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  • 51.
    Ann-Sofie, Nilsson Neumark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Outline the adherence to guidelines by using quality indicators in monitoring diabetes care in elderly -a survey study 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To outline in what extent elderly people over 80 with Diabetes mellitus (DM) are monitored according to Swedish National guidelines, comparing those living at home with or without home health care and residents of nursing homes

    Methods: Cross-sectional, medical record review elderly aged 80 and older with known DM, using quality indicators to evaluate diabetes care during a two-year period. Results: Adherence to HbA1c monitoring independent of medication was poor in nursing homes, 72%, (p<0.001). The HbA1c level <52mmol/mol (6.9% NGSP) was obtained for 34% of those living at home with and without home health care, 26% by residents in nursing homes. Insulin therapy was used to a greater extent in nursing homes (54%). Metformin was frequently used in the age group, 80-84, even at reduced e-GFR. Hypertension and coronary heart disease was the most common comorbidities in all groups. The prevalence of DM in the age group 80-89 was 18 %.

    Conclusions: Poor adherence was seen in Hba1c, p-lipid, BP monitoring and performed foot examinations, among residents in nursing homes. There are major opportunities for improvement regarding the care of elderly with diabetes in generally and especially residents in Nursing homes, suggesting that co-ordination between primary health care and municipality provided care need to create methods for better cooperation.

  • 52.
    Archer, Trevor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Kjell
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 293-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent and depth of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major determining factor together with the type of structural insult and its location, whether mild, moderate or severe, as well as the distribution and magnitude of inflammation and loss of cerebrovascular integrity, and the eventual efficacy of intervention. The influence of exercise intervention in TBI is multiple, ranging from anti-apoptotic effects to the augmentation of neuroplasticity. Physical exercise diminishes cerebral inflammation by elevating factors and agents involved in immunomodulatory function, and buttresses glial cell, cerebrovascular, and blood-brain barrier intactness. It provides unique non-pharmacologic intervention that incorporate different physical activity regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance or resistance. Physical training regimes ought necessarily to be adapted to the specific demands of diagnosis, type and degree of injury and prognosis for individuals who have suffered TBI. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 53.
    Aronsson, Catrin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hur skiljer sig ackommodationsamplituden mellan Nicaragua och Sverige?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna undersökning var att mäta ackommodationsamplitud i Nicaragua och Sverige för att se om det är någon signifikant skillnad mellan länderna i åldersgrupperna mellan 8 år och 40 år. Värdena som togs fram jämfördes sedan med publicerad litteratur för att undersöka hur denna studies värde skiljer sig från dessa, samt vilken av de tidigare studierna som var mest lik denna studies framtagna värde på ackommodationsamplitud i förhållande till åldern.

    Metod: Mätningarna skedde på 113 personer i Nicaragua och 113 personer i Sverige. För att vara med i denna studie krävdes det att försökspersonerna översteg 8 år och understeg 40 år. Mätningarna genomfördes med push-up metoden med hjälp av en mätsticka med figuroptotyp i form av en fågel.

    Resultat: Av de mätningar som genomfördes blev genomsnittet av ackommodationsamplitud 10,3 D (strandard avvikelse ±9,7 D) i Nicaragua och 11,5 D (standard avvikelse ±6,5 D) i Sverige. Ingen signifikant skillnad finns mellan länderna, det vill säga land (Nicaragua eller Sverige) har ingen påverkan på ackommodations amplitud enligt denna studie. Signifikans finns dock mellan ålder och ackommodation, en bekräftelse på att ålder påverkar ackommodationen har således observerats.

    Slutsats: Någon signifikant skillnad i ackommodationsamplitud mellan Nicaragua och Sverige kunde enligt denna studie ej påvisas. I jämförelsen mellan avvikelserna från både Duane och Donders tabeller jämte denna studie kan det avläsas att tabellerna har underskattat mängd ackommodationsamplitud.

  • 54.
    Arthur, Edmund
    et al.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Young, Stuart B.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Elsner, Ann E.
    Muller, Matthew S.
    Gast, Thomas J.
    Haggerty, Bryan P.
    Clark, Christopher A.
    Brahm, Shane
    Litvin, Taras V.
    Ozawa, Glen Y.
    Cuadros, Jorge
    Individual Retinal Layer Thickness in Diabetic Patients with Clinically Significant Macular Edema: A Gender Based Analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare segmented retinal layer thicknesses between male and female diabetics with clinically significant macular edema (CSME). This study expands our earlier analysis of central macular thickness (CMT) measurements in diabetic males vs. females. Methods: Diabetic retinopathy screening of 2080 diabetics from Alameda County, CA, indicated 142 patients with CSME, as judged by EyePACS certified graders using color fundus images (Canon CR6-45NM). Of the 2080 diabetics, 1784 were imaged with SD-OCT (Optovue iVue). From the 142 patients, we selected 11 males with good fixation, CMT > 300 µm, and no other ocular complications, along with 11 females with the greatest values of CMT while controlling for age, HbA1c and diabetes duration. Manual segmentation of retinal layers using custom software (Mathworks Matlab) of the SD-OCT images of these subjects was done. We analyzed thicknesses for regions 1 deg - 2 deg for nasal and temporal retina in a B-scan centered on the fovea. A 2 X 2 ANOVA probed the differences in thickness for gender, meridian, and their interaction. We also analyzed the central 1 mm of the outer retinal layers, and performed t-tests. Results: Males had significantly thicker nerve fiber layer (NFL) (13.30 ± 2.85 µm) than females (10.13 ± 6.13 µm) and ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL) (62.54 ± 21.18 µm) than females (48.07 ± 25.91 µm), p < 0.05. There was no effect of meridian and no interaction (p > 0.05). All other layers except the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were thicker for males than females even though these were not significant (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences for the layers of the outer retina, which were highly variable and distorted by cysts. Conclusion: Outside the fovea, NFL and GCL-IPL thicknesses were significantly higher in males than females.

  • 55.
    Arthur, Edmund
    et al.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Young, Stuart B.
    Bowersox Vision Center, Shelbyville, USA.
    Elsner, Ann E.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Papay, Joel A.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Muller, Matthew S.
    Aeon Imaging, LLC, Bloomington, USA.
    Gast, Thomas J.
    Indiana University, USA;Aeon Imaging, LLC, Bloomington, USA.
    Haggerty, Bryan P.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Clark, Christopher A.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Malinovsky, Victor E.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Brahm, Shane G.
    Peter Christensen Health Center, Lac Du Flambeau, USA.
    Litvin, Taras V.
    University of California, USA.
    Ozawa, Glen Y.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Cuadros, Jorge A.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Central Macular Thickness in Diabetic Patients: A Sex-based Analysis2019In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 266-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SIGNIFICANCE The pathological changes in clinically significant diabetic macular edema lead to greater retinal thickening in men than in women. Therefore, male sex should be considered a potential risk factor for identifying individuals with the most severe pathological changes. Understanding this excessive retinal thickening in men may help preserve vision. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex differences in retinal thickness in diabetic patients. We tested whether men with clinically significant macular edema had even greater central macular thickness than expected from sex differences without significant pathological changes. This study also aimed to determine which retinal layers contribute to abnormal retinal thickness. METHODS From 2047 underserved adult diabetic patients from Alameda County, CA, 142 patients with clinically significant macular edema were identified by EyePACS-certified graders using color fundus images (Canon CR6-45NM). First, central macular thickness from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (iVue; Optovue Inc.) was compared in 21 men versus 21 women without clinically significant macular edema. Then, a planned comparison contrasted the greater values of central macular thickness in men versus women with clinically significant macular edema as compared with those without. Mean retinal thickness and variability of central macular layers were compared in men versus women. RESULTS Men without clinically significant macular edema had a 12-μm greater central macular thickness than did women (245 ± 21.3 and 233 ± 13.4 μm, respectively; t40 = −2.18, P = .04). Men with clinically significant macular edema had a 67-μm greater central macular thickness than did women (383 ± 48.7 and 316 ± 60.4 μm, P < .001); that is, men had 55 μm or more than five times more (t20 = 2.35, P = .02). In men, the outer-nuclear-layer thickness was more variable, F10,10 = 9.34. CONCLUSIONS Underserved diabetic men had thicker retinas than did women, exacerbated by clinically significant macular edema.

  • 56.
    Arvidsson, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skiljer sig blinkfrekvensen vid läsning på olika medier?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Spontaneous Eye Blink Rate (SEBR) differ when reading on hard copy, tablet or smartphone. Complete and incomplete blinks were also evaluated to see if there were any differences regarding the hard copy, tablet and smartphone. 

    Methods: The participants read three different texts on hard copy, tablet and smartphone while they were being filmed. Afterwards, each video was analysed twice in order to count complete blinks, incomplete blinks and total blink rate (SEBR).

    Results: This study showed that there is a significant difference in total blink rate between reading on hard copy and tablet (p=0.03), where blinks/minute decreased by 14.9% for the hard copy condition. There was also a significant difference in incomplete blinks regarding the two devices (p=0.02), where incomplete blinks increased by 30.0% when reading on tablet. Tablet and smartphone reading also resulted in a significant difference, where incomplete blinks increased  by 42% when reading on tablet (p=0.01).

    Conclusion: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rate differ when reading on hard copy and tablet. Incomplete blinks increase when reading on tablet. No significant differences are found between hard copy and smartphone.

  • 57.
    Arvidsson, Marie-Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vilken läshastighet ger den svenska versionen av internationellt standardiserade läshastighetstexter?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund - Att läsa en tidning är en självklarhet för många  idag. Det är en naturlig del av vardagen att tillgodogöra sig skriftlig information. Det här är inte en självklar sanning. Många med nedsatt syn behöver använda hjälpmedel som förstorande optik och starkare belysning m m för att klara den här vardagliga situationen. Hur mäts läsförmågan som den synskadade har? Det finns olika lästester för det här syftet.  Testerna som finns sedan tidigare består av enstaka meningar i olika storlekar. I det EU-baserade AMD-Read projektet togs det fram ett set med 10st  nya  längre läshastighetstexter. Eftersom de här nyare texterna (IReST) består av längre sammanhängande meningar i varje lässtycke så finns möjligheten att mäta den faktiska läshastigheten som den synskadade har.  Det går att jämföra resultat före och efter korrektion eller synträning. Texterna finns standardiserade på finska, franska, tyska, engelska, portugisiska och arabiska.

    Syfte - Syftet med denna studie är att utvärdera den svenska versionen av IReST texterna. Frågeställningen var om de tio svenska texterna gav ett jämförbart resultat i läshastighet.

    Metod – 25 friska normalseende personer 19-35 år deltog i studien. Deltagarna fick en och en läsa de 10 läshastighetstexterna högt under tidtagning och röstinspelning. Texterna lästes i slumpvis ordning.

    Resultat -  Två av de tio texterna tog signifikant längre tid att läsa mot de övriga åtta. När det gäller antal fellästa tecken/minut fanns det ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de tio texterna.

  • 58.
    Arvidsson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östangård, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familjemedlemmars upplevelser av att vara anhörig till en person med schizofreni.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious disease with potential to implicate consequences on both the family and the sick. Nurses have a fundamental responsibility to relieve suffering, and also to offer support to both the individual and the family.

    Aim: To illuminate experiences of being a family member to a person with schizophrenia.

    Method: A systematic literature review was chosen. Nine articles were included. After having analyzed the results six categories were found.

    Result: The family members experienced the disease as fluctuating and stressful. Some felt ashamed for their sick family member and withdrew from the rest of the society. It was also common to grieve over the sick family member as they felt they had lost the person he/she ones was. Most studies showed that family members were disappointed with the psychiatric care. They felt excluded from the caring process and lack of information. Hopefully the result of this study leads to that nurses can offer increased support and understanding to the family.

    Conclusions: Disease and illness may affect on the whole life situation. To support a family in a crisis it is necessary to understand the person’s lifeworld and to be able to change their beliefs.

  • 59.
    Aspegren, Erini
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundin, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att ha växt upp med en psykiskt sjuk förälder: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie baserad på självbiografier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykiska sjukdomar av olika slag är vanligt förekommande i vårt samhälle och i hela världen. Trots detta föreligger ett tabu och ett stigma kring psykisk sjukdom, vilket påverkar såväl den sjuke som de anhöriga negativt. Att växa upp med en psykiskt sjuk förälder kan leda till att barnen inte mår väl och kommer i skymundan.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva vuxna personers upplevelser av att ha växt upp tillsammans med en psykiskt sjuk förälder.

    Metod: Studien är en kvalitativ litteraturstudie med en induktiv ansats, som har utgångspunkt i självbiografier. Data utifrån fem självbiografier har analyserats genom en manifest innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Barnens upplevelser sammanställdes i tre kategorier och åtta underkategorier. Kategorierna som framkom var Otrygghet, En betungande vardag och Saknad.

    Slutsats: Att som barn ha en förälder som är psykiskt sjuk leder till känslor av ansvarstagande, otrygghet och längtan efter ett vanligt liv. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan lyssnar till barnet för att skapa tillit, samt upplyser barnet angående förälderns sjukdom och dess påverkan på familjeförhållandena, för att verka för en bättre hälsa för barnet.

  • 60.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geological Survey, USA.
    Hall, Gabriel Gustafsson
    Uppsala University.
    Järhult, Josef
    Uppsala University.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in Southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments2016In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-7, article id 32334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.

    METHODS: Escherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.

    RESULTS: Screening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  • 61.
    Augustsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator: En kvalitativ intervjustudie. Bakgrund: Den kritiskt sjuke intensivvårdspatienten behöver såväl resurskrävande som komplicerad behandling. Sedering administreras till patienter i ventilatorbehandling för att lindra ångest och smärta. Intensivvården bygger på multiprofessionellt samarbete och strävar efter individuellt anpassad sedering för att upprätthålla komfortabel sederingsnivå. Riktlinjer och bedömningsskalor är viktiga hjälpmedel vid bedömning och titrering av sedering. Det är utmaningar i att vårda sederade patienter och det ställer stora krav på intensivvårdssjuksköterskan. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator på intensivvårdsavdelning. Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ design genom individuella semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio intensivvårdssjuksköterskor. Nio av deltagarna var kvinnor och en var man. Data analyserades genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studiens resultat frambringade i följande tema Bedömning – En väg av utmaningar som belyste intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator. Resultatet presenteras under två kategorier: Osäkerhet vid sederingsnivå och Brister vid sedering. Osäkerhet vid sederingsnivå blev påtaglig på grund av otydliga riktlinjer, svårigheter i att upprätthålla en individuell sederingsnivå och utifrån den komplicerade kommunikationen med patienten. Brister vid sedering blev påtaglig på grund av känsla av otillräcklighet och brist på både samarbete och kunskap försvårade ytterligare intensivvårdssjuksköterskans bedömning och titrering av sedering. Slutsats: Studien identifierar utmaningar som bidrar till osäkerhet och brister vid sedering. Dessa utmaningar bör förhindras genom utbildning för att bibehålla patientsäkerheten och möjliggöra god vård. Intensivvårdssjuksköterskan bör få insikt i de samhällsekonomiska vinster som god följsamhet till riktlinjer och bedömningsskalor frambringar.

  • 62.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Älvsborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Henrik
    Älvsborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Jiménez-Herrera, Maria
    Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Spain.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Andersson, Henrik
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    University West, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.
    The Early Chain of Care in Patients with Bacteraemia with the Emphasis on the Prehospital Setting2016In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 272-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge about the early phase of severe infection. This report describes the early chain of care in bacteraemia as follows: (a) compare patients who were and were not transported by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS); (b) describe various aspects of the EMS chain; and (c) describe factors of importance for the delay to the start of intravenous antibiotics. It was hypothesized that, for patients with suspected sepsis judged by the EMS clinician, the delay until the onset of antibiotic treatment would be shorter.

    All patients in the Municipality of Gothenburg (Sweden) with a positive blood culture, when assessed at the Laboratory of Bacteriology in the Municipality of Gothenburg, from February 1 through April 30, 2012 took part in the survey.

    In all, 696 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 76 years and 52% were men. Of all patients, 308 (44%) had been in contact with the EMS and/or the emergency department (ED). Of these 308 patients, 232 (75%) were transported by the EMS and 188 (61%) had “true pathogens” in blood cultures. Patients who were transported by the EMS were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs.

    The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in only six percent of the cases. These patients had a delay from arrival at hospital until the start of antibiotics of one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 21 minutes among the remaining patients (P =.0006). The corresponding figures for cases with “true pathogens” were one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 15 minutes (P =.009).

    Among patients with bacteraemia, 75% used the EMS, and these patients were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs. The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in six percent of cases. Regardless of whether or not patients with true pathogens were isolated, a suspicion of sepsis by the EMS clinician at the scene was associated with a shorter delay to the start of antibiotic treatment.

  • 63.
    Axelsson Olsson, Diana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Griekspoor, Petra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsen, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Amoebae and algae can prolong the survival of Campylobacter species in co-culture2010In: Experimental parasitology, ISSN 0014-4894, E-ISSN 1090-2449, Vol. 126, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several species of free-living amoebae can cause disease in humans. However, in addition to the direct pathogenicity of e.g. Acanthamoebae and Naegleria species, they are recognized as environmental hosts, indirectly involved in the epidemiology of many pathogenic bacteria. Although several studies have demonstrated intracellular survival of many different bacteria in these species, the extent of such interactions as well as the implications for the epidemiology of the bacterial species involved, are largely unknown and probably underestimated. In this study, we evaluated eight different unicellular eukaryotic organisms, for their potential to serve as environmental hosts for Campylobacter species. These organisms include four amoebozoas (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba rhysodes and Hartmanella vermiformis), one alveolate (Tetrahymena pyriformis), one stramenopile (Dinobryon sertularia), one eugoenozoa (Euglena gracilis) and one heterolobosea (Naegleria americana). Campylobacter spp. including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the western world. Survival and replication of these three species as well as Campylobacter hyointestinalis were assessed in co-cultures with the eukaryotic organisms. Campylobacter spp. generally survived longer in co-cultures, compared to when incubated in the corresponding growth media. The eukaryotic species that best promoted bacterial survival was the golden algae D. sertularia. Three species of amoebozoas, of the genus Acanthamoeba promoted both prolonged survival and replication of Campylobacter spp. The high abundance in lakes, ponds and water distribution networks of these organisms indicate that they might have a role in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis, possibly contributing to survival and dissemination of these intestinal pathogens to humans and other animals. The results suggest that not only C. jejuni, but a variety of Campylobacter spp. can interact with different eukaryotic unicellular organisms.

  • 64.
    Badimon, Lina
    et al.
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Spain.
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    ESC Advocacy works!: Promoting cardiovascular health through public policy2019In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 40, no 14, p. 1097-1098Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Banaem, Hossein Y.
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Ahmadian, Alireza
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Saberi, Hooshangh
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Daneshmehr, Alireza
    Univiversity of Tehran, Iran.
    Khodadad, Davood
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy2011In: Proc. SPIE 8285, International Conference on Graphic and Image Processing (ICGIP 2011), SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, article id 82851MConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  • 66. Banegas, José R
    et al.
    López-García, Esther
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Guallar, Eliseo
    Halcox, Julian P
    Borghi, Claudio
    Massó-González, Elvira L
    Sazova, Ogün
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Steg, Philippe Gabriel
    De Backer, Guy
    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Achievement of lipoprotein goals among patients with metabolic syndrome at high cardiovascular risk across Europe. The EURIKA study.2013In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 210-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine for the first time the achievement of lipoprotein treatment goals in patients with metabolic syndrome and lipid abnormalities who are at elevated cardiovascular risk in Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2009-2010 in 12 European countries among outpatients aged ≥50years free of clinical cardiovascular disease. We assessed achievement of American Diabetes Association/American College of Cardiology lipid treatment goals in those with metabolic syndrome at highest risk (diabetes plus ≥1 additional major cardiovascular risk factor beyond lipid abnormalities) or high risk (no diabetes but ≥2 additional major cardiovascular risk factors). RESULTS: Among 1431 highest-risk patients, 64.6% (between-country range [BCR] 40-84.5%) were on lipid-lowering medication. Of them, 13.4% (BCR: 2.5-28.6%) had LDL-cholesterol<70mg/dl, non-HDL-cholesterol<100mg/dl, and apolipoprotein B<80mg/dl. Among 832 high-risk patients, 38.7% BCR: 27.5-55.3%) were on lipid-lowering medication. Of them, 20.5% (BCR: 5.5-57.6%) had LDL-cholesterol<100mg/dl, non-HDL-cholesterol<130mg/dl, and apolipoprotein B<90mg/dl. About 96% of highest-risk patients and 94% of high-risk patients were given at least one lifestyle advice (weight reduction, healthy diet, physical activity, no-smoking), but only 1.3% of the former and 4.9% of the latter reached all three lipid goals. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial gap between clinical guidelines and medical practice since only one in 5-7 patients met all treatment targets. Although most patients received lifestyle advice, the effectiveness of counseling was very low. Large between-country differences in outcomes suggest considerable room for improvement.

  • 67.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Joel, Monteiro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Vieira, Marco
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Reimão, Pedro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Rocha, Paulo
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Causes of Vision Impairment in Portugal: A hospital based study2015In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, article id 2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Causes of vision impairment (VI) are influenced by factors such as race or socio-economic circumstances. Because of this collecting national information is important for planning reduction of vision loss. The aim of this study was to determine causes of vision impairment in a population visiting ophthalmology departments in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    This study was designed according with the guidelines of the Vancouver Economic Burden of Vision Loss Group (IOVS, 2010, V51/4/1801). Recommendations are to collect hospital data during 1 year to determine causes of VI. We selected four public hospitals that are expected to have over 120-140K appointments per year. Files are analysed weekly to detect patients with vision impairment. Inclusion criteria are: visual acuity with the current refractive correction equal or less than 0.5 (20/40) in the better-seeing eye and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees. Patients were selected by trained hospital staff (medics and orthoptists) and inserted in a database. Diagnoses were classified according the ICD9. Data collected included fundamental demographic information, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities.

    Results 

    We have now 2462 patients selected that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because we did not start all hospitals simultaneously. From the current number of cases detected, 58% are female, 1.9% are under 20, 8.2% are between 20 and 50 and 89.9% are 50 years or older. The leading causes of vision impairment among these patients are diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract (C), glaucoma (GC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the North American definition of VI the proportions are 26.8% for DR, 25.5% for C, 10.4% for GC and 8.2% for AMD. The remaining causes of VI have percentages below 5% and in total they correspond to approximately 29% of the cases detected.

    Conclusions 

    Our results show that the most common causes of vision impairment are eye diseases related with systemic conditions and aging of the population. Vision impairment was relatively low under the age of 20 and the causes were mostly inherited diseases. Numbers reported now will be more accurate at the end of the study but they already highlight the importance of targeting conditions such as diabetes.

  • 68.
    Baptista, António M. G.
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Sousa, Raul A. R. C.
    Rocha, Filomena A. S. Q.
    Sepúlveda Fernandes, Paula
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The macular photostress test in diabetes, glaucoma, and cataract2013In: 8th Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 11th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers, and Applications, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The photostress recovery time test (PSRT) has been widely reported as a helpful screening clinical tool. However, the poor standardization of its measurement technique remains to be a limitation among clinicians. The purpose of this study is to apply a recommended clinical technique to measure the PSRT in some of the most commons eye diseases to ascertain whether these diseases affect the PSRT values. Methods. One hundred and one controls and 105 patients, with diagnosed diabetes (without visible signs of diabetic retinopathy), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or cataracts underwent photostress testing. The test was performed with a direct ophthalmoscope for illuminating the macula for 30 seconds. Participants belonged to three age classes: A, B and C; and were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, POAG and cataract. The age range for A, B and C classes were respectively 43-54, 55-64 and 65-74 years. The groups were also further compared within each age class. In addition, the influence of age on PSRT was evaluated using the control group. Results. Results demonstrate that PSRT changes with age (p<0.02). In class A, diabetic group had a faster PSRT than control group, (mean ± standard deviation) 20.22±7.51 and 26.14±8.34 seconds. The difference between these groups was statistical significant (t-test, p=0.012). Cataract and POAG groups did not affect the PSRT significantly. Conclusions. The technique used for the Photostress showed that diabetics, younger than 54 years, may have faster PSRT and that, aging delays PSRT

  • 69.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Optimal Use of Peripheral Vision2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People who lose their central vision have to rely on their peripheral vision for all visual tasks. The ability to resolve fine details in the periphery is reduced due to retinal limitations and the optical aberrations arising from the use of off-axis vision. The aim of this work is to improve vision by enhancing the image quality at the preferred retinal locus by means of correcting the optical errors. The focus of this thesis has been to measure and correct peripheral optical errors, as well as to evaluate their impact on resolution acuity in both normal and central visual field loss subjects.

     In order to measure peripheral optics we employed a COAS HD VR open view aberrometer which is based on the Hartmann-Shack principle. Psychophysical methods were used to evaluate peripheral grating resolution acuity. We assessed the repeatability of the wavefront sensor in measuring the peripheral ocular aberrations. The symmetry of peripheral ocular aberrations between the left and right eyes was examined. The influence of age on peripheral ocular aberrations was also investigated. We evaluated peripheral vision with sphero-cylindrical correction in healthy eyes and performed the first adaptive optics aberration correction at the preferred retinal locus of a single central visual field loss subject.

     We found that the aberrometer was repeatable and reliable in measuring peripheral ocular aberrations. There was mirror symmetry between the two eyes for most of the peripheral aberration coefficients. Age had a significant influence on peripheral ocular aberrations; there were larger amounts of higher-order aberrations in old eyes than in young eyes. Peripheral low contrast resolution acuity improved with peripheral refractive correction in subjects who had higher amounts of off-axis astigmatism. Finally, adaptive optics aberration correction improved both high and low contrast resolution acuity measured at the preferred retinal locus of the single low vision subject.

     Because of their versatility, open view aberrometers will hopefully be a standard clinical instrument at low vision clinics as they allow for measurements to be rapidly performed at any location in the visual field. The existence of off-axis astigmatism should be better communicated within the low-vision rehabilitation community. Currently, the off-axis refractive errors can be corrected with conventional methods and we hope that the higher-order aberrations can also be corrected in a more realistic ways in the future.  

     In conclusion, this thesis has shown that peripheral visual function can be improved by optical correction. The findings of this thesis have broadened the knowledge of peripheral optical errors and their influence on vision.

  • 70.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Castet, Eric
    Moreno, Laura
    Silva, Marta
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Scoring reading parameters: an inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD test2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Estimating MNREAD parameters such as Critical Print Size (CPS) and Maximum Reading Speed (MRS) - using the time taken to read blocks of text - often requires subjective analysis of the reading profile. Depending on the rater, parameters may be over- or under-estimated, resulting in difficult or even impossible between-study comparisons. The aim of this project was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of MNREAD parameters in subjects with visual impairment. Methods: Reading times for the Portuguese version of the MNREAD chart from 32 subjects, reading binocularly were analyzed. Reading speed was computed by a single experimenter (AFM) using reading time and number of errors. Based on reading speeds, three experimented raters (AFM, AC and KB) computed MRS and CPS using the following method. CPS was defined as the print size at which subsequent smaller print sizes were read at 1.96 x standard deviation slower than the mean of the preceding print sizes; MRS was estimated as the mean reading speed for sentences in print larger than the CPS. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient for both MRS and CPS for all three raters. Results: Near acuity range was 0.14-1.9 logMAR. The average measure ICC for CPS was 0.896 with a 95% CI from 0.814 to 0.946 (p< 0.001). The average measure ICC for MRS was 0.984 with a 95% CI from 0.970 to 0.992 (p< 0.001). Conclusion: A high degree of reliability was found between the three raters for both CPS and MRS. Even though some small variability exists this may be due to raters’ high-level experience with MNREAD data. Future directions will involve: 1) including more raters with various level of experience in MNREAD rating; 2) investigating the degree of inter-rater reliability for raters using different estimation methods.

  • 71.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ekblad, Johan
    SYAB, Kalmar.
    Inde, Krister
    Indenova, Karlstad.
    Melis-Dankers, Bart
    Royal Dutch Visio, Centre of Expertise for Blind and Partially Sighted People, Netherlands.
    Driving performance in participants with quadrantanopia and hemianopia in Sweden: a closed circuit driving track study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to drive a car is one of the important aspect of a person’s independent lifestyle. People with visual field defects after stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) have more limitations in driving. In Sweden, they are not allowed to drive and their driving licenses are revoked. The Swedish transport agency does not allow any on-road test for them to prove their practical fitness to drive. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate driving performance in participants with visual field defects after TBI in a closed circuit driving track.Methods: Eleven participants with varying degrees of quadrantanopia and hemianopia after TBI were recruited for this study. The mean age of the participants was 58 ±13.7 years (37 - 73 years). All participants underwent 10 weeks of explorative saccadic training at the hospital prior to driving assessment. Driving performance were assessed by two driving instructors and they graded the participants from 1 (fail) to 5 (excellent) on the following five categories: maneuvering the vehicle, safety margin, traffic rules, scanning for potential hazards and reacting to situations. The subject passed the driving test only if they scored 3 or more in each category.Results: Five (45%) out of 11 participants passed the driving test and they were adjudged as fit to drive. Remaining six (55%) participants failed at least in one category. Three of them failed in visual scanning, two failed in maneuvering and one failed in both the aforementioned categories as well as safety margin.Discussion: A rehabilitation program aimed at improving safe driving should be implemented and an on-road assessment of fitness to drive should be allowed in Sweden for this population in future.Conclusion: The decision on practical fitness to drive cannot be based solely on the presence of visual field defect and an on-road assessment is required.

  • 72.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Elsner, Ann E.
    Indiana University, USA ; Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Muller, Matthew S.
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Haggerty, Bryan P.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Papay, Joel A.
    Indiana University, USA.
    Gast, Thomas
    Indiana University, USA ; Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Litvin, Taras V.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Ozawa, Glen Y.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Cuadros, Jorge
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Petrig, Benno L.
    Aeon Imaging, USA.
    Stability of fixation in diabetes patients with and without clinically significant macular edema2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Eye diseases affecting central vision impair fixation and interfere with day-to-day tasks such as reading. Diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema (CSME) are leading causes of visual impairment in diabetes patients. The aim of this study is to find whether diabetic patients with CSME have poorer fixation stability compared to patients without CSME, by analyzing the fundus images obtained from the Laser Scanning Digital Camera (LSDC).

    Methods - Two hundred underserved, diabetic patients were screened for diabetic retinopathy at the Eastmont Wellness Center within the EyePACS telemedicine network, using LSDC. One eye of each patient who had diabetic retinopathy was included in this study. Non-mydriatic color fundus photos were classified for presence of CSME by two independent, certified EyePACS graders. The first 50 patients (25 males &amp; 25 females) with CSME were selected and 50 (27 males &amp; 23 females) diabetic patients without CSME were selected as controls. Mean age was 59 (±9) years for patients with CSME and was 55 (±10) years for patients without CSME. The subjects included 53% Hispanics, 26% African Americans and 21% other. A series of 20 images (36 deg field, 1024 X 1024 pixels, and 850 nm) were acquired at 11 fps. Eye positions were obtained by selecting a region of interest in the first image of each series and aligning the remaining images to that region by cross-correlation. The bi-contour ellipse area (BCEA) and the standard deviation of the Euclidean distance (SDED) were used to quantify fixation stability.

    Results - The fixation stability for patients with CSME was significantly worse than for those without CSME (t test: p &lt; 0.001, 0.007 for BCEA and SDED, respectively). The mean fixation stability obtained by the BCEA metric was 2.74 (±0.40) log(minArc2) and 2.34 (±0.42) log(minArc2) for patients with and without CSME, respectively. For SDED the mean was 48.4 (±28.8) microns and 34.6 (±20.4) microns for patients with and without CSME, respectively. The correlation with age was not significant for either group (R2 = 0.052, 0.011).

    Conclusions - Diabetic patients with CSME had poorer fixation stability than patients without CSME for both metrics. Fixation stability is a potential tool for assessing macular function and could be used for tracking the treatment and progression of macular edema.The LSDC images provide one method to quantify fixation stability rapidly.

  • 73.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Inde, Krister
    Ekblad, Johan
    Melis-Dankers, Bart
    Closed circuit driving performance in persons with quadrantanopia and hemianopia in Sweden2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, persons with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are not allowed to drive and usually their driving licences are revoked. Although earlier studies (de Haan et al. 2014; Elgin et al. 2010) have shown that HVFDs do not necessarily impair practical fitness to drive, the Swedish transport agency does not allow them any on-road driving testing to prove their practical fitness to drive. The aim of this study was to evaluate driving performance in participants with visual field defects after acquired brain injury in a closed circuit driving track. Eleven former drivers with varying degrees of quadrantanopia and hemianopia after acquired brain damage were recruited for this study from the stroke rehabilitation department at Kalmar County Hospital. The median age of the participants was 55 years and their age ranged from 37 to 73 years. Driving performance was assessed by two experienced driving instructors. They graded the participants on a scale from 1 (major faults) to 5 (excellent) on the following five categories: manoeuvring the vehicle, risk assessment, traffic rules, visual scanning and situation awareness. The subject would pass the driving test only if they had scored 3 or more in each category. The subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were evaluated further with a driving simulator. Five (45%) out of 11 participants passed the driving test and were adjudged as fit to drive. The remaining six (55%) participants failed in at least one category. Three failed in visual scanning, two failed in manoeuvring and one failed in both the aforementioned categories as well as risk assessment. Three subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were also evaluated in a driving simulator. Out of the three subjects, only one was able to complete and pass the evaluation while the remaining two participants aborted the evaluation due to simulator sickness. Homonymous visual field defects do not necessarily impair fitness to drive. Therefore, an on-road assessment of practical fitness to drive should be allowed in Sweden for this population in the near future. The decision on practical fitness to drive cannot be based solely on the presence of visual field defects. A rehabilitation program aimed at improving safe driving should be put into practice with an on-road driving training and assessment procedure. It should be developed and implemented by experienced traffic inspectors as a complementary part of the decision to either issue or revoke a driving licence for this population.

  • 74.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Inde, Krister
    SMS Projektgrupp, .
    SYAB Kalmar, .
    SMS resultatrapporten2015Report (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants.2019Data set
  • 76.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    He, Yingchen
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Queirós, Tatiana
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Mansfield, J. Stephen
    SUNY College at Plattsburgh, USA.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Aix-Marseille University, France;CNRS, France.
    Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1-14, article id e0216775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose First, to evaluate inter-rater reliability when human raters estimate the reading performance of visually impaired individuals using the MNREAD acuity chart. Second, to evaluate the agreement between computer-based scoring algorithms and compare them with human rating. Methods Reading performance was measured for 101 individuals with low vision, using the Portuguese version of the MNREAD test. Seven raters estimated the maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of each individual MNREAD curve. MRS and CPS were also calculated automatically for each curve using two different algorithms: the original standard deviation method (SDev) and a non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate absolute agreement between raters and/or algorithms. Results Absolute agreement between raters was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.97; 95%CI [0.96, 0.98]) and ‘moderate’ to ‘good’ for CPS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.69, 0.83]). For CPS, inter-rater reliability was poorer among less experienced raters (ICC = 0.70; 95%CI [0.57, 0.80]) when compared to experienced ones (ICC = 0.82; 95%CI [0.76, 0.88]). Absolute agreement between the two algorithms was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95%CI [0.91, 0.98]). For CPS, the best possible agreement was found for CPS defined as the print size sustaining 80% of MRS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.68, 0.84]). Absolute agreement between raters and automated methods was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI [0.88, 0.98] for SDev; ICC = 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.98] for NLME). For CPS, absolute agreement between raters and SDev ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’ (ICC = 0.66; 95% CI [0.3, 0.80]), while agreement between raters and NLME was ‘good’ (ICC = 0.83; 95% CI [0.76, 0.88]). Conclusion For MRS, inter-rater reliability is excellent, even considering the possibility of noisy and/or incomplete data collected in low-vision individuals. For CPS, inter-rater reliability is lower. This may be problematic, for instance in the context of multisite investigations or follow-up examinations. The NLME method showed better agreement with the raters than the SDev method for both reading parameters. Setting up consensual guidelines to deal with ambiguous curves may help improve reliability. While the exact definition of CPS should be chosen on a case-by-case basis depending on the clinician or researcher’s motivations, evidence suggests that estimating CPS as the smallest print size sustaining about 80% of MRS would increase inter-rater reliability.

  • 77.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Olsson, Roger
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of accommodation on peripheral refraction in myopes and emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate the effect of accommodation on both central and peripheral refractive errors in myopes compared to emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer. Methods 15 myopic subjects (-1.50 D to -8.25 D) and 14 emmetropic subjects (+0.75 D to -0.25 D) participated in this study. The mean age of the myopic group was 24.3 ± 5.7 years and for the emmetropic group was 23.9 ± 5.7 years. Central and peripheral refraction were measured with a COAS-HD VR open field instrument at seven different eccentricities from 0° to ± 30° in 10° steps for three different accommodative demands 0.33 D, 2.50 D and 4.0 D during monocular viewing. The myopic subjects were corrected with soft contact lenses and the measurements were performed on the right eye for a 3 mm pupil diameter for both groups. Relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) was calculated for all three accommodative demands for both groups. Results Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference in RPRE across eccentricities or between accommodation demands in the myopes (pÂż0.05). The myopic group had minimal hyperopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean hyperopic shift was 0.37 D at 30° nasal retina for an accommodative demand of 4.0 D. On the other hand, the emmetropic group became relatively myopic at peripheral eccentricities, from 20° onwards for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean myopic shift was 1.01 D at 30° temporal retina for an accommodative demand of 2.50 D. Conclusion In the myopic group, we did not find any significant reduction in hyperopic shift in the periphery with accommodation. The emmetropic group showed myopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands with temporal retina being more myopic than nasal retina.

  • 78.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rosen, R.
    Lewis, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Unsbo, P.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Benefit of Adaptive Optics Aberration Correction at Preferred Retinal Locus2012In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 89, no 9, p. 1417-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE.: To investigate the effect of eccentric refractive correction and full aberration correction on both high- and low-contrast grating resolution at the preferred retinal locus (PRL) of a single low-vision subject with a long-standing central scotoma. METHODS.: The subject was a 68-year-old women with bilateral absolute central scotoma due to Stargardt disease. She developed a single PRL located 25 degrees nasally of the damaged macula in her left eye, this being the better of the two eyes. High- (100%) and low-contrast (25 and 10%) grating resolution acuity was evaluated using four different correction conditions. The first two corrections were solely refractive error corrections, namely, habitual spectacle correction and full spherocylindrical correction. The latter two corrections were two versions of adaptive optics corrections of all aberrations, namely, habitual spectacle correction with aberration correction and full spherocylindrical refractive correction with aberration correction. RESULTS.: The mean high-contrast (100%) resolution acuity with her habitual correction was 1.06 logMAR, which improved to 1.00 logMAR with full spherocylindrical correction. Under the same conditions, low-contrast (25%) acuity improved from 1.30 to 1.14 logMAR. With adaptive optics aberration correction, the high-contrast resolution acuities improved to 0.89/0.92 logMAR and the low-contrast acuities improved to 1.04/1.06 logMAR under both correction modalities. The low-contrast (10%) resolution acuity was 1.34 logMAR with adaptive optics aberration correction; however, with purely refractive error corrections, she was unable to identify the orientation of the gratings. CONCLUSIONS.: Correction of all aberrations using adaptive optics improves both high- and low-contrast resolution acuity at the PRL of a single low-vision subject with long-standing absolute central scotoma

  • 79.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of age on peripheral aberration2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to compare peripheral higher order aberrations in young

    and old emmetropic eyes across the horizontal (±40°) and inferior (–20°) visual field.

    Introduction

     

     

    People with central visual field loss use eccentric fixation for various visual tasks.

    Recently studies have shown that the correction of lower order aberrations (defocus &

    astigmatism) can improve eccentric vision in subjects with central visual field loss

    (CFL)[1]. The CFL subjects mostly correspond to older age groups who use eccentric

    fixation angles up to 20°–30°. While there have been studies comparing the off-axis

    lower order aberrations in normal young and old subjects[2], there is only one recent

    study, which has compared off-axis higher order aberrations in normal young and old

    emmetropic eyes up to 20° (horizontal and vertical) eccentricity[3]. In this study we

    have measured off-axis aberrations in a group of 10 young (23 ± 3 years) and 10 old

    (57 ± 4 years) emmetropes. The aberrations of the right eye were measured using

    COAS-HD VR Hartmann-Shack aberrometer in steps 10° out to ± 40° horizontally and

    –20° inferiorly in the visual field. Subjects rotated the eyes to view the fixation targets,

    which were red light emitting diodes, placed at 3 meter from the eye. The aberrations

    were quantified for a pupil area 5 mm in diameter.

    Discussion

     

     

    Mixed between-within subject’s analysis of variance of the horizontal coma C13

    showed that there was a statistically significant difference between age groups

    (p<0.05). The coma increased linearly in both groups from nasal to temporal visual

    field. The rate of change was greater in the old (slope = –0.027 μm/deg) compared

    to the young (slope = –0.012 μm/deg) emmetropes. In the inferior visual field,

    vertical coma C-13 changed linearly in both groups with higher values in old (slope =

    0.015 μm/deg) compared to young (slope = 0.006 μm/deg). The mean spherical

    aberration was positive in older emmetropes (0.053 μm) compared to young

    emmetropes (-0.030 μm). The HO RMS showed a quadratic increase in the

    periphery for both age groups. The HO RMS was greater in older emmetropes but it

    was not statistically significant (p>0.05) when compared to young emmetropes.

     

    Conclusions

     

     

    Our results show that there is an increase in coma, spherical aberration, and HO

    RMS with age in the periphery.

  • 80.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Measurement of Off-axis Refraction with a Commercial Open Field Aberrometer2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    People with central visual field loss (CFL) use their remaining peripheral vision in order to see better when performing various visual related tasks. At large off-axis angles, the eccentric vision can be limited both by the low resolution capacity of the peripheral retina and by the optical aberrations caused due to oblique angles. Previous work has shown that eccentric correction of induced off-axis astigmatism can improve vision in a preferred retinal location (PRL) for people with CFL. However, the eccentric refraction is often difficult to determine with traditional refractive methods. This work therefore shows the use of a commercially available wavefront sensor to measure fast and reliable off-axis refraction. Data on off-axis refraction is also of interest in the field of myopia research.

    Methods:

    We used the new open-field high-definition complete ophthalmic analysis system, COAS HD -VR, to evaluate off-axis refraction. Using the special Vision Research tool in this system stimulus (fixation objects) can be presented in a large part of the visual field. The instrument can measure out to 40 degrees in the horizontal visual field and 20 degrees in the vertical visual field with a range from sphere +7 D to − 17 D. It measures astigmatism up to 10 D. This instrument also allows natural binocular viewing without obstacles. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 ± 4 years) were studied. Off-axis refraction and higher order (HO) aberrations were measured in steps of 10° out to ± 30° in the horizontal visual field

    Results:

    The first data on young emmetropic eyes with this new instrument showed promising results for low (LO) and higher order (HO) aberrations in the peripheral visual field. Of the LO aberrations, astigmatism increased significantly with the off–axis angle, from 0.25 D at 10° Nasal to 1.65 D at 30° Nasal. In the HO aberrations, coma (C13) showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05)

    Conclusions:

    The COAS HD-VR shows promising results and good usability for future research in evaluation of off-axis refraction. In future we believe the aberrometer can be used clinically to measure off-axis refractions in low vision patients.

  • 81.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Ocular Aberrations in the Peripheral Visual Field With a Commercial Open-View Aberrometer2010In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 5, article id 3951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe interest in off-axis aberrations has increased with the discovery of a possible link between myopia development and peripheral optics. The most common technology to measure the off-axis aberrations is a Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer. This is the first study to report peripheral aberrations in a large sample of emmetropic population with a commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. MethodsThe commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer COAS-HD VR was used to measure the aberrations in the peripheral vision. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 {+/-} 4 years) were studied. Off-axis aberrations were measured in steps of 10{degrees} out to {+/-} 30{degrees} in the horizontal visual field. The subjects turned their eye to view the off-axis fixation target (light emitting diode placed at 3 meters) during the measurement. The resulting wavefront aberrations were parameterized with Zernike coefficients for a 5 mm diameter pupil. All analyzes are reported according to optical society of America (OSA) recommended standards. ResultsAberrations from the 2nd to 6th order and the total higher-order root-mean-square (HO RMS) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The defocus C02 was significantly myopic in the nasal visual field (+20{degrees}, +30{degrees}) whereas there was no significant difference in the temporal visual field. Astigmatism C22 increased quadratically from {+/-}10{degrees} in the periphery and coma C13 showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05). The spherical aberration C04 and the total HO RMS showed a significant change at {+/-}30o. ConclusionsOur results showed that in young emmetropes there was a significant increase of HO RMS at {+/-}30{degrees}, which is expected. Astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration vary systematically across the horizontal visual field in agreement with Seidel theory. The findings of our study with a large sample of emmetropic population agree with the previous studies done with laboratory built aberrometers.

  • 82.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Repeatability of Peripheral Aberrations in Young Emmetropes2010In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 87, no 10, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE.: The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported.

    METHODS.: The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10 degrees out to +/-40 degrees in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20 degrees in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability.

    RESULTS.: In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was <30% and the intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C13) was most positive at 40 degrees in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change.

    CONCLUSIONS.: The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field

  • 83.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Unsbo, Peter
    Biomedical and X-Ray Physics.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of age on peripheral ocular aberrations.2011In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 88, no 9, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE.: To compare peripheral lower and higher order aberrations across the horizontal (±40°) and inferior (-20°) visual fields in healthy groups of young and old emmetropes. METHODS.: We have measured off-axis aberrations in the groups of 30 younger (24 ± 3 years) and 30 older (58 ± 5 years) emmetropes. The aberrations of OD were measured using the COAS-HD VR Shack-Hartmann aberrometer in 10° steps to ±40° horizontally and -20° inferiorly in the visual field. The aberrations were quantified with Zernike polynomials for a 4 mm pupil diameter. The second-order aberration coefficients were converted to their respective refraction components (M, J45, and J180). Mixed between-within subjects, analysis of variance were used to determine whether there were significant differences in the refraction and aberration components for the between-subjects variable age and the within-subjects variable eccentricity. RESULTS.: Peripheral refraction components were similar in both age groups. Among the higher order coefficients, horizontal coma (C3) and spherical aberration (C4) varied mostly between the groups. Coma increased linearly with eccentricity, at a more rapid rate in the older group than in the younger group. Spherical aberration was more positive in the older group compared with the younger group. Higher order root mean square increased more rapidly with eccentricity in the older group. CONCLUSIONS.: Like the axial higher order aberrations, the peripheral higher order aberrations of emmetropes increase with age, particularly coma and spherical aberration.

  • 84.
    Behforuzi, Hura
    et al.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Feng, Nicole C.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Billig, Adam R.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Ryan, Eliza
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Tusch, Erich S.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Holcomb, Phillip J.
    San Diego State Univ, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Daffner, Kirk R.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Markers of Novelty Processing in Older Adults Are Stable and Reliable2019In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 11, p. 1-15, article id 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory behavior and responsiveness to novelty play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in older adults. Inferences about age- or disease-related differences in neural and behavioral responses to novelty are most often based on results from single experimental testing sessions. There has been very limited research on whether such findings represent stable characteristics of populations studied, which is essential if investigators are to determine the result of interventions aimed at promoting exploratory behaviors or draw appropriate conclusions about differences in the processing of novelty across diverse clinical groups. The goal of the current study was to investigate the short-term test-retest reliability of event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral responses to novel stimuli in cognitively normal older adults. ERPs and viewing durations were recorded in 70 healthy older adults participating in a subject-controlled visual novelty oddball task during two sessions occurring 7 weeks apart. Mean midline P3 amplitude and latency, mean midline amplitude during successive 50 ms intervals, temporospatial factors derived from principal component analysis (PCA), and viewing duration in response to novel stimuli were measured during each session. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no reliable differences in the value of any measurements between Time 1 and 2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between Time 1 and 2 were excellent for mean P3 amplitude (ICC = 0.86), the two temporospatial factors consistent with the P3 components (ICC of 0.88 and 0.76) and viewing duration of novel stimuli (ICC = 0.81). Reliability was only fair for P3 peak latency (ICC = 0.56). Successive 50 ms mean amplitude measures from 100 to 1,000 ms yielded fair to excellent reliabilities, and all but one of the 12 temporospatial factors identified demonstrated ICCs in the good to excellent range. We conclude that older adults demonstrate substantial stability in ERP and behavioral responses to novel visual stimuli over a 7-week period. These results suggest that older adults may have a characteristic way of processing novelty that appears resistant to transient changes in their environment or internal states, which can be indexed during a single testing session. The establishment of reliable measures of novelty processing will allow investigators to determine whether proposed interventions have an impact on this important aspect of behavior.

  • 85.
    Beiranvand, Samira
    et al.
    Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Zarea, Kourosh
    Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Ghanbari, Saeed
    Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Tuvesson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Keikhaei, Bijan
    Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Ten years incidence of cancer in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis2018In: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, ISSN 2452-0918, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Designing and implementation of screening programs depend on greatly epidemiologic basic data in every country. Also Variation in the incidence of various cancers in our country has been a favorite topic.

    Objectives

    This systematic review was conducted to provide an overall perspective about incidence, geographical and age distribution of cancers in Iran.

    Methods

    A comprehensive search were done according to MOOSE guideline criteria in national and international databases for selecting eligible articles from 2005 to 2015. After screening titles and abstracts, duplicated and irrelevant studies were excluded. Selected papers are written in Persian or English. The standard error of the cancer incidence was calculated based on the binomial distribution. Because of the significant heterogeneity observed among the results, we used a random-effects model combine the results of the primary studies. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken to explore the effects of the risk of bias and other sources of heterogeneity.

    Results

    Overall 16 articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. The total incidence of cancer was 19.4 and 17.2 per hundred thousand of people in males and females respectively. The five most common cancers in male were: Lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, stomach, colorectal and in the female are: breast, colorectal, stomach, thyroid and esophagus. The highest incidence rate was seen in Golestan Province and in the age group over 65 years.

    Conclusion

    According to increasing incidence rate of cancers in Iran, Development, holding and accomplish of universal public cancer control program should be the first precedence for health policy.

  • 86.
    Benderix, Ylva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barn med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar som ADHD, autismspektrumtillstånd och Tourettes syndrom2015In: Pediatrisk omvårdnad / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tor Lindberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2015, 2, p. 338-344Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Bengtsson, D
    et al.
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Brudin, L
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Wanby, Pär
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Previously unknown thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke.2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 126, no 2, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Opinions differ regarding the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and influence of previously unknown overt or subclinical thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to look for differences between cardio-embolic and non-embolic ischemic stroke.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 153 Swedish patients diagnosed with first-time acute ischemic stroke were included in the study and categorized for suspected cardio-embolic (n = 30) or non-embolic (n = 123) ischemic stroke depending on the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Blood samples were taken 48 h or earlier after onset of stroke symptoms.

    RESULTS: Previously, unknown overt or subclinical thyroid dysfunction was found in 12%. Previously, unknown overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism was more common in the AF group (13%) compared to the non-AF group (3%), P = 0.048. Patients with AF had slightly higher concentrations of free T4 (15 vs 14 pm; P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in concentrations of S-TSH or prevalence of thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies between the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: In patients with first-time acute ischemic stroke, unknown thyroid dysfunction is common, and unknown overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with cardio-embolic stroke.

  • 88.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Safi, Kamran
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Avril, Alexis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Wikelski, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany;University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Kristianstad University.
    Elmberg, Johan
    Kristianstad University.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-11, article id UNSP 150633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

  • 89.
    Bengtsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Utveckling av program för utvärdering av binokulära problem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 90.
    Berg, Marie
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Refraktionsförändringar under läkningsprocessen efter kataraktoperation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRAKT

    Vid katarakt blir linsen grumlig och detta kan leda till synnedsättning och bländningsbesvär. Behandlingen är kirurgisk och går ut på att den grumliga linsen avlägsnas och ersätts med en ny intraokulär lins. Extraktionsmetoden, då ögat öppnades upp och linsen togs ut, användes fram till 1980-talet och ersattes då av fakotekniken som använder ultraljud för att sönderdela och suga ut linsen. Tack vare den nya tekniken kunde de stora snitten, på minst 8-10 mm, minskas ned till 1,5 mm. De små snitten självsluter sig och behöver inte sys och på så sätt kan den inducerade astigmatismen nästan undvikas helt. Med hjälp av biometri kan rätt styrka på den intraokulära linsen, (IOL), räknas ut och den postoperativa refraktionen bestämmas i förväg. Komplikationerna har blivit färre med ny och säkrare teknik men ett kvarvarande problem är de refraktionsförändringar som kan ske postoperativt. Om linskapseln krymper efter operation kan det leda till en ändring av IOLs placering i ögat. Axiallängdsmätning, material och design på IOLs är också bidragande till oönskade refraktionsförändringar.

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på refraktionsförändringarna under läkningsprocessen från första återbesöket en vecka efter operation till första besök hos optiker minst en månad senare.

    Remissvaren har samlats in på Ögonkliniken i Kalmar och all data har förts in i ett Exceldokument för att analyseras. I studien ingick 82 kataraktopererade ögon. Resultatet visade på en statistiskt signifikant myopisering på i genomsnitt -0,085 D vilket tolkas som en framåtflyttning av linsens position postoperativt. P-värdet blev 0,045. 48 opererade ögon hade en refraktionsförändring på ≥ 0,25 D och 15 av dessa hade en förändring på ≥ 0,50 D. Den största förändringen var på -1,25 D. Det hittades inget samband mellan refraktionsförändringarna och ålder, kön eller antal dagar som gått mellan mätningarna. Slutsatsen är att refraktionen i genomsnitt inte ändras nämnvärt mellan en vecka och en månad postoperativt och att en månad då är en god marginal tills en glasögonbeställning görs.

    2008:O3

  • 91.
    Bergkvist, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En jämförelse mellan två tekniker vid utvärdering av Meiboms körtlar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra tryck med Meibomian Gland Evaluator (MGE) med tryck manuellt med fingret vid utvärdering av Meiboms körtlar. Ytterligare syfte med studien var att utvärdera korrelation mellan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) enkät och gradering av meibumets kvalitet och sekretion.

    Metod: I studien deltog 30 personer i åldrarna 20–76 år med en medelålder på 51,8±19,8. Personer med uttalade problem med torra ögon uteslöts ur studien. Först utfördes en utvärdering av sekretion och kvalitet av Meiboms körtlar med MGE på höger öga och manuellt med tummen på vänster öga. Efter det fick personerna fylla i en OSDI enkät. Slutligen utfördes utvärdering av sekretion och kvalitet av Meiboms körtlar med manuellt tryck på höger öga och med MGE på vänster öga. Utvärdering av kvalitet och sekretion utfördes med hjälp av graderingsskalor med poäng från 0–3. 

    Resultat: Medianvärden för sekretion och kvalitet med MGE och manuellt på höger och vänster öga gav liknande resultat. Enligt p-värden var det ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan teknikerna i något av fallen. Studien visade en positiv korrelation mellan OSDI poäng och gradering av meibumets sekretion (r=0,47; p=0,01). Ingen statistisk signifikant korrelation kunde påvisas mellan OSDI poäng och gradering av meibumets kvalitet (r=0,32; p=0,09).

    Slutsats: Studien visade att det inte finns någon statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan de två teknikerna. Studien visade positiv korrelation mellan OSDI enkät och gradering av meibumets sekretion. Studien visade att det inte finns någon statistisk signifikant korrelation mellan OSDI enkät och gradering av meibumets kvalitet.

  • 92.
    Berglund Pilgrim, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Near Point of Convergence: A Comparison of Four Different Target types2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any differences between four different target types when measuring the near point of convergence in adults.

    Methods and Material: The near point of convergence was measured in 35 subjects with a visual acuity of at least 1.0 (6/6) in each eye and without any strabismus. The targets used were: the tip of a pen, an accommodative target, the RAF line target and a penlight viewed through red-green filters. Both break and recovery points were assessed for the different techniques. Each target was used twice in consecutive order. The line target from RAF ruler was copied on to a small plastic ruler in order to be able to use the same ruler for measuring the results. All subjects were fitted with their best correction in the trial frame after a complete refraction. The measurements were taken to the nearest 0.25cm.

    Results: There was no difference found between NPC break values for the different target types in the control group. The NPC values were found to be 5.0/7.4 in the control group and 10.8/18.2 in the anomalous group. The accommodative target was found to give more remote values (11.5cm) than expected in comparison to the other targets in the anomalous group.

    Conclusion: In patients with normal NPC, the measurements can be taken with line target or Acc. target. Patients with receded NPC values should be evaluated with penlight and red-green glasses or at least twice with the tip of a pen. 

  • 93.
    Bergman, Esther
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    The effect of dynamic exercise on macular perfusion measured with OCTA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 94.
    Besirevic, Vedran
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Linder båtkoncept 20102007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet behandlar produktutveckling av Linders befintliga

    båtmodell Sportsman 400 med avseende på interiörutformningen

    som ska svara mot den framtida båtägarens krav och behov.

    Den framtida båtägaren består av två olika typer av individer

    som kan beskrivas som ”den äventyrliga individualisten”

    och ”den sociala traditionalisten”, som var och en har

    olika uppfattningar kring begreppet komfort.

  • 95.
    Björkman, Anna
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    En vardag full av utmaningar: En litteraturstudie om anhörigas upplevelse av att ha en psykiskt sjuk familjemedlem2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk sjukdom påverkar inte bara individen som drabbas utan även dennes anhöriga. Alla i familjen berörs och vardagen blir oförutsägbar och full av utmaningar. Sjuksköterskor möter individer med psykisk sjukdom och deras anhöriga oavsett arbetsplats. Syftet med studien var att belysa hur vuxna anhöriga till personer med psykisk sjukdom upplever sin vardag. För att belysa de anhörigas situation genomfördes en litteraturstudie över tidigare utförd empirisk forskning. En kvalitativ manifest innehållsanalys genomfördes och resulterade i följande sex kategorier: En omvälvande förändring, Behov av stöd och kunskap, Att vårda dygnet runt, Känslor av skam, skuld och rädsla, Slitningar i relationer och hur roller förändras samt En oförutsägbar framtid. Genomgående för resultatet var att de anhöriga upplever att vardagen är full av bördor. Att leva med en individ som drabbats av psykisk sjukdom är dock inte bara komplicerat. Anhöriga upplever ofta att de växer som individer och får nya perspektiv på tillvaron. Som sjuksköterska är det viktigt att visa förståelse för den utsatta situation som de anhöriga befinner sig i. Först när de anhöriga får ett bra stöd kan de stödja sin sjuke familjemedlem optimalt.

  • 96.
    Blixt, Evelina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av torra ögon med hjälp av Tearscope-plus och enkäten TERTC-DEQ2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte: Många upplever idag att de har symtom på torra ögon som exempelvis grusiga, brännande, rinnande eller kliande ögon. Torra ögon kan ha en negativ påverkan på dagliga aktiviteter som till exempel läsning, bildskärmsarbete, bilkörning och tv-tittande. Idag finns det flertalet väletablerade frågeformulär man kan använda sig av på sin klinik som ett extra instrument i sin undersökning. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera om resultatet från frågeformuläret TERTC-DEQ stämmer överense med de kliniska fynd som fås med hjälp av Tearscope-plus. Med hjälp av Tearscope-plus utvärderas tårfilmen och med frågeformuläret kan personer med olika grad av torra ögon upptäckas.

    Metod: I studien deltog 11 kvinnor och 18 män med en medelålder på 52,3 ± 8,2 år. Försökspersonerna undersöktes med hjälp av Tearscope-plus där en gradering av deras lipidskikt gjordes. Efter undersökningen fick försökspersonerna besvara TERTC-DEQ.

    Resultat: I denna studie var det 72,4 % som hade normala ögon och 27,6 % som hade symtom på torra ögon. Wave pattern var den vanligaste förekommande typen av lipidskikt. En trend kunde ses mellan en tjockare lipidskiktstyp och högre summa på TERTC-DEQ samt mellan en högre summa på TERTC-DEQ och ökad ålder.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar att Tearscope-plus är ett bra instrument vid utvärdering av lipidskiktet. Att introducera frågeformulär i utvärderingen av torra ögon ger bra information för vidare behandling. Resultaten av denna studie tyder på att man inte kan använda sig av enbart dessa båda instrument för utvärdering av ett torrt öga.

  • 97.
    Blom, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Abramsson, Zara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med barn som har ADHD.: Familjemedlmmars upplevelser av att leva med barn som har diagnosen ADHD.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 98.
    Blomqvist, Marjut
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    Halmstad University.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jormfeldt, Henrika
    Halmstad University.
    Health risks among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient settings2018In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 585-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy is greatly reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to investigate the relationships between self-rated health, sense of coherence, CVD risk, and body mass index (BMI) among people with severe mental illness (SMI) in psychiatric outpatient settings. Nearly 50% of the participants were exposed to moderate/high risk of CVD and over 50% were obese. The results showed no statistically relationships between the subjective and objective measures (Bayes factor <1) of health. The integration of physical health into clinical psychiatric nursing practice is vital.

  • 99.
    Blomqvist, Robert
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus, Dry Eye Disease and Cornea        : A review2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and its association with dry eye and cornea is becoming more common among the world population. Prevalence concerning both Diabetes and Dry Eye Disease (DED) are predicted to grow rapidly and Diabetes Mellitus in particular, not only in the developing world but also in low-income countries spreading down the population in age. This expresses itself as a clinical problem in Medicine and Ophthalmology and may grow in significance as more treatment is needed in the future.

    Aim: To investigate whether there is correlation or not by reviewing recent literature between dry eye disease and diabetes mellitus and how this may affect us and be treated in a clinical way with future prevalence in both DM and DED in mind.

    Result and conclusion: Clinical studies tell us that the clinical manifestations of DM like ocular surface problems are connected to DED in a strong way. DM seems to accelerate DED-related ocular problems, not only uncontrolled but also with controlled glycemia-levels giving DM another dimension of problems to dissolve. Age is known a main factor of DED and DM, together with duration of the disease, it seems to affect manifestations of the cornea in an accelerated way. DM has a negative effect concerning tear secretion-deficiency and peripheral neuropathy leading to corneal epitheliopathy with hyperosmolarity, recurrent erosions, persistent epithelial defects, microbial keratitis and wound healing-delays. This may give DM a correlation to DED in almost every aspect that DED is classified and diagnosed by.

  • 100.
    Blüthl-Larsson, Dinah
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Emmetropisering ochrefraktionsutveckling hos barn samtförväntade värden vid 9-11 års ålder2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på vad man kan förvänta sig för refraktionsfel av barn genom att undersöka en åldersgrupp från nio till elva år med Mohindra närretinoskopi. Resultaten skulle sedan jämföras med fem andra studier gjorda inom området. Syftet var vidare att fördjupa sig inom emmetropisering och refraktionsutveckling.

    Metod: 77 barn från tre skolor i Vadstena kommun i åldrarna 9 till 11 år undersöktes under april 2009 med Mohindra närretinoskopi. De sfäriska ekvivalenta refraktionsmedelvärdena togs fram och jämfördes med likvärdiga resultat från fem andra studier genomförda i olika länder.

    Resultat: De sfäriska ekvivalenta medelvärdena var för 9-, 10- och 11-åringar +1.29 D, +0.97 D respektive +1.22 D för pojkarna och +1.00 D, +1.22 D respektive +0.92 D för flickorna i Vadstena. I de asiatiska studierna var medelvärdena mot mer myopi medan den svenska och chilenska studien liknade medelvärdena från studien i Vadstena.

    Slutsats: Resultatet av denna undersökning visar att refraktionsutvecklingen tenderar att gå mot mer negativa värden med ökande ålder, dock är det långt ifrån alla barn som blir myopa när de börjar skolan. Asiatiska barn visar myopa medelvärden av refraktionen medan bland annat svenska barn visar hyperopa värden.

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