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  • 51.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schweigler, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Serrano, Erik
    Lund University.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hochreiner, Georg
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Integrative experimental characterization and engineering modeling of single-dowel connections in LVL2016In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 107, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to realistically and consistently elucidate and subsequently simulate the load displacement behavior of single-dowel connections, the material behavior of the individual components, namely steel dowels and wood, needs to be investigated. The behavior of slotted-in, single-dowel steel-to-laminated veneer lumber (LVL) connections with dowel diameters of 12 and 20 mm is thoroughly discussed here in relation to steel dowel and LVL properties. In addition to connection tests at different load-to-grain directions of 0, 45 and 90, the corresponding embedment behavior of LVL was tested up to dowel displacements of three times the dowel diameter. The material behavior of steel dowels was studied by means of tensile and 3-point bending tests and accompanying finite element simulations. A pronounced nonlinear behavior of the single-dowel connections was observed for all load-to-grain directions. In case of loading perpendicular to the grain, a significant hardening behavior was obvious. Due to the anisotropic material properties of wood, enforcing a loading direction of 45 to the grain resulted in an additional force perpendicular to the load direction which was quantified in a novel biaxial test setup. Thus, a comprehensive and consistent database over different scales of observations of dowel connections could be established, which subsequently was exploited by means of engineering modeling. The comparison of experimental and numerical data illustrates the potential of the engineering modeling approach to overcome drawbacks of current design regulations, which are unable to appropriately predict stiffness properties of dowel connections. Moreover, the quasi-elastic limit of dowel connections was calculated and discussed by means of the model. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 52.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modeling displacement path dependence in nailed sheathing-to-framing connections2017In: CompWood 2017 - Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: Programme & Books of Abstracs / [ed] Josef Füssl, Thomas K. Bader, Josef Eberhardsteiner, Vienna: TU verlag , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Path dependence in OSB sheathing-to-framing nailed connection revealed by biaxial testing2018In: Journal of Structural Engineering, ISSN 0733-9445, E-ISSN 1943-541X, Vol. 144, no 10, article id 04018197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OSB sheathing-to-wood framing connection, as typically used in light-frame shear walls, was experimentally examined in a novel biaxial test setup with respect to possible path dependence of the load-displacement relation. The connection with an annular-ringed shank nail was loaded under displacement control following nine different displacement paths within the sheathing plane, which coincided at a number of points. In intersection points, resultant connection force, its orientation and work performed on the connection system to reach the specific point were calculated and compared. Evaluation of experiments revealed significant path dependence with respect to orientation of force resultants at path intersection points. However, magnitude of the forces and the work carried out showed relatively small dependence of the displacement path undertaken. Comparison of uniaxial connection tests with the European yield model demonstrated strong contribution of withdrawal resistance of the ringed shank nail to its lateral strength. Results of this type are a valuable basis to build better models when simulating such connections in wood structures.

  • 54.
    Balladares, Yandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Gomez, Matitas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mehmeti, Melis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Utveckling av ett online verktyg för beräkning av träkonstruktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector in Sweden has a big impact on the environment and new methods as well as new technology need to be developed in order to improve the situation. An online tool can be used as an aid in learning and to improve the knowledge. The thesis work comprises the development of an online tool and furthermore an investigation of how other online tools work and how they are designed.The goal and the purpose of the thesis was to create an online tool that can be implemented in the course Steel and Timber Structural Engineering at Linnaeus University. In order to help students with learning and to check calculations.The program that has been developed offers the ability to calculate the load bearing capacity of beams, pillars and connections with metal fasteners. The online tool is in an early stage and needs further. The surveys and interviews gave an insight to what functions need to be implemented in the future.

  • 55.
    Baradaran, Sam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Al-Wedd, Amir
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Arbetsberedningar på NCC: Undersökning om hur arbetsberedningar används som ett verktyg för att effektivisera produktionsprocessen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I byggbranschen påverkar planering omkostnader och kvalité vilket gör att det krävs en bra och noggrant planering innan ett byggprojekt påbörjas. Arbetsberedningar är ett planeringsverktyg som används vid genomförandefasen med syfte att effektivisera arbetet. Denna studie beskriver hur arbetsberedningar på NCC Construction AB används och vad den har för påverkan samt hur den kan förbättras. I denna studie har fyra av NCCs arbetsplatser undersökts, där både ledning och medarbetare intervjuats. Studien visar att arbetsberedningar på många sätt är ett uppskattat planeringsverktyg av ledning och ett bra underlag för yrkesarbetarna samtidigt som flera anser sig klara sig utan dem. Arbetsledningen inser dock att det borde lägga större fokus på att göra regelbunden uppföljning av arbetsberedningarna.   

    De intervjuade anser att få förändringar behöver göras vad gäller arbetsberedningens utformning och användning. Dock har förbättringsförslag hittats och föreslagits.

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  • 56.
    Beckne, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Palander, Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Energianalys av nybyggt trygghetsboende2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After 2045, greenhouse gases should be reduced to a zero level according to the Swedish parliament. Energy use in Sweden from residential and service sector is 40 % of the country´s total energy use. The study is based on an energy analysis of a multi-family building in Ronneby. The building is a trygghetsboende, which means unique living conditions for the residens. Actual energy use in the building is about 25 % higher than projected energy use. The main purpose of the study is to make energy calculations to match better with real specific energy use.

    The study is based on energy simulations, thermography and interviews of residents´ airing habits. Results from the simulations based on actual data, show an expected energy use similar to the measured values. Differences between the simulations depend on the unique conditions in the building, input data for ventilation and the building envelope elements. The conclusion is that living habits of residents in buildings have a decisive role in the buildings energy use.

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  • 57.
    Beijbom, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hög, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vad är bostadskvalitet?: En jämförelse mellan boendes och arkitekters uppfattning.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bygga bra bostäder är en viktig del i samhället eftersom de påverkar människors levnadssätt och standard. Det är därför av vikt att veta vad boendekvalitet är, för att sedan kunna anpassa byggandet och utformningen av bostäder därefter. Syftet med studien är att visa vad de boende anser är boendekvalitet och om det stämmer överens med dagens arkitekters projektering. I studien undersöks också om det går att se någon skillnad på boendekvalitet mellan stommaterialen trä och betong. Genom enkätundersökning erhölls data från åtta utvalda flerbostadshus som visade att upplevd boendekvalitet inte skilde mellan stommaterialen. Däremot visades skillnad mellan boende och arkitekter. Boende ansåg att parametrar som läget i staden, ljus/ljusinsläpp och storlek på lägenheten var viktigast. Arkitekter ansåg ljus/ljusinsläpp, läget i staden och naturliga material som viktigaste parametrarna vid projekterandet.

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  • 58.
    Beijbom, Mattias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Bojcic, Dino
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Uppföljning av energikrav för passivhusvillor, Vikaholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppvärmning av bostäder och lokaler står för en stor del av energianvändningen i Sverige. Energieffektiva byggnader som exempelvis passivhus bidrar till att sänka energianvändningen. Det nya bostadsområdet Vikaholm i Växjö kommun strävar efter en långsiktig och hållbar utveckling, där byggandet av passivhus uppmuntras. För att säkerställa att passivhus byggts krävs en verifieringsmetod som garanterar att villkoren i kravspecifikationen FEBY12 följts. Syftet med denna studie är att föreslå en metod för verifiering av passivhus för Växjö kommun. Om metoden fungerar väl kan även andra kommuner nyttja metoden i framtiden.

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  • 59.
    Bengtsdottir, Fanney
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hagerup Norrman, Christel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Att bygga energisnålt med olika ventilationssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A ventilation system in a building provides sufficient amount of fresh air and create a negative pressure to reduce moisture-related problems. Today several ventilation systems, some with different energy recovery, are available and those inherence different features and limitations. This study examines differences between exhaust air ventilation without heat recovery (F), exhaust air heat pump (FVP) and exhaust and supply air ventilation with a rotating heat exchanger (FTX) in nearly zero-energy houses. Three single-family houses in Kronoberg County were strategically chosen for the data collection, measurements, interviews and calculations to evaluate and compare their system’s performances in terms of thermal comfort, air circulation, heat recovery effects, energy use and financial attractiveness. The results show that the criteria for thermal comfort are satisfied and the specific energy consumption are within the current requirements in all these houses. Under the period of investigation, the house without heat recovery requires minimum quantity of electricity for ventilation system where as the house with FVP is the most energy efficient. Also, the house with an FVP shows to be the most cost-efficient with lowest accumulated costs. The results are limited for a specific outdoor climate during the studied period. Therefore, examinations over a longer term in different contexts are recommended for a more comprehensive view.

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  • 60.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Klimatsimulering av ett kyrktorn uppfört i sten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att utreda klimatsimuleringsprogrammen IDA-ICE och WUFI, hur dessa program kan komplettera varandra och användas till simulering av kyrktorn som blivit byggda i sten. IDA-ICE har av tidigare utredningar klargjort att detta program inte redovisa fuktlagring i konstruktioner vilket WUFI gör, därav valet till dessa program. Klimatsimuleringarna utförs i Nässjö gamla kyrkas torn som är byggt av stenblock som sammanfogats med kalkbruk.

    Utredningen görs med hjälp av klimatloggar som mäter temperatur och relativ fuktighet. Dessa mätinstrument placeras ut i Nässjö gamla kyrkas torn för mätning. Värdena för klimatloggarna jämförs med simuleringarnas värden från IDA-ICE och WUFI.

    Klimatsimuleringarna visar sig inte ge samma värden av temperatur eller relativ fuktighet gentemot klimatloggarnas uppmätta värden. Klimatdatan i IDA-ICE skiljer sig mycket från verkligheten vilket bland annat påverkar resultatet. WUFI simulerar endimensionella punkter för konstruktioner vilket innebär att uppbyggnaden av ytterväggarna i programmet inte ger en rättvis bild mot verkligheten, vilket också påverkar resultatet. Resultatet ger därför en bristfällighet till användning av dessa simuleringsprogram, för utredning av klimatet i kyrktorn som är byggda i sten. Det är istället säkrare att använda klimatloggar vid utredningar av klimat, för denna typ av byggnad, då dessa, rätt kalibrerade är tillförlitliga.

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  • 61.
    Bengtsson, Pär
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wallin, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Analysis of a Prefabricated Concrete Skew Angle Slab Bridge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated concrete elements are widely used in the construction industry today. With advantages such as time savings, increased safety at the construction site and minimized material usage, prefab becomes a major challenger to the traditional on-site casting construction method. However, constructing a bridge in concrete still presents challenges when using prefab as a construction method. Hence, more research in the area is needed. This master thesis has been studying the behavior of a prefabricated skew angle slab and the connection between the slab and wall elements of a bridge. The study was conducted using a finite element software, where three 3D-models of skew angle slabs were created. The three models had different skew angles (0, 15 and 30 degrees) and crossed the same path. The models could represent both the slab and the slab-wall connection. The finite element analysis showed that slabs with angles up to 15 degrees could be designed as a straight bridge. However, when the skew angle increases to 30 degrees, the behavior of the slab and connection changes significantly. Furthermore, the results show that a stress concentration occurs in the obtuse corner and that the stress increases when the skew angle increases. Moreover, there is a slight uplift in the acute corner when the skew angle increases to 30 degrees.

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  • 62.
    Berg, Therese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Malmberg, Olivia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Utformning av skollokaler och deras inredning: Ett underlag vid byggnation av skolhus grundat på pedagogens åsikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget finns en problematik i att verksamhetenssyn på skolhusens utformning och deras inredning inte alltid når fram till arkitekten som har till uppgift att utforma ett skolhus. Därav undersöker detta examensarbete pedagogernas syn på skolhusens utformning och inredning, med avsikt att föra dessa två parter samman i ett gemensamt underlag om hur skolhus kan utformas på bästa sätt. Ur resultatet går att utläsa att pedagogerna är entydiga i många frågor som rör utformningen av skolhus. Trots detta visar den utförda fältstudien i undersökningen på att skolhusen inte ser ut så idag.

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  • 63.
    Berkowicz, Kasper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Undersökning av byggprodukter och material för Svanenmärkt byggnad2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svanen är Nordens officiella miljömärkningssystem, där många olika produkter kancertifieras. Detta arbete är en del av processen för byggföretaget GBJ Bygg att uppnåSvanenmärkning av ett av sina typhus. I arbetet utförs en energiberäkning på husetför att undersöka om huset klarar Svanens energikrav. Vidare undersöks en rad olikabyggprodukter och -material och jämförs mot Svanens krav. Syftet med arbetet är att skapa en lista med produkter och material som GBJ kan använda vid byggnation av ett Svanenmärkt hus, samt att ge förslag på eventuella ändringar som behöver göras för att huset ska klara Svanens energikrav. Energiberäkningen gjordes med hjälp av datorprogrammet VIP Energy, i samråd med en energisakkunnig ingenjör, medan undersökningen av produkterna främst gjordes via insamling av information från olika hemsidor och dokument hämtade fråninternet, samt kommunikation med tillverkarna. Resultaten visar att ändringar krävs för att huset skall uppfylla energikravet. Av 81 undersökta produkt anses 58 kunna godkännas för användning vid byggnation av en Svanenmärkt byggnad.

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  • 64.
    Björk de Farfalla, Carl-Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Robin, Johansson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hantering av byggfukt, med speciell fokus på produktion av golvkonstruktioner i betong2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggfukt är förekommande under produktionen av byggnader. Studien ämnar undersöka hur byggbranschen hanterar fuktproblemtiken för nygjuten betong samtbekräfta eller dementera tillförlitligheten hos prognosverktygen Torka S och BI Dry.

    Genom kvalitativa intervjuer med byggbranschen konstateras det att branschen ärmedveten om problematiken och aktivt tillämpar metoder som ByggaF för attfuktsäkra. Den viktigaste styrparametern byggbranschen tillämpar för att minimera betonguttorkning är att öka mängden cement i betongen.

    Den kvantitativa undersökningen kan konstatera att prognosverktygen, Torka S ochBI Dry, saknar tillförlitlighet då de inte kan simulera tillsatsämnen som används i dagens cement.

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  • 65.
    Björklund, Fanny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Bramfors, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    An architectural perspective on schools in the Philippines: A research into the importance of a classroom’s physical environment and possible improvements for a better learning environment2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The physical environment in schools is an important factor that benefits the educational quality and has an essential role in the student's learning process. In the Philippines the physical environment is underdeveloped in the schools, since the main focus is on developing a basic foundation and on making sure that every child can go to school. This thesis studied the classrooms' physical environment in three selected schools in the Philippines. It presents improvements of the classroom’s physical environment. This study can be used as indicative guidelines when designing classrooms in the Philippines.

    This study is supported by the Minor Field Study scholarship, founded by SIDA.

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    An architectural perspective on schools in the Philippines
  • 66.
    Björksund, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Berntsson, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Kopplingar mellan massiva prefabricerade plattor och ytterväggar2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de mest kritiska momenten mellan prefabricerade betongelement är förankringen. Den är en viktig del för att t.ex. kunna undvika fortskridande ras. Abetong AB är ett av landets ledande betongföretag inom prefabricerade betongelement och de använder tre olika förankringsmetoder. Målet är att ta reda på kapaciteten för de olika förankringsmetoderna mellan prefabricerade betongelement. Syftet är att få fram underlag för att kunna förespråka eller avråda från olika förankringsmetoder. För att kunna förespråka eller avråda från de olika metoderna har hänsyn tagits till, kapaciteter vid dragprover, de beräknade konbrottskapaciteterna, kopplingstid, hur lång tid varje förankring tar att koppla till elementen, samt kostnad, styckpris och arbetskostnad.

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    Kopplingar mellan massiva prefabricerade plattor och ytterväggar
  • 67.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Berg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Distortion in laminated veneer products exposed to relative-humidity variations: experimental studies and finite-element modelling2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 3768-3779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the product may become distorted after moulding. This study focused on the influence of fibre orientation deviation for individual veneers on the distortion of a moulded shell. The distortion of 90 cross-laminated shells of the same geometrical shape, consisting of seven peeled birch veneers, were studied under relative humidity variation. All the veneers were straight-grained in the longitudinal-tangential plane, but to simulate a deviation in fibre orientation, some of the individual veneers were oriented at an angle of 7° relative to the main orientation of the other veneers in the laminate. A finite element model (FEM) was applied to study the possibility of predicting the results of a practical experiment. The study confirms the well-known fact that deviation in fibre orientation influences shape stability. The results also show how the placement of the abnormal veneer influences the degree of distortion. From this basic knowledge, some improvements in the industrial production were suggested. However, the FE model significantly underestimated the results, according to the empirical experiment, and it did not show full coherence. The survey shows the complexity of modelling the behaviour of laminated veneer products under changing climate conditions and that there is a great need to improve the material and process data to achieve accurate simulations. Examples of such parameters that may lead to distortion are density, annual ring orientation in the cross section of the veneer, the orientation of the loose and tight sides of the veneer, and parameters related to the design of the moulding tool.

  • 68.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Resource utilization in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used in an operation, and it is usually determined as the ratio of what is consumed in the production. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often taking complex shapes, using a raw material with high variation, and requiring machining processes that create scrap material that needs to be handled. Therefore, maintaining high productivity in industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports on productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and a processing station. The study seeks to increase the understanding of production-related problems in this industry. This research has been based on productivity measurement as well as on interactive discussions between researchers and workers. Measurement of cycle times indicated bottlenecks in the processing cell. The discussion led via cycle times, processing residues and chatter marks to an examination of the foundation and rigidity of the CNC-machine in the processing cell. The study indicated that the performance of the CNC machine did not correspond to expectations. The machine was too weak to handle the required output in an efficient manner. Thus, there is a need to determine the performance expected before a machine or machine group is purchased. An update of the existing purchasing literature and its dissemination will support the crystallization of the purchasing process as a way forward to support the industry.

  • 69.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Downtime causes in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: 23rd International Wood Machining Seminar Proceedings / [ed] Marcin Zbiec and Kazimierz Orlowski, Warsaw, Poland: The Polish Chamber of Commerce of Furniture Manufacturers , 2017, p. 28-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used for an operation. Most often, the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it determines productivity. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often with complex shapes, a raw material with high variation, and machining processes that create scrap materials that need to be handled. Therefore, keeping a high productivity in the industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and processing station. The study seeks to increase understanding of production-related problems in this industry. The research has been using productivity measurement as well as interactive discussions between researchers and workers.

    Measurement of downtime causes were made for 20 days, for a total of approximately 300 hours. The production cell had 1,299 minutes of stops. Of those, 450 minutes were one-time events. The rest were intermittent disturbances. Many of them could be explained by the dust-laden air and processing residues but were also related to veneer and adhesive. There is a need for determining material and processing parameters; however, the first priority is cleaning the factory.

    From a social perspective, some other issues must be added to the discussion of this paper. First and foremost, the business has gone through a transformation from a family business to a privately held firm. From the non-family employee’s view, this is a huge change. This has resulted in unclear roles and responsibilities within the company, which has also affected the productivity of the company.

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  • 70.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Pfriem, Alexander
    Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Temporary buildings in reusable lightweight material design2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need and market for temporary buildings for various purposes, including largeconstruction projects in the tourism and events sectors or in civil protection. This paper gives an overview about the useof reusable lightweight materials in temporary buildings. Based on a project proposal submitted to the 7th framework, anew concept of temporary buildings is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of the premanufacturing of asmall number of parts and wooden components and a flexible and modular erection of the temporary building. Thefocus is on fast establishment with a maximum of three persons. A flexible and modular extension is possible.Assembling and disassembling the individual components with novel connect systems, adapted from the furnitureindustry, is proposed.This project aims to bring these concepts into new temporary buildings with new, reusable, and flexible lightweightdesign.

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  • 71.
    Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    Glafo, SE-35196 Växjö, Sweden.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    Glafo, SE-35196 Växjö, Sweden.
    Schander, Matilda
    Glafo, SE-35196 Växjö, Sweden.
    Serrano, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Silfverhielm, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    Glafo, SE-35196 Växjö, Sweden.
    Glass, timber and adhesive joints - Innovative load bearing building components2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 55, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural glass-timber composite beams and shear wall elements were investigated in terms of their mechanical behaviour, energy performance and their LCA performance. The load bearing components were manufactured using annealed float glass which was adhesively bonded to the timber with different adhesives. The results show, among other things, that is is possible to join the two materials glass and timber and obtaining a non-brittle failure of the beams. The shear wall elements have the potential of being used as stabilising elements and load bearing walls in buildings of up to 4 storeys height. It is possible to combine glass and timber in a load bearing shear wall without loss of energy performance of a building or without loosing LCA performance. In addition to these benefits, the timber glass composite wall has, of course the benefit of being transparent.

  • 72.
    Bocko, Jozef
    et al.
    Technical University of Košice, Slovakia.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nohajová, Viera
    Technical University of Košice, Slovakia.
    Application of Evolutionary Algorithm in Elasticity2015In: Applied Mechanics and Materials, ISSN 1660-9336, E-ISSN 1662-7482, Vol. 816, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces evolutionary algorithms and their utilization in mechanicalengineering. First part of this work describes evolutionary algorithms and their characteristics. Themain body of evolutionary algorithms, the selection methods for parents and the types ofreproduction are explained in the next part of this article. Termination conditions are also discussed.Finally, the application of evolutionary algorithms to a problem in mechanical engineering isdescribed. Thereby, the material parameters for a Bodner-Partom model describing viscoelastoplasticmaterial behavior are determined by fitting data from experiments on Aluminum testsamples under tension load.

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  • 73.
    Bocquet, Jean-Francois
    et al.
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Lemaitre, Romain
    University of Lorraine, France.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Design recommendations and example calculations for dowel-type connections with multiple shear planes2018In: Design of Connections in Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402/WG3 / [ed] C. Sandhaas, J. Munch-Andersen, P. Dietsch, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2018, p. 241-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling approaches, for the determination of load distribution in later-ally loaded connections, as well as for the assignment of stiffness properties of con-nections for the structural analysis, are summarized in this contribution. The effect of the nonlinearity and the load-to-grain orientation dependence of connection slip, of elastic deformation in the surrounding wood matrix, and of the deviation between load and displacement direction are discussed. Comparison of various models demonstrates the pronounced effect of the load-to-grain orientation dependence and the nonlinearity in connection slip on the load distribution, particularly in case of moment loading. The effect of elastic deformation in the wood matrix on the load distribution increases with increased size of connections, even more pronounced when connections are loaded by a shear force perpendicular to the grain. In case of normal force loading, the non-uniform load distribution due to elastic deformation in the wood matrix reduces rapidly with increased relative connection displacement. Pros and cons of the modeling approaches as well as necessary input data are dis-cussed in relation to the design process and European standardization. 

  • 74.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Stiffness and damping evaluation of Elastomers in different setups2015In: Proceedings of the Internoise 2015 conference, Society of Experimental Mechanics (SEM) , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In timber buildings, elastomers are commonly used to decrease the sound transmission between apartments. Detailed properties of the elastomers are needed in order to model them in a correct yet computational efficient manner. In earlier studies, dynamic experiments have been made on elastomer strips half embedded. However, the sidewise effects need to be further evaluated. In this study, the elastomers are evaluated quasi-statically in different directions, having continuous as well as intermittent distributions, being plane supported or half embedded. An FE-model has been developed using data stemming from the quasi-static tests together with damping estimates stemming from vibrational tests.

  • 75.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Damping elastomers for wooden constructions: Dynamic properties2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastomers are commonly used to decrease the sound transmission between apartments in timber framed houses. Inprevious studies, different types of connections have been evaluated. However, the frequency dependent dynamic propertiesin different directions of a connection including elastomers are not fully investigated yet. Previous studies have actuallyshown that elastomers cause the vibrations to increase in the direction perpendicular to the applied load within the lowfrequency span. The properties of the elastomers are needed in order to model the dynamic behaviour and thereby be ableto predict sound and vibration transmissions in wooden houses in the future. With known properties, the elastomerconnections can be modelled using springs and dashpots. In this study, dynamic experiments have been made on elastomerstrips half embedded. The test setup has been subjected to various loads using an electromagnetic shaker. The responseshave been measured and evaluated using modal analysis. With different loads, non-linear characteristics of the elastomers’behaviour have been obtained. The elastomers have also been tested quasi-statically, to obtain a load-deflection curve.Finally, the estimated properties of the elastomers have been included in an FE model using springs and the analyticalresults are compared with the experimental results.

  • 76.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Ekevid, Torbjörn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    FE Modelling of Light Weight Wooden Assemblies: parameter study and comparison between analyses and experiments2014In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 73, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element (FE) analysis of a model representing a mock-up structure previously investigated experimentally is investigated in this study. The aim is to make a correlation and calibration between test and analysis of the full scale wooden structure; both eigenmodes and acceleration levels are compared. Large scatter is found in material properties used for light weight wooden structures in literature. In this study, a parameter evaluation is therefore made to show how different properties influence the dynamic behaviour of the structure. It is shown that the wood beam material properties influence the behaviour of the light weight wooden structure FE model most.

    Two types of junctions are modelled and evaluated; a tied connection is used to simulate screwed junctions and spring/dashpot elements are used to represent elastomer junctions between the floor and the walls. The springs and dashpots used to model the elastomer in the junction work well in the bearing direction but need to be improved to obtain correct rotational stiffness, shear motion and friction. There are still many unknown parameters in a complex wooden structure that remain to be investigated. However, the results presented in this paper add data to be used for FE modelling of a complex wooden structure.

  • 77.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    SP Trä.
    Model calibration of wooden structure assemblies: using EMA and FEA2014In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Quebec City, 10-14 August, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To predict and possibly, when needed to fulfil regularizations or other requirements, change the design to lower the impact sound transmission in light weight buildings prior to building, dynamically representative calculation models of assemblies are out most important. The quality of such models depends on the descriptions of the components themselves but also of the representation of the junction connecting the building components together. The material properties of commonly used components have a documented spread in literature. Therefore, to validate junction models, the dynamics of the assembly components at hand have to be known. Here, the dynamic properties of a number of component candidates are measured using hammer excited vibrational tests. Some of the components are selected to build up wooden assemblies which are evaluated both when they are screwed together and when they are screwed and glued together. The focus is here on achieving representative finite element models of the junctions between the building parts composing the assemblies.

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  • 78.
    Bolmsvik, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vercruysse, Adrien
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Stenberg, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vibration Distribution Due to Continous, Intermittent or Half Embedded Elastomer Connections in Wooden Constructions2016In: Proceeding of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), August 22-25, 2016 Vienna / [ed] Josef Eberhardsteiner, Wolfgang Winter, Alireza Fadai, Martina Pöll, Vienna: TU-MV Media Verlag , 2016, p. 2912-2920Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastomers are commonly used to decrease the sound transmission between apartments in timber framed houses. In previous studies, different types of elastomers have been evaluated experimentally. The wooden assemblies, in which elastomers were used in the connections, showed that elastomers cause the vibrations to increase in the direction perpendicular to the applied load within the low frequency span.

    In this study, the effects on acceleration, depending on how the elastomers are placed are studied. The cases having the elastomer continuous, placed as intermittent pieces or positioned half embedded in the junctions are evaluated.

    The frequency dependent properties of the elastomers are needed in order to model the dynamic behaviour and thereby be able to predict sound- and vibration transmission in wooden houses. Here, the properties of a wooden construction having different elastomers connections are studied to enable simulations of the behaviour of the elastomers in a FE model in the future.

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  • 79.
    Boman, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    En studie om fuktförhållanden i medeltida kyrka, Nättraby2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har genomförts i Nättraby kyrka efter ett förslag från Ankdammen konsult. Studien av Nättraby kyrka syftar till att ge ökad förståelse för hur fukt påverkar kyrkobyggnader. Under kartläggningen av kyrkans skick indikerades sprickor på inventarier, svarta fläckar på väggar, och mögel och rötangrepp i kryprummet. Författaren föreslår följande förbättringsåtgärder: Luft tätning runt dörrar och fönster, se över vattenledningssystemet, avlägsna organiskt material i krypgrunden, placera plastfolie intill grundmuren och på marken i krypgrunden samt installera adaptiv ventilation i krypgrunden.

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  • 80.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Su, Joseph
    National Research Council of Canada.
    Hoehler, Matthew
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Kimball, Amanda
    Fire Protection Research Foundation, USA.
    Experimental Fire-Simulator for Post-Flashover Compartment Fires2018In: SiF 2018 - The 10th International Conference on Structures in Fire, Belfast, UK, New University of Ulster, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of talltimber buildings around the world is rapidly increasing as a result of changes inregulations and the development of new engineered timber products. However, dueto the combustibility of timber, the fire safety of tall timber buildings hasbeen questioned. Building regulations for structural elements are based onfixed periods for which specimens shall resist exposure to a ‘standard fire’ ina fire resistance furnace. Because no distinction is made between the exposure in fire resistancetests of combustible and non-combustible specimens, less conventional testingmethods have been used for research of timber structures. Thisstudy aims to identify aspects that are important to simulate realistic fireconditions relevant to assess the structural performance of timber inpost-flashover fires. A test method is developed to replicate conditions incompartment fire tests using a furnace, that results in similar damage typesand rates of damage in the timber specimen. Based on conclusions drawn fromthese tests and test results obtained using other testing methods, theapplicability of fire resistance tests and other non-conventional tests arediscussed.

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  • 81.
    Bredberg, Clara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Karlström, Josephine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nyproduktionen av svenska bostäder - enformig och upplevelsefattig?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the planning in the buildings is strongly controlled by authorities, designed by architects and built by construction companies. Newly built dwellings are often considered as very similar. Open planning, parquetted flooring by oak and white walls are common words in description of todays’ dwellings. The priorities of the construction companies are to create functional space-efficient apartments and strive for cost-efficiency in the production. The use of prefabricated building parts and standardized modules contribute to a shortened building process. When comparing newly built dwelling with older dwellings from the beginning of the 20th century a great difference in materials and details can be found.

    The purpose has been to determinate whether the Swedish production is similar and unsatisfying. To determine if these theses are true, a number of construction companies located in Stockholm where contacted and interviewed. In the research a few real estate agents and other representatives from the industry participated to contribute with their own opinions and perspectives.

    A study of the building companies dwellings were examined during showings and evaluated by the different qualities described in the book Bostadens omätbara värden, by Ola Nylander and Kjell Forshed. These qualities describe both subjective perceptions and technical aspects which are supposed to contribute to a “good housing”.

    The research has been limited to co-operative apartments in tenement building in the area around Stockholm.

    80% of the interviewed agreed with the thesis that the Swedish production is undiversified and unsatisfying. Even if the companies would have received financial founding, they would not choose to give priority to the qualities that would improve the character and the individuality in the dwellings. The showings proved a lack of these qualities in most dwellings but also that some construction companies were distinguished from the others with their production.

    Hopes are that this composition will draw attention to the absence of the qualities regarding the experience of the dwellings and inspire to a greater variation and diversity in the otherwise similar production.

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  • 82.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fibres orientation on sawn surfaces: Can fibre orientation on sawn surfaces be determined by means of high resolution scanning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European journal of wood and wood products published an article regarding a new method to predict strength in structural timber (Olsson et al 2013). By determining the fibres orientation on all four surfaces of each board in sample of timber using a high resolution scanner the authors were able to achieve a coefficient of determination, R2, as high as 0.71 between bending strength and a new indicating property (IP). For the same sample of timber Olsson et al (2013) determined the R2 by axial dynamic excitation as 0.59. However, all boards used in their investigation were planed before scanning. This study examines if a high resolution scanner could be used to determine the fibre orientation on the surfaces of sawn timber boards of Norway spruce. Both band sawn surfaces and circular sawn surfaces were examined. The procedure in this investigation is described as follows. Firstly, both the band sawn and the circular sawn boards were scanned by a WoodEye® scanner and together with dimensions, weight and the first longitudinal resonance frequency, a modulus of elasticity (MOE) profile was calculated for each board. The MOE profiles were calculated according to Olsson et al (2013) i.e. by a transformation matrix based upon the fibres orientation and a compliance matrix based on material parameters for Norway spruce. Secondly, the corresponding MOE profiles were then determined after the boards had been planed. As a result two MOE profiles were determined for each board. An indicating property (IP) was defined as the lowest value along each MOE profile. To compare the results a regression analysis was performed in which the IPs defined before planing worked as predictor variable and IPs defined after planing worked as response variable. The band sawn band boards yielded an R2 = 0.94 and the circular sawn boards an R2 = 0.93. Further the standard error of estimate was SEE = 829.1 MPa and SEE = 640.9 MPa respectively. As a last step in this investigation the SEE values achieved in this study where implemented on to the sample Olsson et al (2013) used in their investigation.

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  • 83.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modelling and strength grading of structural timber and glulam lamellae on the basis of optical scanning and dynamic excitation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine strength grading of sawn timber is a sawmill process in which density, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and bending or tensile strength are predicted such that the timber can be assigned to strength classes. The predictions of these properties are performed using one or several so-called indicating properties (IPs), which represent a board property, or combination of board properties, measured non-destructively. A limitation of today’s strength grading is that the IPs applied in the industry for prediction of strength, in general, are based on rather weak statistical relationships between IPs and strength properties, which in turn results in poor material utilisation. It is well known that the strength of sawn timber is associated with the presence of knots and their surrounding fibre disorientations. Local fibre direction at surfaces of softwood can be determined by means of the light scattering that occur when a wood surface is illuminated by a dot-laser, i.e. by application of the so-called tracheid effect. Lately, IPs based on such measurements have been developed, and some of the suggested IPs have a strong statistical relationship to bending strength. The purposes of the research presented in this thesis are to contribute with knowledge of possibilities and limitations of the tracheid effect and of data of fibre directions in the vicinity of knots, to evaluate if information of fibre directions at surfaces of Norway spruce sawn timber can be used to achieve a better material utilisation of glulam lamellae and finger-jointed timber, and to provide insight regarding the grading regulations in Europe. Results presented herein show that knots and fibre direction within the interior of boards can be modelled on the basis of data obtained by means of the tracheid effect, but also that a previously proposed method to determine out-of-plane fibre angles gives poor accuracy. As regards grading of glulam lamellae, an IP based on fibre directions and dynamic MOE is proposed for prediction of tensile strength. The latter is used when grading glulam lamellae. Application of the proposed IP resulted in substantially increased yield in strength classes. It is also shown that this IP is applicable for boards with sawn as well as with planed surface finish. Regarding current regulations for machine strength grading in Europe, results indicate that grading based on global board properties give higher yield than what is appropriate.

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  • 84.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hu, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Evaluation of three dimensional fibre orientation in Norway spruce using a laboratory laser scanner2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses laser scanning and utilization of the tracheid effect for determination of local fibre orientation, which is decisive for strength and stiffness of timber. A newly developed laboratory laser scanner that can be used for high resolution and high precision scanning of wood surfaces is used for in-depth assessment of a single Norway spruce specimen that contains a knot. It is assumed that the specimen has a plane of symmetry, through the knot, and by splitting the specimen in two parts it is possible to determine fibre orientation on orthogonal planes. Hence, by relying on the assumption of symmetry, the fibre orientation in 3D space can also be determined. The results are used to evaluate the possibility of utilizing the tracheid effect for determination of the out-of-plane fibre angle of an investigated surface. Furthermore, the results are used for verification of a theoretical fibre orientation model that has often been used by researchers.

  • 85.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hu, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tracheid effect scanning and evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane fibre direction in Norway spruce using2018In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 411-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local fiber direction is decisive for both strength and stiffness in timber. In-plane fiber direction on surfaces of timber can be determined using the so-called tracheid effect which is frequently used in both research and industry applications. However, a similar established method does not exist for measuring the out-of-plane angle, also known as diving angle. The purposes of this article were to evaluate if the tracheid effect can also be used to determine, with reasonable accuracy, the out-of-plane angle in Norway spruce and to verify an existing mathematical model used to calculate the fiber direction in the vicinity of knots. A newly developed laboratory laser scanner was applied for assessment of fiber directions in a single Norway spruce specimen containing a knot. It was assumed that the specimen had a plane of symmetry through the center of the knot, and by splitting the specimen through this plane into two parts, it was possible to make measurements on orthogonal planes. The results showed that the out-of-plane angle could not be determined with very high accuracy and the difficulties related to this objective were analyzed. Regarding the mathematical model of fiber direction in the vicinity of a knot, fiber directions calculated on the basis of this model agreed well with experimentally obtained fiber directions, but successful application of the model requires that the geometry of the knot is known in detail.

  • 86.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modelling 3D orientation of knots in timber on the basis of dot laser scanning and the tracheid effect2015In: / [ed] Josef Eberhardsteiner and Michael Kaliske, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing research concerns the possibility of determining the 3D orientation of wood fibres within the entire volume of a wooden board using surface information from laser scanning. Previous research, Olsson and Oscarsson [1], has shown that the fibre orientation of side boards can be determined on the basis of such information. The present research is extended to also comprise boards cut from the centre of the log and a first step in this work is to establish 3D models of knots in boards on the basis of information from dot laser scanning of surfaces.

    In comparison with other approaches aiming at 3D models of knots and wood fibre orientation, e.g. Guindos and Guaita[2] and Hackspiel et al. [3], the present model relies to a larger extent on the actual fibre orientation measured on each individual board, rather than on general assumption and mathematical models of typical fibre orientation alone.  

    The fact that all data needed for the model can be sampled in sawmill production speed means that developed models could be used as a basis for advanced strength grading methods, for grading with respect to shape stability and for other purposes of industrial interest.

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  • 87.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Prediction of tensile strength of sawn timber: definitions and performance of indicating properties based on surface laser scanning and dynamic excitation2020In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 53, p. 1-20, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of wood irregularities such as knots are decisive for the mechanical properties of sawn timber, and efficient utilisation of timber requires methods by which grade determining properties can be predicted with high accuracy. In the glulam and sawmilling industries today, there is a potential and a need for more accurate prediction methods. This paper concerns the performance of a set of indicating properties calculated by means of data from surface laser scanning, dynamic excitation and X-ray scanning, the latter used to obtain boards’ average density. A total number of 967 boards of Norway spruce originating from Finland, Norway and Sweden were used to determine statistical relationships between the indicating properties and the grade determining properties used to grade sawn timber into T-classes. Results show that the indicating properties give coefficients of determination to tensile strength as high as 0.70. Furthermore, results also show that laser scanning of boards with sawn surface finish give basis for almost as accurate grading as what scanning of planed boards do. The results imply that more accurate grading of timber into T-classes is possible by application of a new set of indicating properties. This paper is part one of a series of two papers. In the second paper, two models to derive settings and calculate yield in different strength classes using the indicating properties presented herein are compared and discussed.

  • 88.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Prediction of tensile strength of sawn timber: models for calculation of yield in strength classes2020In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 53, p. 1-15, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, strength classes for structural timber and glulam lamellae are defined by minimum requirements of characteristic values of the grade determining properties (GDPs). To fulfill these minimum requirements of characteristic values in the daily production at sawmills, indicating properties (IPs) to GDPs are calculated for each board and based on predetermined limits of the IPs (settings) boards are assigned to the graded class, or rejected. The aims of this paper is to address and discuss two different grading procedures/models that can be applied when settings for IPs that reflects a local board property are derived and to show how the yield in different T-classes depend on the model applied. It is not always that a board’s weakest cross-section is evaluated in a destructive test. An IP representing a local board property can therefore be determined either as the lowest property of the tested part of the board or as the lowest property along the whole board when applied to derive settings. Results presented in this paper show that too low settings and too large yields are obtained when the latter IP is employed. Similarly, IPs reflecting a global board property, like axial dynamic MOE, also give too low settings and too high yield in strength classes. This paper is the second and closing part of a series of two paper on prediction of GDPs and procedures for grading sawn timber into T-classes.

  • 89.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Three dimensional knot models based on surface laser scanning2015In: Proceedings 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23-25 September, 2015. / [ed] Ross, Robert J.; Gonçalves, Raquel; Wang, Xiping,, Madison, USA: USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory , 2015, Vol. 19, p. 83-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most machine strength grading methods of today result in limited grading accuracy and poor yield in higher strength classes. A new and more accurate grading method utilizing laser scanning technique to determine the in-plane fibre directions on board surfaces was recently approved for the European market. In this, however, no consideration is taken to the out-of-plane direction of the fibres. A first step towards scanning-based 3D models of the fibre orientation is the establishment of 3D knot models. In this investigation laser scanning was used to identify knot surfaces on longitudinal board surfaces. By means of developed algorithms knot surfaces that belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified. All knots with surface areas larger than 100 mm2 were correctly identified and modeled in 3D. This is a promising starting point for further development of the new grading method based on laser scanning.

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  • 90.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Three-dimensional modelling of knots and pith location in Norway spruce boards using tracheid-effect scanning2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 725-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knots and the orientation of fibres in timber are decisive for the stiffness and strength of boards. Due to large property variations between members, strength grading is necessary. High resolution information of the orientation of fibres, both on surfaces and within members, would enable development of more accurate grading methods than those available today. A step towards three-dimensional (3D) models of the fibre orientation of the entire board volume is the establishment of 3D knot models based on scanning. The light from a dot laser illuminating the surface of a softwood board will, due to the tracheid effect, spread more along the fibres than across resulting in the dot entering an elliptical shape. In this investigation both the shape of the ellipse and the direction of its major axis were used to estimate the 3D fibre orientation on board surfaces. Knot surfaces were identified where the angle between the estimated 3D fibre direction and an approximated direction of the board’s pith exceeded a threshold value. By means of algorithms based on polar coordinates, knot surfaces which belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified and as a result the position, orientation and volume of each knot were determined. Based on this information, a more accurate position of the board’s pith along the board was calculated. The established models showed good agreement with physical boards. The models constitute a promising starting point for further development of strength grading methods based on tracheid-effect scanning.

  • 91.
    Buh gelle, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Marusic, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Alhamed, Yousif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vad påverkar kommunerna i deras val av upphandlingsform?2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Enligt Boverkets rapport ”Behov av bostadsbyggande” uppskattar man att det behövs ett tillskott av drygt 705 000 nya bostäder fram till 2025. För att minska bostadsbristen och för att få fram ett kostnadseffektivt byggsystem har Sveriges allmännyttiga bostadsföretag (SABO) upphandlat ramavtalskontrakt med flera företag och erbjuder då nyckelfärdiga flerbostadshus i olika kategorier, storlekar och prisnivåer. För att underlätta upphandlingen kan bostadshus med ramavtal avropas av de kommunala bostadsbolagen.

    SABO beskriver att deras pris ligger tjugofem procent under branschens genomsnittliga pris. Ändå har endast 60 av 290 kommunala bostadsbolag (som är medlemmar i organisationen) använt sig av det befintliga avtalet. Arbetet åsyftar sig till att ta reda på vad som påverkar kommunerna i deras val av upphandlingsform, samt ta reda på om ramavtalet erbjuder det billigaste bostadskonceptet marknaden har att erhålla.

    De underlag som ligger till grund för arbetet är en enkätundersökning, intervjuer och en observerad fallstudie som jämför byggprocessen i ett traditionellt upphandlat objekt med ett objekt som upphandlats med ett ramavtal. Intervjuerna har använt sig av en halvstrukturerad intervjusform. Arbetet baserar sig på insamlad primärdata från enkätundersökningen.

    Resultatet i studien belyser att faktorerna som påverkar kommuner i valet av upphandlingsform är flera, det innefattas bl.a. av detaljplan, byggprocess och slutkostnad. Den största anledningen som påverkar kommunerna i deras val av upphandling är detaljplanen. Enligt resultatet från fallstudien kan det konstateras att ramavtalet är billigare, även om det inte är så mycket som 25%.

    För att få fler kommuner att använda SABOs produkter bör bättre produkter som inte begränsas av kommunernas särkrav i detaljplanerna tas fram. Attraktiviteten och utformningen på produkten bör också förbättras. Det behövs tas fram fler produkter som lämpar sig i olika kommuner och demografier. Dessutom bör SABO och entreprenadföretagen marknadsföra sig gentemot politiker för att öka kunskapen kring ramavtalet och kringgå tjänstemännens inflytande.

    En fortsättning av arbetet skulle göras där det görs en rikstäckande jämförelse mellan traditionellt upphandlade objekt och med ramavtals koncept i respektive kommun för att dra en generell slutsats om ekonomiska förutsättningar.

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  • 92.
    Burefjord-Fors, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Elbrink, Miriam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Urban Komplettering för en Stad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Spretande och utglesning är ett problem i många svenska städer. Detta ökar då ny mark, relativt oplanerat, tas i anspråk för att expandera staden. Komplementbebyggelse är ett sätt att motverka den spretande utglesningen. Forskning bedrivsäven kring hur kollektivtrafiksanslutningar och gröna ytor påverkar en stadsutveckling. I detta arbete har ett förslag på hur en strötomt i Växjö kan nyttjas till komplementbebyggelse. I förslaget ingår två byggnader i ett sammanhang som kan bidra till att skapa en attraktiv stadskärna.

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  • 93.
    Bülow Angeling, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Weight reduction of concrete poles for the Swedish power line grid: Using a Finite Element Model to optimize geometry in relation to load requirements2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of an eventual ban of creosote-impregnated products, alternative materials for poles used in the electrical grid are needed. Concrete is one alternative and spun concrete poles have been manufactured for the Swedish grid before. These poles are still in use since the high strength and good functioning. However, they weigh too much in terms of the way that poles are assembled on the grid today. Therefore, a study comparing the capacity of different geometries, resulting in lower weight, is of interest. 

    In this Master’s Thesis, crack initiation and compressive failure in concrete poles are examined by creating FE-models in the software BRIGADE/Plus, using concrete damage plasticity. Thus, guidance is provided about how thin the concrete walls can be made without risking failure – which also means how low the weight of such a pole can be.

    The failure most likely to occur is a compressive failure in the concrete with a ductile behavior. The result shows that a geometry change, which implies a thinner concrete wall, is possible. This means a weight reduction between 30-75 % or even more, depending on which network the poles are designed for.

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  • 94.
    Bülow Angeling, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wikell, Sebastian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Detaljstudie av tryckbrott i betongsliprar: Samband mellan tryckprovsresultat och val av dimensioneringsmetod2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of the calculation data from Abetong and statistics from pressure tests shows that the sleepers can handle more load than the calculations show. In this study, an evaluation of used calculation methods has been made and a comparison between different principles of dimensioning to get as close to the result from the pressure tests as possible.

    Calculations with rectangular stress distribution and idealized parabola-rectangle diagram showed that the second alternative gave a bit higher value on the sleeper bending moment capacity, but the difference did not explain why the real bending moment capacity is so much higher than the calculated one.

    According to this study confined concrete gave a larger capacity than the previous calculations. With regards to that effect the compressive strength of the concrete almost doubled, which together with an increased critical strain gave a bending moment capacity very close the one obtained from the pressure tests. This study concludes that the confined concrete effect should be considered when calculating the concrete strength. This also means that there is a possibility to reduce the concrete strength of Abetong’s sleeper model A26 from C58/70 to C50/60. 

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    Detaljstudie Tryckbrott
  • 95.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Analytical models for splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls based on fracture mechanics2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 165-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints and the bottom rail will be subjected to crosswise bending, leading to possible splitting failure of the rail. In order to use these plastic design methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. In two earlier experimental programmes, the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail has been studied. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the side surface of the bottom rail. In this article, a fracture mechanics approach for the two failure modes is used to evaluate the experimental results. The comparison shows a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. The failure mode is largely dependent on the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail. The fracture mechanics models seem to capture the essential behaviour of the splitting modes and to include the decisive parameters.

  • 96.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Comparison of models and tests on bottom rails in timber frame shear walls experiencing uplift2015In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 94, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present two different studies: one experimental study and one where analytical models developed to calculate the splitting failure capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls are evaluated and validated. The experimental study was divided into three parts with specimens matched to each other: (1) first the splitting capacity and failure mode of bottom rails subjected to uplift were studied; (2) then material properties such as tensile strength perpendicular to the grain; and (3) fracture energy were determined by testing specimens cut from the specimens belonging to study (1). The experimental results were compared with models based on a linear fracture mechanics approach presented earlier, using as input values results from (2) and (3). Almost all tested models show good agreement with the test results. The models showing the best agreement have been selected and proposed to be used as basis for calculation of the splitting failure capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 97.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls with double-sided sheathing2015In: The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 1937-3260, E-ISSN 1937-3279, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In partially anchored shear walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against the uplift; hence the uplifting force is resisted by the sheathing-to-framing joint along the bottom rail. These joint forces will introduce crosswise bending and shear in the bottom rail leading to possible splitting failures. To design partially anchored shear walls, plastic design methods can be used and, therefore, the bottom rails must not fail in a brittle manner. In this paper, results of two experimental programmes with respect to the splitting capacity of bottom rails with double-sided sheathing due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls are presented. This was evaluated varying the distance between the washer edge and the edge of the bottom rail, and the pith orientation of the bottom rail. The experimental results show two brittle failure modes for the bottom rail: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the edge surface of the bottom rail. The results indicate that the distance from the edge of the washer to the edges of the bottom rail has a decisive influence on the load-carrying capacity and failure modes of the bottom rail.

  • 98.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Splitting capacity of bottom rail in partially anchored timber frame shear walls with single-sided sheathing2014In: The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 1937-3260, E-ISSN 1937-3279, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 83-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where hold-downs are not provided. In order to use these methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. Since the forces in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail will be subjected to bending and shear in the crosswise direction, and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. In this article, results of two experimental programmes on the splitting capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls are presented. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail; and (2) a crack opening from the edge surface of the bottom rail along the line of the sheathing-to-framing joints. The results show that the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail has a decisive influence on the maximum load and the failure modes of the bottom rail.

  • 99.
    Carlsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Svensson, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Skillnad i energiförbrukning vid byte från CAV-system till VAV-system i en kontorsbyggnad2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är utfört hos Videum AB i Växjö i syfte att visa på skillnader i energiförbrukning mellan deras ventilationssystem samt hur lång tid det skulle ta för en möjlig investering i ett nytt ventilationssystem att återbetala sig.

    För att uppnå detta utfördes beräkningar på olika faktor som bidrar till den totala energianvändningen hos ventilationssystemet. I denna undersökning behandlas fläktar, golvaggregat och värmeförluster genom ventilation. Den största påverkande faktorn i den totala energiförbrukningen är värmeförluster genom ventilation.

    Resultatet av vår undersökning visar att det är billigare att använda i VAV-system än ett CAV-system under rådande förhållanden enligt våra beräkningar. En årlig besparing på 29465 kronor per våning vid byte från CAV-system till VAV-system uppnås. Det är värt att byta ventilationssystem även fast att investeringskostnaden inte sparar in sig under dess livstid. Detta på grund av att det blir en mindre årlig kostnad samt att man kommer närmre regeringens krav på minskad energiförbrukning. Avbetalningstiden för VAV-systemet är 33 år per våning.

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    Skillnad i energiförbrukning vid byte från CAV-system till VAV-system i en kontorsbyggnad
  • 100.
    Celil, Sinan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Ahnfeldt, Philip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Konstruktionsutformning av moduler i korslimmat trä2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A three storey tall building was used as a reference object in this project and dimensioned with a starting point from timber frame modular constructions. Wall and floor dimensions are calculated and drawn. Methods for attachment and lifting of modules are examined through interviews and are, when possible, applied for the CLT modules.

    The purpose of this project was to design CLT modules intended for residential use. The goal of the design was that it can be used in similar buildings.

    The calculations showed that the fire requirements were the decisive factor when deciding the thickness of the walls and floors. Attachments between different building parts can be designed similarly in both timber frame modules and CLT modules. The method of using angle irons and nail plates is possible for both timber frame and CLT. The lifting of the modules can to some extent be executed similarly for the two frameworks.

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