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  • 51.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Stylization versus Reality: Examples of Encounters between Animation and Live Action2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will analyze the encounter between animated sequences and live action sequences in movies such as Jean-François Laguionie’s The Painting (Le Tableau in original, 2011), Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir (2008) and David Alapont’s and Luis Briceño’s short film Blusher (Fard in original, 2011). Such an intermedial encounter has important implications at different levels. For example, by being presented in as a metalepsis in Le Tableau, it raises interesting questions about the creative process and about the relation between fiction and reality. In Waltz with Bashir, it is used as a way to represent a traumatic event from the past. In Fard, it shows the characters that their world vision is the result of an ideological and physiological indoctrination.

    In all the films mentioned above, this encounter exploits the tension between iconic and indexical, between stylization and realism or between fiction and documentary. A closer look at these examples, with the help of Werner Wolf’s and Lars Elleström’s intermediality models, will allow me to study more in detail how this tensions are represented, as well as the narrative and thematical implications. 

  • 52.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Sur la syllepse narrative: Un concept théorique négligé2012In: Poétique - Revue de Theorie et d'Analyse Litteraires, ISSN 0032-2024, Vol. 168, p. 445-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I discuss a narrative device, the narrative syllepsis, which has not received much attention in literary theory until now. The narrative syllepsis was first defined by French literary theorist Gérard Genette as a narrative device where different temporalities merge. The concept has however not been used att a larger scale after Genette, something I find surprising taking into consideration the frequency of the phenomenon. In the article I use exemples from both literature and film in order to show the applicability of the concept, at the same time as I discuss it at a theoretical level.

  • 53.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Teaching Narratology Using Framebreaking Devices2011In: Teaching Narrative and Teaching through Narrative i Tammerfors, Finland, 25 maj – 28 maj 2011, Tampere, Finland, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Teori i litteraturundervisning på gymnasiet – tre klassrumsexempel2014In: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang : utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet / [ed] Anders Persson, Roger Johansson, Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2014, p. 127-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Anthropocene in School and in Family Films2017In: Presented at the 19th Annual Conference of the Society for Phenomenology and Media: Living in the Anthropocene. Vrije Universiteit Brussel Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts March 15-17, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Body as a Parchment in Literature, Cinema and Painting2014In: Bodies in Between: Corporeality and Visuality from Historical Avant-garde to Social Media Conference, 29-31 May 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will study examples from literature, cinema and painting where the human body appears—both metaphorically and literally—as a historical document. will start with Peter Greenaway’s film The Pillow Book from 1996, where the human skin is used as a surface for writing. Paula Willoquet-Maricondi claims that such a fusion between the written text and the human body is paradoxical, since the written text is rather a dissociation between language and the body. By moving from the oral to the written form, our language, once intimately linked to our bodies through the act of speaking, becomes an abstract code with an arbitrary connection to the world. Through this paradoxical fusion, the body becomes a reminder of the lost corporeality of language, but also of the mnemonic function of orality. The relation between the corporeality of language and memory is even clearer in two novels by Marie NDiaye and Patrick Chamoiseau. n Chamoiseau’s case, the characters’ bodies are sometimes described as “carnal memories,” almost as documents which can be read, similar to Greenaway’s case. But the connection to the human body is also a form of humanizing History, thus making it intelligible. Chamoiseau’s reference to a painting of a human body helps for instance the reader imagine the narrated event. A similar use of a painting is made in the film Barbara, directed by Christian Petzold in 2012. A Rembrandt painting of a corpse is discussed by two characters in such a way that the body appears as the symbol of reality beyond language. Finally, Ray Bradbury’s short story “The llustrated man” from 95 , adapted to the screen in 969 by Jack Smight, shows how the human skin can be used not only as a document about the past, but even about the future.

  • 57.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    The Transmediality of Minimalism: The Example of Romanian New Wave Cinema2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Transmediation or Media Representation?: Media Transformation in Recent Eastern European Films2017In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 1320-3606, E-ISSN 1083-589X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 47-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As scholars have shown lately, the trope of the tableau vivant is surprisingly recurrent in recent Eastern European cinema. However, there is a classification uncertainty which leads to terminological confusion. I argue for instance that the tableau vivant should be seen as a subclass of intermediality, in other words, as one of the specific cases of possible intermedial relations. Such a classification can be useful as a common toolkit for intermedial scholars, helping them to keep track in adequate and fruitful ways of the plethora of concepts that are now being used. For instance, is it helpful to see the tableau vivant as a form of transmediation, which in its turn can be seen as a subclass of intermediality? Or is it rather a form of media quotation, or media paraphrase? And to go even further, when does a paraphrase become an adaptation?In this essay, I will have a closer look at the intermedial subclasses of transmediation and media representation, according to Lars Elleström’s typology. I will analyse a number of interesting manifestations of these phenomena inrecent Eastern European films, and hope to show the usefulness of the typology.

  • 59.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Using the Bible to Highlight Materiality : the Case of Peter Greenaway’s Film Goltzius and the Pelican Company2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will try to analyse some of the implications of the adaptation of the stories of the Old Testament to two other media in Peter Greenaway‖s latest film: Goltzius and the Pelican Company. Indeed, the film as a medium incorporates the dramatization of these stories made by the company of Hendrik Goltzius, a 16th century Dutch printer and engraver of erotic prints. The adaptation is thus achieved in two steps. The first step is from text – the Bible – to the stage adaptation, and gives Goltzius the possibility of representing details related to nudity and sex. The second step is the filming of these dramatized scenes, a process which Greenaway uses in a self-reflexive and metanarrative way which raises many interesting questions as to the effects of each medium on the audience and on how the audience perceives the stories. A striking fact is that there are residual traces of the original medium – i.e. the written text – as well as insertions of products from other media, something that raises the question of what is really being adapted. But the way in which the other media products are inserted in the filmic medium can also be seen as a way of highlighting the materiality of each medium, in the same way as nudity and sex can be seen as a way of highlighting the materiality of the biblical stories. Greenaway thus makes a statement against the view of the Bible as a text of the kind that Bakhtin called authoritative discourse, meaning texts which are not intended to make the reader imagine a world, as Marie-Laure Ryan would put it.

  • 60.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Virtual Worlds and Paradoxical Narration: a Transmedial Perspective on Classification Aspects2013In: Narrative Minds and Virtual Worlds, Tammerfors, 21-22 maj 2013 / [ed] Mari Hatavara, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will take a closer look at some classification problems of two so called paradoxical narrative devices according to the typology used by the interdisciplinary centre for Narratology from Hamburg (especially Sabine Lang and Klaus Meyer-Minnemann). The first of these devices, the narrative metalepsis, has been the object of a growing theoretical interest the last few years, while the second one, the narrative syllepsis, has been more or less ignored by today's theorists. Still, as it appears in some of the attempts to classify narrative metalepsis in the volume Métalepses. Entorses au pacte de la représentation, edited by John Pier and Jean-Marie Schaeffer in 2005, a distinction between the two concepts is not unnecessary. Monika Fludernik's  concept of "rhetorical metalepsis" should for instance rather be considered as a case of syllepsis, something that would undoubtedly underscore its framebreaking effect. The same applies to what Dorrit Cohn calls discursive metalepsis, which is held in quite low esteem by her because of its being less audacious than ontological metalepsis.

    Using examples from other media - especially film - I will also consider the classification of narrative metalepses as ascending, descending and horizontal. Sonja Klimek (2009 and 2011) considers horizontal metalepsis incompatible with Genette's original definition of the term, since the frontier between the world of representation and the world of what is represented is not transgressed in such cases. A transmedial perspective would elucidate us when it comes to this problem, which is principally caused by logocentrism. I will also show examples which would allow me to investigate the possibility to apply the same typology to syllepsis, especially when it comes to horizontal transgressions.

  • 61.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Voice, Focalization, and Disembodiment in P. C. Jersild and C. F. Ramuz2019In: Narrative (Columbus, Ohio), ISSN 1063-3685, E-ISSN 1538-974X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 290-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the possibility of using disembodied narrative voice and focalization in literary texts. I start with an overview of narratological approaches to the question, and I bring in newer cognitive aspects, such as the theories of the mind and post-human theories. I then proceed to a close reading of three literary works which are arguably interesting cases of disembodied voice and disembodied focalization. The three works are: P. C. Jersild's novel A Living Soul from 1980, C. F. Ramuz's short story "Scene dans la foret" from 1947, and his novel Terror in the Mountain from 1927. My analyses show that it is hard to achieve a complete disembodiment. Jersild's novel highlights, for instance, the need for a voice in a material sense and a focalization of a human type even in the case when a naked brain is supposed to be the narrator. In Ramuz's texts, the human component seems to be discarded in some cases at the enunciation level, especially when nature takes over the function of the narrator. But even then, the way in which nature functions as narrator is humanlike, since language, focalization, and a communicative context are employed. What is undisputed is that the ways in which the classical conventions of human narrative voice and focalization are subverted can lead to innovative works which test readers' imaginations and narrative competencies.

  • 62.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Weirdness, Feel-bad and New Extremism in Contemporary Greek, Austrian, Romanian and French Film2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will approach the question of the use of what can be labelled as weirdness in a number of contemporary films from Greece, Austria and Romania and compare them to the use of provocative elements in the French New Extremism Wave. Indeed, these films seem to share the aim to create a feeling of discomfort in the viewer, and have therefore been labeled as The Greek Weird Wave (Steve Rose, 2011), Austrian feel-bad film (Dennis Lim, 2006), the French New-Extremism (Dennis Quandt, 2004). The Romanian film has only the label of “Romanian New Wave”, but has similar characteristics, both thematically and esthetically. Some such characteristics are “awkward dialogue, heightened background noise, sudden violence and emotional breakdown” (Rose, 2011), a “predilection for depicting the banal underbelly of Austrian society, which many filmmakers carefully dissect through strong formal agendas and unflinching hyperrealism” (Lim, 2006), or a “crossover between sexual decadence, bestial violence and troubling psychosis” (Edwin N., mubi.com).

    Weirdness does not seem to be gratuitous in these films, but its meaning can on the other hand not be easily established. Admittedly, allegorical interpretations in political directions are possible and relevant, whether those concern the financial breakdown (as in the Greek examples) or the difficult adaptation to neo-liberalism (as in the Romanian examples) or just the movement against neo-liberalism and the capitalist market (as in the Austrian and French examples). In an essay (Galt, Rosalind, 2013. “Default Cinema: Queering Economic Crisis.” Screen, 54.2: 62-81) that focuses on the contemporary cinema of Argentina, a country that has experienced similar financial breakdown and subsequent austerity measures, Rosalind Galt argues that the films works against a neo-liberalist construction of the world. For her “their refusal to make sense, their jamming of the gears of social productivity” constitutes a “refusal, in formal terms, of futurity”. And in this she finds “the potential for a queer default cinema” (Galt, 2013:66). Rather than presenting the issues in a familiar way that reasserts the language of the status quo, the films promote weirdness in order to destabilize the conventions: “[t]he perverse and surreal is made to feel quite commonplace in these films, yet meaning remains opaque”, their lack of sense, here being presented as actively political rather than stylistically superficial (Galt 65).

    But weirdness cannot be reduced to these allegorical interpretations. Its use allows for esthetic innovation, which will be studied here by a close reading of some case studies, such as Dogtooth, The Alps and Attenberg from Greece, Ulrich Seidl’s Dog’s Days and Paradise Trilogy from Austria, and 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, The Death of Mister Lazarescu and Pozitia copilului from Romania. Because of time limits, French films will only be used as background examples in order to study the use of provocative elements.

  • 63.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Weirdness, Feel-Bad and New Extremity in Contemporary European Film: the Examples of Greece, Austria, France and Romania2015In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 2067-631X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 88-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I approach the question of the use of provocation based on elements like nakedness, sex, violence and weirdness in a number of contemporary films from Greece, Austria and Romania and compare them to the use of provocative elements in the New French Extremity wave. Indeed, these films seem to share the aim to create a feeling of discomfort in the viewer, and have therefore been labeled as The Greek Weird Wave (Rose 2011), Austrian feel-bad film (Lim 2006) and the New French Extremity (Quandt 2004). Romanian cinema after 2001 has only the label of “Romanian New Wave” or “New Romanian Cinema”, but has similar characteristics, both thematically and aesthetically, to the other cinemas mentioned here. Some such characteristics are “awkward dialogue, heightened background noise, sudden violence and emotional breakdown”, a “predilection for depicting the banal underbelly of society, which many filmmakers carefully dissect through strong formal agendas and unflinching hyperrealism”, or a “crossover between sexual decadence, bestial violence and troubling psychosis”.

    The aim of the use of provocation in this film cannot be easily established. Admittedly, allegorical interpretations in political directions are possible and relevant, whether those concern the financial breakdown (as in the Greek examples) or the difficult adaptation to neo-liberalism (as in the Romanian examples) or just the movement against the bourgeois society and neo-liberalism (as in the Austrian and French examples). But provocation cannot be reduced to these allegorical interpretations. Its use allows for aesthetic innovation, which is amalyzed here by a close reading of some case studies, such as Michael Haneke’s Funny Games (1997), Ulrich Seidl’s Dog Days (2001), Yorgos Lanthiomos’s Dogtooth  (2009), Cristi Puiu’s The Death of Mr. Lăzărescu (2005) and Aurora (2010), Cristian Mungiu’s 3 Weeks and 2 Days (2007) and Călin Peter Netzer’s Cild’s Pose (2013). New French Extremity films are only discussed as background examples in order to compare the use of provocative elements.

  • 64.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Who Is "the Other"?: Paradoxical Encounter or Ambiguous Enunciation in "El Otro"2014In: International Conference on Narrative: MIT, Cambridge, March 27-29 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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