraction2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate if static retinoscopy has a higher correlation with monocular than binocular subjective refraction, and also to see if there is any difference between these results and Mohindra retinoscopy.

    Methods: Retinoscopy and subjective refraction was performed on 32 adult subjects and the results from 29 of these were analysed.

    Results: The statistical analyses showed that static retinoscopy has a higher correlation with monocular than binocular subjective refraction. Overall the correlation was high between all the refraction methods.

    Conclusion: Static retinoscopy has a higher correlation with monocular than binocular subjective refraction in adults. Static and Mohindra retinoscopy are similar, and Mohindra retinoscopy is highly correlated with subjective refraction in adults.

  • 520.
    Stening, Kent
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Henriksson, KG
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Amandusson, Åsa
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hormonal replacement therapy does not affect self-estimated pain or experimental pain responses in post-menopausal women suffering from fibromyalgia: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial2011In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 544-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. FM is a condition that preferentially affects women. Sex hormones, and in particular oestrogens, have been shown to affect pain processing and pain sensitivity, and oestrogen deficit has been considered a potentially promoting factor for FM. However, the effects of oestrogen treatment in patients suffering from FM have not been studied. Here, we examined the effect of transdermal oestrogen substitution treatment on experimental as well as self-estimated pain in women suffering from FM.

    Methods. Twenty-nine post-menopausal women were randomized to either 8 weeks of treatment with transdermal 17β-oestradiol (50 µg/day) or placebo according to a double-blind protocol. A self-estimation of pain, a set of quantitative sensory tests measuring thresholds to temperature, thermal pain, cold pain and pressure pain, and a cold pressor test were performed on three occasions: before treatment, after 8 weeks of treatment and 20 weeks after cessation of treatment.

    Results. Hormonal replacement treatment significantly increased serum oestradiol levels as expected (P < 0.01). However, no differences in self-estimated pain were seen between treatment and placebo groups, nor were there any differences between the two groups regarding the results of the quantitative sensory tests or the cold pressor test at any of the examined time points.

    Conclusion. Eight weeks of transdermal oestradiol treatment does not influence perceived pain, pain thresholds or pain tolerance as compared with placebo treatment in post-menopausal women suffering from FM.

  • 521.
    Stina, Engelheart
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University.
    Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home2015In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 265-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. 

    Design: Observational study, analysing prospective data.

    Setting: The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study.

    Measurements: Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level.

    Results: All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition.

    Conclusions: The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of ‘averageology’.

  • 522.
    Streit, Sven
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Gussekloo, Jacobijn
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Burman, Robert A
    Vennesla Primary Health Care Centre, Norway.
    Collins, Claire
    Irish College of General Practitioners, Ireland.
    Kitanovska, Biljana Gerasimovska
    University Clinical Centre, University St. Cyril and Metodius, Macedonia.
    Gintere, Sandra
    Riga Stradiņs University, Latvia.
    Gómez Bravo, Raquel
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Hoffmann, Kathryn
    Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Iftode, Claudia
    Sano Med West Private Clinic , Timisoara , Romania.
    Johansen, Kasper L
    Danish College of General Practitioners , Denmark.
    Kerse, Ngaire
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Koskela, Tuomas H
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Peštić, Sanda Kreitmayer
    University of Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Kurpas, Donata
    Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.
    Mallen, Christian D
    Keele University, UK.
    Maisonneuve, Hubert
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Merlo, Christoph
    Institute of Primary and Community Care Lucerne (IHAM), Switzerland.
    Mueller, Yolanda
    Institute of Family Medicine Lausanne (IUMF), Switzerlan.
    Muth, Christiane
    Institute of General Practice Goethe-University, Germany.
    Ornelas, Rafael H
    Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Brazil.
    Šter, Marija Petek
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando
    SNAMID (National Society of Medical Education in General Practice), Italy;Lund University, Sweden.
    Rosemann, Thomas
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sattler, Martin
    SSLMG - Societé Scientifique Luxembourgois en Medicine generale, Luxembourg.
    Švadlenková, Zuzana
    Ordinace Řepy, s.r.o, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Tatsioni, Athina
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Tkachenko, Victoria
    Institute of Family Medicine at Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine.
    Torzsa, Peter
    Semmelweis University, Hungary.
    Tsopra, Rosy
    LIMICS, INSERM , Paris , France;St James's University Hospital, UK.
    Tuz, Canan
    Kemaliye Town Hospital, Turkey;Erzincan University, Turkey.
    Verschoor, Marjolein
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Viegas, Rita P A
    NOVA Medical School, Portugal.
    Vinker, Shlomo
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    de Waal, Margot W M
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Zeller, Andreas
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Rodondi, Nicolas
    University of Bern, Switzerland;Bern University Hospital, Switzerland.
    Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Burden of cardiovascular disease across 29 countries and GPs' decision to treat hypertension in oldest-old.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: We previously found large variations in general practitioner (GP) hypertension treatment probability in oldest-old (>80 years) between countries. We wanted to explore whether differences in country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and life expectancy could explain the differences.

    DESIGN: This is a survey study using case-vignettes of oldest-old patients with different comorbidities and blood pressure levels. An ecological multilevel model analysis was performed.

    SETTING: GP respondents from European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) countries, Brazil and New Zeeland.

    SUBJECTS: This study included 2543 GPs from 29 countries.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GP treatment probability to start or not start antihypertensive treatment based on responses to case-vignettes; either low (<50% started treatment) or high (≥50% started treatment). CVD burden is defined as ratio of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to ischemic heart disease and/or stroke and total DALYs lost per country; life expectancy at age 60 and prevalence of oldest-old per country.

    RESULTS: Of 1947 GPs (76%) responding to all vignettes, 787 (40%) scored high treatment probability and 1160 (60%) scored low. GPs in high CVD burden countries had higher odds of treatment probability (OR 3.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.00-4.57); in countries with low life expectancy at 60, CVD was associated with high treatment probability (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.12-4.25); but not in countries with high life expectancy (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.56-1.98).

    CONCLUSIONS: GPs' choice to treat/not treat hypertension in oldest-old was explained by differences in country-specific health characteristics. GPs in countries with high CVD burden and low life expectancy at age 60 were most likely to treat hypertension in oldest-old. Key Points  • General practitioners (GPs) are in a clinical dilemma when deciding whether (or not) to treat hypertension in the oldest-old (>80 years of age).  • In this study including 1947 GPs from 29 countries, we found that a high country-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden (i.e. myocardial infarction and/or stroke) was associated with a higher GP treatment probability in patients aged >80 years.  • However, the association was modified by country-specific life expectancy at age 60. While there was a positive association for GPs in countries with a low life expectancy at age 60, there was no association in countries with a high life expectancy at age 60.  • These findings help explaining some of the large variation seen in the decision as to whether or not to treat hypertension in the oldest-old.

  • 523.
    Streit, Sven
    et al.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Verschoor, Marjolein
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rodondi, Nicolas
    University of Bern, Switzerland;Bern University Hospital, Switzerland.
    Bonfim, Daiana
    Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Burman, Robert A
    4 Vennesla Primary Health Care Centre, Bergen, Norway.
    Collins, Claire
    Irish College of General Practitioners, Ireland.
    Biljana, Gerasimovska Kitanovska
    University St. Cyril and Metodius, Macedonia.
    Gintere, Sandra
    Riga Stradins University, Latvia.
    Gómez Bravo, Raquel
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Hoffmann, Kathryn
    Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Iftode, Claudia
    Sano Med West Private Clinic, Romania.
    Johansen, Kasper L
    Danish College of General Practitioners, Denmark.
    Kerse, Ngaire
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Koskela, Tuomas H
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Peštić, Sanda Kreitmayer
    University of Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Kurpas, Donata
    Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.
    Mallen, Christian D
    Keele University, UK.
    Maisoneuve, Hubert
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Merlo, Christoph
    Institute of Primary and Community Care Lucerne (IHAM), Switzerland.
    Mueller, Yolanda
    Institute of Family Medicine Lausanne (IUMF), Switzerland.
    Muth, Christiane
    Goethe-University, Germany.
    Šter, Marija Petek
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando
    SNAMID, Prata Sannita, Italy;Lund University, Sweden.
    Rosemann, Thomas
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sattler, Martin
    SSLMG, Societé Scientifique Luxembourgois en Medicine generale, Luxembourg.
    Švadlenková, Zuzana
    Ordinace Řepy, s.r.o., Prague, Czech Republic.
    Tatsioni, Athina
    University of Ioannina, Greece.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Tkachenko, Victoria
    Institute of Family Medicine at Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ukraine.
    Torzsa, Peter
    Semmelweis University, Hungary.
    Tsopra, Rosy
    Univ Paris, France.
    Canan, Tuz
    Kemaliye Town Hospital, Turkey;Erzincan University, Turkey.
    Viegas, Rita P A
    NOVA Medical School, Portugal.
    Vinker, Shlomo
    Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    de Waal, Margot W M
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Zeller, Andreas
    Centre for Primary Health Care, Basel, Switzerland.
    Gussekloo, Jacobijn
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Variation in GP decisions on antihypertensive treatment in oldest-old and frail individuals across 29 countries.2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-7, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In oldest-old patients (>80), few trials showed efficacy of treating hypertension and they included mostly the healthiest elderly. The resulting lack of knowledge has led to inconsistent guidelines, mainly based on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular disease (CVD) but not on frailty despite the high prevalence in oldest-old. This may lead to variation how General Practitioners (GPs) treat hypertension. Our aim was to investigate treatment variation of GPs in oldest-olds across countries and to identify the role of frailty in that decision.

    METHODS: Using a survey, we compared treatment decisions in cases of oldest-old varying in SBP, CVD, and frailty. GPs were asked if they would start antihypertensive treatment in each case. In 2016, we invited GPs in Europe, Brazil, Israel, and New Zealand. We compared the percentage of cases that would be treated per countries. A logistic mixed-effects model was used to derive odds ratio (OR) for frailty with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for SBP, CVD, and GP characteristics (sex, location and prevalence of oldest-old per GP office, and years of experience). The mixed-effects model was used to account for the multiple assessments per GP.

    RESULTS: The 29 countries yielded 2543 participating GPs: 52% were female, 51% located in a city, 71% reported a high prevalence of oldest-old in their offices, 38% and had >20 years of experience. Across countries, considerable variation was found in the decision to start antihypertensive treatment in the oldest-old ranging from 34 to 88%. In 24/29 (83%) countries, frailty was associated with GPs' decision not to start treatment even after adjustment for SBP, CVD, and GP characteristics (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0.48-0.59; ORs per country 0.11-1.78).

    CONCLUSIONS: Across countries, we found considerable variation in starting antihypertensive medication in oldest-old. The frail oldest-old had an odds ratio of 0.53 of receiving antihypertensive treatment. Future hypertension trials should also include frail patients to acquire evidence on the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment in oldest-old patients with frailty, with the aim to get evidence-based data for clinical decision-making.

  • 524.
    Struckmann, Verena
    et al.
    Berlin Univ Technol, Germany.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Natl Inst Hlth & Sci Ageing INRCA, Italy.
    Dimova, Antoniya
    Varna Med Univ, Bulgaria.
    van Ginneken, Ewout
    Berlin Univ Technol, Germany.
    Integrated Diabetes Care Delivered by Patients - A Case Study from Bulgaria2017In: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 17, article id UNSP 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Increasing numbers of persons are living with multiple chronic diseases and unmet medical needs in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian 'Diabetic care' non-profit (DCNPO) programme aims to provide comprehensive integrated care focusing on people with diabetes and their co-morbidities. Methods: The DCNPO programme was selected as one of eight 'high potential' programmes in the Innovating Care for People with Multiple Chronic Conditions (ICARE4EU) project, covering 31 European countries. Data was first gathered with a questionnaire after which semi-structured interviews with project staff and participants were conducted during a site visit. Results: The programme trains diabetic patients to act as carers, case managers, self-management trainers and health system navigators for diabetic patients and their family. The programme improved care coordination and patient-centered care by offering free care delivered by a multidisciplinary team. It facilitates the collaboration between patients, volunteers, health providers and the community. Internal evaluations demonstrate reduced hospital admissions and avoidable amputations, with consequent cost savings for the health care system. Conclusion: Integrated care provided by volunteering patients can empower people suffering from diabetes and their co-morbidities and address health and social inequalities in resource-poor settings. It can also contribute to an increased trust and improved satisfaction among vulnerable patients with complex care needs.

  • 525.
    Suvanto, Anna-Liisa
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Heikkilä, Kristiina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att minnas kriget: sverigefinska erfarenheter2014In: Äldres psykiska hälsa och ohälsa: prevention, förhållningssätt och arbetsmetoder / [ed] Susanne Rolfner Suvanto, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2014, 1, p. 64-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 526.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Kjellgren, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnmisshandel och sexuella övergrepp på barn2015In: Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri / [ed] Christopher Gillberg, Maria Råstam, Elisabeth Fernell, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2015, 3, p. 376-395Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 527.
    Svensson, Erika
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    En jämförande studie av tårersättningsdropparna Systane och Clens 1002008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Många av dagens kontaktlinsbärare har problem med sina linser i form av torrhet. Detta är orsaken till att många väljer att ej använda sina linser.

    Syfte: Syftet med mitt arbete var att få att svar på hur många vana linsbärare som upplevde problem med torra/grusiga ögon och tyckte de blev hjälpta av att använda tårsubstitut.

    Material och metod: Material i denna undersökning är vetenskapliga artiklar, böcker och Internet. Enkäten som användes har jag själv utformat (finns att se som bilaga).

    Resultat: Av tjugo utskickade enkäter kom elva stycken tillbaka. Av dessa elva var det två stycken som upplevde problem vid linsbärande, 7 stycken som upplevde problem ibland och två som inte hade problem. Åtta av personerna tyckte att båda preparaten fungerade och två stycken tyckte att endast Systane fungerade och en person tyckte att inget av preparaten fungerade.

    2008:O21

  • 528.
    Svensson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Lunds universitet.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköpings universitet.
    Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support-a study of a Swedish national sample2013In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Selling sex is not uncommon among adolescents and we need to increase our knowledge of how this affects them. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents who sell sex regarding sexual, mental and physical abuse, mental health as estimated by using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-harm behaviour and the adolescents’ experience of receiving help and support. Methods: The study was carried out on a national representative sample of adolescents (mean age 18.3 years) in Swedish high schools in the final year of their 3-year programme. The study had 3498 participants and a response rate of 60.4%. Results: Of the adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had sold sexual services. The selling of sex was associated with a history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. Poorer mental health and a higher degree of self-harm behaviour were reported among the adolescents who had sold sex. Help and support was sought to a greater extent by adolescents who had sold sex but these adolescents were not as satisfied with this help and support as the other adolescents. Conclusions: Adolescents that sell sex are a group especially exposed to sexual, mental and physical abuse. They have poorer mental health and engage in more self-harm behaviour than other adolescents. They are in need of more help and support than other adolescents and it is reasonable to assert that more resources, research and attention should be directed to this group to provide better help and support in the future.

  • 529.
    Svensson, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Förekomsten av refraktionsfel i Nicaragua2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att undersöka förekomsten av refraktionsfel i Nicaragua och jämföra resultatet emot övriga världen för att avgöra om det är någon skillnad.

    Metod: Studien utfördes från den 26 mars till den 9 april. Tre städer besöktes i Nicaragua och i dessa städer fick patienterna själva uppsöka undersökningslokalerna för att få en synundersökning. Undersökningsmetoden har varit enkel, utrustningen som har använts har varit provbåge, provlåda, plusflipprar och synprövningstavla med Snellen E som har varit uppsatt på fem meters avstånd.

    Resultat: Totalt så har 1021 patienter ingått i denna studie. Varav 23,1 % var hyperopa. Hyperopi har definierats som +0,50 och större. Myopin i denna studie var 6,9 % och klassificerades som -0,50 eller större. Presbyopi har även den redovisats och totalt sett var det 845 patienter som hade någon form av presbyopi.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av denna studie visar att hyperopin i Nicaragua var betydligt mycket vanligare än i övriga studier som har gjorts i världen. Denna studie visade också att myopi förekom i mycket mindre utsträckning än i övriga studier. Både genetiska- och miljöfaktorer, så som mycket närarbete, kan spela en roll i skillnaden mellan länderna.

  • 530.
    Svensson, Pamela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjalmarsson, Gabriel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Musikens inverkan på patienten vid regional anestesi: En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Music is well known to affect people and has been used to promote healing. Music is used, for example, for patients with dementia and for patients waking up during surgery. Regional anesthesia associated with surgery brings several benefits to the patient to be operated. There are several studies showing the positive impact of music on patient wellbeing before and after surgery.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to compile research into the impact of music on the patient in regional anesthesia during surgery.

    Method: The method was a literature review. In the result 13 articles were included, both qualitative and quantitative. The analysis method used was integrated data analysis and the results were presented in the form of categories and undercategories.

    Result: Patients' anxiety decreased when they listened to music under regional anesthesia. Patients described that they experienced a sense of well-being and were more satisfied after surgery if they had listened to music. Vital parameters such as blood pressure and pulse rate were found to decrease when using music. Some patients felt that the pain decreased. However, there were included studies that did not show any significant difference in the respective categories.

    Discussion: Music may have a positive effect during surgery with regional anesthesia. Different instruments are used to measure anxiety, which can affect the outcome. In some studies, patients were given the choice of music themselves. The music was recorded in various forms, such as headphones or in the operating room. These factors make it difficult to draw a generalizable result.

    Conclusion: The result shows that music can have a positive impact both physically and mentally on patients who listened to music during surgery. Nurse anesthetists should offer music at regional anesthesia and patients can benefit from choosing music themselves as it proved to be of good effect.

  • 531.
    Svensson, Peter
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Andersson, Jenny
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nilsson, Malin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    ATT INTE KUNNA ANDAS: En litteraturstudie om att leva med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att drabbas av KOL är något som påverkar vardagen på många sätt. Sjukdomen har ökat i omfattning och visar inga tecken på att minska. Det innebär att vårdpersonal alltmer kommer att möta dessa personer. Behandlingen är oftast inriktad mot de fysiska behoven utan att ta hänsyn till helheten. Syftet var att belysa dessa personers upplevelser av att leva med KOL för att kunna möta deras behov och ge det stöd de själva vill ha. Litteraturstudie valdes som metod och systematiska sökningar gjordes i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och PsycINFO. Resultatet bygger på 14 artiklar och visade att andningsproblemen var den dominerade upplevelsen som påverkade vardagen negativt. Andningsproblemen gjorde att personerna med KOL upplevde att de tappade orken, upplevde beroende, men även så småningom en acceptans över att leva med den kroniska sjukdomen. Det visade sig hur dessa upplevelser påverkade varandra och kunde bli som en ond cirkel. Det är därför viktigt att i fortsatt forskning undersöka hur vårdpersonalen kan stödja dessa personers egenvårdsstrategier där peer-support är en viktig del.

  • 532.
    Svensson, V.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ek, A.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forssén, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekbom, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cao, Y.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ebrahim, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nero, H.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagströmer, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nowicka, P.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marcus, C.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Infant growth is associated with parental education but not with parental adiposity: Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project2014In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo explore the simultaneous impact of parental adiposity and education level on infant growth from birth to 12months, adjusting for known early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood obesity. MethodsBaseline data for 197 one-year-old children and their parents, participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention, were used. Obesity risk groups, high/low, were defined based on parental body mass index (n=144/53) and parental education (n=57/139). Observational data on infant growth between 0 and 12months were collected. The children's relative weight (body mass index standard deviation score) at 3, 6 and 12months and rapid weight gain 0-6months were analysed in regression models, with obesity risk as primary exposure variables, adjusting for gestational weight gain, birth weight, short exclusive breastfeeding and maternal smoking. ResultsRelative weight at 3, 6 and 12months was associated with low parental education but not with parental adiposity. No significant associations were observed with rapid weight gain. None of the early-life factors could explain the association with parental education. ConclusionLow parental education level is independently associated with infant growth, whereas parental obesity does not contribute to a higher weight or to rapid weight gain during the first year.

  • 533.
    Sverre, Elise
    et al.
    Vestre Viken Trust, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Peersen, Kari
    Vestfold Hosp Trust, Norway.
    Otterstad, Jan Erik
    Vestfold Hosp Trust, Norway.
    Gullestad, Lars
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gjertsen, Erik
    Vestre Viken Trust, Norway.
    Mourn, Torbjorn
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Husebye, Einar
    Vestre Viken Trust,Norway.
    Dammen, Toril
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Munkhaugen, John
    Vestre Viken Trust, Norway.
    Optimal blood pressure control after coronary events: the challenge remains2017In: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH, ISSN 1933-1711, E-ISSN 1878-7436, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 823-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We identified sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial factors associated with unfavorable blood pressure (BP) control in 1012 patients, hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or a coronary revascularization procedure. This cross-sectional study collected data from hospital records, a comprehensive self-report questionnaire, clinical examination, and blood samples after 2-36 (mean 17) months follow-up. Forty-six percent had unfavorable BP control (>= 140/90 [80 in diabetics] mm Hg) at follow-up. Low socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors did not predict unfavorable BP control. Patients with unfavorable BP used on average 1.9 (standard deviation 1.1) BP-lowering drugs at hospital discharge, and the proportion of patients treated with angiotensin inhibitors and beta-blockers decreased significantly (P < .001) from discharge to follow-up. Diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.4), higher body mass index (OR 1.05 per 1.0 kg/m(2)), and older age (OR 1.04 per year) were significantly associated with unfavorable BP control in adjusted analyses. Only age (standardized beta [beta] 0.24) and body mass index (beta 0.07) were associated with systolic BP in linear analyses. We conclude that BP control was insufficient after coronary events and associated with obesity and diabetes. Prescription of BP-lowering drugs in hypertensive patients seems suboptimal. Overweight and intensified drug treatment thus emerge as the major factors to target to improve BP control. (C) 2017 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.

  • 534.
    Söderberg, Michelle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Relationship between Accommodative Functions and Computer Vision Syndrome2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 535.
    Söderquist, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av mötet med vården när en familjemedlem har diagnosen ADHD.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disability characterized of hyperactivity, inattentive and impulsiveness. When a person with a neuropsychiatric disability need help from the healthcare, it´s common that relatives often feel a fault and judges themselves. The relatives desired that health professionals would listen and give the relatives a feeling of being important.

    Aim: The aim of this study where to examine how relatives experiences the meeting with healthcare when a family member has ADHD.  

    Method: This study has a qualitative starting point and are made with nine interviews of relatives with a family member with ADHD. The analyze has been done by qualitative content analysis.

    Result:  The relatives experienced that the healthcare where missing a point of context, continuity and lack of knowledge which result in a big responsibility for the relatives themselves. It was a variation of access to support and help from the healthcare according to the relatives. The relatives also experienced that the healthcare didn’t see the whole family and how the person with ADHD affected all the family members and their everyday life. Experiences of focus on medication instead of the family’s everyday life where described. The environment and treatment from the health professionals where important to.

    Conclusion: Based on the initial literature review and the present study, the authors can assume that healthcare should involve a more systematic approach when working with these relatives and their family members. Knowledge of family-focused nursing care staff might have benefited during the meeting of the relatives and their family members with ADHD, so that healthcare could meet the need for support of the whole family.

  • 536.
    Söderström, Jessica
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Jämförelse av den individuella vertikala CD-kvoten mellan höger och vänster öga hos en normal population2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att ta reda på om det fanns någon individuell skillnad i vertikal CD-kvot (cup/disk-asymmetri) mellan höger och vänster öga hos en normal population. Metod: Ett biomikroskop och en volklins (+78D) användes vid bedömningen av synnervspapillen. Papillens (diskens) och cupens vertikala storlek mättes genom justering av ljusspaltens höjd på biomikroskopet och de båda värdena lästes sedan av från spalthöjdsskalan på biomikroskopet. CD-kvoten räknades ut på höger respektive vänster öga genom att cupens uppmätta värde dividerades med diskens uppmätta värde. Därefter gjordes en jämförelse av den individuella CD-kvoten på höger och vänster öga. Resultat: Mätresultatet från 39 personer användes i studien. Cup/disk-asymmetrin varierande mellan 0 och 0,07 vilket innebär att alla deltagande hade en asymmetri som var mindre än 0,1. Asymmetrins medianvärde var 0,01. Slutsats: Studien konstaterade att det fanns en vertikal cup/disk-asymmetri hos många av de deltagande. Denna påvisande asymmetri var dock inte stor, då 80 % av populationen hade en asymmetri på 0,02 eller mindre.

    2008:O17

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 537.
    Söderström, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sahlin, Ullrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mårtensson, Fredrika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Blennow, Margareta
    Karolinska Institute.
    The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health- a cross sectional study of preschools2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. Methods The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.05.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. Results High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. Conclusion The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners.

  • 538.
    Söderström, Marie
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jeding, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH Royal institute of technology.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Insufficient sleep predicts clinical burnout2012In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present prospective study aimed to identify risk factors for subsequent clinical burnout. Three hundred eighty-eight working individuals completed a baseline questionnaire regarding work stress, sleep, mood, health, and so forth. During a 2-year period, 15 subjects (7 women and 8 men) of the total sample were identified as "burnout cases," as they were assessed and referred to treatment for clinical burnout. Questionnaire data from the baseline measurement were used as independent variables in a series of logistic regression analyses to predict clinical burnout. The results identified "too little sleep (<6 h)" as the main risk factor for burnout development, with adjustment for "work demands," "thoughts of work during leisure time," and "sleep quality." The first two factors were significant predictors in earlier steps of the multivariate regression. The results indicate that insufficient sleep, preoccupation with thoughts of work during leisure time, and high work demands are risk factors for subsequent burnout. The results suggest a chain of causation.

  • 539.
    Takács, Johanna
    et al.
    Semmelwies University, Hungary.
    Bódizs, Róbert
    Semmelwies University, Hungary;Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary.
    Przemyslaw Ujma, Péter
    Semmelwies University, Hungary.
    Horváth, Klára
    Semmelwies University, Hungary.
    Rajna, Péter
    Semmelwies University, Hungary.
    Harmat, László
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Reliability and Validity of the Hungarian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-HUN): comparing psychiatric patients with control subjects2016In: Sleep and Breathing, ISSN 1520-9512, E-ISSN 1522-1709, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1045-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index is used to evaluate subjective sleep quality, and it is commonly used in clinical research. Subjective sleep quality is also an important clinical measure in patients with psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Hungarian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-HUN) in both clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Methods

    The original version of PSQI was translated into Hungarian according to standard guidelines. The PSQI-HUN and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) were subsequently administered to 53 psychiatric patients (schizophrenia, recurrent depressive disorder, mixed anxiety, and depressive disorder) and 178 healthy controls.

    Results

    Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach’s alpha in the whole sample was 0.79. Pearson’s product-moment correlations between component scores and the global scores were high (0.59–0.88) in the PSQI-HUN indicating the homogeneity of the scale. PSQI-HUN global and component scores differed significantly between psychiatric patients and control subjects. In the psychiatric patient subsample, schizophrenics had lower global scores compared to the other two patient groups. The analysis of convergent validity showed significant correlations between the AIS and the global as well as the component scores of the PSQI-HUN (except the component of sleep latency).

    Conclusions

    The present study concludes that the PSQI-HUN is a reliable, valid, and standardized measure for assessment of the subjective sleep quality in clinical and research settings.

  • 540.
    Talevski, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekten av premedicinering hos barn vid intranasal administrering- en systematisk litteraturstudie: Självständigt fördjupningsarbete med inriktning inom anestesisjukvård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 541.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    MANIPULATION OF OCULAR ABERRATIONS IN MYOPES2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Myopia is a major cause of vision loss throughout the world. High myopia is associated with severe eye diseases like maculopathy, retinal detachment and glaucoma. The prevalence of myopia is increasing, and varies by country and by ethnic group. In some Asian populations the prevalence is 70%-80%. 

    This thesis includes five experiments. In experiment I we investigated the effects of added positive and negative spherical aberration on accommodative response accuracy. We found that the accommodative response can be altered by modulating the spherical aberration of the eye with soft contact lenses. There was an improvement in the accommodative response slopes and a decrease in the lag of accommodation with the negative spherical aberration lenses compared to positive spherical aberration lenses. 

    In experiment II we investigated whether the negative spherical aberration in contact lenses could be tolerated visually in terms of wearability and comfort. We found that all the subjects were satisfied with the contact lens comfort, distance and near vision and the stability of the vision with the lenses. The accommodative response was stable through out the treatment period.

    In experiment III we investigated the efficacy of a novel dual treatment for the improvement of accommodative accuracy and dynamics in myopes. The spherical aberration of the eye was effectively altered to negative in the treatment group as predicted. In the control group as expected there was no significant change in the spherical aberration of the eye with and without contact lenses. The treatment lenses decreased the lag of accommodation and increased the accommodative response slope at 3 months.

    In the experiment IV we investigated the effect of the treatment lenses used in the previous experiment on high and low contrast visual acuities after a one year treatment period. The results showed a significant improvement in both high and low contrast visual acuities after the one year period in the treatment group compared to the control group, even though it was not clinically significant.

    In experiment V we investigated the intrasession repeatability of peripheral aberrations using COAS-HD VR aberrometer and also reported the distribution of higher order aberrations in a group of young emmetropes. There was no significant difference in the variance of total higher-order RMS between on- and off-axis measurements. There was a significant change in the horizontal coma, spherical aberration and higher-order RMS with off-axis angle along the horizontal visual field. We demonstrated that fast, repeatable and valid peripheral aberration measurements can be obtained with this instrument.

    This thesis contributes new results in this field of myopia, aberration and accommodation.

  • 542.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    et al.
    Vision CRC, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Radhakrishnan, Hema
    Vision CRC, Australia ; , University of Manchester, UK.
    Allen, Peter M
    Vision CRC, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Calver, Richard I
    Vision CRC, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Rae, Sheila M
    Vision CRC, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    O'Leary, Daniel J
    Vision CRC, Australia ; Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    The effect of altering spherical aberration on the static accommodative response.2009In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of altering the spherical aberration (SA) of the eye on the static accommodative response.

    METHODS: Participants were fitted with nominally afocal contact lenses with controlled amounts of SA of either -0.2, -0.1, 0.0, +0.1 or +0.2 microm for a 5-mm pupil. Measurements of SA and root mean square (RMS) total aberration for the eye plus lens for each participant were determined with a Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System aberrometer. Accommodation was stimulated either by placing targets at different dioptric distances from the eye, or by using a fixed distance target and placing negative-powered lenses in front of the eye. Accommodation responses were determined with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor.

    RESULTS: For both stimuli situations, the slope of the accommodation stimulus-response function was lowest for the lenses with +0.2 microm SA, and increased as the amount of SA was reduced. There was a significant negative correlation between SA and slope. Lag of accommodation at 33 cm correlated well with added SA, but did not correlate with total RMS error. There was no significant difference between the responses at 30 min after lens wear started and the responses after 1 h.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adding negative SA to the eye generally improves the slope of the accommodation stimulus-response curve and decreases lag of accommodation, and positive added SA depresses the slope of the stimulus-response curve and increases lag. The effect seems to be specific to SA, as there was no relationship between lag and RMS error. Altering SA may be a viable way of changing accommodative functions in clinical situations.

  • 543.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sörman, Yelene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of Age on Amplitude of Accommodation in a Swedish Population2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 544.
    Thomas, Anub Mathew
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Schjalm, Camilla
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Lindenskov, Paal H H
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Rørtveit, Runa
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Solberg, Rønnaug
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Saugstad, Ola Didrik
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Berglund, Magnus M
    Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, Stockholm.
    Strömberg, Patrik
    Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, Stockholm.
    Lau, Corinna
    Nordland Hospital, Norway.
    Espevik, Terje
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jansen, Johan Høgset
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Castellheim, Albert
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway;Nordland Hospital, Norway;Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway;University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Barratt-Due, Andreas
    Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway;University of Oslo, Norway.
    Combined Inhibition of C5 and CD14 Attenuates Systemic Inflammation in a Piglet Model of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome.2018In: Neonatology, ISSN 1661-7800, E-ISSN 1661-7819, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 322-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a severe lung condition affecting newborns and it can lead to a systemic inflammatory response. We previously documented complement activation and cytokine release in a piglet MAS model. Additionally, we showed ex vivo that meconium-induced inflammation was dependent on complement and Toll-like receptors.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of the combined inhibition of complement (C5) and CD14 on systemic inflammation induced in a forceful piglet MAS model.

    METHODS: Thirty piglets were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving the C5-inhibitor SOBI002 and anti-CD14 (n = 15) and a nontreated control group (n = 15). MAS was induced by intratracheal meconium instillation, and the piglets were observed for 5 h. Complement, cytokines, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by ELISA.

    RESULTS: SOBI002 ablated C5 activity and the formation of the terminal complement complex in vivo. The combined inhibition attenuated the inflammasome cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 by 60 (p = 0.029) and 44% (p = 0.01), respectively, and also MPO activity in the bronchoalveolar fluid by 42% (p = 0.017). Ex vivo experiments in human blood revealed that the combined regimen attenuated meconium-induced MPO release by 64% (p = 0.008), but there was only a negligible effect with single inhibition, indicating a synergic cross-talk between the key molecules C5 and CD14.

    CONCLUSION: Combined inhibition of C5 and CD14 attenuates meconium-induced inflammation in vivo and this could become a future therapeutic regimen for MAS.

  • 545.
    Thorell, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Prevalence of Accommodative Infacility in Swedish Adults2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 546.
    Thorgersen, Ebbe Billmann
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Barratt-Due, Andreas
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Haugaa, Hakon
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Lovisenberg Diaconal Univ Coll, Norway.
    Harboe, Morten
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Pischke, Soren Erik
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway;Univ Oslo, Norway;Nordland Hosp, Norway;Univ Tromsö, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    The Role of Complement in Liver Injury, Regeneration, and Transplantation2019In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 725-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liver is both an immunologically complex and a privileged organ. The innate immune system is a central player, in which the complement system emerges as a pivotal part of liver homeostasis, immune responses, and crosstalk with other effector systems in both innate and adaptive immunity. The liver produces the majority of the complement proteins and is the home of important immune cells such as Kupffer cells. Liver immune responses are delicately tuned between tolerance to many antigens flowing in from the alimentary tract, a tolerance that likely makes the liver less prone to rejection than other solid organ transplants, and reaction to local injury, systemic inflammation, and regeneration. Notably, complement is a double-edged sword as activation is detrimental by inducing inflammatory tissue damage in, for example, ischemia-reperfusion injury and transplant rejection yet is beneficial for liver tissue regeneration. Therapeutic complement inhibition is rapidly developing for routine clinical treatment of several diseases. In the liver, targeted inhibition of damaged tissue may be a rational and promising approach to avoid further tissue destruction and simultaneously preserve beneficial effects of complement in areas of proliferation. Here, we argue that complement is a key system to manipulate in the liver in several clinical settings, including liver injury and regeneration after major surgery and preservation of the organ during transplantation.

  • 547.
    Thulesius, Hans
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Community Medicine, Malmö.
    Petersson, Kerstin
    Kronoberg county Research Centre;Lund university.
    Balancing: a basic process in end-of-life cancer care.2003In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1353-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this grounded theory study, the authors interviewed caregivers and patients in end-of-life cancer care and found Balancing to be a fundamental process explaining the problem-solving strategies of most participants and offering a comprehensive perspective on both health care in general and end-of-life cancer care in particular. Balancing stages were Weighing--sensing needs and wishes signaled by patients, gauging them against caregiver resources in diagnosing and care planning; Shifting--breaking bad news, changing care places, and treatments; and Compensating--controlling symptoms, educating and team-working, prioritizing and "stretching" time, innovating care methods, improvising, and maintaining the homeostasis of hope. The Balancing outcome is characterized by Compromising, or "Walking a fine line," at best an optimized situation, at worst a deceit.

  • 548.
    Tigerström, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Två olika tårsubstituts påverkan av synkvaliteten2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tårsubstitut används mycket bland linsbärare och personer med torra ögon. Detär vanligt nuförtiden att arbete i kontorsmiljö och vid datorer ger problem medtorra ögon, Computer vision syndrome (CVS), och att dessa personer dåanvänder tårsubstitut. Ofta står det i tårsubstitutens bipacksedel att de kan geproblem med dimsyn en stund efter applicering.Tidigare studier har visat att aberrationerna i ögat ökar vid applicering avtårsubstitut och möjligtvis är det anledningen till att dimsynen uppkommer.Syfte: Syftet med studien är att ta reda på hur mycket synkvaliteten påverkas avtvå olika tårsubstitut och hur lång tid den påverkas.Metod: Metoden innebar att närvisus och aberrationer mättes på 30 patienter (60ögon) först utan tårsubstitut. Sedan applicerades det första tårsubstitutet(Systane) i höger öga och ytterligare en mätning av närvisus och aberrationerutfördes. Därefter gjordes ytterligare 5 mätningar av aberrationerna, en var fjärdeminut. Samma sak utfördes sedan på vänster öga men då med Lacryvisc iställetför Systane.Resultat: Resultatet visade att med Systane försämrades visus hos 11 patienter.Aberrationerna ökade vid appliceringen av tårsubstitutet. Med Lacryvsicförsämrades visus hos 29 av patienterna. Abberrationerna ökade även där vidappliceringen.

  • 549.
    Tillberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sträng, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kartläggning över inducerade förlossningar på en klinik i södra Sverige: en retrospektiv observationsstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background To induce labour means trying to manipulate labour to start in order to achieve vaginal childbirth. The benefits of induction must always outweigh the risk of labour complications. The national average of induced labour in 2007 was 13, 2%. Aim To map induced labours at a childbirth clinic in Southern Sweden during 2009. The mapping included induction indication, used methods of induction, childbirth processes and outcome. Method Retrospective observation study which included all induced labours with living foetuses at the start of induction, at the childbirth clinic during 2009. This gave a basis of 306 induced labours. Chi-squared testing and Fisher’s exact testing was used to test significant differences in the result. Result Indications of labour induction were divided where 250 (82%) constituted medical indication, the water breaking constituting the main reason, and 56 (18%) humanitarian indication. 220 women required at least one repeated induction try before they were in active labour. There was a significant difference indicating that the higher the Bishop Score was at the first induction try, the shorter the time until delivery. Labour outcome was 71% partum normalis, 18% caesarean sections, 6% vacuum extractions and 5% post partum haemorrhages. Conclusion The study showed that there might be reasons to improve the journal keeping and follow the PMs regarding labour induction at the childbirth clinic.

  • 550.
    Tjernberg, A. Rockert
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital ; Örebro university.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Inghammar, M.
    Lund university.
    Egesten, A.
    Lund university.
    Kahlmeter, G.
    Cent Hosp Växjö.
    Naucler, P.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp ; Karolinska instutet.
    Henriques-Normark, B.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp ; Karolinska instutet.
    Ludvigsson, J. F.
    Karolinska instutet ; Örebro Univ Hosp ; Univ Nottingham, UK.
    Coeliac disease and invasive pneumococcal disease: a population-based cohort study2017In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 145, no 6, p. 1203-1209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe infections are recognized complications of coeliac disease (CD). In the present study we aimed to examine whether individuals with CD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). To do so, we performed a population-based cohort study including 29 012 individuals with biopsy-proven CD identified through biopsy reports from all pathology departments in Sweden. Each individual with CD was matched with up to five controls (n = 144 257). IPD events were identified through regional and national microbiological databases, including the National Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnosed IPD. A total of 207 individuals had a record of IPD whereas 45/29 012 had CD (0.15%) and 162/144 257 were controls (0.11%). This corresponded to a 46% increased risk for IPD [HR 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.03]. The risk estimate was similar after adjustment for socioeconomic status, educational level and comorbidities, but then failed to attain statistical significance (adjusted HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.99-1.97). Nonetheless, our study shows a trend towards an increased risk for IPD in CD patients. The findings support results seen in earlier research and taking that into consideration individuals with CD may be considered for pneumococcal vaccination.

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