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  • 51.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Abramowski, A.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Angüner, E. O.
    Institute of Nuclear Physics, Poland.
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo University, Japan.
    Arrieta, M.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Aubert, P.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chevalier, J.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Decock, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Deil, C.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Farnier, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Stockholm University.
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fernandez, D.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jingo, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Krueger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lees, J. -P
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Liu, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mayer, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Pekeur, N. W.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Pelletier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Perennes, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Poon, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Prokoph, H.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    de los Reyes, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, ITA, DFG, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rulten, C. B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, Dept Phys & Astron, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Settimo, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vincent, P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Willmann, P.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Wouters, D.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Population study of Galactic supernova remnants at very high gamma-ray energies with HESS2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, article id A3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) are considered prime candidates for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) up to the knee of the CR spectrum at E approximate to 3 x 10(15) eV. Our MilkyWay galaxy hosts more than 350 SNRs discovered at radio wavelengths and at high energies, of which 220 fall into the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS) region. Of those, only 50 SNRs are coincident with a H.E.S.S source and in 8 cases the very high-energy (VHE) emission is firmly identified as an SNR. The H.E.S.S. GPS provides us with a legacy for SNR population study in VHE gamma-rays and we use this rich data set to extract VHE flux upper limits from all undetected SNRs. Overall, the derived flux upper limits are not in contradiction with the canonical CR paradigm. Assuming this paradigm holds true, we can constrain typical ambient density values around shell-type SNRs to n <= 7 cm(-3) and electron-to-proton energy fractions above 10 TeV to epsilon(ep) <= 5 x 10(-3). Furthermore, comparisons of VHE with radio luminosities in non-interacting SNRs reveal a behaviour that is in agreement with the theory of magnetic field amplification at shell-type SNRs.

  • 52.
    Abdalla, H.
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    North-West University, South Africa.
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    University of Hamburg, Germany.
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    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Angüner, E. O.
    Institute of Nuclear Physics, Poland.
    Arakawa, M.
    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan.
    Arrieta, M.
    Paris Diderot University, France.
    Aubert, P.
    University of Savoy, France.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balzer, A.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Carrigan, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Tech Univ Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chevalier, J.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Decock, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Farnier, Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Stockholm University.
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Foerster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gast, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst B 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jingo, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Krueger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lees, J. -P
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Liu, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Mayer, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Pekeur, N. W.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Pelletier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Perennes, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Poon, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Prokoph, H.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    de los Reyes, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, ITA, DFG, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rulten, C. B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, Dept Phys & Astron, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schandri, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Settimo, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Exptt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vincent, P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS,Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Willmann, P.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Wouters, D.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, Observ Paris,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    The HESS Galactic plane survey2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of the most comprehensive survey of the Galactic plane in very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays, including a public release of Galactic sky maps, a catalog of VHE sources, and the discovery of 16 new sources of VHE gamma-rays. The High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) Galactic plane survey (HGPS) was a decade-long observation program carried out by the H.E.S.S. I array of Cherenkov telescopes in Namibia from 2004 to 2013. The observations amount to nearly 2700 h of quality-selected data, covering the Galactic plane at longitudes from l = 250 degrees to 65 degrees and latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar <= 3 degrees. In addition to the unprecedented spatial coverage, the HGPS also features a relatively high angular resolution (0.08 degrees approximate to 5 arcmin mean point spread function 68% containment radius), sensitivity (less than or similar to 1.5% Crab flux for point-like sources), and energy range (0.2-100 TeV). We constructed a catalog of VHE gamma-ray sources from the HGPS data set with a systematic procedure for both source detection and characterization of morphology and spectrum. We present this likelihood-based method in detail, including the introduction of a model component to account for unresolved, large-scale emission along the Galactic plane. In total, the resulting HGPS catalog contains 78 VHE sources, of which 14 are not reanalyzed here, for example, due to their complex morphology, namely shell-like sources and the Galactic center region. Where possible, we provide a firm identification of the VHE source or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. We also studied the characteristics of the VHE sources with source parameter distributions. 16 new sources were previously unknown or unpublished, and we individually discuss their identifications or possible associations. We firmly identified 31 sources as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), composite SNRs, or gamma-ray binaries. Among the 47 sources not yet identified, most of them (36) have possible associations with cataloged objects, notably PWNe and energetic pulsars that could power VHE PWNe.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;RAU, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    DESY, Germany.
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo Fis, Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Barcelona, Spain..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseilles, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giunti, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kreter, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Inst Theoret Phys, Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, Paris, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Inst Polytech Paris, UMR 7638,CNRS IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Tokyo, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72, Montpellier, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, LPNHE, Sorbonne Univ,CNRS,IN2P3, Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS,LAPP, Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ, CNRS,LUTH, Paris, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Axelsson, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roberts, O. J.
    Univ Space Res Assoc, USA.
    A very-high-energy component deep in the gamma-ray burst afterglow2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 575, no 7783, p. 464-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays and are considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe(1). The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow-produced by the interaction between the ejected matter and the circumburst medium-slows down, and a gradual decrease in brightness is observed(2). GRBs typically emit most of their energy via.-rays with energies in the kiloelectronvolt-to-megaelectronvolt range, but a few photons with energies of tens of gigaelectronvolts have been detected by space-based instruments(3). However, the origins of such high-energy (above one gigaelectronvolt) photons and the presence of very-high-energy (more than 100 gigaelectronvolts) emission have remained elusive(4). Here we report observations of very-high-energy emission in the bright GRB 180720B deep in the GRB afterglow-ten hours after the end of the prompt emission phase, when the X-ray flux had already decayed by four orders of magnitude. Two possible explanations exist for the observed radiation: inverse Compton emission and synchrotron emission of ultrarelativistic electrons. Our observations show that the energy fluxes in the X-ray and gamma-ray range and their photon indices remain comparable to each other throughout the afterglow. This discovery places distinct constraints on the GRB environment for both emission mechanisms, with the inverse Compton explanation alleviating the particle energy requirements for the emission observed at late times. The late timing of this detection has consequences for the future observations of GRBs at the highest energies.

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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cenuti, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Curylo, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Ctr Etud Nucleaires Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS IN2P3,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Adv Study UTIAS, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N. N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Smith, P. S.
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    HESS detection of very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the quasar PKS 0736+0172020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 633, p. 1-11, article id A162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Flat-spectrum radio-quasars (FSRQs) are rarely detected at very high energies (E& x2004;>=& x2004;100 GeV) due to their low-frequency-peaked spectral energy distributions. At present, only six FSRQs are known to emit very high-energy (VHE) photons, representing only 7% of the VHE extragalactic catalog, which is largely dominated by high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects. Aims. Following the detection of MeV-GeV gamma-ray flaring activity from the FSRQ PKS 0736+017 (z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189) with Fermi-LAT, the H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes triggered target-of-opportunity (ToO) observations on February 18, 2015, with the goal of studying the gamma-ray emission in the VHE band. Methods. H.E.S.S. ToO observations were carried out during the nights of February 18, 19, 21, and 24, 2015. Together with Fermi-LAT, the multi-wavelength coverage of the flare includes Swift observations in soft X-ray and optical-UV bands, and optical monitoring (photometry and spectro-polarimetry) by the Steward Observatory, and the ATOM, the KAIT, and the ASAS-SN telescopes. Results. VHE emission from PKS 0736+017 was detected with H.E.S.S. only during the night of February 19, 2015. Fermi-LAT data indicate the presence of a gamma-ray flare, peaking at the time of the H.E.S.S. detection, with a flux doubling timescale of around six hours. The gamma-ray flare was accompanied by at least a 1 mag brightening of the non-thermal optical continuum. No simultaneous observations at longer wavelengths are available for the night of the H.E.S.S. detection. The gamma-ray observations with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT are used to put constraints on the location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare: it is constrained to be just outside the radius of the broad-line region r(BLR) with a bulk Lorentz factor Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;20, or at the level of the radius of the dusty torus r(torus) with Gamma& x2004;similar or equal to& x2004;60. Conclusions. PKS 0736+017 is the seventh FSRQ known to emit VHE photons, and at z& x2004;=& x2004;0.189 is the nearest so far. The location of the gamma-ray emitting region during the flare can be tightly constrained thanks to opacity, variability, and collimation arguments.

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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Ashkar, H.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Martins, V. Barbosa
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Breuhaus, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chand, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Curylo, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    DeWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Ata, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Doroshenko, V
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Feijen, K.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Kostunin, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Levy, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Muller, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10,Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, UMR 7638, CNRS,IN2P3 Inst Polytech Paris, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej Pan, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Constraints on the emission region of 3C 279 during strong flares in 2014 and 2015 through VHE gamma-ray observations with HESS2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 627, p. 1-19, article id A159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 279 is known to exhibit pronounced variability in the high-energy (100MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray band, which is continuously monitored with Fermi-LAT. During two periods of high activity in April 2014 and June 2015 target-of-opportunity observations were undertaken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray domain. While the observation in 2014 provides an upper limit, the observation in 2015 results in a signal with 8 : 7 sigma significance above an energy threshold of 66 GeV. No VHE variability was detected during the 2015 observations. The VHE photon spectrum is soft and described by a power-law index of 4.2 +/- 0.3. The H.E.S.S. data along with a detailed and contemporaneous multiwavelength data set provide constraints on the physical parameters of the emission region. The minimum distance of the emission region from the central black hole was estimated using two plausible geometries of the broad-line region and three potential intrinsic spectra. The emission region is confidently placed at r greater than or similar to 1 : 7 X 1017 cm from the black hole, that is beyond the assumed distance of the broad-line region. Time-dependent leptonic and lepto-hadronic one-zone models were used to describe the evolution of the 2015 flare. Neither model can fully reproduce the observations, despite testing various parameter sets. Furthermore, the H.E.S.S. data were used to derive constraints on Lorentz invariance violation given the large redshift of 3C 279.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, IEEC, ICC, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
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    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
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    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Sailer, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H. M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEAIrfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Inst Polytech Paris, CNRS, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Inst Fiz Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, UTIAS, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, LUTH,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC, ICC, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    HESS and Fermi-LAT observations of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 during its 2014 and 2017 periastron passages2020In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 633, p. 1-14, article id A102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a gamma-ray binary system consisting of a pulsar in an eccentric orbit around a bright Oe stellar-type companion star that features a dense circumstellar disc. The bright broad-band emission observed at phases close to periastron offers a unique opportunity to study particle acceleration and radiation processes in binary systems. Observations at gamma-ray energies constrain these processes through variability and spectral characterisation studies. Aims. The high- and very-high-energy (HE, VHE) gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 around the times of its periastron passage are characterised, in particular, at the time of the HE gamma-ray flares reported to have occurred in 2011, 2014, and 2017. Short-term and average emission characteristics of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 are determined. Super-orbital variability is searched for in order to investigate possible cycle-to-cycle VHE flux changes due to different properties of the companion star's circumstellar disc and/or the conditions under which the HE gamma-ray flares develop. Methods. Spectra and light curves were derived from observations conducted with the H.E.S.S-II array in 2014 and 2017. Phase-folded light curves are compared with the results obtained in 2004, 2007, and 2011. Fermi-LAT observations from 2010/11, 2014, and 2017 are analysed. Results. A local double-peak profile with asymmetric peaks in the VHE light curve is measured, with a flux minimum at the time of periastron t(p) and two peaks coinciding with the times at which the neutron star crosses the companion's circumstellar disc (similar to t(p) 16 d). A high VHE gamma-ray flux is also observed at the times of the HE gamma-ray flares (similar to t(p) + 30 d) and at phases before the first disc crossing (similar to t(p) - 35 d). The spectral energy range now extends to below 200 GeV and up to similar to 45 TeV. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 displays periodic flux variability at VHE gamma-rays without clear signatures of super-orbital modulation in the time span covered by the monitoring of the source with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. This flux variability is most probably caused by the changing environmental conditions, particularly at times close to periastron passage at which the neutron star is thought to cross the circumstellar disc of the companion star twice. In contrast, the photon index remains unchanged within uncertainties for about 200 d around periastron. At HE gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 has now been detected also before and after periastron, close to the disc crossing times. Repetitive flares with distinct variability patterns are detected in this energy range. Such outbursts are not observed at VHEs, although a relatively high emission level is measured. The spectra obtained in both energy regimes displays a similar slope, although a common physical origin either in terms of a related particle population, emission mechanism, or emitter location is ruled out.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;RAU, High Energy Astrophys Lab, 123 Hovsep Emin St, Yerevan 0051, Armenia..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mackey, J.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Majumdar, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mares, A.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Muller, J.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Moore, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    de Naurois, M.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Phys, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Remy, Q.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schutte, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek 12010, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Takahashi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Inst Polytech Paris, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3,CC 72, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yoneda, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, UTIAS, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Maxted, N. , I
    Upper limits on very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae observed with HESS2019In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 626, p. 1-11, article id A57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young core-collapse supernovae with dense-wind progenitors may be able to accelerate cosmic-ray hadrons beyond the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum, and this may result in measurable gamma-ray emission. We searched for gamma-ray emission from ten super- novae observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) within a year of the supernova event. Nine supernovae were observed serendipitously in the H.E.S.S. data collected between December 2003 and December 2014, with exposure times ranging from 1.4 to 53 h. In addition we observed SN 2016adj as a target of opportunity in February 2016 for 13 h. No significant gamma-ray emission has been detected for any of the objects, and upper limits on the >1 TeV gamma-ray flux of the order of similar to 10(-13) cm(-)(2)s(-1) are established, corresponding to upper limits on the luminosities in the range similar to 2 x 10(39) to similar to 1 x 10(42) erg s(-1). These values are used to place model-dependent constraints on the mass-loss rates of the progenitor stars, implying upper limits between similar to 2 x 10(-5) and similar to 2 x 10(-3) M-circle dot yr(-1) under reasonable assumptions on the particle acceleration parameters.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
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    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    dewilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS, IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kruger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowel, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Sushch, I
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, ISAS, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CEA Irfu,APC,AstroParticule & Cosmol,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, LPNHE, CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS,LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS, IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    The starburst galaxy NGC 253 revisited by HESS and Fermi-LAT2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 617, article id A73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. NGC 253 is one of only two starburst galaxies found to emit gamma-rays from hundreds of MeV to multi-TeV energies. Accurate measurements of the very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; E > 60 MeV) spectra are crucial to study the underlying particle accelerators, probe the dominant emission mechanism(s) and to study cosmic-ray interaction and transport. Aims. The measurement of the VHE gamma-ray emission of NGC 253 published in 2012 by H.E.S.S. was limited by large systematic uncertainties. Here, the most up to date measurement of the gamma-ray spectrum of NGC 253 is investigated in both HE and VHE gamma-rays. Assuming a hadronic origin of the gamma-ray emission, the measurement uncertainties are propagated into the interpretation of the accelerated particle population. Methods. The data of H.E.S.S. observations are reanalysed using an updated calibration and analysis chain. The improved Fermi-LAT analysis employs more than 8 yr of data processed using pass 8. The cosmic-ray particle population is evaluated from the combined HE-VHE gamma-ray spectrum using NAIMA in the optically thin case. Results. The VHE gamma-ray energy spectrum is best fit by a power-law distribution with a flux normalisation of (1.34 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.27(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 at 1 TeV - about 40% above, but compatible with the value obtained in Abramowski et al. (2012). The spectral index Gamma = 2.39 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.25(sys) is slightly softer than but consistent with the previous measurement within systematic errors. In the Fermi energy range an integral flux of F(E > 60 MeV) = (1.56 +/- 0.28(stat) +/- 0.15(sys)) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) is obtained. At energies above similar to 3 GeV the HE spectrum is consistent with a power-law ranging into the VHE part of the spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. with an overall spectral index Gamma = 2.22 +/- 0.06(stat). Conclusions. Two scenarios for the starburst nucleus are tested, in which the gas in the starburst nucleus acts as either a thin or a thick target for hadronic cosmic rays accelerated by the individual sources in the nucleus. In these two models, the level to which NGC 253 acts as a calorimeter is estimated to a range of f(cal) = 0.1 to 1 while accounting for the measurement uncertainties. The presented spectrum is likely to remain the most accurate measurements until the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) has collected a substantial set of data towards NGC 253.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
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    Rikkyo Univ, Japan.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
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    North West Univ, South Africa;Univ Namibia, Namibia.
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    North West Univ, South Africa.
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    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Brun, P.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Buechele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bylund, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Capasso, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Carosi, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O. 'C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Ctr Astron, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kruger, R. R.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS, IN2P3, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Malyshev, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marti-Devesa, G.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9100 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mitche, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakashima, S.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ndiyavala, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Odaka, H.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Padovani, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokhorov, D. A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Thilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baglzramian Ave, Yerevan 240019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Saito, S.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Senniappan, Mohanraj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Shilon, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Shiningayamwe, K.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sinha, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Specovius, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spir-Jacob, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Astron Observ, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Takahashi, T.
    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CEA, IRFU, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, AstroParticule & Cosmol, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris,APC,CNRS,IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Tsuji, N.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    van der Walt, D. J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9100 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Ave Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,IN2P3,Lab Phys Theor & Hautes Energies, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Wadiasingh, Z.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    White, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Woernlein, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, E-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    VHE gamma-ray discovery and multiwavelength study of the blazar 1ES 2322-4092019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 482, no 3, p. 3011-3022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hotspot at a position compatible with the BL. Lac object 1ES 2322-409 was serendipitously detected with H.E.S.S. during observations performed in 2004 and 2006 on the blazar PKS 2316-423. Additional data on 1ES 2322-409 were taken in 2011 and 2012, leading to a total live-time of 22.3 h. Point-like very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission is detected from a source centred on the IFS 2322-409 position, with an excess of 116.7 events at a significance of 6.0 sigma. The average VHE gamma-ray spectrum is well described with a power law with a photon index Gamma = 3.40 +/- 0.66(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and an integral flux Phi(E > 200 GeV) = (3.11 +/- 0.71(stat) 0.62(sys)) x 10(-2)cm(-2)s(-1), which corresponds to 1.1 per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 200 GeV. Multiwavelength data obtained with Fermi LAT, Swift XRT and UVOT, RXTE PCA, ATOM, and additional data from WISE, GROND, and Catalina are also used to characterize the broad-band non-thermal emission of lES 2322-409. The multiwavelength behaviour indicates day-scale variability. Swift UVOT and XRT data show strong variability at longer scales. A spectral energy distribution (SED) is built from contemporaneous observations obtained around a high state identified in Swift data. A modelling of the SED is performed with a stationary homogeneous one-zone synchrotronself-Compton leptonic model. The redshift of the source being unknown, two plausible values were tested for the modelling. A systematic scan of the model parameters space is performed, resulting in a well-constrained combination of values providing a good description of the broad-band behaviour of 1ES 2322-409.

  • 60.
    Abdalla, H.
    et al.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille, France..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arcaro, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Arrieta, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Backes, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Eng