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  • 51.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar ett empiriskt test av Edward Lazears Jack-of-All Trades teori med hjälp av de tester av kognitiva och icke-kognitiva förmågor som män genomförde vid mönstring inför militärtjänsten. Vi finner stöd för Lazears teori då män vars kunskaper är jämnt fördelade över olika områden är mer benägna att vara företagare än andra. Dessutom är deras företag mer framgångsrika än företag som drivs av människor med specialistkunskaper. En policyslutsats är att utbildningar som ger breda kunskaper stimulerar framgångsrikt företagande. Ett bredare innehåll i utbildningar på varierande nivåer kan därför vara ett medel i syfte att stimulera till fler nya framgångsrika företag.

  • 52.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    (I can’t get no) job satisfaction?: Differences by sexual orientation in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men, on average, seem more satisfied with their job than heterosexual men; lesbians appear less satisfied with their job than heterosexual women. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite their high degree of job satisfaction, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that discrimination and prejudice may lead gay men to have low expectations about their job; these low expectations may translate into high job satisfaction. In contrast, prejudice and discrimination may hinder lesbians from realizing their career plans, resulting in low job satisfaction.

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  • 53.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sexual orientation and job satisfaction: survey-based evidence from Sweden2020In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men are more likely to be very satisfied with their job than heterosexual men, both in general and with different aspects of the job. In contrast, lesbians appear less satisfied with their job in general and with promotion prospects than heterosexual women. Among women, we find no differences in the probability of being very satisfied with the job by sexual orientation. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite that they more often are very satisfied with the job, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that the worker’s own expectations about the job and possibilities to fulfill career plans may be possible driving forces to our results. Previous research has documented discrimination against gay males and lesbians in hiring. Our results underline that measures to prevent discrimination in hiring is not enough to create an equal working life for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Measures within the workplace are also needed.

  • 54.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture and the gender gap in major choice: an analysis using sibling comparisons2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the importance of culture on gender roles – preferences and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society – for the gender gap in choice of major, using the epidemiological approach. We focus on second-generation immigrants in Sweden and compare the major choices at high school and college among opposite-sex siblings. By incorporating sibling fixed effects we can more convincingly than in previous literature control for factors apart from culture on gender roles that may affect educational choices. We use the female relative share in traditionally male fields to proxy for culture on gendered beliefs about educational choices in the source country. We find a negative gender gap in the probability of having majored in a STEM or male-dominated field, and that this gender gap varies with the proxy for culture on gender roles. We observe the same pattern when we study the probability to have majored in a female-dominated field. Our results clearly indicate that policies aimed at changing stereotypical gendered beliefs about educational choices have the potential to decrease the gender gap in major choice.

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  • 55.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Vikström, Peter
    The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Internalising external environmental effects in efficiency analysis: The Swedish pulp and paper industry 2000-20072016In: Economic Analysis and Policy, ISSN 0313-5926, Vol. 51, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry using national account data. By using a directional distance function approach we are able to investigate different aspects of efficiency relating to the direction of scaling. In the first analysis, desired output (pulp and paper) and undesired output (pollution) are considered equally important. This analysis shows that there is a 12% potential to simultaneously reduce pollution and increase the production of pulp and paper. In the second analysis, only undesired output is considered. The analysis shows an average potential reduction in pollution of 22%. If, on the other hand, this potential is computed in terms of desired output, keeping undesired output constant, the average potential increase in desired output is 14%. In a fourth analysis we discuss the potential to evaluate the costs of environmental regulations using the DEA methodology. Finally, our paper demonstrates that data from national accounts can be used to investigate different aspects of environmental efficiency.

  • 56.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    On the use of wavelets in unit root and cointegration tests2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four essays linked with the use of wavelet methodologies in unit root testing and in the estimation of the cointegrating parameters of bivariate models.

    In papers I and II, we examine the performance of some existing unit root tests in the presence of error distortions. We suggest wavelet-based unit root tests that have better size fidelity and size-adjusted power in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and additive measurement errors. We obtain the limiting distribution of the proposed test statistic in each case and examine the small sample performance of the tests using Monte Carlo simulations.

    In paper III, we suggest a wavelet-based filtering method to improve the small sample estimation of the cointegrating parameters of bivariate models. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that wavelet filtering reduces the small sample estimation bias.

    In paper IV, we propose a wavelet variance ratio unit root test for a system of equations. We obtain the limiting distributions of the test statistics under different specifications of the deterministic components of the estimating equations. We also investigate the small sample properties of the test by conducting Monte Carlo simulations. Results from the Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size fidelity for small sample sizes (of up to 100 observations per equation, and up to 10 equations), and has better size-adjusted power for these sample sizes, compared the Cross-sectionally Augmented Dickey-Fuller test.

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  • 57.
    Ali, Abdul Aziz
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    A wavelet-based variance ratio unit root test for a system of equations2019In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, p. 1-16, article id 20180005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we suggest a unit root test for a system of equations using a spectral variance decomposition method based on the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform. We obtain the limiting distribution of the test statistic and study its small sample properties using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that, for multiple time series of small lengths, the wavelet-based method is robust to size distortions in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. The wavelet-based test is also more powerful than the Cross-sectionally Augmented Im et al. unit root test (Pesaran, M. H. 2007. "A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross-section Dependence." Journal of Applied Econometrics 22 (2): 265-312.) for time series with between 20 and 100 observations, using systems of 5 and 10 equations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the test through an application on evaluating the Purchasing Power Parity theory for the Group of 7 countries and find support for the theory, whereas the test by Pesaran (Pesaran, M. H. 2007. "A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross-section Dependence." Journal of Applied Econometrics 22 (2): 265-312.) finds no such support. © 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

  • 58.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Locking, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Forecasting risk premium using wavelet transform2015In: Festschrift in honor of Professor Ghazi Shukur on the occasion of his 60th birthday / [ed] Thomas Holgersson, Linnaeus University Press, 2015, 1, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Locking, Håkan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    Testing for trends and causality in Swedish environmental data, using Wavelet analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper utilizes Wavelet based methodology to estimate and test for trends and granger causality in temperature andprecipitation. We use quarterly data from Sweden for the period 1884 up to 2011. The analysis suggests that temperatureand precipitation in Sweden currently have a positive trend in 2011. Thus the recent lower levels of the variables 2009-2010are estimated to be temporary fluctuations or deviations from the trend. Moreover, in the short run there are feedbackeffects between the variables and over longer periods, 4-8 years, temperature granger cause precipitation.

  • 60.
    Almasri, Abdullah
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Jönköping University.
    Sjölander, Pär
    Jönköping University.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Jönköping University.
    A wavelet-based panel unit-root test in the presence of an unknown structural break and cross-sectional dependency, with an application of purchasing power parity theory in developing countries2017In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 49, no 21, p. 2096-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces two different non-parametric wavelet-based panel unit-root tests in the presence of unknown structural breaks and cross-sectional dependencies in the data. These tests are compared with a previously suggested non-parametric wavelet test, the parameteric Im-Pesaran and Shin (IPS) testand a Wald type of test. The results from the Monte Carlo simulations clearly show that the new wavelet-ratio tests are superior to the traditional tests both interms of size and power in panel unit-root tests because of its robustness to cross-section dependency and structural breaks. Based on an empirical Central American panel application, we can, in contrast to previous research (where bias due to structural breaks is simply disregarded), find strong, clear-cut support for purchasing power parity (PPP) in this developing region.

  • 61.
    Alriksson, Anton
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labor supply effects of increases in non-labor income: A study about older working individuals labor force participation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ageing of the Swedish population entails an increase of public and pension expenditure. A solution to keep the compensation level constant is to make individuals retire later from the labor force. In order to understand what actions need to be implemented, there is a need of more knowledge about the characteristics of individuals who chose to remain in the labor force after the normal age of retirement. This essay investigates how senior workers’ that are above the normal retirement age responds to an increase of non-labor income and how it affects labor supply. The results show that around 66 % of individuals will continue to work to the same extent, around 15 % will choose to reduce hours of work, and near 19 % will chose to retire. Also the results show that a person that will not change anything in hours of work after an increase in non-labor income will most likely be a male that is self-employed, who really likes his job and has a postgraduate degree. One conclusion in this essay is that to only focus on compensation levels in different social insurance systems to increase senior workers’ labor force participation will not be as effective as if also focus would be on social norms and cultural beliefs to increase engagement towards work. 

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  • 62.
    Alriksson, Anton
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Åström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Attitudes toward immigration: A mapping of the development and analysis in attitudes towards immigration in Europe2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research on natives’ attitudes regarding immigration has increased during the past decades. The overall findings question the common theory of labor market competition and that native attitudes are affected by personal economic considerations. In the same time an increased concern in the political debate has become immigration. In many countries, there is a growth and progress of political parties with a far-right orientation that disapproves and attempts to prevent immigration. We examine data on attitudes towards immigration from eight rounds of the European social survey (ESS) which covers the years between 2002-2016. We study if the attitudes in Europe towards immigration from poor non-member countries of the European Union have changed during the 21th century and examine if the massive acceleration of refugee applications during the refugee crisis in 2015 has had an impact on the attitudes towards immigration. We estimate different models to examine how different factors are associated with individuals' attitudes towards immigration. Furthermore, we test if the labor market competition model holds for the seventh round of ESS due to limitation in data. We find that natives’ attitudes have not become worse in Europe, and that the refugee crisis in 2015 has not made the attitudes worse. We find that the factors that are associated with individual attitudes towards immigration are to a large degree connected with cultural values and beliefs, and that individuals with more years of schooling are more likely to favor immigration regardless of where the immigrants come from. These findings are consistent with the growing body of empirical findings that considers that cultural values and believes are the main drivers of attitudes towards immigration, and that actual effects of immigration on income and employment are quite small. These findings put the labor market competition premise in forming immigration attitudes into question.

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  • 63.
    Ambjörnsson, Mårten
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The effect of the housing market on mobility and unemployment2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the relationship of housing tenure, mobility and unemployment. With data on the municipal level in Sweden from 1998 to 2010 it is shown that the share of house ownership affects mobility and unemployment negatively while the share of tenant ownership has no effect on mobility and unemployment. The share of house ownership affects primarily the share of out migration from the municipality. The majority of the negative effect of house ownership on unemployment does not go through mobility. The model used is a two way fixed effect model. The different effects of the two types of ownership indicate that they have different characteristics. One explanation could be that house owners are more tied to the municipality than tenant owners. The result does not support the argument that owners in general have higher unemployment because they are less mobile. There is no evidence for that an increase in the share of owners increases the unemployment rate in Sweden.

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  • 64.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Cent Michigan Univ, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: Are mothers really less important than fathers?2015In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 47, p. 100-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a "puzzle" in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers' schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this "puzzle" using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers' schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of possible role model effects, where our estimates suggest that mother's schooling matters more than father's schooling for daughters schooling. One additional year of mothers' schooling raises daughter's schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allows a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show no statistically significant effect of mothers' and fathers' schooling on children's schooling. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 65.
    Amin, Vikesh
    et al.
    Central Michigan University, USA.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund University ; VU University, The Netherlands.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA ; CReAM.
    The intergenerational transmission of schooling: are mothers really less important than fathers?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a “puzzle” in the literature on the intergenerational transmission of schooling, where twin studies emphasize the importance of fathers’ schooling, whereas IV-studies often emphasize the importance of mothers. We provide new evidence on this “puzzle” using register based Swedish data on the largest sample of twins used so far in the literature. In contrast to previous twin studies, our results confirm the importance of mothers’ schooling. We also provide the first twin-based evidence of role model effects, where our estimates suggest that only mother's schooling matters when allowing the effects to differ between sons and daughters. One additional year of mothers’ schooling raises daughter’s schooling by a tenth of a year, which is similar to some of the previous IV-based estimates in the literature. Finally, we bring in new US twin data that for the first time allow a replication of previous twin-based estimates of the intergenerational transmission of schooling in the US. The results show that that mothers’ and fathers’ schooling has no effect on children’s schooling in the US. Our results have implications for assessing the efficiency of policies that subsidize the schooling of men and women and are in contrast to most previous findings in the twin literature.

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  • 66.
    Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Antelius, J.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sund, K.
    Stockholm University.
    Technical efficiency and productivity for higher education institutions in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 205-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates technical efficiency and productivity for Swedish higher education institutions (HEIs). One identified problem in previous research concerns adjusting efficiency scores for input quality. This problem is avoided using grades from upper-secondary schools. A second problem concerns heterogeneity with respect to subjects and institutions between HEIs. Using the Swedish national resource allocation system, students are weighted according to subject. For research production, a bibliometric index that allows for differences in publication tradition is used. A third problem when using the data envelopment analysis approach is the lack of statistical inference. Bootstrapping is used to approach this problem. The results indicate an average inefficiency of 12% and a productivity increase of around 1.7% per year.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Persson Kern, Krister
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Thelander, Jonas
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate.
    Effektiviteten i Försäkringskassans ärendehandläggning: en granskning av resurseffektiviteten vid Försäkringskassans lokala försäkringscenter åren 2010–2013 med DEA-metoden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försäkringskassan administrerar stora delar av den svenska social­försäkringen och är den myndighet som ansvarar för den största delen av statens utbetalningar av ersättningar till enskilda individer. Försäkringskassan förfogar över cirka 8,4 miljarder i förvaltningsanslag och har drygt 14 000 anställda. Denna kostnad och storlek, tillsammans med myndighetens centrala uppgift för trygghetssystemen, gör det viktigt att verksamheten bedrivs effektivt.

    Denna rapport analyserar den relativa effektiviteten på 44 av Försäkringskassans lokala försäkringscenter (LFC) under perioden 2010–2013. I dag är Försäkringskassan kontor organiserade på ett annat sätt, men slutsatserna och lärdomarna är fortfarande relevanta eftersom själva handläggningen i mångt och mycket är oförändrad.

    I analysen används en matematisk metod kallad DEA-metoden (Data Envelopment Analysis), där effek­tiviteten mäts genom att produktionen av beslut och aktiviteter jämförs med de förbrukade resurserna. Metoden gör det möjligt att identifiera mindre effektiva LFC, som producerar mindre än andra LFC med en given mängd resurser.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Månsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Swedish National Audit Office.
    Sund, Krister
    Swedish National Audit Office.
    Technical efficiency of Swedish employment offices2014In: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, ISSN 0038-0121, E-ISSN 1873-6041, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies technical efficiency for Swedish employment offices between 2004 and 2010. Efficiency is computed using a semi-dynamic DEA-framework. On the input side we include a measure of input quality and we also control for services that are carried out by private contractors. On the output side we are using both intermediate and final outputs. The motivation for using an intermediate output is to take into account the fact that employment offices might have strengthen the possibility for unemployed individuals that remain unemployed to get a job in the forthcoming year. The study identifies an average yearly inefficiency between 7 and 10 percent. It is also observed that the inefficiency is unevenly distributed. To make employment offices more efficient this uneven distribution needs to be considered, otherwise efforts to improve efficiency might instead result in increased inefficiency.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Lundh, Nils
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur påverkas den regionala arbetslösheten av flöden på arbetsmarknaden?: Empiriskt test av Browns jämviktsmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att empiriskt testa Browns jämviktsmodell, genom att på regional

    nivå i huvudsak undersöka relationen mellan flöden av arbetskraft och arbetslöshet.

    Uppsatsen testar även för fler variabler för regionala karaktäristika som i tidigare litteratur

    används för att förklara regional arbetslöshet. Med hjälp av poolad regression och upprepade

    tvärsnitt erhålls varierande resultat för observationsperioden 2007-2011. Den årsvisa

    variationen i resultatet är tydlig dels genom signifikansen hos de årsvisa intercepten i

    regressionen baserad på poolad data, men också på hur koefficienter varierar i de upprepade

    tvärsnitten. Detta leder oss till slutsatsen att Browns jämviktsmodell varierar i hur väl den

    fungerar empiriskt över observationsperioden. En trolig orsak till de varierande resultaten är

    den exogena chocken, finanskrisen, som nådde Sverige år 2008.

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  • 70.
    Andersson, Erica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Knutsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigration - Benefit or harm for native-born workers?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of immigrants on wages for natives with

    divergent skill level within one country. Skill level is measured as education level and the

    purpose is to focus on the level where it according to us is a lack in research, namely the

    effect on high skilled native-born worker wages. Further, our contribution to the already

    existing studies may be considered to be a complement. Using panel data, collected from the

    time period 2000-2008 for the 290 municipalities in Sweden to get regional variation, we

    investigate and interpret the estimated outcome of how wages for native-born workers in the

    Swedish labor market respond to immigration into Sweden. The main findings, when

    controlling for age, unemployment, and differences between year and municipalities in this

    study are on the short run, in line with the theory. The closer to a substitute the native-born

    and foreign-born workers are, the greater are the adverse effect on the wage for native-born,

    given that we assume immigrants as low skilled. The effect on wage for high skilled native

    workers in short run, when assuming immigrants and natives as complement, is positive, i.e.

    the wage for high skilled natives increases as the share of immigrants increases. The effect on

    high skilled native-born wages is positive even in mid-long run and adverse for the low and

    medium skilled native-workers. This is not an expected outcome since we according to theory

    predict the wage to be unaffected in mid-long run. This may be the result of errors in the

    assumption that immigrants are low skilled, or that five years is a too short time to see the

    expected effect in the long run; the Swedish labor market may need more time to adjust to

    what we predict the outcome to be.

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  • 71.
    Andersson, Kaj
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Recreational values of forests.: A case study.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As swedes are keen on outdoor recreation and like to spend on travels and gear for forest recreation we want to show if there is a willingness to pay for forest recreation close to home. Starting in hedonic regression we create a model using publicly available data to show how consumer preferences effect house prices. Results show that distance to forest have a small but significant impact on house prices. To conclude we state that a logarithmic model using open source data can be useful in city planning and that there is a positive effect of nearby forests on house prices.

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    Recreational values of forests
  • 72.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic enclaves, networks and self-employment among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden2015In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of immigrants from countries in the Middle East living in Sweden has increased since the 1970s, and it is a well-known fact that immigrants from the Middle East suffer from low earnings and high rates of unemployment on the Swedish labour market. There are often great hopes that self-employment will enable immigrants to improve their labour market situation. Further, in Sweden as in many other countries, the question of whether the existence of ethnic enclaves are good or bad for immigrants’ earnings and employment opportunities has also been widely debated. This paper presents a study of the extent to which Middle Eastern ethnic enclaves and networks in Sweden enhance or hinder immigrants’ self-employment. The results show that the presence of ethnic enclaves increases the propensity for self-employment. Thus, immigrants in ethnic enclaves provide their co-ethnics with goods and services that Swedish natives are not able to provide. The results also show that ethnic networks seem to be an obstacle to immigrant self-employment. One explanation is that an increase in network size implies increased competition for customers among self-employed immigrants. The question of whether ethnic enclaves are good or bad for the integration of immigrants into the labour market has been widely debated. The results of this paper provide us with information about the integration puzzle. Ethnic enclaves seem to enhance self-employment propensities among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Per-Åke
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Older volunteers in Sweden: a welfare state in transition2014In: Active ageing: voluntary work by older people in Europe / [ed] Andrea Principi, Per H. Jensen, Giovanni Lamura, University of Chicago Press, 2014, p. 197-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this chapter is to describe the mains features of the Swedish voluntary sector and the enrolment of older people in this sector. Sweden has a large non-profit and volunteer sector. The Swedish experience shows that a large voluntary sector is compatible with a strong and universal welfare state. Since the State is strongly involved in the provision of social services and the financing of a generous and encompassing social protection system, the Swedish volunteer organisations are less active in the fields of social services. By international standard, the participation rate of older volunteers is high and Sweden offers more opportunities than restrictions for older people to be engaged in volunteer activities. In spite of a recent retrenchment of the public sector and an increase of more welfare service oriented associations, the large majority of volunteer organisations are voice organisations and less of a philanthropic nature.

  • 74.
    Angelova, Vera
    et al.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Competition and fatigueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how subjects deal with fatigue in a sequence of tournaments that are linked through fatigue spillovers. Our contribution is threefold. First, we develop a model that allows us to predict the consequences of varying the severity of competition as well as the ease of recovery over time. Second, we test how fatigue spillovers affect subjects' effort provision. Our experimental results suggest that subjects have difficulties in dealing with fatigue within a dynamic competitive environment. While a short-term increase in incentives in one tournament does lead to higher effort in that tournament, it does not lead to the expected strategic resting before and after that tournament and to higher total effort. Third, as we employ both a chosen-effort and a real-effort task, we contribute to the methodological question of the consistency of insights obtained from both paradigms. Behavior is comparable although both environments are very different: in the chosen-effort task, subjects state their effort level being aware of the monetary cost of fatigue; in the real-effort task, they experience fatigue while continuously providing physical effort.

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  • 75.
    Angelova, Vera
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Does a short-term increase in incentives boost performance?2018In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 166, p. 31-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If agents are exposed to continual competitive pressure, how does a short-term variation of the severity of the competition affect agents’ performance? In a real-effort laboratory experiment, we study a one-time increase in incentives in a sequence of equally incentivized contests. Our results suggest that a short-term increase in incentives induces a behavioral response but does not boost total performance.

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  • 76.
    Angelova, Vera
    et al.
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Giebe, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ivanova-Stenzel, Radosveta
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Does a short-term increase in incentives boost performance?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If agents are exposed to continual competitive pressure, how does a short-term variation of the severity of the competition affect agents’ performance? In a real-effort laboratory experiment, we study a one-time increase in incentives in a sequence of equally incentivized contests. Our results suggest that a short-term increase in incentives induces a behavioral response but does not boost total performance. 

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  • 77.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    De una crisis a otra: revisando el modelo sueco en un periodo turbulento2015In: El triunfo de las ideas fracasadas: modelos del capitalismo europeo en la crisis / [ed] Steffen Lehndorff, Madrid: Catarata , 2015, 1, p. 254-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early fiscal consolidation and negotiated flexibility in Sweden: A fair way out of the crisis?2013In: The Public Sector Shock: The impact of policy retrenchment in Europe / [ed] Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, p. 543-576Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Entry and exit patterns from the labour force: a European and life-course perspective2015In: Age Discrimination and Labour Law: Comparative and Conceptual Perspectives in the EU and Beyond / [ed] Ann Numhauser-Henning, Mia Rönnmar, Kluwer Law International, 2015, 1, p. 17-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flexicurity and life long learning: the Swedish experience2014In: Skills strategies for an inclusive society: the role of the state, the enterprise and the worker / [ed] Johnny Sung and Catherine R. Ramos, Singapore: Institute for Adult Learning , 2014, 1, p. 14-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Industrial relations and crisis: the Swedish experience2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 82.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Life-course oriented working time options: the Swedish experience2016In: Working time options over the life course: new regulations and empirical findings in five European countries / [ed] Christina Klenner & Yvonne Lott, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung , 2016, p. 35-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Shaping the future of work in Sweden: the crucial role of social partnership2018In: Reducing inequalities in Europe: how industrial relations and labour policies can close the gap / [ed] Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, 1, p. 519-554Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the basic elements of the Swedish model is a strong contractual tradition and the crucial role played by the social partners in mechanisms for regulating labour market, working conditions and wage formation. The bipartite and contractual nature of labour market regulations coupled with the high union density and high coverage rate of collective bargaining create a favourable institutional environment for the emergence of negotiated compromises aimed at balancing flexibility and security in the labour market. Sweden constitutes, therefore, a good illustration of a flexicurity regime based on negotiated flexibility and largely explains why Sweden remains a country with decent working conditions, low income disparities and extended social justice. A compressed wage structure with relatively high wage floors have also prevented the development of low-skilled jobs in Sweden and instead have boosted policies favouring skill upgrading. In effect, large investment in research and development, a well-developed lifelong learning as well as a more balanced bargaining power between the two sides of industry have limited the tendency towards job and class polarisation in Sweden.

  • 84.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The rise and fall of the Swedish middle class?2016In: Europe's disappearing middle class?: evidence from the world of work / [ed] Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 1, p. 543-585Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Swedish social model: resilience and success in turbulent times2015In: The European Social Model in Crisis: Is Europe Losing Its Soul? / [ed] Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 507-552Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite substantial transformations during the past two decades, the Swedish social model (SSM) still shares many of the distinctive features, principles and core values of the European Social Model (ESM). In fact, we may argue that the SSM illustrates the resilience and long-term viability of the ESM through its continuing attachment to a universal and generous social protection system, egalitarianism, proactive policies for promoting gender equality and fighting against discrimination and social exclusion, social dialogue as a mechanism for regulating the labour market and social policies, and strong public and political involvement in the provision of a wide range of public services in areas such as utilities, education, health and social care.

  • 86.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Swedish welfare state in times of crisis: resilience and success2014In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, Vol. XLVIII, no 2, p. 9-30Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article is twofold: Firstly, to identify the major transformations of the Swedish Welfare State focusing principally on the structural reforms initiated during the last two decades and their impact on economic development, the distribution of social welfare and on income inequalities. Secondly, to explore the role of the Swedish Welfare State in mitigating the negative impact of the 2008 Great Recession. The early fiscal consolidation measures and the structural reforms undertaken since the second half of the 1990s have without doubt contributed to securing the long-term sustainability of the Swedish social protection system and fostering more healthy public finances.  However, the  “Swedish success story” during the last recession cannot only be reduced to early fiscal consolidation measures and structural reforms. It is clear that the automatic stabilisers embedded in the Swedish Welfare State, the counter-cyclical macroeconomic policy conducted by the Swedish government and a developed social dialogue have all contributed to alleviating the negative impacts of the 2008-crisis on employment, welfare and social exclusion. The Swedish experience illustrates above all the resilience, the long-term viability and the success of a societal model based on an universal and generous social protection system, egalitarianism, pro-active policies for promoting gender equality and fighting against social exclusion, and a strong public and political involvement in the provision of a wide range of services.

  • 87.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Time allocation and working time preferences: a gender and life course perspective2016In: Den Arbeitsmarkt verstehen, um ihn zu gestalten: Festschrift für Gerhard Bosch / [ed] Gerhard Bäcker, Steffen Lehndorff, Claudia Weinkopf, Springer, 2016, p. 71-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why write a chapter on working time when Gerhard Bosch and I have been for a long time gently arguing and quarrelling over the overall efficiency of a general reduction of working time and its potential impact on unemployment? Well, because in spite of our minor academic controversy, time has not eroded our friendship, our mutual esteem, or our 20 year-long scientific collaboration.

  • 88.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Turbulent times and beyond: the Swedish experience2017In: Talking through the crisis: social dialogue and industrial relations trends in selected EU countries / [ed] Igor Guardiancich & Oscar Molina, Geneva: International Labour Office (ILO) , 2017, 1, p. 281-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 89.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Upskilling to avoid jobs’ polarisation and growing income inequalities: the Swedish experience2016In: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 0012-978X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a broad historical perspective, this article analyses the development of the Swedish class structure. During the last decades, Sweden experienced a relative decrease in its middle class and a stronger polarisation of its class structure. Three potential factors can explain this development: changes in labour market behaviour, a reduction of the extent of decommodification of the Swedish welfare state and large structural changes in employment and occupational structure. We show that the long-term tendency towards an upgrading of occupational structure in Sweden has benefitted the upper middle class and the top-income group. Indeed, the large investment in research and development, the expansion of education and the increase in the demand of high-skilled jobs have limited the tendency towards job polarisation found in liberal market-orientated welfare states. Weakly linked to the modifications in the skill structure, the decrease of the middle class appears to be better explained by the postponement of entry into the labour market related to the expansion of education and by social protection reforms that negatively affected the disposable income of vulnerable groups. 

  • 90.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Baird, Marian
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Erhel, Christine
    Paris-Sorbonne University, France.
    Work and care regime and women's employment outcomes: Australia, France and Sweden compared2017In: Making work more equal: a new labour market segmentation approach / [ed] Damina Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson & Isabel Tavora, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017, 1, p. 309-329Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a gender perspective and a comparative approach, this paper assesses the extent to which national care regimes and family policies interact and impact upon female employment outcomes. We restrict our analysis to Australia, France and Sweden, three advanced market economies with contrasting employment and care regimes. For the employment regime we focus on paid work across the life course and we focus on parental leave and childcare as indicative of the care regime.  Previous comparative studies have clearly shown that the gender division of labour between paid work, care and domestic activities is strongly dependent on prevailing societal norms and the institutional and societal context, in particular the characteristics of the parental leave systems, the availability and cost of childcare services, the provision of care when older people become partially or fully dependent, and more globally on employment and working time regimes and the design of tax and family policies. Our central argument is therefore that family and care policies play a crucial role in shaping the patterns of men’s and women’s employment. The comparison shows the importance of institutional arrangements and that lack of affordable child care facilities and poor parental leave arrangements across the life course reduce female, particularly maternal, labour supply both in terms of labour force participation and working time participation.  

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  • 91.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Boulin, Jean-Yves
    Paris Dauphine University.
    Cabrita, Jorge
    Eurofound, Ireland.
    Vermeylen, Greet
    Eurofound, Ireland.
    Working time patterns for sustainable work2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 92.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bogus-self-employment in Sweden2019In: Self-Employment as precarious work: a European perspective / [ed] Wieteke Conen & Joop Schippers, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, p. 153-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses to what extent bogus self-employment is prevalent in Sweden and identifies institutional and economic factors that may explain its magnitude and development. Drawing on the last wave of the European Working Conditions Survey and using standard econometric techniques we analyse the prevalence of bogus self-employed in the EU-28 and Nordic countries and examine main differences between self-employment and bogus self-employment. We find that Sweden displays a lower incidence of bogus self-employed compared to other EU member states. Bogus self-employment appears to be more prevalent in certain segments of the labour market, in particular in industries such as construction, transport and personal household services. The specificity of the industrial relations system in Sweden, with strong social partners, high union density and coverage rate of collective agreements in all sectors of the economy, may explain the limited development of bogus self-employment and relatively low incidence compared to other member states.

  • 93.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Labour market measures in in Sweden 2008–13: the crisis and beyond2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 94.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mer nöje än nödvändigt ont att fortsatta arbeta2018In: Äldre i Centrum: tidskrift för aktuell äldreforskning, ISSN 1653-3585, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 95.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and parental leave2015In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 751-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which employment status impacts upon the use of parental leave in Sweden. Our results show that during the child’s first two years of life Swedish female self-employees use on average 46 fewer days in parental leave (15 percent) than female wage earners, while male self-employees use on average 27 fewer days in parental leave (71 percent) than their wage earner counterparts.  We argue that the shorter average duration of parental leave among male self-employees is due to a combination of relatively higher costs of absence from work for self-employees compared to wage earners and a participation selection effect where some individuals with high performance-related income opt for self-employment and do not take parental leave at all, and where the self-employed who actually choose to take parental leave are similar to wage earners in terms of work-commitments and consequently reduces the difference in duration between self-employed and wage earners. On the other hand, given that all mothers, self-employees or wage earners, take parental leave, we do not find a participation effect among female self-employees. Instead, we suspect that there is an employment selection effect where women with high performance related income choose self-employment and consequently contributes to the shorter observed durations of parental leave for female self-employees.

  • 96.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Beyond retirement: who stays at work after the standard age of retirement?2019In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 917-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal administrative data and a postal survey, the purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-economic factors and individual characteristics that affect senior citizens' decision to continue working on the Swedish labour market after the standard retirement age. Design/methodology/approach By using standard econometric techniques (multinomial logit model) on a large representative sample of 20,000 senior citizens residing in Sweden, the auhtors analyse the extent to which socio-economic factors and individual characteristics including personality traits affect the decision of senior citizens to delay retirement and to continue working after the standard retirement age. Findings The results of our estimations show clearly that good health, high educational attainment/high-skilled jobs, good psychosocial work environment, employment status (to be self-employed), personality traits (extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness) as well as industrial sectors (agriculture, healthcare and transport) are strong predictors of the continuation of work after the standard retirement age (65 years old). Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, the paper is the first attempt in Sweden to analyse jointly a large range of factors influencing the decision to remain in the labour force after the standard/normal pension age, including psychosocial working conditions and personality traits.

  • 97.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Därför vill 40-talisterna jobba efter 652017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 45-58Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens generation av svenskar i åldersgruppen 65–74 år har en högre sysselsättningsgrad än tidigare generationer. I den här artikeln analyseras seniorernas motiv till att fortsätta att arbeta och varför andra går i pension, med fokus på vilka socioekonomiska faktorer som påverkar beslutet att fortsätta arbeta efter 65. Vi undersöker även om det finns vissa personlighets- och karaktärsdrag som utmärker de arbetande seniorerna, samt om det finns ett samband mellan arbete efter 65 och den allmänna tillfredsställelsen med livet.

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  • 98.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Herbert, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnmar, Mia
    Lund University.
    To stay or not to stay. That is the question: beyond retirement: Stayers on the labour market2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project addresses three main questions: Who are the persons that continue to work after “normal” retirement age? What are their motivations? What are the consequences for the individual and for society? To answer these questions we perform an analysis of external and internal factors affecting the choice to stay after 65 years on the labour market or to leave earlier. Among external factors we investigate are: The impact of the prevailing labour laws and regulations on senior citizens’ participation on the labour market ; The socio-economic factors that affect the likelihood to stay on the labour market after the age of 65 ; The impact of employers’ human resource strategies on the possibility for senior workers to remain on the labour market after the age of 65 years. We also analyse the the role of individ specific factors such as motivation and , personal traits but the outcome in terms of subjective well-being and health. 

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  • 99.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Jolivet, Annie
    Institute of Economic and Social Resedarch, Paris.
    Undervärderade effekter av ett längre arbetsliv i Europa2013In: Europapolitisk analys, Vol. 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste 40 åren har sysselsättningsgraden för åldersgruppen 55-64 år utvecklats likartat

    i Danmark, Frankrike, Italien, Nederländerna, Polen, Storbritannien, Sverige och Tyskland. En

    minskning har skett fram till mitten av 1990-talet och därefter en ökning. Gemensamt för dessa

    åtta länder är även att de högutbildade lämnar arbetskraften vid i genomsnitt högre åldrar än de

    lågutbildade och att alternativa anställningsformer (tillfälliga anställningar, egenföretagande, deltidsarbete)

    är vanligare i högre åldrar. Å andra sidan finns det avsevärda skillnader mellan länderna

    när det gäller såväl nuvarande sysselsättningsgrad för äldre och kvinnor som förekomsten av egenföretagande

    och deltidsanställning bland äldre.

    Syftet med den här analysen är att belysa den övergripande utvecklingen och den aktuella situationen

    för arbetstagare mellan 50 och 74 år i de åtta länderna. Den sammanfattar också villkoren för

    den äldre arbetskraften och diskuterar hur nationell politik bör anpassas till ett förlängt arbetsliv.

    Dessutom presenteras statistik och tidigare studier om de äldres sysselsättning och välfärd.

  • 100.
    Anxo, Dominique
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Metoder för att utvärdera sysselsättningskrav vid offentlig upphandling - en översikt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den senaste tiden har sociala hänsyn vid offentlig upphandling blivit allt vanligare. En specifik form av sociala hänsyn vid offentlig upphandling är sysselsättningskrav där upphandlande myndigheter ställer specifika krav på att företagen ska anställa individer som står långt från arbetsmarknaden, exempelvis långtidsarbetslösa, lågutbildade och arbetslösa ungdomar m.m.

    I Sverige framstår sysselsättningskravet främst som ett komplement till arbetsmark-nadspolitiken där Arbetsförmedlingen eller kommunala arbetsförmedlare har en central roll för att fördela anställningsstöd till långtidsarbetslösa. Sysselsättnings-kravets påverkan på sysselsättningsgrad och arbetslöshet för hela arbetsmarknaden är osäker. Även om det i efterhand kan konstateras att ett visst antal personer ur målgruppen har anställts inom ramarna för upphandlingen, och sysselsättnings-kravet därmed är uppfyllt, kan sysselsättningen på den lokala arbetsmarknaden både öka eller minska, på grund av direkta och indirekta effekter på företagens rekryteringsbeteende, andra företag i regionen och individuella incitament att söka jobb. Det ställs därför relativt stora krav på en utvärdering för att kunna svara på frågan hur sysselsättningskravet påverkar sysselsättningen på arbetsmarknaden.

    Sysselsättningskravets syfte, målsättning och målgrupp bör anges i början av upphandlingsprojektet. Dessutom bör det explicit anges vilken anställningsform som avses (anställningskontrakt, arbetstid, anställningens längd). En utvärdering bör inkludera en jämförelsegrupp av utförande företag med anställda som inte omfattas av sysselsättningskrav vid upphandlingen. Det är endast genom att jämföra utfallet mellan de två grupperna (behandlingsgruppen och kontroll-gruppen) som det går att uttala sig om sysselsättningskravets inverkan på sysselsättningen och arbetslösheten i regionen. En utvärdering bör involveras i planeringsstadiet av ett upphandlingsprojekt med sysselsättningskrav. Behovet av insamling av data under projektet är omfattande och upphandlingens organisation, syfte och målsättning bör vara tydlig för alla parter. En tänkbar modell är att den upphandlande myndigheten ger en extern utvärderingskonsult i uppdrag att följa upphandlingen och genomföra utvärderingen som en integrerad del av projektet. Det kan etableras allmänna riktlinjer och erfarenheter för hur en utvärdering ska genomföras, där utvärderingskonsulten har en viktig roll i att förmedla dessa erfarenheter. Samtidigt måste utvärderingskonsulten vara lyhörd för särskilda omständigheter och villkor i den aktuella utvärderingen. Utvärderingen kan alltså inte följa en fast modell, eftersom det finns en uppenbar risk att utvärderingen då enbart upplevs som en administrativ börda utan egentlig nytta för de inblandade parterna. Uppföljningar av upphandlingen bör ske inom en relativt kort tidshori-sont, för att kartlägga eventuella förbättringsåtgärder i samarbetet mellan de tre parterna. För att kartlägga upphandlingens effekter på sysselsättningen krävs dock en längre tidshorisont där arbetstagare och arbetsgivare kan följas under en längre tid efter att upphandling har genomförts.

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