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  • 51.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Studying the Risk of Corruption in the Least Corrupt Countries2008In: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 193-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a conceptual framework for studies of areas of politics and public policy in which political corruption is most likely to emerge (danger zones). The use of principal-agent theory in qualitative case studies is recommended. This approach gives attention to context, to the specifics of institutional design, and to individual choice as found in the "least corrupt" countries of the world.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Södertörns högskola.
    Controlling Corruption in the Public Sector2009In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 45-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the literature on political corruption is based on indices such as the ones presented by Transparency International, but the reliability and validity of these indices are questionable. The main alternative approach – qualitative case studies – often lacks a theoretical framework allowing for systematic empirical analysis. To remedy this shortcoming, this article places qualitative case studies in the framework of principal-agent theory. The cases comprise two Swedish county councils (regional governments), both of which reorganised their administrations in similar ways in the 1990s. One experienced corruption scandals, but the other did not. In comparing them, the article links the propensity for corruption to institutional design – in particular, the mechanisms of delegation and control.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Heywood, Paul M
    Corruption and Democratic Stability: on the Unintended Consequences of International Anti-Corruption Campaigns2008In: Governments, NGOs and Anti-Corruption: The New Integrity Warriors, Routledge, London , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Heywood, Paul M
    University of Nottinham.
    The Politics of Perception: Use and Abuse of Transparency International’s Approach to Measuring Corruption2009In: Political Studies, ISSN 0032-3217, E-ISSN 1467-9248, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 746-767Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Martínez Cousinou, Gloria
    Institute for Advanced Social Studies of Andalusia, Spanish Council for Scientific Research.
    Controlling political corruption in the United Kingdom2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing case studies of control of political corruption often lack a theoretical framework that can provide for systematic empirical research and comparisons between cases and countries. To remedy this, we apply principal-agent theory qualitatively to study the United Kingdom, with a particular emphasis given to an in-depth study of control measures employed to Parliament, the Executive and political parties. We give a detailed account of the approach undertaken to control political corruption in these risk areas for corruption, and discuss its implications and why some types of measures prevail over others.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Martínez-Cousinou, Gloria
    El control de la corrupción: Un marco analítico para su estudio2009In: Revista del CLAD Reforma y Democracia, ISSN 1315-2378, Vol. 43, p. 103-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional Control of Corruption: an Analytical Framework for its Study

    Designing and implementing institutional mechanisms to control corruption are key strategies for improving the democratic quality of political systems. For this reason, not only does this issue occupy a priority position in the political agenda of a number of governmental and international organizations, but there is also a large body of specialized literature on this subject.

    In spite of a number of existing studies that focus on the importance of the role that institutions play in curbing corruption, the literature centered specifically on the empirical evaluation of such mechanisms in a particular country, or on the theoretical analysis of how they contribute to increased accountability of public officials, is less abundant. To address this lack, this article suggests an analytical framework based on the Principal-Agent theory, to propose systematic empirical research of institutional measures for controlling corruption. This analytical framework is based on two criteria for classification. The first one distinguishes between ex ante and ex post measures, depending on when the specific mechanisms are enacted: before or after the delegation of authority between the Principal and the Agent has taken place. The second criterion distinguishes between a priori and a posteriori measures, depending on whether the specific mechanism is implemented before or after the act of corruption itself has occurred. Different theoretical consequences derive from each approach in terms of the projected effectiveness of the ensuing controls in reducing agency problems.

    Thus, the proposed framework serves to shed light on two main issues: the identification of the prevailing approach to control corruption in a specific country, and the estimation of the theoretical effectiveness of that approach. However, the most important innovation prompted by the application of this analytical framework, is that it provides for several types of comparison: between different approaches for controlling corruption in various case studies, between various areas of heightened risk for corruption within a country -such as party financing, corruption of members of parliament, ministers, etc.- and between such specific risk areas in different countries. To allow these different types of comparison, the concept of a danger zone of corruption is proposed. This concept refers to the areas and functions of the system that are vulnerable to corruption: areas of vulnerability where occurrence of corruption is likely, and conditions that are likely to promote corruption. Using this concept, it is possible to delineate the vulnerable areas in a specific system, and thereafter, to apply the proposed analytical framework in order to better describe the current approaches taken to control corruption in a given country.

    The necessary specific steps to identify these danger zones, as well as to empirically apply the proposed analytical framework are detailed in this article, using several examples from the British system. Due to the highly developed institutional measures to circumvent corruption in place in the United Kingdom, this case effectively illustrates the utility of the proposed framework.

    In summary, the purpose of this article is to fulfill a deficit in the existing literature on the control of corruption, by providing a novel theoretical framework for the descriptive analysis of institutional mechanisms and their theoretical effectiveness in specific contexts and at the comparative level.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Martínez-Cousinou, Gloria
    Institute for Advanced Social Studies of Andalusia, Spanish Council for Scientific Research.
    El control institucional de la corrupción. Un marco analítico para su estudio2008In: Conference: IV Congreso Andaluz de Sociología: Sponsored by the Universidad Pablo de Olavide, and Carmona (Seville, Spain), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Sjölin, MatsVäxjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Arbetsgrupp: Offentlig korruption och politisk etik: Konferens: Nordic Political Science Association’s annual conference 20082008Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Anell, David
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    En utvärdering av Staffanstorps centrum: Hur blev det efter ombyggnationen?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 60.
    Ardolic, Mimoza
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Greater Albania - The Next Crisis in the Balkans?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Balkans has suffered from quite a few problems as a result of the countless ambitious endeavors for great states of the ethnic groups residing in the Peninsula. The most recent great state idea to have caused troubles in the region is the Serbs’ Great Serbia (i.e. Yugoslvia), which caused a cycle of wars, the latest one being the war in Kosovo in the late 1990s. This thesis attempts to evaluate the rumors of yet another great state in the making – or rather awakening again: the attempt at a Greater Albania, and whether the Albanians in the Balkans are still harboring the idea of any such state. Particular emphasis is placed upon the following questions:

     

    • Where does the idea of a Greater Albania stem from?
    • Is a Greater Albania today still on the Albanians’ agenda as a real political plan?
    • What speaks for and against a Greater Albania? Is the idea even feasible?

     

    The findings indicate that none of the Albanian communities residing in the Balkan region wish for a Greater Albania, nor do their leaders. The Serbs nonetheless maintain that an Albanian threat exists and has done so ever since 1878 when the idea of a Greater Albania first arose. However, according to the results of this study, their claims lack credibility. Everything indicates that today, and with Albania striving for membership in the European Union, the idea of a Greater Albania has been left in the past.

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  • 61.
    Ardolic, Mimoza
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Kosovo & Montenegro: Why Different Outcomes?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    University of Växjö, School of Social Sciences

    Course: PO 5363, Political Science

    Title: Kosovo & Montenegro – Why Different Outcomes?

    Author: Mimoza Ardolic

    Supervisor: Lennart Bergfeldt

    Date: 2008-01-15

    The purpose of this study has been to assess why the pursuit for independence turned out to be a matter of such difficulty in the case of Kosovo and not in Montenegro, seeing as they are two apparent similar cases.

    The research questions are:

     How can it be that two analogous situations where two regions (Kosovo and Montenegro), quite similar in several aspects, want independence from the same country (Serbia) result in so different outcomes?

     Why has Kosovo’s attempt to achieve self-government been such a difficulty?

     Why did Montenegro manage to achieve autonomy without (great) difficulties?

    The findings are that despite the similarity between these two cases, they have ample differing characteristics as well. The factors detected are that whilst the Kosovo conflict is characterized by: a troublesome history, no common ground, an existing deep hatred, Russian opposition and the nationalist Milošević; the Montenegrin case is set apart by: an intertwining, rather peaceful history, friendly relations, Russian cordiality and the nationalist Djukanović.

    The interpretation of these elements according to the nationalist theory is as follows: Milošević and Djukanović (and their ideology: nationalism) are the real causes. The other elements are mere means to their ambition for nation building. The difference between these two men and the elements (their means) explains the different outcomes in the two cases.

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  • 62.
    Aronsson, Fredrik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    `Hard eller soft power´ - när det gäller att främja demokrati och mänskliga rättigheter?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates how two of the world’s most powerful international actors, the US and the EU want to promote democracy and human rights. The aim is to compare how the US and the EU work in order to support a democratic development in the world. In order to fulfill the purpose of the thesis a qualitative text analysis was used. Since the aim is to compare the US and the EU I believe this method is beneficial. The questions that are being investigated are about the contributions the US and the EU give to e.g. Saudi Arabia and Russia and if the contributions are mainly characterized by `hard or soft power´. The result showed that in general no conclusion can be drawn when it comes to the characteristics of the contributions. However, in the examples taken from the EU- Russian and the US- Saudi Arabian relationships the contributions are characterized by `soft power´. The other relationships the thesis discusses are instead characterized by `hard power´.

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  • 63.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    "Vem bryr sig om hur våra mest utsatta barn och ungdomar behandlas, när det är samhället som tar hand om dem?": En studie om länsstryrelsen som tillsynsmyndighet för enskilda HVB-hem2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how länsstyrelsen as a supervisory authority to private compulsory care-institutions works, to guarantee adequate institutional care of unprivileged children and youth with special problems.

    In order to reach this aim the following questions are to be answered:

    • Describe länsstyrelsen´s supervision of private compulsory care-institutions (HVB-hem)

    • How does the officials at the three chosen county administrative boards find about the responsibility

    To answer the questions of this bachelor thesis I have chosen to apply qualitative methods, by interviewing five supervisory authorities from länsstyrelsen, in three different county administrative boards in Sweden.

    The findings of the study show that officials sometimes find it hard to know the exact meaning and differences between accountability and to be accountable. It also shows that they tend to think that the relationship between länsstyrelsen and the private compulsory care institutions is complicated. Because the officials have two part relationships, they have on the one hand a consultative role and on the other hand the supervising role.

    Keywords: Länsstyrelsen, Hem för vård eller boende (HVB-hem), Ansvar, Ansvarsutkrävande, Socialtjänstlagen

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  • 64.
    Aronsson, Therese
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Kunders relation till banken: - en studie om kunders förtroende och kunskap om banken2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Författare: Therese Aronsson

    Nyckelord: banker, utveckling, modernitet, expertsystem, kundperspektiv

    Bakgrund: Bankernas utveckling har under de senaste åren varit stor. Detta har gjort att också kundernas förutsättningar förändrats. Inom denna moderna institution krävs idag att kunderna har en viss finansiell kunskap men också att de har förtroende för bankens nya tekniska system. Vilken kunskap har kunder om banker och vilka tjänster använder sig kunder av samt hur ser förtroendet ut till dessa tjänster?

    Syfte: Studien genomförs i syfte av att se hur kunders relation till banken ser ut genom vilka banktjänster de använder sig av samt vilken kunskap och förtroende de har till banken. I studien har också syftet varit att undersöka om det finns skillnader mellan kön, inkomst/år och ålder när det gäller relationen till banken.

    Metod: En kvantitativ metod har använts i denna uppsats med enkätundersökning som utgångspunkt.

    Resultat: Resultaten i undersökningen visar att svarspersonerna hade mindre bra kunskap om banker och deras verksamhet samt hur banker styrs utifrån de regleringar som finns. Däremot visar resultaten att många är intresserade av ekonomiska system och begrepp samt är insatta i sin egen ekonomi. Bankomat- samt kortbetalningar visade sig vara de mest använda banktjänsterna. Den största anledningen till att svarspersonerna inte använde sig av Internettjänster visade sig vara att de inte litar på tekniken. Resultatet visade också att det fanns skillnader mellan kön, inkomst/år och ålder.

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  • 65.
    Arvidson, Beatrice
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Hur ska centrumhandeln överleva i småorter?: En studie av handel och handelsmönster i Alvesta2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har gjorts i samarbete med Alvesta kommun och behandlar frågan om hur handeln ska överleva i småorter, med fokus på Alvesta centrumhandel. Alvesta ligger endast 18 kilometer från residensstaden Växjö, vilket innebär att det försvårar för handlare att bevara sina kunder när allt fler väljer att åka till Växjö för att göra sina inköp. Det kan även på andra sätt sporra handeln i Alvesta att bli ännu bättre. Metoden som har använts under detta arbete är en så kallad fallstudie som innebär att man fokuserar på ett visst objekt, i detta fall på centrumhandeln i Alvesta. För att besvara frågeställningen om huruvida centrumhandeln ska kunna överleva i småorter så genomfördes en intervjuundersökning med handlare i Alvesta centrum samt en enkätundersökning med två bostadsområden i Alvesta tätort samt med människor som rörde sig inne i centrum.

    Resultatet från dessa undersökningar visar att det framförallt är närheten till centrum samt den goda och personliga servicen som prioriteras och uppskattas av de flesta alvestabor när det gäller centrumhandeln. De flesta personer som deltog i enkätundersökningen angav att de gör sina dagligvaroinköp i Alvesta, framförallt i någon av de tre matbutikerna; ICA, Hemköp och Netto. Sällanvaror handlar en majoritet av de svarande i Växjö, eftersom det finns fler butiker att välja mellan där. Både handlarna och kunderna är överrens om att det behövs fler parkeringsplatser i centrum, tillgängligheten i små orter är A och O.

    För att handeln ska kunna bevaras och utvecklas i Alvesta är det mycket viktigt med ett bra och fungerande samarbete mellan alla parter som har något intresse i centrum, så som handlare, fastighetsägare och kommunen. Ett framgångskoncept för butiker som ligger i mindre orter är att satsa på något speciellt och unikt, att ha en egen nisch. Några av de populäraste butikerna i Alvesta centrum är de som har en egen nisch, när det framförallt handlar om presentartiklar, blommor och kläder.

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  • 66.
    Arvidson Persson, Johannes
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Europaparlamentarikers agerande: En återspegling av partiernas kampanjretorik?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at describing if discrepancies can be found between the rhetoric in Swedish political parties’ electoral campaigns to the European Parliament elections in 2004 and their representatives’ actual behavior in the European Parliament and to develop plausible explanations to these possible discrepancies. The research method that is being used is content analysis, aiming to answer four research questions regarding the electoral campaigns to the European Parliament elections in 2004 and the behavior by the parties’ representatives during the following term of office. The main findings are that some discrepancies can be found regarding which questions are raised most frequently in the electoral campaigns and in the European Parliament, but that no discrepancies can be found regarding the positions taken in questions in the electoral campaigns and in the European Parliament. The plausible explanations that are presented are that the parties raise certain questions in the campaigns with the purpose of maximizing the number of votes and then raise other questions in the European Parliament, that size of the party group matters and that the individuals representing the parties might effect the coherence between rhetoric and actual behavior.

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  • 67.
    Avdic, Nerdina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Moderaternas, Sverigedemokraternas och Socialdemokraternas integrationspolitik: -med fokus på arbetsmarknadsintegration, bostadssegregation och språkkunskap2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The purpose of this essay is to compare the integration policy between Socialdemokraterna, Moderaterna and Sverigedemokraterna with focus on labor-market integration, housing segregation and language knowledge. The international immigration has in recent years increased significantly and this has also enriched the receiving countries and still the numbers of extreme right parties have increased. In Sweden a racist populist party, Sverigedemokraterna, are only a few steps away from entering the parliament.

     

    The question in focus is: What differences or similarities are there between the integration politics between Moderaterna, Socialdemokraterna and Sverigedemokraterna with focus on the areas housing, work and language?

     

    By applying the theoretical framework to the data, I have been able to present answers and build up an analysis. The study concludes that there are more similarities than differences in the integration policy between Moderaterna and Socialdemokraterna. Sverigedemokraterna on the other hand have very radical integration politics in comparison to the two other parties.

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  • 68.
    Avdovic, Adisa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Ett demokratiexperiment med stora potential?: En studie om brukarinflytandets kapaciteter och begränsningar2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the local participation in user-boars is examined. Several theoretical assumptions are made about the effects that local participation in user-boars will have. The participatory democracy assumes that the effects will be positive. However, elitist assumptions about this kind of participation are negative, and thought to create problems for democracy. The purpose of this study is to examine which of these participatory and/or elitist assumptions are realized when user-boars are implemented.

    The outcome of this study indicates that participation in user-boards gives rise to quite complex effects. Some of the positive democratic effects arise as is assumed by the participatory democracy. However, not all of the assumptions that participatory democracy makes about participation are verified. At the same time, participation in user-boars also gives rise to some of the negative effects as elitists assume. But as is the case with participatory democracy not all of elitist assumptions are verified. The study concludes that participation in user-boards does not give arise to neither only positive nor only negative effects. The picture is more complex that either of the theories project.

  • 69.
    Backlund, Agneta
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    USA:s officiella säkerhetsstrategi: Vad ligger bakom?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is twofold: First, to inquire how the George W. Bush administration plans to keep America safe from external threats and second – based on the assumption that neoconservatives have influenced the Bush administration – examine how neoconservative ideas have influenced this strategy to protect America. The research questions are as follows:

    What is the content of the Bush administration’s security strategy?

    How are neoconservative ideas reflected in this security strategy?

    To answer the first question, the main points of two studied documents were summarized. The summarized documents were the two versions of the National Security Strategy of the United States of America that the George W Bush administration has released during its tenure. These documents state the official security strategy of the United States and give a general view over the threats against America and how the administration plans to deal with these threats. To answer the second question the author studied literature about neoconservatism and gained valuable knowledge about the neoconservatives, which resulted in the creation of an analyzing instrument. This analyzing instrument was later applied on the empirical material that was gathered by answering the first question and in turn answered the second question.

    The result of the study is that the Bush administration believes that by spreading freedom and fighting tyranny around the world, America will become safer. To accomplish this, the administration will employ the full array of political, economic, diplomatic and other tools at their disposal. Neoconservative influences on the strategy were found repeatedly – one of the most obvious influences being the administration’s adoption of the principle of preemptive strikes against enemies.

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  • 70.
    Bagheri, Shima
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    FATTIGDOMENS FEMININA ANSIKTE: – En studie om fattigdom ur ett genusperspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The estimated number of people living in extreme poverty is 1.3 billion and 70% of those are women. The aim of this study is to explain in what ways and why women are regarded as poorer than men.

    The definition of poverty has expanded and is now multidimensional. In order to answer the aim of this thesis the following dimensions will be included and work as a theory in which the analysis will be structured after. Through a gender perspective, will the role of woman emerge through a multidimensional definition of poverty. If the balance is a negative in these dimensions, the situation for women will worsen and become permanent. This thesis can conclude that poverty among women is explained by discrimination of sex- and power structures that exists in societies. This gender inequality makes it very difficult for women to break these structures and get out of the poverty trap.

    Aid organisations have for a long period focused their aid on women to generate development. As a result, women are now seen as a group of their own in order to improve conditions of the whole society. This thesis will, parallel to the aim of the thesis, describe aid organisations way of gender mainstreaming.

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  • 71.
    Bagheri, Shima
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Mutilations Sexuelles Féminines chez l'ethnie Diolas au Sénégal: -Une étude de terrain sur les raisons d’existence de la pratique et de l’abandon de ce phénomène2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An estimated 28% of Senegalese women are victims to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). The Jola tribe in Senegal is one of the ethnics that practice this tradition. In this thesis, I have the intention to interpret and try to understand the reasons the Jolas have to justify this practice. This will be made by an abdication method with the help of the New Institutional Theory. My purpose is furthermore to understand why the practice of FGM has reduced in some Jola-zones. Furthermore, I would like to comprehend the role of the NGO Tostan in the reduction process. To fulfil my intentions, I have made a Minor Field Study of two case studies conducted in two villages in the south of Senegal.

    The result of this thesis is that the Jolas use FGM as the first phase of the women’s initiation cycle. A girl is not allowed to enter the second phase of her initiation cycle, which is an essential step in order to succeed in the Jolas society, if she has not already passed the first phase. I have understood that the main reason to justify the practice is that the Jolas think that FGM is an Islamic decree. This signifies that the practice of FGM has come to the Jolas with the Islamization.

    After conducting ordinary programs of Tostan in the villages, both case villages have made an official declaration against FGM. According to the villagers in the first village, the role of Tostan was to help them be aware and stabilise so that they could implement the declaration. It is important to stress that the process of abandoning the practice had already started before the intervention of Tostan in this village. This study shows that there already existed certain important elements in the village that had facilitated the work of Tostan.

    The second village confirmed the importance of Tostan and affirmed that they would not have abandoned the practice without the intervention of Tostan. On the other hand, I found indications which show that all the habitants of the village have not yet abandoned the practice.

    One unexpected observation that I achieved to track during my fieldwork is that the female norm is under transformation. Today, the non-circumcised women are considered more attractive than circumcised women. Another interesting observation is that the villagers claimed that it is actually more complicated to convince the younger female generations to abandon the practice of FGM, and not the elder females, which basically can be claimed to be the prejudice we carry with us from the North, when talking about different traditions which are difficult to change because of the old generations in a society.

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  • 72.
    Barrling Hermansson, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    2005, Akademisk frihet i praktiken. , , .: En rapport om tillståndet i den högre utbildningen2005Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Barrling Hermansson, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    ”Det bästa det godas fiende? : Om jämställdhet, målkonflikter och praktiskt förändringsarbete i Sveriges riksdag”, politisk årskrönika2006In: Riksdagens årsbok 2005/06., 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    Barrling Hermansson, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Représentation politique et modestie ostensible en Europe du Nord2004In: Nordiques, no 4, p. 9-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Barrling Hermansson, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Upmark, Gunilla
    2005, Jämställt? : Röster från riksdagen 20052005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 76.
    Becevic, Zulmir
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Varför terrorism? - en studie av Irländska republikanska armén2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study has two aims:

    [X] to create an analytical framework consisting of factors that might trigger terrorism

    [X] to apply the analytical framework on the case of IRA, in order to be able to examine

    which factors that exist behind the appearance of terrorism in the current case

    To reach the first aim the author has studied the theoretical discourse on the complexed issue

    of terrorism. This has constituted the point of departure for the creation of an own analytical

    framework. The purpose of the framework is to bring clearness to why terrorism appears. The

    analytical framework is not only suited for application on the case of IRA, but for application

    on terrorismcases in general. To reach the second aim the framework was applied on the case

    of IRA.

    The aims of this study have been fulfilled through the method of qualitative text analysis. The

    research method has been applied on the theoretical discourse on terrorism as well as on the

    empirical texts that deal with the conflict in Northern Ireland and the NorthernIrish society in

    general.

    The results of the study suggest that factors triggering terrorism Favourable surroundings,

    Resources, Possibility to recruit members, Protracted armed conflict, Occupation, Strive for

    autonomy, Diplomatic deadlock, Poverty, and Specific events, or actions from the opponent

    all exist in the case at hand. The author would particularly like to highlight the importance of

    the Diplomatic deadlock and Poverty as terrorismtriggering factors.

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  • 77.
    Becirspahic, Alisa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Gårdsten: en studie om demokratiprocessen i ett miljonprogramsområde2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 78.
    Berggren, Sofia
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A big dilemma in the international politics is how the human rights can be combined with the states’ sovereignty. It has been a problem for a long time for the UN to know how to react when human rights are being violated and when to be able to use a military intervention.

    The government of Canada established a commission named ICISS to find a solution to this dilemma. The commission presented a report in the end of 2001 called Responsibility to Protect which was accepted as a norm of UN in 2005. The rapport offers solutions for the Security Council in cases of violations of human rights in foreign states.

    This thesis studies what this report means and examines if it is plausible and desirable from the perspectives of realism, constructivism and liberalism. To test the plausibility and the desirability is it also reviewed if the report can be understood in different ways.

    It turns out that realism finds the report mostly unplausible and not desirable. The liberalism regards the report as both plausible and desirable but finds that it is failing in some parts. The constructivism reckons the report as plausible but not necessarily desirable. It is also shown that the report can be understood in different ways which reduce its plausibility and desirability.

    However, the report offers possible solutions to a difficult dilemma and is a serious contribution to the conflict between the state and the individual.

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  • 79. Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    Sjölin, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Egoism, grupplojalitet och korruption i svensk kommunalpolitik: Lärdomar från spelteori och experimentell samhällsvetenskap2009In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 347-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Egoism, group loyalty and corruption in Swedish local politics: Lessons from game theory and experimental social science

    Recent advances in game theory and experimental social science provide insights for the study of corruption and abuse of power in local politics. We survey the evidence from theoretical and experimental research and illustrate findings and problems with two examples from a survey among local politicians and officials in Sweden. The most simplified theoretical models, such as the prisoner’s dilemma, fail to capture the distinction between group loyal behavior at different levels. There are several grey zones between pro-social behavior and corruption. These grey zones can be considered corruption danger zones. While Sweden is typically seen as a non-corrupt society, there are several situations where local politicians and officials must make choices in these corruption danger zones. Both formal institutions and informal norms influence these choices, and the views among politicians can vary substantially regarding what behavior is considered acceptable. Communication, openness and public debate can help the fight against corruption.

  • 80. Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Sjölin, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    How Corrupt is a Non-Corrupt Society?: Evidence from a Survey of Local Political Elites in Sweden2008In: Canadian Political Science Association, 80th Annual Conference, 4-6 June 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Berglind, Annelie
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Maktstrategier på arbetsplatsen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är arbetet en stor del av vårat liv, där möter vi dagligen människor som vi interagerar med och som vi ska samarbeta med mot ett gemensamt mål uppsatt av vår arbetsgivare. Syftet med uppsatsen är att se vilka strukturella förutsättningar och vilka handlingar som behövs för att skaffa makt och inflytande i en byråkratisk organisation samt att se vilken medvetenhet om sina handlingar som finns hos personer som uppnår makt och inflytande i arbetslivet.

    Genom en förundersökning där tre personer från olika delar av näringslivet intervjuades konstaterades det att människor i dagens arbetsliv medvetet använder sig av diverse strategier för att få öka sitt inflytande och få sin vilja igenom i arbetslivet. Den vidare undersökningen gjordes induktivt genom intervjuer och observationer under ett antal månader på en personalavdelning i en statlig organisation.

    Det kan konstateras att det finns både organisationsstrukturella och handlingsmässiga strategier för att åstadkomma mer inflytande och makt på arbetsplatsen. Vetskap och inblick i den inofficiella hierarkin är av stor vikt samt hur organisationskulturen påverkar gruppsociologiska fenomen. Det finns även en skillnad i vilken medvetenhet och ”fräckhet” olika medarbetare har att våga prova olika strategier för att uppnå makt och inflytande.

    För att få ökat inflytande och makt i arbetslivet bör man ha en god överblick över alla tre delar. Hur organisationen är uppbyggd, hur gruppen och människorna i organisationen interagerar med varandra och framförallt hur men själv för sig i olika sociala situationer.

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  • 82.
    Berglund, Pia
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Sammanfaller staters intressen i ett samarbete?: En fallstudie om Frankrikes och Tysklands ställningstagande till Israel/Palestinakonflikten före och efter införandet av GUSP2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 83. Bergman, Paavo
    et al.
    Olofsson, Gunnar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Samhällsvetenskapens hantverk2005Book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Bergqvist, Malin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    En demokrati för alla?: En fallstudie om demokratiska målsättningar och förutsättningar gällande barn och unga i Växjö Kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Växjö is one among many Swedish municipalities witch have the objective to have a political influence from their young citizens. Växjö is also one of 97 townships in Sweden, which has participated in the LUPP-project. LUPP is a survey created by the National agency of youth affairs and it aims of creating knowledge based on youth politics. Växjö municipality has implemented the LUPP-survey two times on a total of 3000 children and youths that has answers the survey. The results from 2007 shows that only 10% feels that they have possibilities to politically influence the municipality in Växjö. Therefore my research questions in this thesis are: Is there a discrepancy between Växjö municipality’s objectives and the actual possibilities for children and youths to participate? Also: is it ideal of having a youth perspective in the local politic a well-considered objective in Växjö municipality? The answer to my first research question is that it is dependent on from whose views we are looking from. The politicians agree upon the idea that they consider children and youths to have a great influence and possibility to influence. In contrast the young politicians wishes that Växjö municipality start caring about the answers that has been given in different kinds of surveys, like LUPP. Therefore the answer to my second research question is that the objective to have a local politic with a youth perspective is not a well-considered ideal because it is not adjusted after the wishes of children and youths in Växjö.

     

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  • 85.
    Bergsten, Miranda
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Vem bryr sig?: Ett kommunikativt perspektiv på fusionen mellan Växjö Universitet och Högskolan i Kalmar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 86.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Vatten som säkerhetsfråga: Med FN:s konstruktion av vattenfrågan som utgångspunkt2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to analyse if the UN today constructs the water issue as a security issue and to argue about in which way the organization in that case does so alternatively why it can be said that the UN doesn’t construct the water issue as a security issue.

    In order to reach this purpose the following questions will be answered:

    •Does the UN construct the water issue as a security issue today?

    -If yes, in which way?

    -If no, why can it be said that the organisation doesn’t?

    The methods used are qualitative literature studies of policy documents on water from the UN. The focus is to analyze the ideas about water and to apply my theory on the concept of security, which is Barry Buzan’s framework on security, to these ideas.

    The main results showed that the UN strongly constructs the water issue as an environmental security issue for environments and species and in relatively strong terms also constructs it as an environmental security issue for civilisations. In rare cases the organisation constructs it as a societal security issue, but the UN doesn’t construct the water issue as a military, political or economic security issue.

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  • 87.
    Bergström, Hanna
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Bäck, Annika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Kvinnliga arbetstagare i sjuk- och äldrevården - faktorer som kan påverka graden av upplevd stress utanför arbetstid2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between women’s perceived stress off the job (dependent variable), responsability for household chores, emotional support, number of children living at home, neuroticism and age (independent variables). Comparisons between the present sample and two independent samples from previous research were made with regard to perceived stress and neuroticism. The sample of this study consisted of 186 women working in the fields of health care and geriatric care. The results showed that perceived stress correlated positively with neuroticism and number of children and negatively with emotional support, though the effectsizes for number of children and emotional support were fairly small. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor for perceived stress. Implemented comparisons showed that the present sample reported significantly higher levels of perceived stress and neuroticism than the two independent samples.

    Keywords: women, perceived stress off the job, responsability for household chores, emotional support, number of children, neuroticism, age.

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  • 88.
    Bergström, Jessica
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Personlighet, hälsobeteende och attityder till friskvård: Hos personal på Försäkringskassa i en medelstor stad i södra Sverige2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the personality variables Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC), Negativ affect and Social inhibition (the D-personality), and health behavior and attitudes toward keep-fit measures.

    Methods. The participants in this study were 170 embloyees at a regional social insurance office in a midsize town in the south of Sweden. Scales concerning health behavior and attitudes toward keep-fit measures were constructed and the participants completed these scales as well as those of MHLC and D-personality.

    Results. Participants with strong beliefs that other people, such as doctors or family-members, are responsible for their health, showed a more positive attitude as to keep-fit measures than those with a belief that health is controlled by themselves. The D-personality was significantly related to negative health behaviors.

    Conclusions. This study suggest that different personality-types show different health behavior and attitudes toward keep-fit meausures and therefore are in need of different kinds of support in order to promote a good health. This is especially relevant for persons with a high level of negativ affect and social inhibition.

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  • 89.
    Bernerson, Malin
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Mortlock, Caroline
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    The Eldely and Development: - a field study on elderly people's livelihoods in Ribaue district, Mozambique2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 90.
    Bernerson, Malin
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Mortlock, Caroline
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    The Elderly and Development: A field study on elderly people’s livelihoods2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents findings from research in Ribáuè district, Nampula province, in northeast Mozambique. Our aim was to understand the living conditions of the impoverished elderly and identify strategies that may improve their situation. We conducted semi-structured interviews with elderly people, including some of the most vulnerable and some who receive income from the social assistance programme. To gain a wider context we met representatives of governmental and non-governmental organisations and referred to secondary sources.

    We use the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods framework to present the capital assets (natural,social, financial, physical and human) of Ribáuè district and of its elderly inhabitants. We consider how access to assets is affected by political, economic and cultural factors in the community. We set the situation of the elderly against the development history of postindependence Mozambique, and international concern about poverty, the ageing population and their human rights.

    We find that social assets in the form of human relationships, and natural assets in the form of land, are essential for elderly people’s livelihoods. Most of the elderly have very limited access to financial assets, apart from the few who receive social ssistance. This programme makes a very small but appreciated contribution to family welfare. However the programme’s reach has been limited geographically and eligibility regulations tend to obstruct access for the very poorest. In general the human capital of the rural and uneducated elderly is declining, as society increasingly values modern skills and knowledge. However the Ribáuè residents we met experience some benefit from infrastructure modernisation. Elderly people are receiving more attention, especially as carers of children.

    We have identified existing strategies for improving elderly people’s livelihoods. We suggest ways to build on these, as well as possible new strategies. If development policies are both equitable and successful, increased employment and taxation should enable formal pension and social security systems to provide for the elderly in the long-term future. In the short to medium term, expansion of the social assistance programme must be prioritised, as it is vital to the most vulnerable. It is also important that people’s customary engagement in mutually supportive social networks is strengthened rather than undermined by development changes.

    Key words: Mozambique, Nampula, elderly, social assistance, the food subsidy program (PSA), Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (SRL)

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  • 91.
    Berwing, Sandra
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Traditionella könsmänster eller ökad jämställdhet?: Partiernas jämställdhetspolitik under 30 år2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the Swedish political parties have been discussing gender politics since 1970 to nowadays, in order to see which problems and solutions that have been suggested by the parties to increase the representation of women and the equality between the sexes. The theoretical framework is constructed by theories of women´s representation, gender politics and women’s interest.

    To describe how the discussions about gender politics have been between the different parties, the methodological foundation consists of an ideology critical textual analysis of the political programs from the Swedish parties.

    The analysis confirms that the discussions about gender politics and the political representation of women increase over time. The most important issue of equality is the lack of women´s rights and possibilities in the labor market as a consequence of women´s responsibility of home and childcare. The analysis also shows that parties which discuss women as a category and the underrepresentation of women also point out the importance to increase equality between men and women.

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  • 92.
    Bielak, Natalia
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Samhällsplanering i Sverige under 50 år: -en genomgång av tidskriften PLAN2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 93.
    Bielska Råbom, Angelika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Stress, self-efficacy och livstillfredsställelse: Finns det köns och åldersskillnader2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this quantitative study was to investigate if stress, self-efficacy and life satisfaction varied with gender and age. The sample was selectively chosen in the municipality, country council, private sector and in the trade business. 237 participants were included in the study, of which 94 were men and 143 were women. Age was split in two categories: younger adults (18-40 years) and older adults (41-65 years). The results showed that there were correlations between the dependent variables: stress, self-efficacy and life satisfaction. The results also showed that: gender has an effect on stress and that age has an effect on stress and self-efficacy. There was also a significant interaction effect between gender and age for stress: younger women reported the highest stress among the groups. No other significant interaction effects for self-efficacy and life satisfaction were found.

    Keywords: Stress, self-efficacy, life-satisfaction, gender, age.

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Syftet med den här kvantitativa studien var att undersöka om stress, self-efficacy och livstillfredsställelse skiljer sig i ålder och kön. Stickprovet utfördes selektivt på arbetsplatser inom kommun, landsting, privata sektorn och inom handel. 237 deltagare var med i studien varav 94 var män och 143 var kvinnor. Ålder delades upp i kategorierna: yngre vuxna (18-40 år) och äldre vuxna (41-65 år). Resultatet visade att det fanns samband mellan de tre beroende variablerna: stress, self-efficacy och livstillfredsställelse. Resultatet visade även att: kön har en effekt på stress och att ålder har en effekt på stress och self-efficacy. Det fanns även en signifikant interaktionseffekt mellan kön och ålder för stress där yngre kvinnor rapporterade högst stress. Inga andra signifikanta interaktionseffekter för self-efficacy och livstillfredsställelse fanns.

    Nyckelord: Stress, self-efficacy, livstillfredsställelse, kön, ålder

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  • 94.
    Birath, Helena
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Datorisering ur människans perspektiv2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en magisteruppsats i socialpsykologi inom programmet personal och arbetsliv vid Växjö Universitet. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur förändringsprocessen från manuellt till ett i huvudsak datoriserat arbete skett på två arbetsplatser, samt undersöka hur personalen upplevt processen. Tidigare forskning, vilken jag tar upp i studien, visar att upplevelsen påverkas av faktorer såsom ålder och kön, motivation, social gemenskap, egenkontroll, delaktighet, förändringens faser, tilltro till ledningen, datorinteraktionen, datorstöd och acceptans för datasystemet.

    Arbetsplatserna i studien är Försäkringskassan i två län, ett i södra Sverige och ett i norra Sverige. Anledningen till att jag valde just dem är att de samtidigt införde det nya datasystemet som innebar en övergång från manuellt arbete till ett arbete huvudsakligen styrt av datorn. Personalens uppfattning av datasystemet i de båda länen, skiljer sig dock åt mycket enligt den mätning som genomförs två gånger varje år. Personalen i det södra länet uppfattade systemet mest negativt jämfört med övriga landet, medan personalen i det norra länet uppfattade systemet mest positivt jämfört med övriga landet.

    För att ta reda på hur utfallen kan blir så olika har jag använt mig av kvalitativa intervjuer med 13 personer i länen. Efter studien kan jag konstatera att datoriseringen till en början mötte ett motstånd i båda länen. Motståndet berodde delvis på systemets brister i användbarhet och för arbetsmiljön, men även på de negativa konsekvenserna när det gäller motivation, social gemenskap, och egenkontroll. Motståndet berodde även på köns och åldersfördelningen i länen. I södra länet fanns dessutom ett allmänt missnöje i organisationen, vilket gjorde att de hade ett något sämre utgångsläge. I det södra länet har personalen inte varit särskilt delaktig i förändringsprocessen från manuellt till ett i huvudsak datoriserat arbete. Den utbildningsansvariga personen arbetade själv inte i systemet och datorstödet var oklart. Eftersom cheferna i södra länet inte kan datasystemet leder det till frustration hos handläggarna. Förändringsprocessen har därmed upplevts som på ett relativt negativt sätt. I det norra länet har förändringsprocessen från manuellt till ett i huvudsak datoriserat arbete skett genom delaktighet. Vidare har stöd och utbildning skett via ”lokala experter” alltså handläggare som själva arbetar i systemet. Handläggarna har vidare fått datorstöd från närmsta chefen. Trots datasystemets brister har handläggarna i det norra länet reagerat relativt positivt på datoriseringen. På grund av ovan nämnda satsningar genom förändringsprocessen har handläggarna i det norra länet fått acceptans för systemet och en tilltro till ledningen.

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  • 95.
    Bjurström, Peter
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Medierepresentationen av världens länder: Strukturer i fyra svenska nyhetstidningar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay casts light on the quantitative aspect of the media representation of foreign news. The purpose of the essay is not only to describe the media representation of the countries of the world, but also to explain the representation out of structures that are mirrored by the mass media. Four hypotheses are stated that are operationalized in the research. These are treating four different factors that are believed to affect the representation, economy, geographical distance, cultural distance and the size of the population. A fifth hypothesis is stating that economy is the most influential of the factors. The factors are tested by using multiple regression analyses. Four Swedish newspapers have been selected for the study, two morning papers, one evening paper and one free daily newspaper. The representation is measured by the number of articles retrieved by searching a database containing the four newspapers. The search have included 183 countries and all articles from 2007 for these countries.

    The results shows that economy, geographical distance and size of population are the most important factors for the media representation. Economy is evinced to be the most influential of the factors.

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  • 96.
    Bjuvling, Charlotta
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    USA och FN- samarbete eller konflikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    University of Växjö, School of Social Sciences

    Course: PO 5363, Political Science 41-60

    Title: US and UN, cooperation or conflict?

    Author: Charlotta Bjuvling

    Supervisor: Lennart Bergfeldt

    Date: Autumn 2007

    The international society changed a great deal after the end of the cold war. It gave the United Nations a new oppertunity to act after the deadlock during the war, and it gave the United States a new hegemone role in the world politics. The aim of this paper is to investigate wheter the United States foreign policy action have been accordence to a realistic way of thinking since the end of the cold war. I will do this with the help of my research questions:

    • Have the United States followed the guidelines of the United Nations in their foreign policy?

    • Are there signs that show of a change, either towards more or less cooperation between United Nations and the United States?

    To answer these questions I will use the theories realism and Hedley Bulls concepts of fairness and his ideas of an international system in his book “An Anarchical Society”. This will be done through a qualitative literature study.

    The study concludes that the Unites States indeed follow a realistisc way of thinking in their foreign policy. Their cooperation with the United Nations is limited to times with special circumstances, such as the end of the cold war and the terror attack after the 11 September. However, United Nations still fills an important role in the international system.

    Keywords: American foreign policy, United Nations, hegemon, realism, change

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  • 97.
    Björck, Nina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Jetullahu, Luljeta
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Vaddå ekonomisk utsatt?: Tankar om ekonomisk utsatthet bland barnfamiljer med utländsk bakgrund i Växjö kommun2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This thesis is centered on the economic condition and background of immigrants living in Sweden, with focus on Araby, Växjö. To guide us through this enormous work we formulated research questions, which are:

    • Why have foreigners (immigrants) a greater risk of becoming economic vulnerable?
    • How does economic vulnerability effect families with children?
    • What strategies do families adopt under hard economic conditions?
    • What strategies does the society adopt in assisting families, by economic aid, that are economic vulnerable? 

    Our sample was from a school where we administered an open ended questionnaire to selected students and we also had a comprehensive interview session with ten families in the community so as to have a complete picture of their living condition and how they think people are economically vulnerable.

    We concentrated on the causes, consequences and strategies of how economic vulnerability is handled by immigrants in Sweden. In our analysis we found out, though our respondents’ answers, that the causes of economic vulnerable are background, language, priorities et cetera. For the consequences we have health and social network, living environment and material resources and finally for the strategies we have borrowing, prioritizing and working. Amongst the theories used are micro and macro perspectives, identity, independence, social and economic capital, social exclusions and norms.

    In conclusions we can say economic vulnerability varies depending on the individual involved, foreigners (immigrants) are more liable to this vulnerability due to the language difficulty, inadequate knowledge about Swedish society, and the relationship between the society and their own network.

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  • 98.
    Björk, Jacob
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Tunnelbygget genom Hallandsås: En sammanställning av projektets problem och dess konsekvenser2009Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tunnelbygget genom Hallandsåsen är ett välkänt projekt för de flesta i Sverige. Syftet med

    uppsatsen är att få en uppfattning om de problem som projektet har kantats av under åren och

    vilka dess konsekvenser har blivit. Finns det skäl att göra en annan bedömning i dagsläget än

    när projektet inleddes?

    Uppsatsen är en sammanställning av sekundärmaterial där litteratur införskaffats, dels från

    Banverket och dels från annat håll, det vill säga helt oberoende av vad Banverket tycker om

    sitt projekt. Banverkets projekt Hallandsås har kantats av problem sedan byggstarten år 1992.

    Den första totalentreprenören, Kraftbyggarna, verkade ta för lätt på bergets sammansättning

    och hydrologiska tillstånd. Diverse tvister mellan Banverket och Kraftbyggarna gjorde att

    Kraftbyggarna lämnade ett kraftigt försenat projekt. Problemen fortsatte med Skanska som

    tog över entreprenörskapet. Bergets komplicerade förhållande med högt grundvatten och

    sprickrikedom gjorde att tunneldrivningen påverkade grundvattnet mer än tillåtet. Försök att

    täta berget gjordes med det kemiska tätningsmedlet Rhoca Gil. Under år 1997 upptäcktes att

    tätningsmedlet hade läckt ut i grundvatten och bäckar vilket orsakade nervskador på djur som

    drack vattnet. Den arbetande personalen i tunnlarna drabbades av liknande symptom. Ett

    byggstopp på sju år i följde, en period där Hallandsås sanerades, skadestånd betalades ut till

    dem som drabbats av utsläppen och flera utredningar gjordes om vilka som bar ansvaret. Det

    påbörjades även utredningar för att se om en omstart av projektet var möjligt, en omstart där

    miljön skulle stå i fokus.

    Efter omfattande miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar och geologiska undersökningar så började

    Banverket återigen med tunneldrivningen genom Hallandsås under år 2004. Entreprenören

    Skanska-Vinci fick uppdraget att färdigställa tunneln som skall stå klar för tågtrafik år 2015.

    Från att först vara meningen att vara klar år 1996 till en försening på 19 år och kostnader på

    totalt 10.5 miljarder kronor har Projekt Hallandsås blivit ett av de dyraste av sitt slag i

    Sverige.

    De slutsatser som kan dras av projektet är att andra liknande projekt i Sverige har tagit

    enorma lärdomar från projekt Hallandsås alla misslyckanden. Samtliga framtida projekt

    kommer ur miljösynpunkt vara extra kontrollerade av myndigheter och byggherrar.

    Varför Banverket tillsammans med regeringen beslutade att bygga klart tunneln får ses som

    en prestigesak. Dels vill man inte se projektet som ett stort misslyckande, dels framhäver

    Banverket andra fördelar nu när den samhällsekonomiska kalkylen inte uppnåtts som planerat.

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  • 99.
    Bliznac, Ivana
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Konflikten i Georgien:förhandling som konflikthantering eller som problemlösning?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine which of the two approaches within the field of conflicts that best explains the conflict between Georgia and Russia using negotiations, dialogue and conciliation. According to the first approach negotiations are used to handle a conflict, according to the second approach negotiations are used to solve a problem.  The focus will be on how the two states acted and how the dialogue from the European Union as a conciliator was brought before the war escalated in 2008. The EU is today an important actor within the international politics and has established close relations to the two states. The conflict goes back in history and is still not solved.

     

    In the fields of international studies, there is a realistic view that claims the international politics to be shaped by suspicions between states as main actors. War is never far away, what is claimed to be solved through diplomacy. Within this field there are two approaches that explain conflicts. In order to conduct the survey I have chosen to use the qualitative analytic method and apply it on statements and reports from the three actors. The result is that neither of the both approaches gives a good explanation of the conflict, while they both have gaps and the actors did not always act as they were supposed to.

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  • 100.
    Blom, Moa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    IV-elever: - En studie av elever som har gått det individuella programmet på gymnasiet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    C-uppsats i sociologi

    Författare: Moa Blom

    Titel: IV-elever – En studie av elever som har gått det individuella programmet på gymnasiet

    Det individuella programmet på gymnasiet är ett omdebatterat ämne. Det pågår diskussioner om dess existens och utformning. För att få börja på ett nationellt program på gymnasiet så måste eleven vara godkänd i kärnämnena (matematik, svenska och engelska). Är de inte godkända får de gå på IV-programmet för att inhämta de saknade kunskaperna. Eleverna som går på IV-programmet har alltså misslyckats på något sätt i grundskolan, idag är IV-programmet ett av de största gymnasieprogrammen i Sverige. Knappt hälften av eleverna på IV-programmet går vidare till ett nationellt program. Studien undersöker de elever som lyckats under sitt år på IV-programmet och hur tiden på IV har påverkat dem. Studien har gjorts genom intervjuer med fyra före detta IV-elever och en lärare på IV-programmet. Resultatet har analyserats genom symbolisk interaktionism och hur eleverna har påverkats av de signifikante andre. Resultaten pekade på vikten av positiv feedback till eleverna, att stärka elevernas självbild är det som ger resultat. ”Framgång föder framgång.”

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