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  • 51.
    Björkemar, Kristian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Agroforestry in Sierra Leone –examining economic potential with carbon sequestration2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed to examine the possibilities and benefits of implementing

    agroforestry projects in Sierra Leone by comparing different agroforestry

    systems used in a Tanzanian project that consider carbon sequestration.

    Farmers involved in this type of projects get income from sold carbon

    credits as well as from other products that an agroforestry system could

    provide.

    Sierra Leone is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change, with

    most of the population living in rural conditions. It was investigated what

    the potential economic and environmental impact different agroforestry

    systems considering carbon storage could have in Sierra Leone. The study

    was based on empirical material from a case community Makari. The

    conclusions were that Sierra Leone could benefit greatly from agroforestry

    projects, especially at community level where it could provide additional

    sources of food and income. From a greater perspective it could give

    environmental benefits as well as securing wood commodities like fuelwood

    for the future. Starting up a project would however be a high risk investment

    with a troublesome implementation process and complications on a daily

    basis.

  • 52.
    Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Schubert, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Målbildsuppfyllelse vid ungskogsröjning i kantzoner mot sjöar och vattendrag i Västra Götalands Jönköpings och Hallands län2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the goal fulfillment in edge zones along rivers and lakes in precommercial thinning stands based on national targets which is the basis for Swedish forestry. Pre-commercial thinning has a major impact on the future forest, as it determines how the tree species distribution will turn out. The study was conducted as a field study in February 2018 based on 30 precommercial thinning sites, aged 5–15 years, in connection to rivers and / or lakes. Of these, 25 rivers and five lakes were surveyed. 22 of the surveyed stands were privately owned and 8 were company-owned forests. The edge zones had between 0–100% shadowing of the water surface. Few sites with soil damage were detected and also a varying amount of tree species and deadwood. The most common deadwood was standing and lying dead wood with a diameter of 10 cm for both company and privately-owned forests. The percentage of number of stems per ha of deciduous trees in the edge zones was 52%, Norway spruce 41% and Scots pine 7% respectively. Within the edge zones, the sample areas closest to rivers and lakes had 55% of number of stems per ha deciduous trees, 40% spruce and 6% pine. In the sample areas closest to the stand, the number of deciduous trees was 48%, spruce 44% and pine 9%. Company-owned forests had more spruce (59%) along the waterfront compared to privately owned forests, who had a significantly higher proportion of deciduous trees (61%). By actively working with the composition of the edge zones, creating deadwood, saving trees for shadow and by thinning dense areas, particularly spruce-dominated, increased biodiversity can be achieved. Dense, spruce-dominated areas are those areas where the goal fulfillment is insufficient in many places.

  • 53.
    Björkman, Ludwig
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kartläggning och analys av driftstopp i sågverksindustrin2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sågverksbranschen är kraftigt konkurrensutsatt och har under flera års tid dragits med lönsamhetsproblem. Syftet med studien är att analysera och kartlägga de bakomliggande orsakerna till ett par tidsomfattande driftstopp, samt lämna åtgärdsförslag på hur dessa förlustkällor kan begränsas.

    Studien visar att den bakomliggande orsaken till att mellanlagret vid sorteringen blir fullt är att bandningsstationen är en flaskhals i produktionen. Vidare visar studien att de bakomliggande orsakerna till omfattande omställningsarbete av hyveln är bristande tillgänglighet av verktyg, bristande arbetsinstruktioner samt defekter i utrustning.

  • 54.
    Björnberg, Jonatan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    A Comparison of Non-Destructive Techniques to Discover Defect Finger Joints in Furniture2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the possibilities to identify lack of glue in finger joints by checking different non-destructive techniques. Specifically, this study puts emphasis on finding a method suitable for an automated and fast industry production line of home furnishing products. The methods investigated are of three main varieties:

    • Sound/vibration
    • Thermography
    • Tomography

    The most promising method was the high-power ultrasound thermography. This method is fast and reliable, but more research is needed. It is necessary to find out if the thermography waves can penetrate deep enough. Another possible method is computed tomography. This method can take a lot of time, but the speed of scanning depends on the accuracy demanded.

  • 55.
    Blom, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Carl, Arnström
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Årsringsutvecklingens betydelse för produktion av granvirke av kärnved  2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka möjligheten att producera virke av gran som enbart består av kärnved och därmed öka kvaliteten för fasadvirke.

    För att uppnå syftet har flera olika metoder kombinerats. Metoderna var enkät, analys av data från experiment, simulering och validering.

    Kärnvedens diameter beror på ålder/antal årsringar och årsringsbredd. Bredare årsringar närmst märgen innebär en större diameter kärnved vid kärnvedsbildningen och en större diameter kärnved vid avverkning.

    Det är möjligt att producera virke av gran som enbart består av kärnved. Det innebär emellertid att omloppstiderna kan behöva bli längre för att uppnå dimensioner av 120 – 195 mm breda brädor och reglar. Avgörande för kärnvedsandelen är tillväxten i ungdomen där årsringarna är som bredast.

  • 56.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utomhuskonstruktioner i trä: några erfarenheter från byggnation i trä av flerbostadshus2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av materialet trä i produkter är ett lån från naturen som förr eller senare genom nedbrytning av vedsubstansen ska återföras till det naturliga kretsloppet. Avseende användningen av solitt trä i produkter bestäms tidsperioden innan återföringen till naturen av produktens konstruktion och trämaterialet i sig självt i relation till den omgivande miljön samt användningen och hanteringen av produkten. En produkts förmåga att motstå, eller behålla sina egenskaper trots dessa yttre påfrestningar benämns dess beständighet.

  • 57.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Live storage and drying of storm-felled Norwayspruce (Picea abies, L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinussylvestris L.) trees2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 209-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storm-felled trees left in the forest for a shorter or longer period, affect the quality of the logs. The change in quality ismainly because of attack of fungi and insects, which in turn depends on the moisture content (MC) of the sapwood. Thepurpose of this study was to receive more knowledge about drying of storm-felled trees by investigating how fast winterstorm-felled Norway spruce and Scots pine dried when left in the forest. Sixteen storm-felled spruces with part of the rootsstill in ground contact were selected from three stands and in addition to 10 pines from one of the stands. The trees wereexamined for MC in the sapwood until 21 months after the storm. This study indicates that wind-thrown trees with rootsstill connected to the soil can survive one summer without any value loss caused by draught, fungi and insects. The standconditions can be of importance as the storm-felled trees in the stand, with scattered windthrow, were in best condition afterone year, as they were shadowed by the trees still standing. Comparing spruces and pines with the stand with scatteredwindthrow, pines were more sensitive to drought and reached critical MC earlier.

  • 58.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Laminated Veneer Products: Shape Stability and Effect of Enhanced Formability on Bond-Line Strength2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns two aspects of the manufacture of laminated veneer products (LVPs). The first aspect is related to the possible improvement of the shape stability of LVPs, and the second has its starting point in the modification of the veneer for enhanced formability as well as the question of whether and how these modifications affect the bond-line strength.

    LVPs are veneers bonded with adhesive into predetermined shapes, mostly for the production of furniture and interior fittings. Since any deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturer and customer, various studies have sought to evaluate the influence of different materials and process parameters on shape stability. Parameters studied have included wood species (beech and birch), an adhesive system based on urea formaldehyde, the adhesive distribution on the veneer, climate, moisture content and fibre orientations of the veneers, as well as the orientation of the individual veneers in a multiply.

    Manufacturers of LVPs must consider some basic facts about wood in orders adequately to provide shape-stable LVPs to customers. Wood emits and absorbs moisture in relation to the surrounding climate, and this can lead to shrinkage and swelling. Such moisture induced movements differ in the wood’s different directions, and the magnitude is specific for the species. A thorough understanding of this is the basis for achieving shape-stable LVPs.

    Symmetry is defined in this thesis such that the veneer properties are balanced in the laminate. This means that opposite veneers on either side of the centre veneer have similar characteristic. An LVP will become distorted if the veneers are asymmetrically oriented before the press. Deviation from the desired shape can be small immediately after the pressing, but it may increase significantly with moisture content (MC) variations. Asymmetry may result when veneers with different fibre orientations are included in the laminate or when the veneers are placed asymmetrically. It may also occur if veneers with different MCs are bonded together asymmetrically. One aggravating factor is that the lathe checks that are introduced when the veneers are peeled or sliced from the log affect the shape stability. In 3-ply crosswise-oriented plywood, the veneer surfaces on which the lathe checks occur should be oriented in the same way for high shape stability.

    Based on existing knowledge, the production of shape-stable LVPs requires that the veneers are conditioned to a uniform MC and sorted with regard to fibre orientation and the side with lathe checks before bonding. End-user climates should govern the MC of the veneers and the moisture added with the adhesive during the process. Straight-grain veneers and symmetry should always be the goal.

    Moulding can cause stretching, i.e. strain, of the veneers depending on the curvature of the mould. To prevent the veneers from rupture, there are various ways to strengthen the veneers particularly in the transverse direction in which the veneer is weakest. However, tests have shown that these pre-treatments of veneers for enhanced formability can prevent the adhesive from penetrating the wood surface. It is therefore important to confirm that the pre-treatment does not affect the bond-line strength. 

  • 59.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the shape stability of laminated veneer products.

    Laminated veneer products consist of veneers bonded together with adhesive into a predetermined shape. Such products are used in several contexts but especially in furniture manufacture. Deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturers and customers of the final products. The shape stability of laminated veneer products depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this thesis identifies several important factors that influence shape stability. The purpose of this thesis is to find ways to decrease distortion and improve shape stability so that product quality can be improved.

    Different ways of measuring shape stability, both in an industrial environment and in a more research-based context, are presented in this thesis. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the influence of different material and process parameters on shape stability. The parameters studied were species (beech and birch), adhesive system (bio-based adhesives, adhesive systems based on urea formaldehyde), adhesive distribution on the veneer, climate, moisture content and fibre orientations of the veneers, as well as orientation of the individual veneers in an assembly.

    The results clearly show that the fibre orientation of the veneer strongly influences the shape stability of a laminated veneer product. This means that products can show considerable distortion (particularly twist) if the fibre orientation of the veneer is orientated in an unsuitable way in the assembly before moulding. The effect of fibre orientation on shape stability can be very small directly after moulding, but it increases considerably when the moulded product is subjected to a change in moisture content. In general, a change in moisture content leads to distortion. Moisture change alone, however, results in a controlled distortion.

    An asymmetrical construction coupled with different moisture contents of the veneers in an assembly before moulding will result in poor shape stability of the product. Other studied parameters had a low impact on shape stability, although beech resulted in more distortion and poorer shape stability than birch.

    In order to produce shape-stable laminated veneer products, the veneers should be conditioned to a uniform moisture content and sorted with regard to fibre orientation before bonding. The orientation of the veneers is highly important regarding both fibre orientation and the loose or tight side of the veneer. If shape stability is the main target, the loose sides of peeled and sliced veneers should be oriented in the same manner.

  • 60.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: a review – defining and achieving shape stability2015In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 89-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products (LVPs) consist of veneers bonded together with an adhesive into a predetermined shape. Deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturers and customers of the final products. The shape stability of LVP depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this review identifies several important factors that influence shape stability, the purpose being to find ways of decreasing distortion and improving shape stability so that product quality can be improved.

    The review ends to the following statements:

    The fibre orientation of the veneer strongly influences the shape stability of LVP. The products can show considerable distortion (particularly twist) if the fibre orientation of the veneer is oriented in an unsuitable way in the assembly before moulding.

    The effect of fibre orientation on shape stability can be very small directly after moulding, but it can increase considerably when the moulded product is subjected to a change in moisture content (MC). In general, a change in moisture leads to distortion. Moisture changes alone, however, result in a controlled distortion.

    The orientation of the loose and tight sides of the veneers in LVP affects the shape stability.

    An asymmetrical construction, coupled with different levels of moisture in the different veneers in an assembly before moulding, will result in poor shape stability of the product.

    The choice of wood species affects shape stability. Beech shows more distortion and poorer shape stability than birch.

    Based on existing knowledge to produce shape-stable LVP, the veneers should be conditioned to uniform MC and sorted with regard to fibre orientation and loose or tight side of the veneer before bonding. End-user climates should govern the veneers’ MC and added moisture from the adhesive during the process. Straight grain veneers and symmetry should always be sought.

    This review reveals several areas that need to be further clarified in order to achieve shape-stable LVP, for example the influence of adhesive, the distribution of pressure, temperature, stresses and strains during moulding and the development of numerical methods to better predict the final shape.

  • 61.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Berg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chipless Machining: Challenges in Manufacture of Laminated Veneer Products2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar, IWMS 22: Volume 1 - Oral Presentations / [ed] Roger Hernández and Claudia B. Cáceres, Quebec City, Canada: Université Laval , 2015, p. 155-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laminated veneer product (LVP) consists of veneers bonded together with adhesive under pressure into a predetermined shape and, in general, under increased temperature to shorten the curing time of the adhesive. The process is commonly used in furniture design to manufacture complex forms such as thin shells. In the industrial production of LVP and when the ready-for-use components are exposed to climate variations, rejection due to distortion of the laminates is a major problem. The shape stability depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this study has focused on the influence of fibre deviation in a single veneer. Recent research on the shape stability of LVP and how distortion is influenced by various material and production parameters is presented. A finite-element model for LVP is introduced and the use of this model is exemplified by predicting the shape of a LVP with fibre distortion in a single veneer. The results show that it is possible to improve the shape stability of LVP if knowledge of various material and process parameters is implemented in the manufacturing process, and that a simulation based on a model of the wood material can be helpful in estimating the risk of an undesired deformation of the product.

  • 62.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Resource utilization in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used in an operation, and it is usually determined as the ratio of what is consumed in the production. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often taking complex shapes, using a raw material with high variation, and requiring machining processes that create scrap material that needs to be handled. Therefore, maintaining high productivity in industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports on productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and a processing station. The study seeks to increase the understanding of production-related problems in this industry. This research has been based on productivity measurement as well as on interactive discussions between researchers and workers. Measurement of cycle times indicated bottlenecks in the processing cell. The discussion led via cycle times, processing residues and chatter marks to an examination of the foundation and rigidity of the CNC-machine in the processing cell. The study indicated that the performance of the CNC machine did not correspond to expectations. The machine was too weak to handle the required output in an efficient manner. Thus, there is a need to determine the performance expected before a machine or machine group is purchased. An update of the existing purchasing literature and its dissemination will support the crystallization of the purchasing process as a way forward to support the industry.

  • 63.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Basic knowledge of wood properties for improved performance of laminated Veneer products2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 549-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure success in the production of laminated veneer products, it is necessary to acquire a sound basic understanding of the behaviour of the wood, and to understand the inherent reactions of wood to adhesive, heat, moisture, strain and stress. This can ensure an efficient wood utilization and promote the development of new processes and products that take advantage of the visco-elastic nature of wood.

     

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. In this study, we have examined how the performance of laminated veneer products can be improved through the implementation of basic knowledge of wood in the design and production process.

     

    The results show that the material and process parameters and storage in a changing relative humidity have a clear impact on distortion. Fibre orientation of the veneers in the moulded assembly was the most critical parameter to control. Fibre deviations mainly resulted in twist of the product. A moisture content in one veneer deviating from that of the rest of the veneers in the assembly before moulding resulted in distortion of the laminated veneer products both after moulding and during use. To decrease the negative effect of fibre orientation and moisture content on shape stability, the veneer should be straight-grained and well-conditioned to a moisture level adapted to the use of the final product. Special care should also be taken to orientate the veneers during assembly before moulding.

  • 64.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Modification of surface veneer to reduce damage in laminated veneer products during manufacturing2014In: Final Cost Action FP0904, Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment, May 19-21, Skellefteå, Sweden: Book of abstracts / [ed] Dick Sandberg and Mojgan Vaziri, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, p. 50-51Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Moisture-induced distortion of laminated veneer products2014In: Forest Products Society (FPS)  68th International Convention, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Moisture-induced distortion of laminated veneer products2013In: Proceedings of the 9th meeting of the Northern European network for wood science and engineering (WSE): September 11-12, 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Christian Brischke & Linda Meyer, Hannover, Germany, 2013, p. 178-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated veneer products consist of veneers bonded together with adhesive into a predetermined shape. Since wood is a hygroscopic material and also anisotropic by nature, laminated veneer products are especially shape-sensitive to changes in moisture content. A deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both the manufacturers and users of the final products and annually such deviations cause great economic losses in the manufacturing industry.

     

    To illustrate the influence of moisture on distortion and shape stability, studies have been performed in industrial conditions and in a laboratory environment. Veneers of beech and birch and a seat shell moulded from these veneers were used in the study. Distortion, i.e. spring-back, position and twist, has been determined directly after moulding and during subsequent moisture and drying cycles.

     

    The distortion follows more or less slavishly the changes in relative humidity around the product. The distortion is generally small directly after moulding but, after the laminates have been exposed to a variation in relative humidity, the distortion increases. Some of the problems of poor shape stability that may arise later in the bending process can be reduced if attention is paid to moisture content and fibre orientation already in the production of the veneer.

     

    To achieve good shape stability of laminated veneer products in practice, the following should be followed by the manufacture industry:

    • develop      cooperation with suppliers of veneer and set requirements of veneer with regard      to deviation of the fibre orientation, and require that the veneer be dried      and conditioned to a moisture content consistent with production,
    • control      incoming veneers with respect to fibre orientation and moisture content,
    • plan warehousing      of veneers and ensure adequate conditioning, and
    • consider      the orientation of the veneers and the species.
  • 67.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: an experimental study of the influence on distortion of some material and process parameters2013In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 198-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated bending of veneers is a common used and important process for manufacture of components primarily for furniture and interior purposes. According to the use, such products are in general very sensitive to variations in the intended shape, i.e. distortion can be of great problem and more or less destroy the use of the final product. The most critical mode of distortion is twist, but also other changes in shape may be of interest to keep low. The causes to distortion of laminated bended veneer products can be of material (veneer, adhesive and the combination of these), design, processes and climate nature and there is a challenge to know which parameters which are of major importance for distortion, both directly after moulding and when the products are in use.

    In this study, the influence of type of UF-adhesive hardener, i.e. liquid or powder, water content of adhesive, adhesive distribution, variation of moisture content of glued veneers, and fibre orientation of veneers, on twist and position for a 3D-veneer construction (a chair seat shell) has been studied. Distortion, i.e. twist and position, has been determined directly after moulding and after moisture cycling. The moisture cycling was to simulate and accelerate conditions that the shells are subjected in use. The aim of the work is to study how the above mentioned material and process parameters influence the shape stability of the products.

    The results show that the climate, i.e. how a certain level of temperature and relative humidity influence the moisture content of the moulded product, has a clear impact on the distortion of the product in use. An increase in moisture content results in a significant increase in distortion and vice versa. The level to which the moulded products distort during climate variation can be controlled through controlling material, design and process parameter during moulding. Of the studied parameter mentioned above, a deviation in fibre orientation of the veneers in the moulded assembly is the most critical parameter to have under control to minimize distortion. The fibre deviation mainly results in an increase in twist. A high moisture content of a veneer vis-à-vis the rest of the veneers in the assembly before moulding, will result in increased position and twist of the moulded product in use. The difference of moisture content between veneers and the position of veneers with high moisture content in the assembly will influence the level of distortion. Other studied parameter also influences the distortion to a lesser extent and can in these cases be related to the moisture distribution in the mouldings.

  • 68.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of laminated veneer products: How to decrease the negative effects of fibre deviation?2013In: Forest Products Society (FPS)  67th International Convention, Madison: Forest Products Society , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortcoming of the laminated bending process is that the products may become distorted after moulding and during use. Annually, significant financial losses have incurred in the furniture and interior design industries as a result of distorted products. In this study, we have examined the influence of deviation of fibre orientation of individual veneers on distortion of a moulded shell to find ways to improve shape stability of laminated veneer products.

    Ninety cross-laminated shells, consisting of 7 veneers of Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) with a total thickness of 3.6 mm, were studied. The in-plane dimensions of the veneer were 400x660 mm. All the veneers were straight-grained, but to simulate deviation in fibre orientation some of the individual veneers were oriented 7 degrees relative to the main orientation of the other veneers in the laminate. Distortion was determined directly after moulding and after storage in a changing relative humidity.

    The results show the well-known fact that deviation of fibre orientation of the veneers in the laminate influences the shape stability of the product. The results from this study, however, also show how the placement of the abnormal veneers in the laminated veneer products influences the degree of distortions. From this basic knowledge some improvements for production of laminated veneer products were suggested.

  • 69.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Shape stability of THM-processed laminated veneer products glued with bio-based adhesive systems2013In: Evaluation, processing and predicting of THM treated wood behaviour by experimental and numerical methods / [ed] Carmen-Mihaela Popescu and Maria-Cristina Popescu, Iasi, Romania, 2013, p. 99-100Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Veneer modification for improved formability when moulding laminated veneer products2014In: Forest Products Society (FPS)  68th International Convention, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Landscheidt, Steffen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Downtime causes in a production cell for laminated veneer products2017In: 23rd International Wood Machining Seminar Proceedings / [ed] Marcin Zbiec and Kazimierz Orlowski, Warsaw, Poland: The Polish Chamber of Commerce of Furniture Manufacturers , 2017, p. 28-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity is often used to determine how well resources are used for an operation. Most often, the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it determines productivity. Laminated veneer products are considered complicated products often with complex shapes, a raw material with high variation, and machining processes that create scrap materials that need to be handled. Therefore, keeping a high productivity in the industries producing such products may become challenging. This study reports productivity measurements in a production cell consisting of an adhesive, pressing and processing station. The study seeks to increase understanding of production-related problems in this industry. The research has been using productivity measurement as well as interactive discussions between researchers and workers.

    Measurement of downtime causes were made for 20 days, for a total of approximately 300 hours. The production cell had 1,299 minutes of stops. Of those, 450 minutes were one-time events. The rest were intermittent disturbances. Many of them could be explained by the dust-laden air and processing residues but were also related to veneer and adhesive. There is a need for determining material and processing parameters; however, the first priority is cleaning the factory.

    From a social perspective, some other issues must be added to the discussion of this paper. First and foremost, the business has gone through a transformation from a family business to a privately held firm. From the non-family employee’s view, this is a huge change. This has resulted in unclear roles and responsibilities within the company, which has also affected the productivity of the company.

  • 72.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Pfriem, Alexander
    Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Temporary buildings in reusable lightweight material design2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need and market for temporary buildings for various purposes, including largeconstruction projects in the tourism and events sectors or in civil protection. This paper gives an overview about the useof reusable lightweight materials in temporary buildings. Based on a project proposal submitted to the 7th framework, anew concept of temporary buildings is proposed. This concept combines the advantages of the premanufacturing of asmall number of parts and wooden components and a flexible and modular erection of the temporary building. Thefocus is on fast establishment with a maximum of three persons. A flexible and modular extension is possible.Assembling and disassembling the individual components with novel connect systems, adapted from the furnitureindustry, is proposed.This project aims to bring these concepts into new temporary buildings with new, reusable, and flexible lightweightdesign.

  • 73.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influence of veneer orientation on shape stability of plane laminated veneer products2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important quality aspects of a laminated veneer product is its shape stability under changing relative humidity (RH). This study aimed to establish an understanding of how the orientation of individual veneers in the laminate, i.e., orientation according to fibre orientation and orientation of the loose (the side with ‘lathe checks’) or tight side of the veneer, affects the shape stability. Three-ply laminates from peeled veneers of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) were studied. The four types of laminate were the following: loose sides of all veneers in the same direction (cross and parallel centre ply) and loose sides of the outer veneers facing inward (cross and parallel centre ply). Four replicates of each type yielded 16 samples. The samples were exposed to RH cycling at 20% and 85% RH at 20°C, and the shapes of the samples were determined. The shape stability was influenced by the veneer orientation. Laminations with the middle veneer perpendicular to the top and bottom veneer (cross-laminated) showed the best shape stability, especially when the loose sides of the veneers were oriented the same direction. In parallel-laminated veneers, the laminates with opposite directions of the loose sides in the two outermost veneers showed the best shape stability. The major explanation of the behaviour of the laminates is that the loose side expanded more than the tight side from the dry to the humid climate, which was shown by optical 3D deformation analysis (ARAMISTM). After RH cycling, the laminates with cross plies showed visible surface checks only when the tight side was facing outwards.

  • 74.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The effect of veneer modification on the bond-line strength in laminated veneer products2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in the manufacture of three-dimensional laminated veneer products (LVP) isdamage due to stretching and/or buckling of the veneer. To reduce or eliminate this problem, veneerdensification or adding a strengthening layer to the veneer can be an alternative. To study how veneermodification influences the veneer-to-adhesive bond strength, three methods of modification werestudied in relation to an unmodified reference veneer: (1) densified veneer, (2) veneer pre-bonded withpaper and hot melt adhesive (HMA), (3) veneer pre-bonded with non-woven polypropylene (NW)fabric glued to the veneer (a) with a urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, (b) with a mixture of UF andpolyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive, and (c) with a PVAc adhesive. Densification, pre-bonding withpaper, and NW with UF/PVAc adhesive mixture resulted in no or only a slight decrease in strength ofthe bond-line compared to the reference. NW glued with UF or PVAc adhesive showed a considerablereduction in the strength of the bond-line. The climatic cycling had no significant influence on the bondstrength.

  • 75.
    Blomqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    SP Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå University of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The influence of veneer modification on adhesive bond strength2014In: Proceedings of the 10th meeting of the Northern European network for wood science and engineering (WSE) / [ed] Peter Wilson, Edinburg, Scotland, 2014, p. 150-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Blomster, Karina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Privata skogsägares benägenhet till röjning i Gudrunområdet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine how small-scale private forest owners

    make decisions regarding pre-commercial thinning. In 2015 it is ten years ago

    since the storm Gudrun hit the southern parts of Sweden and now large areas are

    in need of pre-commercial thinning. This study is built upon qualitative

    interviews with seven small-scale private forest owners with forest properties in

    the county Kronoberg. The respondents were chosen by the model

    SKOGSÄGARPROFILENTM (forest owner profile).

    The results of the interviews showed that five categories: ownership, the storm

    Gudrun´s impact, silviculture, forestry contacts and driving force was important.

    How will their purpose and aim affect the pre-commercial thinning? Personal

    interests, and expectations of the next generation to take over, are purposes this

    study has found. Furthermore, when pre-commercial thinning is not carried out

    or postponed, the silviculture has got lower priority, and other chores higher

    priority. Lack of knowledge might be one issue. If so, a contact with someone

    with this knowledge is important for starting up the pre-commercial thinning.

    Key words: Gudrun clearing, pre-commercial thinning, personal interest, net of

    contacts, private forest owners, change-of generation, “forest owner profile”.

  • 77.
    Boje, Lis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Filmen om skogen i skolan: Utomhusövningar som anknyter till skolans läroplan. Kännedom om skog och natur har bäring på människans livskvalite. Den svenska skogen är en del av vårt kulturarv och har i alla tider varit ett rum för avkoppling, friluftsliv och rekreation.2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78.
    Boje, Lis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ökad jämställdhet bland skogsägare2013Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Bonarski, Jan T.
    et al.
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Kifetew, Girma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Olek, Wieslaw
    Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Effects of cell wall ultrastructure on the transverseshrinkage anisotropy of Scots pine wood2015In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 501-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothesis for explaining the differential anisotropicshrinkage behavior of wood has been proposed,and it was based on the differences in the cell wall ultrastructure.The starting point of the consideration is thatwood shrinkage is governed by its chemical composition,ultrastructure, and gross anatomy. It is also well knownthat the transverse shrinkage anisotropy of earlywood(EW) is more pronounced than that of the latewood (LW).In the paper, the cell wall ultrastructure and shrinkageanisotropy has been related to each other, and to thispurpose, a set of crystallographic texture descriptorswas applied. The descriptors are based on X-ray diffraction(XRD) experiments conducted on matched EW samplesfrom different growth rings of Scots pine. The rangeof the microfibril angle (MFA) was identified. The ratio ofthe maxima of inverse pole figures (IPFs) of both the tangential(T) and radial (R) directions was determined. Theratios quantify the inhomogeneity of the spatial arrangementof the ordered areas. The results of the study clearlyindicate that the transverse shrinkage of wood is governedmostly by a specific ultrastructural organization of moderatelyorganized cell wall compounds.

  • 80. Bonnet, Marie
    et al.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Water transport in hardwoods above FSP: case of birch2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Broo, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kantzoners påverkan på höjd- och diametertillväxt samt markvegetationens artsammansättning hos angränsande tallbestånd i sydöstra Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies carried out in boreal forests have found significant edge effects in Scots pine although, none of them in southern Sweden. The aim of this study was to investigate edge effects in adjacent Scots pine stands and its influence on tree growth and field vegetation composition. This was carried out in 10 selected forest edges in southeastern Sweden. Results showed reduced number of stems, height, diameter and basal area growth among young trees in particular within 2 m from the forest edge. In the older stands number of stems, diameter and basal area growth increased within the first 2 m from the edge. Field vegetation inventory showed differences in composition in the adjacent stands. In the older stands lichens, lingonberry and blueberry were more frequent, while heather and grasses showed a higher appearance in young stands.

  • 82.
    Bylund, Anna-Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kolbalansen vid olika skötselstrategier för skogen på Tagels fastighet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 19th century the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere hasincreased by 40 percent as an effect of the use of fossil energy sources.Increased concentration of CO2 will likely lead to increased temperature,changes in precipitation, rising sea level and increased frequency of extremeweather like storm events. A step to reduce emissions of CO2 and mitigateclimate change, for the property of Tagel, can be to adopt new silviculturalstrategies and analyse which is the most effective. As a result of that, threescenarios was produced, business-as-usual (BAU), increased set aside landand energy. An introduction of windpower at Tagels estate (property) andeffects on carbon balance was also examined. By using the Heureka systemand LCA-analysis in this study, it showed that the scenario of increased setaside land was the most efficient way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions for the analysed period of 100 years. The effect of substitution(replacing for example fossil fuel or energy consuming building materials,with renewable raw material such as biomass) didn’t give the result that waspredicted. It appears that the use of pulpwood is very important, if it goes tothe pulp industry no substitution effect occurs, but if all pulp will be used forbioenergy purposes, the energy scenario will be the best in terms of overallcarbon balance. The stored carbon in tree biomass over and in roots wasaffected by all scenarios. The soil carbon was almost the same for allscenarios. In the future the property of Tagel can still use the alternativeBAU as an effective way to mitigate climate change but then explore thepossibilities to use the pulp for bioenergy purposes instead and to set asidemore land at the property. This study considered to have high credibilitybecause the Heureka-analyses, LCA and the substitution model were carriedout by experts in area of research.

  • 83.
    Carlberg, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lärkvirkets marknad i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trädslaget lärk introducerades i Sverige av Carl von Linné 1754 och var till en början avsett för virke till flottans fartyg. Denna studie fokuserar på hybridlärk (Larix eurolepis) och sibirisk lärk (Larix sibirica) för att undersöka och belysa marknaden för lärk i Sverige. Studien använder sig av en enkätundersökning till olika respondentgrupper inom skogsbranschen samt litteraturstudier. Resultatet visar att det existerar en marknad för lärk i Sverige men att den är mycket liten och relativt lokal och nischad. Skogsägarna är ovetande om såväl lärkens fördelar som nackdelar vid skogsodling, vilket kunde avhjälpas genom att skogsbolagen och de berörda myndigheterna ökade informationen till skogsägarna. Avsättningen för virket av lärk är för tillfället dåligt betalt, vilket är en anledning till att lärken inte är så populär bland landets skogsägare men kan marknaden och efterfrågan av lärkträprodukter expanderas uppstår incitament för ökad skogsodling på sikt.

  • 84.
    Cintas, Olivia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bergh, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    The potential role of forest management in Swedish scenarios towards climate neutrality by mid century2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 383, no Special Issue, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish climate policy targets net zero greenhouse gases (GHG) by mid-century, with road transport independent of fossil fuels by 2030, requiring far-reaching changes in the way energy is used. Forest management is expected to support carbon sequestration and provide biomass for various uses, including energy. In this paper, we combine two energy scenarios with four forest scenarios and quantify GHG balances associated with energy-use for heat, electricity, and road transport, and with forest management and production, use, and end-of-life management of various forest products, including products for export. The aggregated GHG balances are evaluated in relation to the 2-degree target and an allocated Swedish CO2 budget. The production of biofuels in the agriculture sector is considered but not analyzed in detail.

    The results suggest that Swedish forestry can make an important contribution by supplying forest fuels and other products while maintaining or enhancing carbon storage in vegetation, soils, and forest products. The GHG neutrality goal is not met in any of the scenarios without factoring in carbon sequestration. Measures to enhance forest productivity can increase output of forest products (including biofuels for export) and also enhance carbon sequestration. The Swedish forest sector can let Sweden reach net negative emissions, and avoid “using up” its allocated CO2 budget, thereby increasing the associated emissions space for the rest of the world.

  • 85.
    Dahlén, Vilhelm
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Gödslings- och röjningseffekt på diameter och höjdutveckling i en fågelbärsplantering i Nybro kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fågelbär räknas som ett av ädellövträden. Mot slutet av 1980-talet så började fågelbär planteras som virkesproduktionsträd i Sverige. Aktuell rapport bygger på en studie kring vilken effektgödsling och röjning har på fågelbärs höjdutveckling, diametertillväxt, antal kvist och kvistgrovleken. Mätresultaten samlades in mars-april 2018 från ett fågelbärsförsök lokaliserat i Nybro kommun, Småland. Vid analys av mätresultaten så gick det inte finna någon signifikant effekt av gödslingen på fågelbären. När effekten av röjningsåtgärderna studerades så gick det att finna en tydlig effekt på fågelbärens höjdtillväxt, diametertillväxt och högre antal kvist på stammen upp till två meter. Någon signifikant effekt på grövsta kvist upp till två meter på stammen gick dock inte att finna. Slutsatser som drogs av resultaten var att det inte gick finna stöd för att den genomförda gödslings åtgärden har någon effekt på volymproduktionen för fågelbär. Däremot gick det att finna stöd för att röjningsåtgärder har en betydande effekt på både höjd- och diametertillväxten för fågelbär. Naturligt föryngrad björk och asp växer dock snabbare än fågelbär.

  • 86.
    Danielsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Emilie, Björkman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kan digitala hjälpmedel användas förmer ståndortsanpassade föryngringar?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if SI from HPR-data from harvesters and soil moisture classes from digital depth to water maps could be used to support site adaption of regenerations within stands. The study was made on pine and spruce stands in central Sweden. The number of plants/ha, plant height, growth and damage were measured at plot level and for these plots also soil moisture classes and SI were derived from digital maps and HPR. The study shows a potential using SI from HPR and depth to water maps for site adaption of regenerations and to vary tree species within stands. Variations of SI and soil moisture are important within stands regarding different tree species establishment, growth and damage. But also, for sites with medium SI were the choice between pine and spruce is not obvious and in stands with a high spread in SI.

  • 87.
    Donati, Marco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lean and sustainability evaluation of the flow of material in internal logistics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how the interaction between lean and sustainability theories works in the logistics department of a manufacturing company. The research has been developed by applying a Value Stream Map with adjusted factors to help to map the flow of materials throughout the department. Literature review have shown connections between lean and sustainability, but it has yet to be evaluated focusing on the logistics department. After the analysis of the current state of the factory under the two methodologies, an improved layout has been proposed. The results have concluded that Value Stream Map is a valuable tool to understand the performance of a company under both theories. The addition of the sustainability perspective to the lean tool has created the opportunity to evaluate more factors, which lead to more opportunities in the proposition of future state for the flow of material. It gives also the possibility to extend the “continuous improvement” (Kaizen) principle of lean to the sustainability areas in an efficient way.

  • 88.
    Draganovic, Denis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Job Satisfaction in Virtual Management: Personality traits in a virtual managment team based on trust and technology communication.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Working in virtual teams from a distance has been a trend for the past decades and today, it is how many companies operate. As a company grows and gets more global, the leadership of the company gets more challenging and more complex. This puts high pressure on the workers and requires team members that have special skill to be operating a team from distance.

    Purpose:The purpose of this study was to get a deeper understanding on the effect of different personality traits based on propensity to trust and technology communication anxiety, which are the predictors of job satisfaction in remote virtual team, according to the literature.

    Hypotheses:Hypothesis 1A: Conscientiousness is negatively correlated with propensity to trust. Hypothesis 1B: Extraversion is positively correlated with propensity to trust. Hypothesis 1C: Agreeableness is positively correlated with propensity to trust.Hypothesis 2a: Neuroticism is positively correlated with technology communication anxiety.Hypothesis 2b: Openness is negatively correlated with technology communication anxiety.Hypothesis 3: Propensity to trust is positively correlated with perceived virtual teams usefulnessHypothesis 4: Technology communication anxiety is negatively correlated with job satisfaction in remote virtual team.Hypothesis 5: Perceived remote virtual team usefulness is positively correlated with job satisfaction in remote virtual teams.

    Methodology:A quantitative study was conducted to address the aim of the study. In total, 54 questionnaires were gathered. After the quantitative study was analyzed, three interviews were conducted to interpret the findings.Findings:Among five personality traits, only two of them are found to be predictors of technology communication anxiety and propensity to trust. Perceived usefulness is found to be the strongest predictor for job satisfaction. However, the R square shows that there are some other factors that affect job satisfaction.

  • 89.
    Edlund, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ett hjälpmedel för att kategorisera bevarandestatusen av torp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a Categorizing tool for conservation of settlement remains we can, through better instructions, reduce the damages made to settlement remains in conjunction with forestmeasures.The purpose of this study was to create a categorizing tool for the conservation status of settlement remains. The categorization tool will be used to select specific remains for increased management. Interviews were conducted with the County administrative board in Östergötland, Board of Forestry (Skogsstyrelsen) and Holmen skog. Pre-field studies both with Skogsstyrelsen and Holmen skog were also conducted. A field study was conducted where totally 20 different areas of settlement remains were visited and used to create the tool. All settlement remains were located in Östergötland. The data collected showed that the largest amount of monuments were located close to a road and were relatively easy to access. The categorizing tool was made in collaboration with Holmen skog and was tested together with a representative from the company with the outcome as an approved categorizing tool for the demands of the company.

  • 90.
    Edström, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Tätortsnära skog i Norrköpings kommun - Intressenters syn på skogens skötsel2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De tätortsnära skogarna är en viktig resurs för samhället. Flera studier visar på att den kan ha positiva effekter, både på den psykiska och fysiska hälsan vid människors vistelser i naturen. Samtidigt finns ett stort behov av en hållbar skötsel i dessa tätortsnära skogsområden och det krävs en dialog mellan nyttjare och brukare för att kunna utföra skötselåtgärder i dessa områden.

  • 91.
    Eilert, Annette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Alternativa metoder till hägn för att minimera viltskador på hybridaspföryngringar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to find alternatives to fences by comparing the

    frequency of damages on different configurations of chemical treated,

    mechanically protected and untreated hybrid aspen seedlings, planted on

    agricultural land. The study also explored whether anthropogenic disturbance

    (proximity to roads and buildings) had any effect on the frequency of seedlings

    damages.

    The study was conducted as a quantitative study with field measurements over

    the course of a year, in two sample plots with hybrid aspen seedlings planted in

    May 2016 in Vimmerby kommun, Kalmar län. The field data was compiled into

    Excel and compared for differences between treatments and proximity to

    anthropogenic disturbance.

    The result showed that seedlings closer to anthropogenic disturbance showed a

    lower frequency of damage. There was no significant difference between the

    mechanical (Taimitassu) and chemical (Arbinol B) seedling protection. The

    highest frequency of damages occurred in the summer, peaking in July.

    In conclusion, when choosing a place to plant hybrid aspen, there should be

    anthropogenic disturbance to minimize the frequency of browsing.

  • 92.
    Ekdal, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Markägares val av skogspartner: 2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Derome Skog AB is a purchase company whose main task is to provide Derome Timber's sawmills in Halland with timber raw material. Because of the very hard competition in the roundwood market it is important to know what kind of purchase offers are required in order to buy a valuable product from forest owners.

    This study aims to elucidate the crucial factors when private forest owners choose to harvest and sell their forest. As base for this study, a questionnaire has been performed with private forest owners. The result of the study shows that it is not particularly often that the timber price is the crucial factor why the forest owners choose to harvest and sell the forest products; i.e. timber, pulpwood as well as energy assortments. Most often, it is entirely other reasons which drive the forest owner to harvest. The price of timber is however very important and can very well be the factor that determine to whom the forest owner chooses to sell his timber.

     

  • 93.
    Eklund, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Contortatall - stabilitet 7-16 år efter gallring2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2011 fällde stormen Dagmar uppskattningsvis 4-5 miljoner m3sk skog,främst i mellersta Norrland. SCA skogs tidigast gallrade (1996-2005)contortatallbestånd, återfinns i området. Generellt beskrivs contortatall somett vindkänsligt trädslag. Kunskapen kring påverkan av gallring ärbegränsad. Målet är att avgöra om stormkänsligheten minskar ett antal årefter gallring, samt om det finns något samband mellan beståndsegenskaperoch skadenivå. Data har samlats genom cirkelytetaxering av 89 bestånd,under fältsäsongen 2012. Avgångsnivån var 12 % av volymen, eller ca 14 %av stamantalet. Signifikant samband har påvisats mellan skadenivå,beståndshöjd samt exponering. Gödsling verkar påverka skadenivån. Någonstabilisering av gallrad contortatall har inte kunnat påvisas.

  • 94.
    Ekslätt, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Södras framtida skogsbruksplan för effektiv planering, inköp och rådgivning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogsbruksplanen är ett viktigt beslutsverktyg för såväl privata skogsägare som personal hos skogliga företag och organisationer. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka hur Södra skogsägarna önskar att skogsbruksplanen ska vara utformad i framtiden. Studien genomfördes som en intervjustudie med 12 tjänstemän hos Södra, omfattande yrkesrollerna områdeschef, produktionsledare, skogsvårdsledare, skogsinspektor och skötsel- och miljöledare. Skogsbruksplanen används i olika stor omfattning och i varierande arbetsuppgifter. Information som används mest är virkesförråd och åtgärdsförslag och det finns både styrkor och svagheter med planen. Data om målklass och beståndsareal håller tillräckligt hög kvalité och förslag på nya användningsområden som ansågs intressanta var vägstandard på fastighetens vägar och dikesstatus. Studien visar att det finns både styrkor och svagheter och därmed en utvecklingspotential. För att förbättra kvalitén skulle man kunna använda ny teknik såsom data från laserskanning. Planen bör utformas så att den både är webbaserad och digital och den bör vara användarvänlig både för den skogliga personalen och för skogsägarna.

  • 95.
    Ekstrand, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Enhancement of Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive with Crystalline Nano Cellulose2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The wood industries to this day use almost exclusively petroleum derived adhesives that are based mainly on the reaction of formaldehyde with urea, melamine or phenol. These adhesives have low cost and good adjustable properties which makes it hard for bio-based alternatives to compete. Phenol formaldehyde (PF), as an example of a synthetic adhesive, has been in use for over 100 years. In some parts of the world, legislation around formaldehyde is changing, and there is an increasingly voluntary awareness about the toxicity and unsustainability of formaldehyde. Industries realize that raw materials from oil is unstainable. The latter is currently a driving factor behind research on alternatives to amino based adhesives. Also, consumer interest in healthy and sustainable products, such as emitting less formaldehyde indoors, increases the need for bio based adhesives.

    Cellulose contained in plant cell walls is a renewable, abundant and nontoxic resource. During the last decades, many innovations have been achieved around cellulose and this trend does not seem to be slowing down. Cellulose shows excellent mechanical properties, high strength, high elastic modulus as well as having a low density.

    Research about cellulose reinforced adhesives has been increased the last years. This thesis studied the enhancement of phenol formaldehyde adhesive with Crystalline Nano Cellulose (CNC) at 5wt% and 10wt% loading levels for producing plywood boards. Indecisive results when using CNC higher than 3wt%, especially with PF resin, have been reported by other authors.

    In this thesis, European standards were applied. EN 314 was applied to test the panels shear strength. Three (3) treatment classes were selected, indoor room condition as well as pre-treatments 5.1.1 and 5.1.3. Other properties measured were modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, formaldehyde emissions.

    Results showed a shear strength increase for all pre-treatment classes. 10wt% CNC mixture with phenol formaldehyde in water bath, pre-treatment (5.1.1) for 24h showed the highest increase in shear strength (+73,9%). The 10 wt% CNC mixture panels also showed the highest wood fibre failure of all panel types produced. A decrease in MOE has been observed with 10 wt% CNC compared to the 5 wt% CNC panels. Formaldehyde emissions tests were inconclusive, but since less PF was used, there was a general reduction in emissions. The 5 wt% CNC panels were superior in terms of modulus of elasticity and swelling and also showed improved shear strength. 

  • 96.
    Ekströmer, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Produktion och miljötänk - då och nu: Introduktion och utveckling av miljöhänsyn i svenskt skogsbruk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About two-thirds of Swedens land area is covered by forest. Half of the total forest land is owned by private forest owners.The purpose of this study was to describe the decades before and after the environmental concerns became self-evident in Swedish forestry, and from a forest policy perspective elucidate the introduction of environmental concerns in forest management. Interviews with private forest owners and field studys was conducted to identify specific occurences of conservation that could be linked to advisory service from The National Board of Forestry since the 1970´s. The result shows that guidance, education and skills are crucial success factors for the continuence of conservation and sustainable forestry, but also greater consideration and respect for the private forest owners property rights, experiences and knowledge.

  • 97.
    Eliasson, Lars
    et al.
    Skogforsk.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hyggeslagring av grot2015Other (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Ellingsson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Diameter- höjdskillnader för klippgran (Abies laciocarpa), gran ( Picea abies), glasbjörk (Betula pubescens) och contorta (Pinus contorta) i Strömsunds kommun.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett stort intresse för exoter inom skogsbruket och i denna rapport behandlas klippgran (Abies laciocarpa) och Contorta (Pinus contorta). Vid undersökningen av dessa trädsorter jämfördes diameter och höjdtillväxt med gran (Picea abies) och björk (Betula pubescens). Mätningarna utfördes på lokaler i Strömsunds kommun i Jämtlands län vid Näxåsen (Strömsund) och runt Jorm i Frostviken på SCA:s marker

  • 99.
    Elmkvist, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Transportlogistik: En undersökning av de logistiska flödena hos ett sågverk/- förädlingsföretag i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När företag har en snabb tillväxt genom konsolidering kan det ske att visa aspekter i organisationen blir eftersläpandes. I det här fallet upplever företaget en förlorad kontroll över sina transporter till följd av en allt mer komplex transportlogistik. Målet med den här undersökning var därför att kartlägga företagets transporter.För att effektivt transportera gods krävs det planering, det är viktigt att fordonens hela lastkapacitet utnyttjats, alltså fyllnadsgrad. Det är viktigt att planera efter kortaste sträckan, det är också viktigt att undvika onödig miljöpåverkan. Onödig miljöpåverkan kan ske genom ineffektiv planering som i sin tur resulterar i mindre nödvändiga godstransporter.Kartläggningen i denna undersökningen resulterade i en täckning av de interna transporterna samt transporter till de största avlägg på 85% av vad företaget uppskattar transporterats under ett 2018. Transporter för trärelaterade produkter 2016 uppgick till 4 miljoner tonkilometer, detta var cirka 9,8% av de totala transporterna med lastbil inom Sveriges gränser. En effektiv kedja av logistiska aktiviteter för trävaror garanterar en nedskärning av kostnaderna för transport. Eftersom hänsynen för miljöpåverkan också är stor i Sverige så är en effektiv logistik också nyckeln för att minska sina klimatavtryck.

  • 100.
    Elofsson, Elina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Bernlo, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jämförelse av LVL-balk och lättbalk i mellanbjälklag: En studie för Moderna Trähus2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moderna Trähus will investigate the possibility of replacing the LVL-beams with light composite wood-based beams, yet preserving the same construction method. The method means that the beams in the intermediate floor will be taking down 30 mm under the bathroom. This report presents the characteristics of both LVL-and light composite wood-based beams. The report also present different results from cost calculations, strength calculations and laboratory test based on the standard EOTA TR002.

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