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  • 501. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: Explaining time related change in recognition of political rights among immigrants in Sweden2016Ingår i: Presented at SWEPSA 2016: Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, October 19–21, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 502.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

  • 503.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Can’t, won’t, or no one to ask?: Explaining why more recently arrived immigrants know less about Swedish politics2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants in Western countries in general participate less in politics, and show lower levels of political efficacy, than native-born citizens. Research is scarce when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and about what happens with this knowledge over the years. This paper focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants in general know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the positive influence of length of residence on political knowledge, the paper shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the paper examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability– Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 504.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Political integration in practice: explaining a time-dependent increase in political knowledge among immigrants in Sweden2018Ingår i: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 248-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly findings suggest that immigrants in Western countries, in general, participate less in politics and show lower levels of political efficacy than native-born citizens. Research is scarce, however, when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and what happens with this knowledge over the years. This article focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants, in general, know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the influence of time of residence on political knowledge, the article shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the article examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 505.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants' Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2015Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 107-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Political trust among immigrants in Western Europe seems to be surprisingly high, especially among immigrants from non-democratic countries with institutions plagued by corruption. Over time, however, trust tends to diminish among these individuals. In this paper we argue that this may neither be explained by acculturation nor by experiences of discrimination. Analysing Swedish survey data we instead conclude, although tentatively, that falling expectations regarding the performance of host country institutions is a fruitful explanation. Such expectations presumably become more modest the longer one has been living in Sweden, causing a time-related drop in the overall confidence in Swedish political institutions.

  • 506.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants’ Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report high levels of political trust among immigrants in Western Europe. Notably, such confidence tend to be particularly pronounced among immigrants from countries without democratic institutions and poor records in terms of corruption level. Yet over time, members of these population categories tend to express decreasing levels of political trust. Following previous research, such a pattern may be explained by high initial—although with time retreating—expectations concerning the quality of institutions in Western Europe. Analyzing Swedish survey data—particularly appropriate in the light of competing hypotheses concerning acculturation and barriers to integration, including discrimination—this paper presents additional support for the importance of expectations when it comes to political trust. Our analyses suggest that the gradual development of more modest expectations regarding institutional performance in the new country is a trustworthy explanation of the falling levels of immigrants‘ political trust.

  • 507.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Time for Tolerance: Exploring the Influence of Learning Institutions on the Recognition of Political Rights Among Immigrants2018Ingår i: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 6, artikel-id 34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in a given society. The expectation is that more tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when a specific message challenges one’s own values and beliefs. A theoretical learning model is formulated, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using survey data, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in the high-tolerance country of Sweden is related to measures of political tolerance. Further, we examine to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in a set of ‘learning institutions’—focusing on activities related to education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that a positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Importantly, however, such an adoption seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning in itself is not sufficient.

  • 508.
    Adnan, Sonia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Nhaily, Abir
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Wang, Hongyu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    To Evaluate and Study the relationship between employees’ commitment and individual performance: A Quantitative Approach- Case Study of Kansai Paints2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the companies want to make sure that they have strong resources that can face the rapid changes in the environment. One of the most important resources is human resources. The interest of the companies to have committed employees have been increased because there is a big difference between the performance of committed employees and the rest of the employees. Committed employees perform well in the organization and help the organization to grow and face the competitive environment. Based on this, this research aims to evaluate and study the relationship between organizational commitment and individual performance.To do this one of the Multinational corporation(MNC) is selected, this MNC is the Japanese company Kansai Paint who has one subsidiary in Pakistan. The theoretical model of this study was formulated based on one dependent variable which is the individual performance and three independent variables which are an affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment.The data of the research was collected by questionnaires which sent to 100 employees on Kansai Paint in Pakistan, and SPSS testing was used to analyze the data. The finding of the study exposed that the affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment have a positive impact on the individual performance. At the end of the research, the conclusion of the research was drawn and several of recommendations were developed.

  • 509.
    Adnerhill, Therese
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    One committee - two institutions?: The Committee of European Affairs in Sweden and Denmark2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In order to have some say and to scrutinise the government all member states of the EU today has established an institution within their national parliaments, the Committee of European Affairs. This institution, however, has very different rights and regulations depending on the country it is established in. This study uses two rather similar countries, Sweden and Denmark, and investigates what differences and similarities the two committees show.

    By constructing a comparative case study of four units of analysis, the governments and committees of European Affairs in Sweden and Denmark, the formal and informal power relationship between government and committee in each country were studied in order to determine similarities and differences and whether the committee had an impact on the governments’ EU policies. Further they were compared, assessing whether the Danish Committee of European Affairs was more powerful than its Swedish counterpart because of its legal basis in an EU document.

    The theoretical framework was built on empirical institutionalism and Lukes’ first and second dimension of power. The similarities and differences were accounted for and compared. In conclusion, the Danish Committee of European Affairs has more formal power than its Swedish counterpart but regarding informal power the Swedish Committee of European Affairs has a slight advantage. Both committees have an impact on the way their government handle negotiations with the EU.

    Keywords: formal power, informal power, the Committee of European Affairs, Sweden, Denmark

  • 510.
    Adolfson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Jansson, Victoria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Stadskampen om kunderna – En studie om värdeskapande i handelsplatser2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how value creation influences consumers´ choice of market place. We have chosen to focus on how inner city centers can compete with external shopping malls by examining what values consumers find essential in shopping areas. The development within the retail market with more external malls outside cities has resulted in impoverished city centers; therefore, new strategies towards more attractive servicescapes in the inner city are crucial. The study is based on a qualitative approach due to deeper understanding and closeness to the subject, where Kalmar city is chosen as a case. We have completed a focus group study where respondents from each target group where represented. Furthermore, we have accomplished personal interviews category business- men and women from the trade sector in Kalmar. The conclusion has been submitted in different elements within a servicescape where cooperation between different industries, importance of attractive meeting places and pleasant atmosphere were the core findings for value creation. If a city centre corresponds to the findings of value added elements, it is argued to be a strong competitor in today’s concrete retail market

  • 511.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Bok eller inte?: En studie om användandet av läroboken i gymnasiesvenskan2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om användningen av läroboken i svenska på gymnasiet. Forskningen säger att undervisningen länge och fortfarande är styrd av läroboken. Jag ville ta reda på om det fortfarande var så. Genom enkätundersökningar bland lärare och elever på en gymnasieskola har jag tagit reda på vilka föreställningar som finns bland dem. Jag har också frågat lärarna om deras användande om IKT i undervisningen. Denna studie innehåller också en analys av tre läroböcker som används i svenska. Dessa böcker jämförs med kursplanernas mål. Resultaten visade att både lärare och elever känner sig styrda av läroboken i viss mån. eleverna var negativt inställda till användningen av läroböcker. Lärarna pekade på variation i undervisningen och menade att de använder boken ca 50 % av undervisningstiden, medan motsvarande bild hos eleverna varierade. Läroböckerna är till stor del valida i förhållande till kursplanerna, men vissa brister finns. Brister finns även i kursplanernas kriterier, som är otydliga.

  • 512.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Stelin, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Företagsvärdering2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 513.
    Adolfsson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Johansson Mess, Marja
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Driftoptimering av lakvatten­­rening: Jämförelse mellan tekniker för uppvärmning av nitrifikationsdammen på Häringetorp avfalls­anläggning2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biologisk lakvattenrening, med hjälp av mikroorganismer, används på Häringetorp avfallsanläggning för att bland annat reducera mängden kväve i lakvattnet. För att möjliggöra en längre reningsperiod, eftersom mikro­organismernas tillväxt hämmas vid låga temperaturer, vill Tekniska förvaltningen på Växjö kommun studera möjligheten att värma upp nitrifikationsdammen på Häringetorp avfallsanläggning med hjälp av grön energi.

    Kvantifiering av effektbehov för förlängning av reningsperioden har gjorts utifrån en simuleringsmodell. Studie av tillförd effekt har gjorts under det första året med tillförd effekt. Jämförelse mellan de tekniska lösningarna solfångare, värmepump och biobränslepanna har gjorts gällande aspekterna driftsäkerhet, praktisk genomförbarhet, enkelhet och ekonomi. Utifrån diskussion ges rekommendation att installera en värmepump, vilken utnyttjar intern energi, för att levererar en effekt till nitrifikationsdammen på 100 kW under temperaturstyrda förhållanden. Denna tillförsel av effekt förväntas ge en förlängning av reningsperioden på fyra veckor.  

  • 514.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Att få gymnasieelver att välja rätt: Relationen mellan gymnasieelevers valfrihet och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion i utbildningspolicy mellan 1960- och 2010-talet2015Ingår i: Curriculum and national identity - Nordic divergences? 6th Nordic Curriculum Theory Conference, 21-22 October, Örebro University, Sweden, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en arbetsmarknad som kännetecknas av att vara såväl kunskapsintensiv som differentierad lyfts många gånger skola och utbildning fram som något helt avgörande för både den enskilde individens och nationens sociala och ekonomiska välstånd. Detta är dock inget nytt fenomen. Gymnasieskolans betydelse för ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft är något som starkt har betonats i svensk utbildningspolicy från 1960-talet och framåt. Även om detta ekonomiska imperativa har haft och har mycket stort inflytande på gymnasieskolans läroplan är det dock inte det enda. Vid sidan om uppfattningen om utbildningens ekonomiska potentital växte sig tidigt, med inspiration från bland annat progressivismen, idéer om den individualiserade undervisningen fram. Elevens behov, aspirationer och möjligheter att själv ha inflytande över sin utbildning skulle med detta sättas i centrum för undervisningen. Inte heller dessa idéer har kommit att minska i betydelse över tid utan snarare stärkts. Två idésystem går därmed att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy alltsedan 1960-talet och framåt. Å ena sidan bör gymnasieskolan anpassas till de krav som arbetsliv och samhället i övrigt ställer samtidigt som det å andra sidan också bör ges möjligheter för den enskilda eleven att själv kunna välja och bestämma inriktning och innehåll över sin egen utbildning. Syftet med detta paper är att studera hur spänningsförhållande mellan dessa två idésystem, gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och elevers valfrihet, har hanterats i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy mellan 1960-talet och 2010 - talet.

    Utifrån ett ”klassiskt” läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Lundgren, 1979, 1983; Englund, 1986) och med inspiration från Carol Lee Bacchis (1999) ”what’s the problem”-ansats riktas i studien intresset mot de utbildningspolitiska problem och tillika lösningar som tre gymnasiereformer (Lgy 70, Lpf 94 och Gy11) över tid varit uppbyggda kring och hur det i sin tur format synen på gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och gymnasieelevens valfrihet. Följande frågor står specifikt i fokus för studien:

    -          Vilka förskjutningar respektive kontinuiteter går att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningsreformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet med avseende på uppfattningen om elevens förmåga, eller oförmåga att göra rationella val inom ramen för sin utbildning?

    -          Hur har samtidigt denna uppfattning om elevers valfrihet hanterats i relation till gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion?

     

    Tre större gymnasiereformer har implementerats i Sverige efter det andra världskriget: Lgy 70, Lpo 94 och Gy 11.  Fokus för studien utgörs av respektive reformperiods huvuddokument (SOU 1963:43; SOU 1992:94 och SOU 2008:27). I ett första steg riktas intresset mot de problembilder som målades upp i respektive utbildningsreform samt vilka utbildningspolitiska idéer som samtidigt presenterades som lösningen på dessa problem. I ett nästa steg studeras vad dessa idéer innebar för hur relationen ovan skulle hanteras på ett effektivt och legitimit sätt. Till sist fokuseras de förändringar och kontinuiteter som kan urskiljas över tid, från 1960-talet fram till 2010-talet.  

    Under alla tre reformperioder framhölls explicit betydelsen av en gymnasieskola av hög kvalitet för att därigenom underbygga ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft, men beroende på den historiska och samhälleliga kontexten kom olika utbildningspolitiska lösningar för att erhålla en sådan utbildning att vinna legitimitet. Detta fick i sin tur implikationer för hur relationen mellan gymnasieelevers individuella aspirationer och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion hanterades inom ramen för samma utbildningsreform. På 1960-talet kom lösningen att behandlas inom ramen för en centraliserad välfärdsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs där statens uppgift och förmåga att styra skolan och samhällsutveckling på ett rationellt och effektivt sätt starkt betonades. Även om en individualiserad undervisning framhölls som något eftersträvansvärt inom den utbildningspolitiska retoriken gavs liten eller ingen tilltro till den enskilda elevens förmåga att göra rationella val. Under 1990-talets reformperiod går det att urskilja en tydlig förskjutning mot en marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. Studenters valfrihet och inflytande över sin utbildning sågs nu på många sätt som lösningen på flera utbildningspolitiskaproblem, i synnerhet hur kvalitén på gymnasieskolan skulle öka. Under den tredje reformperioden (2010-talet) sker en förskjutning mot en reglerad marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. I denna diskurs kritiseras elevers valfrihet och ses på många sätt som orsaken till flera problem såsom sjunkande elevresultat och att elever överlag är dåligt förberedda för framtida studier och arbetsliv.     

     

    Med en arbetsmarknad som kännetecknas av att vara såväl kunskapsintensiv som differentierad lyfts många gånger skola och utbildning fram som något helt avgörande för både den enskilde individens och nationens sociala och ekonomiska välstånd. Detta är dock inget nytt fenomen. Gymnasieskolans betydelse för ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft är något som starkt har betonats i svensk utbildningspolicy från 1960-talet och framåt. Även om detta ekonomiska imperativa har haft och har mycket stort inflytande på gymnasieskolans läroplan är det dock inte det enda. Vid sidan om uppfattningen om utbildningens ekonomiska potentital växte sig tidigt, med inspiration från bland annat progressivismen, idéer om den individualiserade undervisningen fram. Elevens behov, aspirationer och möjligheter att själv ha inflytande över sin utbildning skulle med detta sättas i centrum för undervisningen. Inte heller dessa idéer har kommit att minska i betydelse över tid utan snarare stärkts. Två idésystem går därmed att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy alltsedan 1960-talet och framåt. Å ena sidan bör gymnasieskolan anpassas till de krav som arbetsliv och samhället i övrigt ställer samtidigt som det å andra sidan också bör ges möjligheter för den enskilda eleven att själv kunna välja och bestämma inriktning och innehåll över sin egen utbildning. Syftet med detta paper är att studera hur spänningsförhållande mellan dessa två idésystem, gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och elevers valfrihet, har hanterats i gymnasieskolans utbildningspolicy mellan 1960-talet och 2010 - talet.

    Utifrån ett ”klassiskt” läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Lundgren, 1979, 1983; Englund, 1986) och med inspiration från Carol Lee Bacchis (1999) ”what’s the problem”-ansats riktas i studien intresset mot de utbildningspolitiska problem och tillika lösningar som tre gymnasiereformer (Lgy 70, Lpf 94 och Gy11) över tid varit uppbyggda kring och hur det i sin tur format synen på gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion och gymnasieelevens valfrihet. Följande frågor står specifikt i fokus för studien:

    -          Vilka förskjutningar respektive kontinuiteter går att urskilja i gymnasieskolans utbildningsreformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet med avseende på uppfattningen om elevens förmåga, eller oförmåga att göra rationella val inom ramen för sin utbildning?

    -          Hur har samtidigt denna uppfattning om elevers valfrihet hanterats i relation till gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion?

     

    Tre större gymnasiereformer har implementerats i Sverige efter det andra världskriget: Lgy 70, Lpo 94 och Gy 11.  Fokus för studien utgörs av respektive reformperiods huvuddokument (SOU 1963:43; SOU 1992:94 och SOU 2008:27). I ett första steg riktas intresset mot de problembilder som målades upp i respektive utbildningsreform samt vilka utbildningspolitiska idéer som samtidigt presenterades som lösningen på dessa problem. I ett nästa steg studeras vad dessa idéer innebar för hur relationen ovan skulle hanteras på ett effektivt och legitimit sätt. Till sist fokuseras de förändringar och kontinuiteter som kan urskiljas över tid, från 1960-talet fram till 2010-talet.  

    Under alla tre reformperioder framhölls explicit betydelsen av en gymnasieskola av hög kvalitet för att därigenom underbygga ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft, men beroende på den historiska och samhälleliga kontexten kom olika utbildningspolitiska lösningar för att erhålla en sådan utbildning att vinna legitimitet. Detta fick i sin tur implikationer för hur relationen mellan gymnasieelevers individuella aspirationer och gymnasieskolans ekonomiska funktion hanterades inom ramen för samma utbildningsreform. På 1960-talet kom lösningen att behandlas inom ramen för en centraliserad välfärdsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs där statens uppgift och förmåga att styra skolan och samhällsutveckling på ett rationellt och effektivt sätt starkt betonades. Även om en individualiserad undervisning framhölls som något eftersträvansvärt inom den utbildningspolitiska retoriken gavs liten eller ingen tilltro till den enskilda elevens förmåga att göra rationella val. Under 1990-talets reformperiod går det att urskilja en tydlig förskjutning mot en marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. Studenters valfrihet och inflytande över sin utbildning sågs nu på många sätt som lösningen på flera utbildningspolitiskaproblem, i synnerhet hur kvalitén på gymnasieskolan skulle öka. Under den tredje reformperioden (2010-talet) sker en förskjutning mot en reglerad marknadsorienterad utbildningsdiskurs. I denna diskurs kritiseras elevers valfrihet och ses på många sätt som orsaken till flera problem såsom sjunkande elevresultat och att elever överlag är dåligt förberedda för framtida studier och arbetsliv.     

     

     

     

  • 515.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    How to Get Pupils To Make the Right Choice2012Ingår i: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With a critical approach the aim of this paper is to investigate how the relationship between upper secondary schools’ economical functions and students’ freedom of choice have been handled in Swedish educational policy between the 1960s and the 2010s.

    In a society characterized of being both more and more knowledge intensive and differentiated in the labor market, education has become increasingly important for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy (Jessop, 2002). Parallel processes can be found in a European context. Different movements have resulted in the creation of supranational systems with the aims of converging nations’ education policy and comparing pupils’ knowledge standards on an international basis (Ringarp & Rothland, 2010).  In other words – knowledge has become high politics (Apple, 2003). 

    This “economics of knowledge” is in no way a new phenomenon. The paper shows that the upper secondary education’s importance for a country's economic growth and international competitiveness is something that has been emphasized in the Swedish education policy since the 1960s until today (see for example the Committee reports SOU 1963:43, SOU 1992:94, SOU 2008:27). But what becomes important in this paper – in combination with such integrated pronounced intentions the upper secondary educational system also, to become legitimate, must comprise some differentiation principles. One is, as demonstrated in the paper, that the students must have an opportunity to choose direction and determine the formation and content of their education, so the schooling to some extent will correspond with students own aspirations and dreams. This freedom of choice has in last two decades also included the ability for students to choose between different schools, public as well as private ones (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). 

    In this paper focus is directed towards how this relationship, i.e. the balance between the secondary school’s economic functions and students' ability to choose, has been handled in education policy over the period 1960-2010. How have students' abilities, or disabilities, to make rational choices been discussed in educational policy in different periods? And how have these individual aspirations been handled in relation to the upper secondary school’s important function to strengthen the nation economic growth and competitiveness? In Sweden three major reform periods of the Swedish upper secondary school after the Second World War are distinguished. The first one in the 1960s, the second one in the 1990s and the third one in the 2010s. In each reform period a number of so-called “discursive breaks” in education policy have been identified where new ideas win legitimacy of how this relationship should be managed in an effective and legitimate way. Each reform period’s main documents (SOU 1963:43, SOU 1992:94 and SOU 2008:27) have been analyzed and compared in order to explicate these discursive shifts in regard to how education policy has attempted to manage this problem.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, 1992, Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) the paper investigate educational policy from the viewpoint of three different dimensions: text, discursive practice and social practice. With a focus on how policymakers talk about students, knowledge and society I try, on the text level, to elucidate and analyze the essential concepts, or what I will call them, semantic magnet, in the policy texts. In the next step, i.e. in the analysis of the discursive practice, I see how these concepts underlie and create different types of education discourses. The concept orders of discourse (Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) enables an analysis of the relation between the discursive- and the social practice and to visualize changing patterns of dominance and legitimate education discourses in a specified historical and sociopolitical context, and how this order changes (ranging from 1960s to the 2010s) in relation to societal changes. With a methodological approach as described above it is possible to understand how this relation between students’ individual aspirations and freedom of choice and the secondary educations economics functions has been handled in educational policy in relation to broader societal changes. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings In all three investigated reform periods the importance of a high quality- secondary education to reinforce economic growth and competitiveness is emphasized. But depending on the historical and the societal context different legitimate solutions are presented for how the secondary school should be organized to achieve such an education. This has implications for how the relationship between students' individual aspirations and the education’s economical functions are handled in policy. In the 1960s, the answer was discussed within the scope of a centralized welfare-oriented educational discourse. In this discourse, the state's capacity to manage the school and the society in a rational way, was highly emphasized. Therefore no or very little confidence was given to the individual student’s rational ability. In the 1990s, a significant shift occured toward a market-oriented educational discourse. Students’ freedom of choice was accordingly here seen as the solution to many problems, especially how the quality would increase. In the current reformation a shift towards a regulated market-oriented educational discourse is discerned in the paper. In this discourse the 1990s freedom of choice is criticized and blamed for causing bad results, particularly in different international knowledge assessments, and that students are too ill-prepared for future employment. References Apple, Michael (2003). The state and the politics of knowledge. London: Routledge Chouliaraki, Lilie & Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity – Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University press Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and social change. Oxford: Polity Press. Jessop, Bob (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge: Polity Lindensjö, Bo & Lundgren, Ulf P (2000). Utbildningsreformer och politisk styrning. Stockholm: HLS. Ringarp, Johanna & Rothland, Martin (2010). “The effects of the PISA results on Education Debates in Sweden and Germany” European Educational Research Journal. Vol. 9, Nr. 3 SOU 1963:42. 1960 års gymnasieutredning. 4, Ett nytt gymnasium. Stockholm: Ecklesiastikdepartementet ( SOU 1992:94. Skola för bildning: Huvudbetänkande av Läroplanskommittén. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet SOU 2008:27). Framtidsvägen – En reformerad gymnasieskola. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet

  • 516.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Kunskapsfrågan: En läroplansteoretisk studie av den svenska gymnasieskolans reformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a society where the labour market is becoming increasingly knowledge intensive and more differentiated, education has assumed greater importance for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy. As a consequence, the educational system has become a key governing resource for the state to meet and manage different kinds of social changes and problems. Against this background the thesis raises the main question - “what kind of societal problems are the educational reforms studied here considered to be the solution of?” The aim of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of the changes of the formation of knowledge in Swedish upper secondary curriculum between the 1960s and 2010s. In what way attained these changes in view of knowledge legitimacy in relation to the socioeconomic context? And what do these changes mean in terms of the attribution of the positioning of upper secondary school pupils and teachers?

     

    This thesis draws on a “classical” theoretical framework of curriculum theory (i.e. the frame-factor theory) this means that the analytical focus is directed at the relationship between the content of the curriculum and the social context. With theoretical and methodological inspiration from critical realism and critical discourse analysis (CDA) the thesis argue for an alternative way to theoretical and empirical examined this relationship. Three historical reform periods are used to explore the discursive changes in the formation of knowledge in the Swedish upper secondary education reforms.

     

    The results show how changes in socioeconomic conditions, such as economic crisis, over time have acted as important triggers for governing mechanisms embedded in the control of the educational system. These changes and mechanisms, in turn, have resulted in some major discursive knowledge shifts between the reforms studied, from the 1960s combination of an economic-rational and an objective-subject knowledge discourse, through the deregulated goal-rational and socio-cultural oriented knowledge discourse of the 1990s towards the 2010s knowledge discourses that are characterized by an increased focus on learning outcomes and measurability. Against the background of these discursive shifts, the analysis also points to some underlying continuities in terms of a general “reform imperative”, based on a number of overarching values ​​such as efficiency and rationality. The result show how this imperative was embedded in all three educational reforms and has ruled the order of discourses about what was deemed to be legitimate curriculum knowledge, a professional teacher and a desirable pupil.

  • 517.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Legitimitetskris, styrning och kunskap2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 518.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Läroplansteorin efter den ”realistiska vändningen”: exemplet kunskapsfrågan2013Ingår i: Den femte nordiska läroplansteorikonferensen i Uppsala : Curriculum and/or didactics – a discussion revisited. Towards a transnational curriculum theory?, Uppsala universitet, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteorin har de senaste två decennierna kommit att präglas av en så kallade språklig eller diskursiv vändning. Med det använda språkets konstituerande funktion som en central utgångspunkt uppfattas språket som en aktiv social handling som inte kan skiljas från den sociala praktik som denna sker inom. För det läroplansteoretiska forskningsfältets vidkommande har detta medfört flera viktiga analytiska möjligheter inte minst när det gäller exempelvis att studera läroplansförändringar över tid samt hur policy rör sig och omformuleras mellan olika kontexter. I detta paper kommer jag dock argumentera för att denna diskursiva vändning i flera fall dragits för långt. Konsekvensen har blivit att språkets konstituerande effekter i alltför stor utsträckning kommit att överbetona med en långgående kunskapsrelativism som följd och där exempelvis icke-diskursiva element av verkligheten tappats bort i de läroplansteoretiska analyserna. Jag kommer i detta sammahang därför lyfta fram behovet av en realistisk vändning inom läroplansteorin som delvis återvänder till den klassiska läroplansteorins utgångspunkter men där samtidigt vissa betydelsefulla analytiska insikter från diskursteorin tas med.

    Syftet med detta paper är att med utgångspunkt från den kritiska realismen samt med några exemplifierande empiriska nedslag diskutera innebörden av en sådan realistisk vändning. Utifrån den kritiska realismen förstås verkligenheten som såväl strukturerad som stratifierad. Detta innebär att diskursers konstituerande effekter inte negligeras men samtidigt understryks att dessa inte heller utgör fritt flytande meningssystem utan är såväl förankrade som villkorade av reella (i betydelsen icke-diskursiva) betingelser. Analytiskt fokus riktas utifrån detta realistiska perspektiv mot de strukturer och tillhörande mekanismer som finns inbäddade i en viss praktik samt den kontext (som innefattas av såväl diskursiva som materiella element) som kommer att påverka (men inte determinera) utfallet av dessa mekanismer. Med detta möjliggörs en förklarande analys som, i enlighet med den klassiska läroplansteorins utgångspunkter, rör sig bortom läroplanstexten till de bakomliggande strukturer och kontextuella villkor.        

    Med resultat hämtade från en studie av kunskapens formering och legitimering i gymnasieskolans reformmaterial mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet påvisas empiriskt innebörden av en sådan realistisk vändning. Resultaten pekar på flera diskursiva förskjutningar av kunskapens konstituering över tid men också hur dessa diskursers legitimitet var kopplade till de inbäddade strukturer och mekanismer som förstås forma utbildningspolitiken i relation till den samtida samhällskontexten. Med denna analys visar jag bland annat hur förändrade reella samhällsekonomiska villkor över tid utgjort en viktig påverkanskraft på utbildningspolitiken samt i förlängningen läroplansförändringar.

  • 519.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Skolstorlekens påverkan på elevers skolprestationer och sociala situation i skolan:En forskningsöversikt2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 520.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Upgraded curriculum?: An analysis of knowledge boundaries in teaching under the Swedish subject-based curriculum2018Ingår i: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 424-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a contribution to the current debate about knowledge and the curriculum, especially initiated by social realist writers. The enacted Swedish subjects-based curriculum for compulsory schooling is examined and is also used as a significant case with the aim of discussing practical implications of social realist claims regarding knowledge and the curriculum. Video-recorded lessons from grade six in six different Swedish schools, in combination with teacher interviews, are explored within the scope of a curriculum theory framework with the purpose of illuminating dominant patterns of knowledge boundaries and knowledge conceptions. The study shows how the Swedish subject-based curriculum frames teaching in a direction where a disciplinary knowledge conception with fixed knowledge boundaries predominates over other knowledge forms. The subject-based curriculum also appears to produce an ‘overloading’ of content, which implies that pupils’ questions and experiences are avoided and dismissed in the teaching practice.

  • 521.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Vad räknas som kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan?2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett samhälle där arbetsmarknaden utvecklats mot att bli alltmer kunskapsintensivt och differentierat har utbildningssystemet kommit att framhållas som betydelsefullt för den kapitalistiska statens såväl integrativa funktioner som för dess möjligheter att skapa ekonomisk tillväxt och konkurrenskraft. Kunskap har med andra ord kommit att bli ’High politics’ (Jessop, 2006, Apple, 2003) vilket inneburit att ett lands utbildningssystem betraktas som en allt viktigare resurs och tillika ”styrnings-medium” för det byråkratiska och politiska systemet försök att möta olika samhälleliga förändringar och problem (Lundgren, 200xx).

     

    Med en sådan utgångspunkt argumenteras det i detta paper att om en ny utbildningsreform ska framstå som legitim måste densamma framställas som lösningen på ett eller flera problem (jmf Forsberg, 2008). Problem som den samtida skolan således inte anses vara kapabel att lösa. Det är med en sådan utgångspunkt som den pågående reformeringen av den svenska gymnasieskolan i detta paper studeras. Med ett intresse för den politiska dimensionen av läroplanens kunskaper analyseras den nya gymnasiereformen (SOU 2008:xx, prop. 2008/09:xx) genom frågan – vilka problem är den pågående reformeringen av gymnasieskolan att betrakta som lösningen på? Med 1990-talets gymnasiereform som fond är syftet att försöka urskilja vissa diskursiva förskjutningar över tid, från 1990-talet fram till idag, med avseende på vad som, i reformtexterna, framställs som god kunskap samt hur denna kunskap framställs som legitim.

     

    Med metodologisk inspiration från den kritiska realismen och den kritiska diskursanalysen blir en viktig utgångspunkt i analysen att försöka förstå och förklara utbildningspolitiska processer i sitt historiska och sociopolitiska sammanhang. I ett första steg i analysen har fokus riktats mot respektive reformtexters bärande begrepp, eller som de kommer att benämnas här, semantiska magneter, som respektive reform ses vara uppbyggd kring. Dessa semantiska magneter ses i ett nästa analytiska skede konstituera olika diskurser som ses sätta ramarna för vad som är att betrakta som ett problem och lösningen på densamma under respektive reformperiod. Slutligen diskuteras dessa diskurser och de diskursiva förskjutningar som kan påvisas mellan de två reformperioderna i relation till den samhälleliga praktik som desamma ses ha skapats inom.

     

    Resultatet av analysen pekar mot ett antal diskursiva brott och vissa diskursiva förskjutningar mellan de två reformperioderna. På 1990-talet hanterades de aktuella problemen inom ramen för en hybridisering av en marknadsorienterad- och en sociokulturellt orienterad kunskapsdiskurs medan problemen inom den senaste gymnasiereformen kan ses hanteras inom ramen för en mer reglerad marknadsorienterad- och en essentialtiskt orienterad kunskapsdiskurs. Hur denna förändrade kunskapssyn vinner legitimitet diskuteras till sist utifrån en pågående samhällsutveckling i termer av legitimitetskriser inom, en ökad uppmärksamhet kring internationella kunskapsmätningar och en hög ungdomsarbetslöshet.    

  • 522.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Vad räknas som kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan?: En kritisk diskursanalys av förändrade policyformeringar mellan 1990-talet och 2010-talet i svensk gymnasieskola2012Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 15-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the question – what problems is the current reform of the Swedish upper secondary school considered being the solution of – this article analyzes the political dimension of knowledge in the way it is discursively visualized in policy texts. With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) two education policy reforms, published for the 1990s- and the 2010’s reformation of the upper secondary school, have been compared with an aim to study discursive shifts over time concerning changing politics of knowledge. To understand and explain these shifts the relation between declared knowledge discourses and the social practice, that these discourses are embedded in, is discussed. The results in the article point to some discursive shifts. The 1990’s policy texts were dominated by a hybridization of a deregulated objective-rational- and a socio-cultural oriented knowledge discourse. These discourses have now been challenge by a form of hybridization of a regulated working lifeoriented and a content- and result oriented knowledge discourse. These discursive movements are finally discussed in relation to what different societal problems these reforms are considered to be a solution to.

  • 523.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    What count as knowledge?: A critical analysis of the ongoing reformation of the Swedish upper secondary school in the age of “standards-based education”2011Ingår i: ECER 2011, Urban Education: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a society that is characterized of being both more and more knowledge intensive and differentiated in the labor market, education has come to be increasingly important for the capitalist states integrative functions as for the competitiveness in the global economy. Parallel processes can be found in a European context. Different movements have resulted in the creation of different supranational systems with the aims of converging nation’s education policy and compare pupils’ knowledge standards on an international basis (Ringarp & Rothland, 2010).  In other words – knowledge has become high politics! This means, just like Apple (2003) emphasizes, that schooling by its very nature is political. Apple also suggests that analyses of the politics of knowledge are crucial if a deeper understanding of the complex connections between education and power is to be examined.

     

    In regard to, among others, Swedish results in the international knowledge comparison between countries and an increasingly youth unemployment, the Swedish school system, and especially the upper secondary school, has had to endure a lot of criticism. These critics resulted in a reformation of the Swedish upper secondary school system. With a general interest in understanding the relationship between the constitution of knowledge in education policy and broader social changes - this paper analyses the political dimension of knowledge in the way it is materialized in this reformation. Two education policy reforms will be compared with an aim to study discursive shifts over time concerning the formation of knowledge in educational policy. In 2009 the Swedish government handed over the proposition “Higher standards and quality in the new secondary school” (2008/09: 199) to the Parliament. Foregoing this proposition was the government committee report “the path to the future – a reformed upper secondary school” (SOU 2008:27), which proposed the most extensive changes in the Swedish upper secondary school since the 1990s. This government committee report, with the subsequent proposition, will in this paper be analysed in relation to one of the most influential committee reports (School of education, 1992:94) and propositions (1992/93:250) which in the same way can be regarded as the most important policy texts in the reformation of the 1990s upper secondary school. The interest of this study is to examine discursive and social changes by comparing the content in these policy texts with regards to the constitution of knowledge in the way it manifest itself in how policymakers talk about the concept of student, education and society. With a critical approach it is crucial to understand and explain policy processes of education in its historical and sociopolitical context. The educational system is then, in this study, theoretically positioned in terms of its embeddedness in a prescribed dilemma by the welfare states politics to, in a as well legitimately and efficiently ways, reproduce the capitalistic system (Offe, 1984; Jessop 2002). In this processes the educational system seems play an important role.

     

    With methodological inspiration from the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, 1992, Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) I study educational policy from the viewpoint of three different dimensions: text, discursive practice and social practice. With a focus on how the policymakers talk about knowledge I try, on the text level, to elucidate and analyse the essential concepts in the policy texts. In the next step, i.e. in the analysis of the discursive practice, I see how these concepts underlie and create different types of knowledge discourses. The concept orders of discourse (Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999) enable an analysis of the relation between the discursive and the social practice. In this dimension I analyse the relation between this different types of knowledge discourses. The aim is to visualize changing patterns of dominance and legitimate knowledge discourses in a specified historical and sociopolitical context, and how this order changes (in this case from 1990s to 2009) in relation to social changes. With a methodological approach like the above describes it is possible to understand the constitution of knowledge in educational policy in relation to a broader sociopolitical and historical context.

     

    In preliminary results of the analyzed policy texts I can see discursive shifts in the formation of knowledge from the 1990s until today. The 1990s policy texts were dominated by a form of a hybridization of a market- and a socio-cultural knowledge discourse. This discourse has now been challenge by, what I will call, an economic neo-conservative knowledge discourse characterized by an explicitly and defined knowledge content in each syllabus and with major differences between vocational education and theoretical educations. These movements can be understood in relation to the processes of the increasingly standard based education trend we can see in a European context. In conclusion, Habermas (1984) concepts system and life world, help us to understand how different rationalities are working within theses different discourses of knowledge. From this analysis I then discus in which direction the current reformation of the upper secondary school seems to move in terms of what is considered to be a desirable student, a good education and a desirable society.

     

    References

     

    Apple, Michael (2003). The state and the politics of knowledge. London: Routledge

    Chouliaraki, Lilie & Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity – Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: EdinburghUniversity press

    Fairclough, Norman (1992). Discourse and social change. Oxford: Polity Press.

    Habermas, Jürgen (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume 1: Reasons and the Rationalization of Society: Cambridge : Polity Press

    Jessop, Bob (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Cambridge: Polity

    Offe, Claus (1984), Contradictions of the welfare state. London: Hutchinson

    Ringarp, Johanna & Rothland, Martin (2010). “The effects of the PISA results on Education Debates in Sweden and Germany” European Educational Research Journal. Vol. 9, Nr. 3

  • 524.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    A study on policy pressures and power dynamics in the changing landscape of local school governance2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to explore local school governance in the Swedish schooling system by focusing on the local authority and principals through a lens of neo-institutional theory. The study is conducted against a backdrop of current trends in global and national educational policy where it in the Swedish context is possible to identify two major shifts:

     

    • new ways of how the state seeks to control the schools’ outcomes at the expense of the local authorities room for exercise of power– a ‘re-centralisation’
    • the emergence of a new dynamic between the local authority and principals.

     

    In the early 1990s, the Swedish school system was decentralised and the municipalities were given authority for the governing of the schools. A new goal- and outcome-based quality system was introduced that put the municipalities in Sweden in a new position. However, during the last decades transnational organisations and associations such as the OECD and the EU have gained greater influence over education policy (Robertson & Dale, 2015). New policy spaces have emerged that transcend, but also converge within, national borders (Sassen, 2006). Accountability, standardisation and increased student results stand out as important ingredients in current global reform agendas (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017a; Anderson-Levitt, 2008). In Sweden, declining student achievement in PISA has made policy-makers inclined to be informed by policy solutions from the OECD (Wahlström, 2017). Paired with a strong focus on student achievement, the notion of a school system in a state of crisis grew. Altogether, this have spurred an intensive critique against the decentralised schooling system and triggered a trend of ‘re-centralisation’ in Sweden, meaning a shift towards a more state-regulated governing of the school system (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017; Adolfsson, 2013) . The government has introduced several reforms and incentives that involves the local management of schools. These include, for instance, a new national curriculum for the compulsory and the upper secondary schooling, a School Inspectorate for auditing and monitoring schools; A reformed Education Act emphasising the local authority’s responsibility for equity and student achievement, and strengthening the principals’ authority; Professional development programmes; and new specialist functions in school (Alvunger, 2015; Adolfsson & Alvunger, 2017). These policy movements have altogether challenged the relations between the state, the local authorities and the schools in Sweden. In light of these changes and with reference to the presented aim of this paper, we ask ourselves the following research questions:

    • How do representatives of the local authority experience and respond to the pressure and influence from the state through the focus on equity and the improvement of student results in national educational policy discourse?
    • What strategies do the local authority employ for governing the schools in the municipality?
    • In what ways do principals respond to the tension in the ‘dual’ governance from the state and the local authority?

     

    The paper draws on a ‘classical’ theoretical and methodological framework of curriculum theory (i.e. the frame-factor theory), with its different levels of analysis – the societal/ideological level, the programmatic level; and the school/classroom level (Lundgren, 1972). When it comes to the more specific analysis of the consequences of the changed conditions of governing and exercise of control at the local policy level, a neo-institutional theoretical perspective will be used (Scott, 2008). From this perspective, three dimensions can be highlighted regarding how institutions seek to control and affect other institutions, respond to external pressure and seek legitimacy: regulative (rules and sanctions for legitimacy), normative (evaluation and moral legitimacy), and cognitive-cultural/discursive (shared conceptions and frames of meaning-making (2008).

     

    Methods and material

     

    This paper has a mixed-method design, where the research design aims at preserving the complexity and deepening the perspective of the research questions being addressed while at the same time obtaining different, but complementary data on the same phenomenon (Cresswell, 2010; Cresswell and Clark, 2007). The study of local governance with the local authority and principals is conducted in three steps. The first of the research questions, i.e. how representatives of the local authority experience and respond to policy pressure from the state, will be answered by using secondary data from a project that investigated the municipalities as policy actors in light of the implementation of the new national curriculum for compulsory schooling in Sweden (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017). It includes a survey (n= 727) and interviews with representatives from local authorities in Sweden. The two remaining sets of research questions, comprising local authorities’ strategies for governing schools and principals’ responses, will be answered through a case study of a large municipality in southern Sweden (135 000 inhabitants) using a survey (n=61; response rate 62 %) to principals and 4 semi-structured focus-group interviews with principals and representatives of the local authority. The survey consisted of questions about experiences of the subsequent organisation, governing structures, the communication of aims between different levels, collaborative structures and arenas, professional development, curriculum support and the role of functions for school development. The quantitative data was then analysed and used for asking follow-up and questions in the interviews, targeting specific items regarding experiences of expectations from the institutional environment, policy pressures, governing structures and strategies to cope with certain arrangements in the environment. The interviews thus provided complementary qualitative data and gave a richer description of the principals’ views.

     

    Expected outcomes

     

    Representatives from the local authority emphasise that the national governance of schools to a higher extent and in a more explicit way is directed towards the schools as units as a result the recent educational reforms. They claim that the autonomy of principals following the Education act has created greater clarity. Meanwhile, it has impeded their agency in matters concerning enactment of government policy and curriculum. In combination with the emphasis on local authorities as being responsible for quality assurance, allocating resources for equity and student achievement, the local authorities’ ability to control internal processes of schools has decreased significantly. It seems that local authorities’ space for regulative sanctions and mechanisms has been weakened. In order to compensate, local authorities apply strategies of soft governance for controlling the schools. These strategies are characterised by normative and cognitive/discursive dimension and may be comprised by one or a combination of the following:

    • Re-structuring the organisation and controlling communication
    • Use expert teachers to monitor and control internal professional development/school improvement efforts of schools
    • Competition through rewarding schools which comply to reforms, show best practice and have high-performing students
    • Standardisation measures to ensure greater coherence and compliance

     

    The principals describe a more generous space for action with the Education act, but they also experience a higher degree of pressure to improve student achievement and goal attainment, both from the local authority and from the state. This pressure is expressed in different ways. The local authority presents comparisons of results between schools which triggers competition. The principals are bound to report results or other statistical data on request, which in turn may cause a negative pressure from their teachers. In addition, principals describe how a lot of resources in terms of time and money are invested to ‘pass’ inspections from the national agency.

     

    References

    Adolfsson, C-H. (2013). Kunskapsfrågan – En läroplansteoretisk studie om gymnasieskolans reformer mellan 1960-talet och 2010-talet [The question of knowledge – a curriculum study of the Swedish upper secondary school reforms between the 1960s and 2010s]. Dissertation, Linnaeus University.

     

    Adolfsson, C-H., & Alvunger, D. (2017). The nested systems of local school development : Understanding improved interaction and capacities in the different sub-systems of schools. Improving Schools. 20. 195-208.

     

    Alvunger, D. (2015).
Towards new forms of educational leadership? The local implementation of förstelärare in Swedish schools.
Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 1(3), 55–66.

     

    Anderson-Levitt, K. M. (2008). Globalization and curriculum. In: M. F. Connelly (Ed.), The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction (pp. 349–368). London: Sage Publications.

    Creswell, J. W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Sage handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 45–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods. London: SAGE.

    Lundgren, U.P. (1972). Frame factors and the teaching process: A contribution to curriculum theory and theory of teaching. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

     

    Robertson, S., & Dale, R. (2015). Towards a ‘critical cultural political economy’ account of the globalising of education, Globalisation, Societies and Education, 13(1), 149–170, DOI: 10.1080/14767724.2014.967502

    Sassen, S. (2006). Territory, authority, rights: From medieval to global assemblages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


    Scott, W. (2008). Approaching Adulthood: The Maturing of Institutional Theory. Theory and Society, 37(5), 427-442.

    Wahlström, N., & Sundberg, D. (2017). Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices. The new meaning of teaching. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Wahlström, N. (2017). The travelling reform agenda: The Swedish case through the lens of OECD. In N. Wahlström, & D. Sundberg (Eds.), Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices. The new meaning of teaching (pp. 15–30). New York, NY: Routledge.

     

  • 525.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Teachers' selection of content in an age of standard-based policy2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 526.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Teachers’ selection of content in the age of standard-based policy2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 527.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The nested systems of local curriculum innovation2016Ingår i: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In school systems around the world there is an increasing focus on students' academic achievement and performance and higher demands for school decision makers to gradually improve school results. In this respect Sweden is no exception. The last years you find a number of different national policy initiatives in line with these transnational policy trends: a new curriculum for the compulsory school (Lgr11) and the upper secondary school (Gy11), a new school law (SFS 2010:800), a reform for career services for teachers with the introduction of “first-teachers” in 2013 and the establishment of new authorities like the School Inspectorate in 2008. In turn, all these reforms have resulted in intensive school improvement work in Swedish municipalities.

    Curriculum innovation is a dynamic research field. During the last decades important empirical findings have emerged as well as theoretical models explaining and supporting successful school development and school leadership (cf Fullan, 2001; Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012; Hallinger, 2011). Recent research has also pointed out how strategies and aspects of different actors and levels in the school system interact. A current discussion concerns how school reforms and improvement efforts are used to increase student achievement, with special regard to significance and potential of the local and regional leading and management. Another question is how school improvements solutions on a more general basis is possible to roll out when research also argues for the need of versatile and context-specific school improvement efforts (Hopkins, Stringfield, Harris, Stoll & Mackay 2014).

    The aim with this paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper wants to contribute to and develop a deepened theoretical understanding of local school curriculum innovation. The local curriculum context is defined as an “open nested school system” with different sub-systems, e.g. the classroom, teacher work-units, school leadership teams, the local school authority etc. (Resnick, 2010). Although these systems are internally related, the curriculum actors in each system stand on its own logic and conditions (i.e. loosely coupled). Therefore you will find different arguments, perceptions and notions in the sub-systems and that they are nested in context-specific ways (Resnick 2010). Our primary hypothesis is that centrally initiated curriculum changes and improvement initiatives are unlikely to be successful, unless these actively engages all the sub-systems and re-couples the nested systems of the curriculum (Adolfsson & Håkansson, 2015).

    Secondly, the empirical aim is to explore how different curriculum actors in a medium-sized Swedish municipality understand their functions, interact and respond to central aspects in local curriculum work. By looking into and explaining relationships between the sub-systems – the local school authority, principals and teachers – important features and factors for organising robust school improvement processes can be identified. Of particular interest is the introduction of first-teachers in 2013. First-teachers are a new function in Swedish public and independent schools, engaged in school improvement and thus curriculum actors. Previous research has shown that first-teachers might strengthen the idea of distributed leadership in schools, but at the same time also challenge, to some extent, existing leadership relations and authority – primarily that of the principal (Alvunger, 2015). However, we know – so far – little of how this might impact the school organization and relationships between the sub-systems in school improvement. Our aim is guided by the following research questions:

    -        How do the curriculum actors understand and describe their functions in relation to each other in local curriculum work?

    -        What are perceived as primary challenges and needs among the curriculum actors? What strategies do they suggest and use to deal with these challenges and needs?

    -        How can the local curriculum work be explained and understood from the perspective of nested school systems?

    Methods and material (400)

    The study draws on material from two recently finished “ongoing evaluation” projects conducted in a medium-sized municipality (65,000 inhabitants) in the southeastern part of Sweden. As a way to support schools’ improvement work, researchers in the first project have studied processes and outcomes of nine schools’ development work over three years by collecting and analysing data from different levels of the local school system. The second project focused and analysed the implementation of the national reform for career services for teachers. Together the projects have resulted in a rich empirical material from various contexts in the local school organisation that enable a thorough analysis of the school improvement work on different levels (i.e.in different sub-systems).

    This paper is based on a “mixed-method” design (Cresswell, 2010). Along with Cresswell and Clark (2007) we argue that such a methodological research design is a way of preserving the complexity and deepening the perspective of the research questions being addressed while at the same time it is possible to obtain different but complementary data on the same phenomenon. In line with the theoretical points of departure and the general aim to elucidate patterns of actors’ understanding, interaction and responses on general aspects of improvement work, following methods and empirical data have been used: i) a content analysis of central policy documents ii) questionnaires and iii) semi-structured focus group interviews.

    As a first step central documents regarding the local school organisation, policy and vision, leading and management structure, evaluations, school improvement strategies were analysed. The purpose was to conduct a contextual analysis and to create a map of the organisation, central strategies and content of the improvement work in the municipality.

    During the project three different teacher surveys were conducted (n=250; n=160; n=157). In these online questionnaires teacher’s perceptions of central dimensions of the local improvement work was investigated. Another important purpose was to explore teachers’ notions of patterns of changes as a result of the improvement work.    

    Finally, as a way to deepen the understanding of the improvement work in the municipality semi-structured focus group interviews with representatives from the local school authority (8 interviews), principals (12 interviews), and first-teachers (14 interviews) were carried out. The main focus in these interviews was the experiences and notions of the schools’ improvement work.

    Expected outcomes/Results (300)

    The results of the study clearly show that the local school organisation consists of different nested sub-systems. Both similarities and differences in how the curriculum actors interact and respond to central aspects in curriculum work can be identified. There is a common view that the work should be based on teaching practices and collegial learning, where the themes “classroom leadership” and “language and concept development” have been agreed upon collegially (bottom-up). However, the sub-systems argue for different strategies and disagree on how to work with these themes. The development unit on local authority level has decided that specific resources and interventions are to be directed for peer observation and feed-back sessions between teachers (top-down). This limits the possibilities for principals to respond to the requests from the teachers who favour pedagogical dialogues for exchanging experiences and developing teaching. All in all, this presents challenges for the school improvement work. In this respect first-teachers as a new sub-system may create conditions for better communication between other sub-systems (e.g. subject teacher teams, work-units, principals) because they operate on different levels. However, there are almost no collaborative arenas or networks for communication within the first-teacher system. Furthermore, the introduction of first-teachers seem to present challenges for the principals who must improve their internal communication as a sub-system in order to be educational leaders and to on-ward engage first-teachers and teachers in school improvement work. The results support our hypothesis that centrally initiated curriculum innovation initiatives are unlikely to be successful, unless these actively engages all the sub-systems and re-couples the nested systems of the curriculum.

    References

    Adolfsson, C-H & Håkansson, J (2015). Building School Improvement Capacity and Learning Capital – A Swedish Case Study. Contribution to the ECER-conference in Budapest, September 2015.

    Alvunger, D. (2015.) Towards New Forms of Educational Leadership? – The Local Implementation of Förstelärare in Swedish Schools. Special issue: Educational Leadership in Transition. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 2015, 1: 30103, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/nstep.v1.30103

    Creswell J, & Plano Clark, V. (2007), Designing and conducting mixed methods, SAGE Publications, London.

    Cresswell, J.W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. I Abbas Tashakkori & Charles Teddlie, red: Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research, s 45-68. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications

    Fullan, Michael (2001). The new meaning of educational change. 3. ed. New York: Teachers College Press

    Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Hallinger, Philip (2011). Leadership for Learning: Lessons from 40 Years of Empirical Research. Journal of Educational Administration, v. 49 n. 2 p. 125-142.

    Hargreaves, Andy & Fullan, Michael (2012). Professional capital: transforming teaching in every school. New York: Routledge.

    Hopkins, D., Stringfield, S., Harris, A., Stoll, L. & Mackay, T (2014). School and system improvement: a narrative state-of-the-art review, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 25:2, 257-281.

    Resnick, Lauren B. (2010). Nested System for the Thinking Curriculum. Educational Researcher, vol. 39 No. 3  183-197.

  • 528.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The nested systems of local school development: Understanding improved interaction and capacities in the different sub-systems of schools2017Ingår i: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 195-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In school systems around the world, there is an increasing focus on students’ academic achievement. The challenge of how to improve schools is an important issue for all levels in the school system. However, a central question of both practical and theoretical relevance is how it is possible to understand why (or why not) school-development efforts are successful. The purpose of this article is to explore the ecology of local school development through the case of a medium-sized municipality in Sweden, based on empirical data from two follow-up research projects. The analytical framework draws from organisational theory and new institutional theory, where focus is directed towards how different sub-systems of the school organisation interact with and respond to aspects of development work and the implications for outcomes of school-development initiatives. Findings show that great investment of resources from the central level in the local school organisation necessarily does not lead to changes in teaching practice. School-development initiatives are unlikely to be successful unless they engage and re-couple the involved sub-systems. Finally, we discuss how the introduction of Expert Teachers as a new sub-system has the ability to work as a link between other sub-systems and to promote school development.

  • 529.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in an Era of Standards-based Policy Reforms2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 530.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in the era of standard based policy reforms2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Selection of Content and Knowledge Conceptions in Teaching in the era of standard based policy reforms

     

    Proposal information (research question, theoretical framework so on) (600 words) 

    This study is part of the project 'Understanding Curriculum Reforms - A Theory-Oriented Evaluation of the Swedish Curriculum Reform Lgr 11'.  In the last two decades transnational organizations and agreements have become increasingly important as driving forces in the making of curriculum. The international education policy movement towards so-called standards-based curricula has been characterized by top-down accountability and linear dissemination (Andersson-Levitt, 2008; Sivesind & Karseth, 2010). This also applies to the formation of Swedish curriculum policy discourses. The latest Swedish curriculum for compulsory School “Lgr11” can foremost be described in line with such a standards-based curriculum, where the objectives and standards, but also the content, are prescribed and put in the foreground for what students ought to do and know (Sundberg & Wahlström, 2012).

    Although these policies are transnational and nationally oriented, it is in the same time up to schools and teachers on the local level to interpret and enact the curriculum, in classrooms and in the interaction between teachers and students. This unarguably raises questions about the curriculum-in-use, i.e. how is teaching performed? The ‘what’ that is prescribed in the (trans-)national policy is one thing, but researchers rarely take notice of the fact that recontextualisation, selection, translation, relocation and refocus of content indeed occurs in the local school setting. Therefore, the overall aim of this paper is to explore how a standards-based oriented curriculum, Lgr 11, is enacted at the local school level.

    In a first step, the process of the selection of teaching content will be studied. A central question here is how and on what foundations the selection of teaching content is made when prescribed content and learning outcomes is given a central role in the curriculum structure? Secondly – which relates to the selection of content – we examine how the same curriculum is achieved in teaching and learning practices at classroom level in terms of knowledge content. What content seems to dominate the teaching in favour for another under a standard-based oriented curriculum like Lgr 11?

    To understand the conditions for teachers’ selection of content we bring theoretical inspiration from a “classical” framework of curriculum theory in terms of the “frame-factor theory” (Dahlöf, 1967; Lundgren, 1989). This theoretical perspective puts the relationship between teaching processes, outcomes and external (frame-) factors in focus. In other words, to understand processes and outcomes in the teaching practice you have to, from this theoretical perspective, analyse the frame-factors, for example time, equipment, the composition of the class and (of course) the current curriculum, that in different ways enable and limit these processes and outcomes.  When we in a next step examine the curriculum content in teaching we bring inspiration from Deng & Luke’s (2008) discussion about different knowledge classification schemes and conceptions. From this discussion we derived three conceptions of knowledge, in terms of an academic disciplinary knowledge conception; a practical knowledge conception and an experiential” knowledge conception. These knowledge conceptions will be used to identify and discuss different aspects of lesson content in the investigated teaching practice.    

    Methodology and method (400 words)

    With a classical curriculum theory framework, the present study focus on teaching and lesson content in terms of enacted and achieved curricula. In other words, and with Doyle’s (1990) conceptual framework, we are interesting in the relationship between the programmatic and classroom level of the curriculum. This in turn links us to classic classroom studies addressed by e.g.  Bellack, Kliebard et al.1966; Gustafsson 1977; Jackson 1968/1990; Lundgren 1981, but now against a backdrop of the ‘new’ scenario of transnational policy.

    The study is based on an extensive empirical material from six municipalities in Sweden and consists of three different sources. Firstly, semi-structured interviews with representatives from the local school authority, teachers, principals and students in grade 6 (12-13 years old) where the main focus has been their views on the impact of the curriculum for the compulsory school Lgr11 with particular attention on the organisation of teaching, the dominating content in teaching and the interaction between teacher and students and students and students. Secondly, documents related to teaching such as local pedagogical plans, lesson plans, tests, work sheets, material produced by students and so on have been analysed. Thirdly, 71 lessons of teaching in the social studies subjects Civics, History, Geography, Religion have been video-recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed from organisation of teaching, content and the interaction in the classroom. The study on teachers’ selection of content will mainly draw from interviews and documents in order to look at contextual factors, while the analysis of knowledge content in teaching generally is based on interviews with teachers and 71 video-recorded lessons.

    Conclusion (300 words)

    In the last section of the paper, we will discuss the empirical results in relation to our theoretical points of departure. Here we show how the Swedish curriculum in great extent is influenced by a standards-based tradition where both content and performance are put in the foreground. From a frame-factor theoretical perspective we then discuss the consequences on the possibilities for the teachers selecting content. Besides struggling with the crowding of content teachers are under constant pressure to hold on to a tight schedule in order for the different curriculum tasks to fit into an over-arching plan for the whole semester. The teachers have to make sure that they can assess knowledge and competences according to the knowledge requirements in the “time slots” reserved for each curriculum task in the subjects. Teachers indeed focus on central concepts deriving from academic disciplines foregrounded in the syllabuses, while they at the same time employ a strategy to patch subjects and their specific content together.

    The analysis of the video recorded lesson show that the general pattern of teaching comes in the shape of whole class teaching with the teacher as central actor. Because the teacher has to ensure that all students get the ability to reach the knowledge requirements, the lesson content to a great extent is prescribed and comes in the shape of subject matter-oriented facts, concepts and competences. Because of the combination of crowding of content, teachers’ time constraint and the knowledge requirements in the curriculum, our results also show that teachers – more or less – have to neglect initiatives from students in order to keep the lesson on the “right” track. Content that is not considered to fit in the current lesson, for example student’s experiences, interests and questions, is to a high degree dismissed.

     

    References

    Andersson-Levitt, K. M. (2008), Globalization and curriculum, in M. F. Con-nelly, red, The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction, (s 329-348), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

    Bellack, A.A.; Kliebard, H.M.;Hyman, R.T. & Smith, F.L. (1966). The language of the classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.

     

    Deng, Z & Luke, A (2008). Subject matter. Defining and theorizing school subjects. In connnelly, Michael (Ed). The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.

    Dahllöf, U. 1967: Skoldifferentiering och undervisningsförlopp [School differentiation and teaching processes]. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

    Gustafsson, C. (1977). Classroom Interaction. A study of pedagogical roles in the teaching process. Stockholm: Gotab.

     

    Jackson, P. W. (1968/1990). Life in classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.

     

    Lundgren, U. P. (1981). Model analysis of pedagogical processes. Lund: Liber/Gleerup.

     

    Lundgren, U. P. (1989), Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the world around us], Utbildningsförlaget, Stockholm.

    Sivesind, K. & Karseth, B. (2010), Conceptualising curriculum knowledge within and beyond the national context, European Journal of Education 45 (1),103- 120.

    Sundberg, D. & Wahlström, N. (2012), Standards-based curricula in a denationalized conception of education: The case of Sweden, European Educational Research Journal 11 (3), 342–356.

    Utbildningsdepartementet (The Ministry of Education) (2011). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011 (Lgr 11). [Curriculum for the Compulsory School, Preschool Class and the Leisure-time Centre 2011; in Swedish]. Stockholm: National Agency for Education.

  • 531.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    The selection of content and knowledge conceptions in the teaching of curriculum standards in compulsory schooling2018Ingår i: Transnational Curriculum Standards and Classroom Practices: The New Meaning of Teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, s. 98-115Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 532.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Forsberg, Eva
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Evidently, the Broker Appears as the New Whizz-kid on the Educational Agora2019Ingår i: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: conducting empirically based research / [ed] Christina Elde Mølstad & Daniel Pettersson, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2019, s. 99-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 533.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala university.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    När evidensrörelsen kom till den svenska skolan2018Ingår i: Den evidensbaserade skolan: Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik / [ed] Daniel Alvunger & Ninni Wahlström, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, s. 71-99Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 534.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    En slutrapport från projektet: Lärande skolor och förskolor i Kalmar kommun: Forskning och lokalt skolutvecklingsarbete i samspel2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 535.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Evaluating School Improvement Efforts: Pupils as Silent Result Suppliers, or Audible Improvement Resources?2018Ingår i: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 34-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to a perspective of school development, where pupils‟ experiences of the teaching they encounter are regarded as a result of improvement work. In a three-year research collaboration with four nine-year compulsory schools in a large Swedish municipality, researchers have continuously conducted group interviews with different actors, collected relevant documentation and reported their preliminary analyses to the schools. In the light of previous research, the results show that the development areas that have been in focus in the schools have in some cases had an impact on the teaching. However, no homogenous change is evident. Rather, the variation between classrooms, teachers and subjects is great, especially if the pupils‟ perspectives are taken into consideration. The pupils‟ experiences and voices on how the improvement work materialises in the classroom contribute to explaining the connections, or lack of them, between the school and classroom levels. 

  • 536.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Evaluating teacher and school development by learning capital: a conceptual contribution to a fundamental problem2019Ingår i: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 130-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of an international policy movement to increase focus on students’ academic achievement, the question of how to improve schools has become an important issue at all levels in the school system. Substantial resources have been invested in reforms to improve conditions for pupils’ learning. Great expectations and responsibility are often placed on teachers in terms of their professional development (PD), the aim being to improve their teaching practices. Consequently, the question of how to evaluate the results of school improvement programmes, including teachers’ PD, has arisen. However, there is a lack of theoretical concepts that can capture the outcomes of such development in a qualified way. Taking inspiration from the research on teachers’ PD and theories relating to teachers’ knowledge and capabilities, the aim of this study is to outline a conceptual framework that can serve as an analytical tool when evaluating both school improvement initiatives in general and school actors’ learning in particular. Four types of learning capital that are intended to reflect the central aspects of teachers’ and school organisations’ learning and the capabilities linked to teaching practice and its development are outlined. This conceptual framework is applied and exemplified based on the results of a three-year research project evaluating a school improvement programme in a Swedish municipality. Finally, some conclusions are drawn regarding the different types of analysis possible with the current conceptual framework related to the evaluation of school improvement efforts.

     

  • 537.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Lärande grundskolor i Stockholm stad: En slutrapport2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 538.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    The Local Education Authority’s Implementation of a Capacity-building model for school improvement – obstacles and possibilities2019Ingår i: Presented at ECER 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework (600 words)

    In school systems around the world, there is an increasing focus on pupils’ academic achievements and school results. This has resulted in an intensified control of pupils’ levels of achievement (cf. PISA) and increasing demands for school actors and decision-makers to improve schools. In this respect, Sweden is no exception. Ages of declining student achievement, decreased equality between schools have spurred an intensive critique against the Swedish school system and triggered a more state-regulated governing of the school system in terms of several national reforms, which altogether aim to take control over the schools’ outcome (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017; Adolfsson, 2018). In light of such a policy movement the Local Education Authorities (LEA) and schools’ responsibility for pupils’ achievement and equality have been highlighted and strengthened in Swedish policy. In addition, to ensure the quality of the teaching and the professionalism of the teachers, a revision of the Swedish Education Act was carried out in 2010. This revision stipulated, among other things, that all schools and local school authorities must conduct a systematic improvement work. This had led to a discussion of how school on a local basis can build capacity to improve themselves. In this context, LEA, in the Swedish municipalities, have become important policy actors (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017b). To strengthen the schools own capacity for improvement, but also to increase the control over the schools’ processes and outcomes, the construction and implementation of different quality systems has been an important strategy for the local education authorities (Adolfsson & Alvunger, 2017; Håkansson & Sundberg, 2016).

    In this paper, we will put this ‘meso-level’, i.e. the relationship between LEA and the schools, in focus. We mean that this is an important, but many times overlooked, relationship when it comes to understand processes and outcomes related to the implementation of local quality systems and school improvement initiatives (Rorrer, Skrla & Scheurich, 2008). Based on an ongoing three-year research project in a major municipality in Sweden, the overall aim is to investigate a LEA: s attempt to implement a new quality system at the schools in the municipality, as a way to control and strengthen the schools’ improvement work. The following research questions are addressed in the paper:

    1. How and which central aspects of the schools’ improvement work tries LEA control and strengthened through the implementation of a new quality system?

    2. In what w   ay do school actors respond to LES’s attempt to implement the quality system?

    3. Which different factors can be distinguished as notably important for the outcome of the implementation process?

    The relationship between the LED and the current schools are understood and analysed from a neo-institutional theoretical perspective (Scott, 2008). From this perspective, three dimensions can be highlighted regarding how institutions (in this case the LED and the current schools) seek to control and affect other institutions, respond to external pressure and seek legitimacy: regulative (rules and sanctions), normative (prevalent norms, expectations and ideals ), and cognitive-cultural/discursive (shared conceptions and frames of meaning-making). This perspective enable us to elucidate the character of the different strategies and actions that LED undertake in the implementation of the new quality model. To understand the implementation processes that occurred at the different schools, theoretical inspiration is acquired from implementation theory (Fixen et al. 2005; Lundquist, 1987; Lipsky, 1980). This theory put analytical focus on central implementation factors such as clarity, school actors knowledge, legitimacy, time, leadership, organisation, school culture etc, which thus help us to understand the result of the implementation processes of the different schools. 

    Methods/methodology (400 words)

    The overall research project, which this specific study is conducted within, has a mixed-method inspired design. The aim with such an approach is to deepening the understanding of the current research questions being addressed through obtaining different, but complementary data on the phenomenon that stand in focus for the study (Cresswell, 2010; Cresswell and Clark, 2007). In this specific sub-study, we have followed the education authority’s implementation process at six different schools in the current municipality. The current schools are located in areas with differences in socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds and each school was followed for a school year, which made it possible to contextually place and understand the implementation process within the structure, organization and culture of the schools.

    In line with the theoretical points of departure and the general aim to elucidate patterns of the local school authority’s implementation of the new quality system and school actors’ understanding and response of the quality system, following methods and empirical data have been used. i) content analysis of central policy documents ii)  observations (n=xx) iii) 24 semi-structured interviews with key actors at the different schools (n=50). Accordingly, an extensive empirical material have been collected. To conduct a contextual understanding of each school, central documents regarding the local schools’ organisation, policy and vision, leading and management structure, pupils’ achievement, school improvement strategies were at a first step analysed. This contextual understanding was important for the next step, when data related to LEA implementation of the new quality system at the single schools were collected. This was carried out through participating observations at the different kinds of meetings that occurred amongst LEA and the current schools. Finally, as a way to deepen the understanding of the school actors’ response to the new quality system, semi-structured interviews with central key actors at the single school were carried out.

     

    Expected outcomes (300 words)

    The relationship between the LEA and the schools will finally be discussed and problematized in light of the following preliminary results:

    -          The implementation of the quality system occurred through a number of steps: 1. an introduction meeting between represents from the LEA and key actors from the schools 2. a quality dialogue two months later and 3. a quality seminary arranged by the LEA where the principals from the involving schools were participating. In contrast to a more traditional ‘regulative’ strategy of governing the schools, the LEA’s implementation of the current quality system, in terms of these different activities, was characterized by a more normative and discursive way of controlling the schools’ improvement work (i.e. soft governance).

    -          We could distinguish a variety in the initial stage of the implementation process regarding in what degree the school actors consider the LEA’s quality system as legitimate. The same variety between the schools was notably concerning how they perceived the idea and the purpose behind the new quality system but also how LEA’s system should be incorporated with their own local quality systems.

    -          Factors that may explain these differences in the implementation process is firstly, a notably ‘knowledge-gap’, that existed between the schools. That is, principals and other key actors’ knowledge and competencies about local systematic quality work in terms of, for example, data collection, interpretation and using different methods of analysis, seem to be crucial for the implementation process. A second crucial factor seems to be how the principals organized his or her school improvement work, including delegation of responsibility and how different school actors’ knowledge and competencies were used in an appropriate way.

  • 539.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Karlsdotter, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Lärande skolor och förskolor i Kalmar kommun: Forskning och lokalt skolutvecklingsarbete i samspel - En delrapport2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 540.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Att forskningsbasera den svenska skolan: Policyinitiativ under 25 år2018Ingår i: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, nr 1-2, s. 39-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även om ”en skola på vetenskaplig grund” idag är ett högaktuellt ämne är det ingalunda något nytt fenomen. I artikeln studeras tendenser i policyinitiativ som de senaste 25 åren haft till syfte att forskningsbasera den svenska skolan. Utgångspunkt tas i de problembilder som framkommer i policy samt vilka modeller för forskningsbasering som samtidigt lyfts fram som lösningen på dessa problem. Resultatet pekar mot att det de senaste 25 år har skett en succesiv förskjutning från indirekta till mer direkta initiativ. Under 1990-talet och det tidiga 2000-talet var många policyinitiativ ordnade utifrån att främst vilja skapa de rätta förutsättningarna för en forskningsbasering av skolan. Under 2000-talet blir initiativen alltmer fokuserade och ambitiös med syfte att åstadkomma direkta förändringar i lärares undervisning. När det kommer till modeller för forskningsbasering blir det samtidigt alltmer tydligt hur policy vänder sig till och söker legitimitet hos delvis nya aktörer och institutioner, som exempelvis hälso-sjukvården. Med detta går det också att urskilja en insnävning vad gäller att definiera och innehållsligt välja ut vilken forskning som bör sprids till skolans aktörer. Konsekvensen med en sådan modell för forskningsbasering menar vi kan bli att läraren främst får inta rollen som passiva mottagare av forskning.

  • 541.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala University.
    Evidently, the Broker is the New Whiz-kid at the Education agora2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 542.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Sundberg, Eva
    Uppsala university.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Evidently, the Broker is the New Whiz-Kid at the Education Agora2018Ingår i: NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, s. 106-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 543.
    Adolfsson, Diana
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Pettersson, Kristin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Sjögren, Dennis
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Vad kostar din tröja?: En studie om hur textilföretag kan styra och kontrollera sina leverantörer i etiska frågor.2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Vad kostar din tröja?

    Datum: 2014-01-15

    Författare: Diana Adolfsson, Kristin Pettersson, Dennis Sjögren

    Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i ekonomistyrning 15 hp

    Handledare: Petter Boye

    Examinator: Thomas Karlsson

    Problem och Syfte: Globalisering har idag medfört att produktion och andra processer inom företag har förlagts i olika länder runt om i världen. Svenska textilföretag gör inköp främst från Asien och oftast ägs inte fabrikerna av företagen utan de har sin produktion placerad hos olika leverantörer. Negativa händelser inom textilindustrin kopplat till arbetsvillkor, miljö och djurskydd har under årens lopp avlöst varandra och högre krav på att företagen ska ta ett större ansvar i etiska och sociala frågor ställdes från olika intressenter. Dock medför antalet leverantörer tillsammans med andra faktorer som kulturella skillnader komplikationer inom uppföljningen av ställda krav. Huvudfokus i studien är att identifiera möjliga verktyg för att styra och kontrollera leverantörerna i etiska frågor. Vidare undersöks vilka svårigheter anställda i företagen upplever med styrningen och kontrollen vilket vi relaterar till intressenters krav värderingar och företagens strävan att leva upp till dessa. Slutligen kommer textilföretagens affärsrelation till leverantörerna undersökas och vad har de för betydelse för styrningsarbetet.

    Metod: Undersökningen är av kvalitativ karaktär där en abduktiv ansats tillämpats. Totalt genomfördes sex intervjuer för insamling av primärdata. Fem utgjordes av medelstora och stora företag inom textilbranschen och återstående med en universitetslärare på textilhögskolan i Borås. Ett utav de ledande textilföretagen inom CSR är H&M där insamlad information kommer från deras hemsida vilken ger uttömmande svar angående deras arbete inom området.

    Slutsats: Studien har identifierat nio verktyg företagen använder och kan använda sig av i arbetet med att styra och kontrollera leverantörerna i etiska frågor. Upplevda svårigheter angav anställda i företagen vara kulturella skillnader och geografiskt avstånd vilket leder till att intressenters krav och förväntningar blir svåra att leva upp till. Verktygen i studien som framkommit tillsammans med att bygga nära och långsiktiga relationer kan bidra till att skapa en verksamhet som lever upp till intressenters värderingar.

  • 544.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Möller, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Utomhusmiljöns möjlighter: miljöns betydelse för pedagogernas tankar om utomhusverksamhet på och kring förskolor.2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 545.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SV.
    Simanaityte, Grete
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SV.
    "Fullt Ös" kräver mer klös: Kommunikationsplanering för samhällsinformation riktat till ungdomar2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish tradition ”Valborgsmässoafton” is a holiday on which many people choose to get drunk. The risk that teenagers run around town while being intoxicated is huge and Kalmar municipality have, three years ago, created an event that contributes to a sober alternative. This alternative is the one-day festival “Fullt Ös” which is striving to get as many drunken teenagers off the streets, during this holiday, as possible.

    The event is successful among school students in the ages of 12 to 15 but has had less fortune in reaching the high school students in the ages of 15 to 18. Our thesis aims to help Kalmar municipality to adapt the festival, which occurs annually on the 30th of April, to become more attractive for high school students. This by doing quantitative and qualitative studies among the public high schools in Kalmar and by extension to already established theories.

    The results that we have gathered have all been compiled in this thesis and we have received the information that it takes big changes to attract the older target group that the municipality wants to reach. We have, therefore, compiled some advice to the municipality that will help them understand how they can improve a good initiative, by for example creating a festival that centers around live music, so that more high school students would gather to it. 

  • 546.
    Adolfsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Persson, Robert
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Musikbranschen: Från demo till upplevelse2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study has been to identify different actors and processes in music recording. We find this interesting since there have been a lot of changes in the music industry over the last years. Our ambition has been to point out different actors and their roles during the advent of recorded music, and identify different features and processes in the creation of music today and in the future. To fulfill our purpose we have had the following research question: What characterize, in a future perspective, the gathered process during the creation of recorded music from idea to delivery and experience?

    Method: We have used a qualitative approach for this study and we have conducted seven interviews with persons from different areas of the Music Industry and radio. These seven interviews gave us foundations for our analysis. We choose the qualitative method to come closer and get a deeper understanding of the studied topic.

    Conclusion: In the final chapter we present our conclusions of the study. We have found that there have been some changes of the traditional process and for the different actors that participate within the process of recorded music. We have identified that there are new opportunities for an artist and musicians to get a breakthrough in a business that are characterized of hard competition, since there are a lot of music in the market today. Another conclusion we have drawn is that the consumer has gained more power and contribute to the process through that they require more and more access to the artist. The underlying reasons for this change, and also for the transfer of power to the costumers, are the development of the technology which has forced the music business to adapt their business models to this change.

  • 547.
    Adolfsson, Helen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    The British hedgerow in Sweden: Dealing with spatial differences and reader differences related to the author-reader relationship and culture-specific referents aided by a translation-oriented text analysis model2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 548.
    Adolfsson, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Köper du något av en försäljare som du inte tycker om: En studie kring vad gymnasielärare anser vara fungerande relationer och hur dessa skapas2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet var ett försök att konkretisera vad gymnasielärare anser vara fungerande relationer och på vilket sätt de upplever att de skapar dessa. Undersökningen är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med fyra gymnasielärare. I resultatet framkommer lärarnas syn på kännetecken för en fungerande relation samt hur de uppfattar att de skapar fungerande relationer.

  • 549.
    Adolfsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Davidsson, Elias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Why even bother?: Exploring consumer perceived risks and benefits of online personalized advertisements2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of online personalized advertisements has drawn attention among firms, in efforts of acquiring and maintaining competitive advantage. By collecting individual consumer information, firms are able to personalize advertisements to specific individuals in online contexts.

    The collection and use of individuals’ personal information have given rise to privacy concerns among consumers. However, contemporary research displays disparate conclusions regarding the extent to which these privacy concerns influence the effectiveness of online personalized advertisements. In order to provide insights regarding this discrepancy, this study explored the theoretical foundations of consumer perceived benefits and risks, upon which contemporary research was based.

    Two focus groups were conducted to explore how consumers perceive benefits and risks of online personalized advertisements. Using pattern matching, the interpretation of the empirically gathered material implied that consumer perceived benefits, in form of perceived relevance, appears to be insufficient in appealing to the interests and preferences of consumers. Instead, consumers’ perceptions of relevance appear to be dependent on several elements.

    Furthermore, the findings imply that consumers are aware of the risks through personal information disclosure, yet appear to be unconcerned by them. Instead, consumers seem to possess a sense of hopelessness in online environments, that attempts to restrict the availability of their personal information are pointless.

  • 550.
    Adolfsson Hultgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Gidlöf, Gunilla
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Hur upplever ungdomar, på väg att lämna gymnasieskolan, makten över sin framtid?: En kvantitativ undersökning.  2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var i första hand att studera ungdomars upplevelse av makt över sin framtid direkt efter avslutad gymnasietid. Med en enkätundersökning undersöktes 85 ungdomar i årskurs 3 på gymnasieskolans omvårdnadsprogram, samhälls­vetenskapliga program, tekniska program, handelsprogram och naturvetenskapliga program gällande variablerna personlig attityd, subjektiva normer (socialt tryck) och upplevd kontroll. 

    Ingen skillnad framkom mellan yrkes- eller studieförberedande program i attityd till beteende, däremot framkom skillnader vid jämförelse mellan de olika programmen, eleverna på omvårdnadsprogrammet hade en statistiskt signifikant mer positiv attityd till det egna beteendet jämfört med det naturvetenskapliga programmet. En signifikant skillnad framkom också mellan könen i attityd till beteende och upplevd kontroll där tjejerna värderade dessa variabler högre.

    Resultatet kan förklaras med att det bland flickor ses som mer acceptabelt att studera medan killarna snarare riskerar att få en låg status om de fokuserar för mycket på skolan. Då det i denna studie framkommer att attityden till det egna beteendet var en bra bit över medelvärdet visar den på att en positiv attityd till att det egna beteendet är viktigt. De subjektiva normerna visade att den sociala pressen inte var så stark hos respondenterna vilket är positivt då det visar att eleverna inte upplever sig styrda av den egna sociala gruppen.

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