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  • 51.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering ingen anledning att skippa utbildning2017In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 2017-08-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är sant att utrikes födda diskrimineras på arbetsmarknaden. Men det får inte skymma att utbildning är lönsam även för den gruppen, skriver Mats Hammarstedt, professor i nationalekonomi.

  • 52.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?2017In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1739-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data on people’s reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is weak empirical evidence of a link between reported attitudes and discrimination. In this article, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities combined with a direct measure of ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this policy-relevant issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the extent of ethnic discrimination: in regions where attitudes are more negative, there is more discrimination, and vice versa. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful predictor of ethnic discrimination.

  • 53.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early health and school outcomes for children with lesbian parents: evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 54.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Egenföretagande bland utrikes födda: en översikt av utvecklingen under 2000-talet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Franzén borde läsa på om diskrimineringen2017In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, no 2017-06-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLIK. Thomas Franzén konstaterar att människor med utländsk bakgrund diskrimineras på arbetsmarknaden. Det har han rätt i.

    Ett antal studier visar att utrikes födda personer (och personer födda i Sverige med utrikes födda föräldrar) får färre positiva svar från arbetsgivare än inrikes födda personer med motsvarande kvalifikationer när de söker efter arbete.

  • 56.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Gör det enklare för äldre människor att driva företag"2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2017-10-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre egenföretagare upplever högre livskvalitet än såväl löneanställda som de som lämnat arbetsmarknaden. Att stimulera entreprenörskap bland äldre kan vara ett effektivt sätt för samhället att öka arbetskraftsutbudet och minska påfrestningarna på pensionssystemet, skriver Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén vid Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 57.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hbtq-personer diskrimineras2017In: Barometern, ISSN 1103-906X, no 2017-09-02Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    "Diskriminering förekommer då personer som levde i en relation med en person av samma kön i genomsnitt var tvungna att söka 1,2 gånger så många jobb som heterosexuella personer för att ha samma möjligheter att bli kallade till anställningsintervju."

  • 58.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur klarar sig utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?2017In: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur påverkar flyktinginvandring de offentliga finanserna?2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 5-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi studerar sysselsättning bland och påverkan på offentliga finanser av flyktingar från Afrika, Mellanöstern och övriga Asien. Det framkommer att omkring 50 procent av flyktingarna var sysselsatta sju år efter folkbokföring i Sverige. Den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting uppgår till ca 190 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring. Sju år efter folkbokföring uppgår denna kostnad till ca 95 000 kr per flykting. När den offentliga konsumtion som på kort sikt kan antas vara oförändrad vid en ökad flyktinginvandring exkluderas uppgår den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting till ca 125 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring.

  • 60.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Minimilöner och integration av flyktingar på arbetsmarknaden: så kan experiment förbättra kunskapsläget2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel inleds med en översiktlig beskrivning av flyktingars situation på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Sedan kartläggs kunskapsläget beträffande effekter av förändrade minimilöner på sysselsättningen.

    Både teori och empiri pekar på att effekterna på sysselsättningen inte nödvändigtvis är symmetriska, utan att effekterna av sänkningar är mindre eller mer osäkra än effekterna av höjningar. Den osäkerhet som finns kring sysselsättningseffekterna av sänkningar av minimilönen måste därför anses vara större än den som rör effekterna av höjningar.

    Avslutningsvis presenterar vi ett konkret förslag på hur kunskaperna om minimilönernas effekter på sysselsättningen kan förbättras med hjälp av regelrätta experiment.

  • 61.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Minimilöner och integration av flyktingar på arbetsmarknaden: så kan experiment förbättra kunskapsläget2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 30-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel inleds med en översiktlig beskrivning av flyktingars situation på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Sedan kartläggs kunskapsläget beträffande effekter av förändrade minimilöner på sysselsättningen. Både teori och empiri pekar på att effekterna på sysselsättningen inte nödvändigtvis är symmetriska, utan att effekterna av sänkningar är mindre än effekterna av höjningar. Den osäkerhet som finns kring sysselsättningseffekterna av sänkningar av minimilönen måste därför anses vara större än den som rör effekterna av höjningar. Avslutningsvis presenterar vi ett konkret förslag på hur kunskaperna om minimilönernas effekter på sysselsättningen kan förbättras med hjälp av regelrätta experiment.

  • 62.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

  • 63.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Ratio Institute.
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2017In: Journal of Economic Inequality, ISSN 1569-1721, E-ISSN 1573-8701, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 345-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine preferences for redistribution inherent in Swedish tax policy during 1971-2012 using the inverse optimal tax approach. The income distribution is carefully characterized with the help of administrative register data, and we employ behavioral elasticities reflecting the perceived distortionary effects of taxation. The revealed social welfare weights are high for non-workers, small for low-income earners, and hump-shaped around the median. At the top, they are always negative, especially so during the high-tax years of the 1970s and '80s. The weights on non-workers increased sharply in the 1970s, fell drastically in the late '80s and early '90s, and have since then increased.

  • 64.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: evidence from Sweden2017In: Presented at the 29th European Association of Labour Economists (EALE) conference, St. Gallen, Switzerland, September 21-23, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. We are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration. During a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 125,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years, the cost is between 37,000 SEK and 95,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment.

  • 65.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 66.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Ska det vara mer budgetarbete i julkalendern?"2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2017-12-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLIK DN Debatt 21/12. Barn och ungdomars intresse för vetenskap överlever förmodligen att professorer framställs som virriga och excentriska i en julkalender. Möjligen kan man fundera över om inte forskares egna debattinlägg ibland ger mer tveksamma intryck av forskare än de som julkalendern förmedlar av professorer, skriver professor Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 67.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”SVT visar en skev bild av integration på arbetsmarknaden”2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

     ”En ökning av antalet sysselsatta bland utrikes födda är ett dåligt mått på hur integrationen fungerar då den är framdriven av att den utrikes födda befolkningen har ökat i storlek”, skriver Hammarstedt.

  • 68.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Sysselsättning bland flyktingar måste öka"2017In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 2017-04-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bristande integrationen av flyktingar på svensk arbetsmarknad får konsekvenser för de offentliga finanserna och gör flyktinginvandringen till en nettokostnad lång tid efter invandring, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén, som menar att reformer är nödvändiga.

  • 69.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

  • 70.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Två nationalekonomer: Företagande inte rätt väg2017In: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Förhoppningen om att företagande ska öka sysselsättningen hos nyanlända är riskabel. De som startar företag i brist på andra alternativ kan faktiskt försämra sina möjligheter på lång sikt. Och utomeuropeiska företagare möter andra problem än svenskfödda, skriver Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén.

  • 71.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden - hur ser situationen ut och vad säger forskningen?2017In: Migration och socialförsäkringen: rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 18-19 januari 2017, Försäkringskassan , 2017, 1, , p. 10p. 47-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En allt större andel av befolkningen i Sverige är född utomlands. År 2017 är omkring 17 procent eller 1,7 miljoner personer i Sverige födda i något annat land. Andelen utrikes födda personer i Sverige förväntas dessutom öka under de närmaste åren då antalet människor som söker sig till Sverige av flyktingskäl förväntas ligga på historiskt sett höga nivåer. Frågan om hur utrikes födda integreras på arbetsmarknaden står därmed högt på den politiska agendan och frågan om hur integrationen ska kunna förbättras har, inte minst under det senaste året, ofta varit i centrum för den politiska debatten.

  • 72.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Vad jag efterlyste var just en nyanserad debatt av integrationen”2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Håkan Gustafsson konstaterar att om man jämför åren 2005 och 2016 så har andelen sysselsatta bland utrikes födda ökat med fyra procentenheter. Nu var det inte det saken handlade om. Det inslag jag kommenterade jämförde 2008 med situationen idag. Därför är det relevant att använda 2008 som jämförelseår”, skriver Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 73.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences. When we meta-analyzed the main effects of discrimination among the remaining discrimination outcomes, the overall effect was close to zero and highly inconsistent across studies. Taken together, it is doubtful whether the amalgamation of these outcomes is relevant criteria for assessing the IAT's predictive validity of discrimination. Accordingly, there is also little evidence that the IAT can meaningfully predict discrimination, and we thus strongly caution against any practical applications of the IAT that rest on this assumption. However, provided that the application is thoroughly informed by the current state of the literature, we believe the IAT can still be a useful tool for researchers, educators, managers, and students who are interested in attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination.

  • 74.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Blumkin, Tomer
    Ben Gurion University, Israel;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;Bocconi University, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Anti-discrimination legislation and the efficiency-enhancing role of mandatory parental leave2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a setting where anti-discrimination legislation gives rise to adverse selection in the labor market. Firms rely on nonlinear compensation contracts to screen workers who differ in their family/career orientation. This results in a labormarket equilibrium where career-oriented workers are offered an inefficiently low duration of parental leave. In addition, family-oriented workers are offered lower wages as compared to their equally skilled career-oriented counterparts. We demonstrate the usefulness of mandatory parental leave rules in mitigating the distortion in the labor market and derive conditions under which a Pareto improvement is possible. We also characterize the optimal parental leave policy and highlight the possibility for parental leave legislation to eliminate the wage penalty of family-oriented workers by supporting pooling employment contracts.

  • 75.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Boende med konsekvens: en ESO-rapport om etnisk bostadssegregation och arbetsmarknad2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstaterar att även om segregationen i stort sett har varit oförändrad under 2000-talet är skillnaderna mellan olika etniska grupper stora.

    Visar att bostadssegregationen samvarierar med utrikes föddas sannolikhet att ha arbete. Det finns också en koppling till arbetsinkomsten – individer bosatta i områden med många utrikesfödda har sällan höga inkomster och individer med riktigt höga inkomster har få utrikesfödda grannar.

    För att underlätta utrikes föddas integration behövs åtgärder både på bostads- och arbetsmarknaden. Särskilt viktiga är insatser som förbättrar chanserna till egen försörjning. Med arbete och tryggad inkomst ökar möjligheterna för individerna att själva välja boende. Integrationen kan också förbättras genom att det byggs bostäder med olika upplåtelseformer i samma område. Köp rapporten så får du ta del av de kompletta analyserna och förslagen!

    Rapport till expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi (ESO). ESO ligger under Finansdepartementet.

  • 76.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatten är viktig - men kolla fakta först2016In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: Access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2016In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique combination of survey and register data regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade, and service sectors. This study is the first to examine discrimination against self-employed immigrants in the credit market of a developed economy outside the US. The results demonstrate that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers, and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant-owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants especially are more likely than natives to have a loan denied, and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives. The results are robust to various different robustness checks. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or lack of access to financial capital is a major obstacle to self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants, a finding that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 78.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ekonomer: Gör experiment med minimilöner2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns inte så mycket forskning om minimilöner och effek­ten på integration och sysselsättning. Ett sätt att förbättra ­kunskapen är regelrätta experiment, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Per Skedinger.

  • 79.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap2016In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 227-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most EU countries, ethnic minorities have lower wages than does the ethnic majority. To what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. The authors examine the role that prejudice plays in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe’s most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer (the attitude of the most prejudiced employer hiring the ethnic minority). Results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer—but not those of the average employer—are important for explaining the ethnic wage gap.

  • 80.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    IFN, Sweden.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IFN, Sweden.
    Employment Protection Reform, Enforcement in Collective Agreements and Worker Flows2016In: Industrial Relations, ISSN 0019-8676, E-ISSN 1468-232X, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 662-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a reform of notice periods for employer-initiated separations in Sweden, which reduced the notice periods for newly hired older workers substantially but implied minor or no changes in the advance notices for younger workers. The reform was initiated at different times depending on collective agreement. These circumstances provide ample opportunity for the identification of its effects. Our findings indicate heterogeneous effects on hirings and separations across collective agreements.

  • 81.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flyktinginvandring: sysselsättning, förvärvsinkomster och offentliga finanser2016Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self‐presentations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (= 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = −0.41 [−0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (= 0.44 [−0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (= 0.49 [−0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (= 0.04 [−0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (= 0.23 [−0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.

  • 83.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "HBTQ-personer diskrimineras på arbetsmarknaden"2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Det är ett angeläget arbete att bryta alla former av diskriminering mot hbtq-personer”, skriver Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 84.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Is starting a business a sustainable way out of unemployment?: treatment effects of the Swedish start-up subsidy2016In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 389-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment start-up program based on a matching approach using data from administrative records. In addition to information of labor market history, traditional human capital and socio-economic variables, the data at hand also include information on the self-employment history of participants and nonparticipants as well as that of their parents. Our results indicate that the start-up subsidy program for unemployed persons is a successful program regarding the integration of the unemployed into the mainstream of the labor market. We find that, relative to members of control groups, participants, on average, have an increased probability of unsubsidized employment. Our analysis of different educational backgrounds presents the strongest employment effects for the low educated unemployed.

  • 85.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Lågutbildade flyktingar är utmaningen”2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 11 janArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Många kvinnor står helt utanför arbetsmarknaden”2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”De orsaker som ställer utrikes födda kvinnor utanför arbetskraften måste identifieras och mönster måste brytas”, skriver Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 87.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant and native owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. In particular, we use an individual-fixed effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with years in self-employment. The results show that native men have higher earnings and profit level from selfemployment activities than immigrant men. Immigrant men converge towards the earnings and profit levels of native men as self-employment experience increase, but do not reach parity. On the contrary, immigrant women catch up with the earnings and profit levels of native women after between 3 to 5 years in business. Turnover is highest for men, and in firms owned by non-European immigrants, independently of length of business experience. Immigrant firms, and in particular those owned by non-European immigrants, contribute more to job creation than firms owned by natives. As length of business experience increases immigrants’ hire additional persons to their firms to a higher extent than natives.

  • 88.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Political preferences for redistribution in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Professor: Felaktig kritik mot låglönejobb2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Enbart låglönejobb är knappast lösningen på integra­tions­problemet. Däremot kan fler jobb med lägre ingångslöner kombinerat med utbildningsinsatser och andra insat­ser, vara en del av lösningen. Men detta bör diskuteras på korrekta grunder, skriver professor Mats Hammarstedt i en replik.

  • 90.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. CESifo, Germany.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Sweden;CESifo, Germany.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy;CESifo, Germany.
    Public pensions in a multi-period Mirrleesian income tax model2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an OLG model with skill uncertainty and private savings, we investigate whether an optimally designed set of public pension transfers can usefully supplement a nonlinear labor income tax as a welfare-enhancing policy instrument. We consider a Mirrleesian setting where agents' skills are private information and highlight that, even though pensions, by crowding out private savings, adversely affect the achievement of the golden-rule, they can be used as a mimicking-deterring device that makes it easier for the government to achieve the desired redistributive goals.

  • 91.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: longitudinal evidence from Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances in Sweden. All refugees who were listed in the national population registers from 2005 to 2007 are tracked from 2006 to 2012. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first measure, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second measure relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. By presenting these two measures we are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration during a refugee´s first years in Sweden. Our results reveal that during a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden after the asylum application has been approved, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 95,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years in Sweden, the cost for that refugee is between 37,000 SEK and 125,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment as regards the extent to which they incur a cost for the public sector’s finances.

  • 92.
    Böckerman, Petri
    et al.
    Turku School of Economics, Finland;Labour Institute for Economic Research, Finland;IZA, Germany.
    Skedinger, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Roope
    Jyväskylä University, Finland.
    Seniority rules, worker mobility and wages: evidence from multi-country linked employer-employee data2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a multi-country employer-employee data to examine the consequences of employment protection. We identify the effects by comparing worker exit rates between units of the same firm that operate in two countries that have different seniority rules. The results show that last-in-first-out rules reduce dismissals of older, more senior workers, especially in shrinking multinational firms, and increase their bargaining power, resulting in a steeper seniority-wage profile.

  • 93.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Spelar kultur någon roll för utrikes födda kvinnors sysselsättning?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Lundborg, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden;Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University, Sweden;Institute for the Study of Labor, Germany.
    The health-schooling relationship: evidence from Swedish twins2016In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1191-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health and education are known to be highly correlated, but the mechanisms behind the relationship are not well understood. In particular, there is sparse evidence on whether adolescent health may influence educational attainment. Using a large registry dataset of twins, including comprehensive information on health status at the age of 18 and later educational attainment, we investigate whether health predicts final education within monozygotic (identical) twin pairs. We find no evidence of this and conclude that health in adolescence may not have an influence on the level of schooling. Instead, raw correlations between adolescent health and schooling appear to be driven by genes and twin-pair-specific environmental factors.

  • 95.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Tvärvetenskapligt bidrag till debatten om arbetskraftsinvandring: [recension av] Catharina Calleman och Petra Herzfeld Olsson (red): Arbetskraft från hela världen – hur blev det med 2008 års reform?2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 70-72Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 96.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Uppdelning i skolan påverkar arbetsmarknaden"2016In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En fjärdedel av de utomeuropeiskt födda kvinnorna mellan 20 och 64 år med eftergymnasial utbildning står inte till arbetsmarknadens förfogande. Om vi ska lyckas öka den andelen måste vi börja redan i skolan, och säga nej till könsuppdelad undervisning.

  • 97.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar ett empiriskt test av Edward Lazears Jack-of-All Trades teori med hjälp av de tester av kognitiva och icke-kognitiva förmågor som män genomförde vid mönstring inför militärtjänsten. Vi finner stöd för Lazears teori då män vars kunskaper är jämnt fördelade över olika områden är mer benägna att vara företagare än andra. Dessutom är deras företag mer framgångsrika än företag som drivs av människor med specialistkunskaper. En policyslutsats är att utbildningar som ger breda kunskaper stimulerar framgångsrikt företagande. Ett bredare innehåll i utbildningar på varierande nivåer kan därför vara ett medel i syfte att stimulera till fler nya framgångsrika företag.

  • 98.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Ärliga argument krävs i debatt om flyktingar”2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En flykting kostar i genomsnitt 142 000 kronor per år de första sju åren efter att personen har fått uppehållstillstånd. Kostnaderna för offentlig sektor är därmed höga och det är centralt att diskutera hur de kan minskas, skriver nationalekonomerna Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 99.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue.The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we took a closer look at the discrimination outcomes, and found that many of the outcomes were unsuitable operationalizations of discrimination. Furthermore, we found virtually no overall discrimination for the IAT to predict. Hence, the IAT has not yet been given a chance to prove its true worth. Indeed, evaluating the predictive validity of the IAT against these outcomes is similar to evaluating raincoats on sunny days; we should not besurprised if the raincoats receive a bad score, but this does not invalidate their usefulness in rainy weather. Given the current state of affairs, it would thus be premature if researchers, educators, and managers simply were to remove the IAT from their toolbox.

  • 100.
    Behrenz, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Delander, Lennart
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Frödin, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mathieu, Christopher
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arbetsgivares perspektiv på subventionerade anställningar: en kartläggning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en kraftig ökning av antalet subventionerade anställningar från mitten av 2000-talet är det ett stort antal arbetsgivare som inte använder sig av lönesubventioner. Denna rapport har försökt att kartlägga och analysera arbetsgivares perspektiv på lönekostnadssubventioner. När det gäller analyser som berör de arbetsgivare som använt sig av lönesubventioner är den viktigaste förklaringsfaktorn att man använt sig av subventioner tidigare. Våra intervjuer visar också att de arbetsgivare som använder sig av lönesubventioner ofta har ett socialt ansvarstagande. Ett av huvudresultaten med följande studie är att 95 procent av de som använder sig av subventioner är nöjda. Omfattningen i pengar och personens kvalifikationer var mest avgörande för anställningsbeslutet. Av de som inte använt sig av lönesubventioner är det 20 procent som inte känt till att möjligheten finns. Intervjuer med arbetsgivare utan erfarenhet av att anställa med lönesubventioner visar att de är skeptiska att hitta lämplig personal genom att anställa med lönesubventioner. När vi ställer en hypotetisk fråga till samtliga arbetsgivare om vad som skulle kunna få dem att anställa med en subvention framkommer möjligheten att få pröva aktuell person som den klart viktigaste faktorn. Utifrån våra resultat föreslår vi bl.a. att Arbetsförmedlingen, i ett försöksupplägg, ska ges möjlighet att agera bemanningsföretag och vi föreslår också att man ska genomföra en omfattande informationskampanj till arbetsgivare.

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