lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 51 - 78 of 78
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The transnational policy quest for competencies: Discursive shifts in recent Swedish curriculum reforms2014In: AERA Online Paper Repository, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we will address the impact of Europeanization (Lawn 2011) on national curriculum reforms with empirical reference to the Swedish compulsory school, and based on the concept of competence discuss the question of transnational curriculum convergence (Andersson-Levitt 2008). The main interest is directed towards how the answers on the question of what counts as knowledge and skills are changing in national curricula. The research questions of this article are: (i) what explanatory frameworks are plausible to make sense to processes of curriculum change in the interface between transnational and national arenas? (ii) to what extent and in what ways can the Swedish compulsory school reform (Lgr 11) be seen as an expression of a European educational policy discourse when it comes to conceptualising knowledge? (iii) how are transnational elements re-interpreted and translated into the Swedish national curriculum policy agenda in conceptualising key competencies?

          Theoretically we draw on discursive institutionalism (Schmidt 2008, 2011) using a differentiated concept of curriculum as a way to capture the complex dynamics of contemporary curriculum change. We argue that this discursive institutional framework is necessary in order to explain curriculum changes in the nexus of the transnational and the national, tracing discursive processes of coordination and communication to analyse why some discourses prevail and becomes institutionalised while others don’t. Central policy texts have been analyzed as simultaneously a written text, discourse practice (that include text production and interpretation) and socio-cultural and political practice (Fairclough, 1995). Taken this methodological point of departure a step further the analysis has also combined a discursive institutionalism approach. Processes of discourse formation in policy-making have been investigated as dialectical to processes of re-contextualisation and institutionalization of specific discourses.

          A conclusion is that the recent Swedish compulsory school reform converges to the broader European knowledge discourse on the level of philosophical ideas underpinning curriculum change but that several core concepts used in European policy texts are being reconceptualised and given a different meaning when re-contextualised in the national arena. Exploring new methodological approaches in the analysis of curriculum change is highly relevant as transnational discourses have an increasing impact on Nordic curriculum policy.

  • 52.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Sundberg, DanielLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Transnational policy flows in European education: The making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International comparisons of educational achievements have come to play a crucial role in understanding the educational field today. This book provides an in-depth analysis of the development of international large-scale assessments. The life and achievements of transnational educational experts who paved the way for these assessments are discussed as well as the rise of institutions specialising in the making and managing of educational statistics such as the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievements (IEA) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) supported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Emerging transnational policy spaces and their effect on national education policy are also problematised using the concept of ‘Europeanisation’ as a theoretical reference. By bringing together historical and contemporary comparisons using different methodological approaches the goal of this book is to contribute to a widened understanding of educational policy-making as an open-ended and complex process that cannot be reduced to a rational process of linear implementation, or a deduction of world models of education. Instead the result of this book shows that transnational policy flows in many directions in European education today. It also shows that despite processes of Europeanisation in European education the national context still plays an important role in understanding how transnational policy is being negotiated, translated, interpreted or even contested when re-contextualised in different arenas. Every context has its specific historical, societal and political conditions making legitimation possible and/or impossible. 

  • 53.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Travelling concepts in national curriculum policy-making: The example of competencies2016In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 314-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we will address the impact of Europeanisation on national curriculum reforms with empirical reference to the Swedish compulsory school, and based on the concept of competence discuss the question of transnational curriculum convergence. The main interest is directed towards how the answers to the question of what counts as knowledge and skills are changing in national curricula. The analysis shows that the recent Swedish compulsory school reform converges to the broader European knowledge discourse on the underlying level of philosophical ideas but also that several core concepts used in European policy texts are being reconceptualised and given a different meaning when re-contextualised in the national arena.

  • 54.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Uljens, Michael
    Åbo Academy University, Finland.
    Hardy, Ian
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Smeds-Nylund, Ann-Sofie
    Åbo Academy University, Finland.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University.
    Examining Educational Change Within and Between National Policy Spaces Using Discursive Institutionalism2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring European Education Policy through the Lens of Dewey’s Democracy andEducation2016In: European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, ISSN 2036-4091, E-ISSN 2036-4091, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 36-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use the basic concepts of Dewey’s pedagogical philosophy on democracy and education as analytical tools for exploring the democratic potential of a transnational education policy within the contemporary European risk discourse. A Deweyan reading of main policy documents, starting with the 2000 Lisbon Strategy, allows for critical discussion of some of the basic assumptions and consequences of the EU-advocated transnational education policy. The data sources include 28 EU policy documents from 2000 to 2014. The analysis shows that in addition to a prevailing “human capital” discourse, there is potential for a communicative “democratic discourse” that promotes social cohesion. The democratic discourse underlines the full and free communication between different groups as the only way to promote and ensure the conditions for social cohesion. In this crisis of nearby wars, terror attacks and refugees in Europe, economy and competition are not viable concepts for seeking solutions. We argue that a shift to a language adapted to the real crisis and the fear of future crises in Europe is needed. We argue that a language that understands social efficiency, communication and a moral interest in the way Dewey outlined the concepts in Democracy and Educationcorresponds to the strong need to maintain and strengthen a democratic education and a democratic way of living for all.

  • 56.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring the Democratic Potential in European Education Policy within today's Crisis Discourse: a Deweyan reading2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018 in Sweden: A gathering for school - national strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: NERA 2019, Education in a Global World, 6-8 March, Uppsala, Sweden: Abstract book, 2019-03-06, 2019, p. 813-814Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018 in Sweden, the renewal entitled: A gathering for school – National strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: NERA 2019 Education in a Globalized World, 6-8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden: Abstract Book 2019-03-06, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of global competition there has been a growing demand for reliable evidence among national policy makers to raise educational performances. The challenge they face has to do with gathering and evaluating the relevant sources to include, often produced by different actors operating at different policy levels. In this paper we examine what official policy knowledge was selected and used as the evidence base for the latest Swedish compulsory school reform and how they were used to legitimate national reforms. The three research questions are: How do Swedish policy-makers draw on national and regional/international knowledge in formulating a Swedish education policy reform? What knowledge sources count as evidence in the 2015/2018 educational reform? What sort of reform does the Swedish 2015/2018 reform represent?

    The empirical data consists of one white paper and eight green papers, together making up the official evidence base for the reform and the nine source documents of the study. Using text-based network analysis, the citations and references in the source documents have been examined in order to find the social structures of policy coalitions, and interpret the various epistemic discourse coalitions they make up. The preliminary result shows that every document draws heavily on evidence, and that although the OECD plays a special (and unusual) role in this school reform since the Swedish government themselves turned to the OECD asking for guidance in setting the goals for the national educational reform agenda, domestic policy still plays an important role at the national levels. Looking at the Swedish case

  • 59.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018, the renewal entitled: A gathering for school - national strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: Presented at CIES 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teacher Quality Beyond Measurability: a Connoisseurship and Criticism Approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For quite some time now the premises set up for teachers and teaching within the neo-liberal project, have been heavily criticized (e. g. Apple, 2008; Ball, 2003; Hopmann, 2008; Kliebard, 1995; Nordin, 2016; Wahlström, 2015). Following Tesar (2016) we argue that thinking policy and philosophy together can open up for new imaginaries, new futures for thinking quality in education. We argue that the American curriculum theorist Elliot Eisner (1979, 2002, 2005) and his concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism is a constructive starting point for rethinking both teacher quality and policy.

     

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first purpose involves a critical examination of the way ‘teacher quality’ is discursively constructed in transnational authoritative texts. The second purpose is to explore the possibilities of rethinking teacher quality as it is set out in a mainly neo-liberal setting, using the concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism as productive means to explore alternative meanings, both regarding teacher quality and the character and potential of policy texts. The two research questions are: How can Eisner’s concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism contribute to going beyond an agenda of teacher quality based on “evidence” and a dominating scientific efficiency approach? Drawing on Eisner (1979), how can a linking between philosophy and policy contribute to critically examining contemporary education policy texts by taking seriously the meaning of the term criticism as "reeducation of perception"? (Eisner 1976/2005; Dewey 1934).

     

    We make use of Eisner’s’ idea of an ‘ecology of schooling’ in trying to understand educational reforms and their impact on educational practices. To think comprehensively about school reforms, Eisner (1992/2005) identifies five dimensions which one has to take into account. The first is the intentional aspect that refers to exploring the tension between conventional arguments for what the reform aims to. Secondly, the understanding of a reform needs to observe the consequences of the structural aspects of the reform. A third aspect is the possible changes of curriculum content. The fourth aspect is the pedagogical factor that is indispensable for the transformation from an intended to an operational curriculum. The fifth dimension of a reform, finally, is evaluation. The way assessment of students’ knowledge is defined directs what should count as knowledge in a subject and how teaching takes shape in the classroom.

     

    In addition we make use of Eisner’s concept of educational connoisseurship as an alternative to technological approaches; instead of laws, professional judgments are taken as the basis for the quality of schooling (Biesta 2017).  A connoisseur ‘appreciates’ what she encounters; that is, a connoisseur is aware of and understands what is experienced. Appreciation in this context has to do with a genuine curiosity around shared interests (Hansen, 2017; Uhrmacher, et al., 2017). A necessary complement to connoisseurship is educational criticism. Eisner (1976/2005, p. 41) distinguishes between the two by pointing out the following difference. ”If connoisseurship is the art of appreciation, criticism is the art of disclosure”. The language of critics is a language where metaphors, suggestions and implications are important tools in order to help us see. Following Eisner, (1976/2005), educational criticism has to consider three interrelated aspects, a descriptive, an interpretative and an evaluative aspect of educational criticism. The descriptive aspect has to do with describing the qualities of an educational phenomenon, the interpretative aspect signifies the effort to understand the meaning various forms of action have for those involved, and the evaluative aspect, finally, asks the question: ‘What is the educational import or value of what is going on?’ (Eisner, 1976/2005, p. 44). Educational criticism directs attention to the qualitative aspects of schooling rather than the quantitative.

     

  • 61.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Transnational policy discourses on ‘teacher quality’: an educational connoisseurship and criticism approach2019In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 438-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyse key policy documents on teacher quality produced by the OECD andthe EU during the period 2005 to 2017 using an educational connoisseurship and criticismapproach. The purpose of this article is to explore how Eisner’s concepts of educational connoisseurshipand educational criticism can be understood and used to analyse educational policy,especially how teacher quality is discursively constructed in transnational authoritative texts oneducation policy. Eisner’s three aspects of criticism, description, interpretation and evaluation canbe utilised in a differentiated critical approach to the analysis of transnational policy documentson education. While the critical descriptive discourse can be viewed as ‘identifying a simplerelationship’ between social development and educational needs, the interpretative critical discoursecan be regarded as ‘recognising the complexity’ of teachers’ tasks in changing societies andthe critical evaluative discourse as ‘recognising and problematising contradictory interests’ thataffect teachers’ work. We argue that the philosophical concepts of connoisseurship and criticismcontribute to policy research by demonstrating that a multifaceted concept of teacher quality isneeded to capture the complex nature of education.

  • 62.
    Prøitz, Tine
    et al.
    University of Southeast Norway.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Learning outcomes in Scandinavian education through the lens of Elliot Eisner2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discursively learning outcomes has been embedded within a wider education policy context characterised by a shift from teaching to learning. In the dominant education policy discourse learning outcomes have come to play an important role in education governing by a strengthened emphasis on product more than process. This development has been criticised as scientific management that places too much emphasis on learning’s measurable outcomes. In education research calls have been made for reconsideration of alternative interpretations and widened understandings of learning outcomes. This can be regarded as a renewal of older perspectives on learning outcomes brought forward by the works of  Eisner. The aim of this study is to renounce the concept of learning outcomes as they have come to be interpreted in contemporary education policy and instead explore them within the framing of teaching and learning presented by Eisner. By an analysis of policy developments and the introduction of learing outcomes in two Scandinavian countries we ask - what is taken for granted in the interpretation of learning outcomes? Further, the analysis contribute to a widened narrative on what education is or could be about by illuminating alternative ways of interpreting and reconceptualizing learning outcomes in education

  • 63.
    Prøitz, Tine
    et al.
    Univ South Eastern Norway Borre, Norway.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Learning Outcomes in Scandinavian Education through the Lens of Elliot Eisner2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discursively learning outcomes have been embedded within an education-policy context characterised by a shift from teaching to learning. In the dominant education policy discourse, learning outcomes have come to play an important role in education whose emphasis is more on product than process, which by its critics have been characterised as is criticised as scientific management. Calls have been made to reconsider alternative interpretations of learningoutcomes and a renewal of older perspectives on learning outcomes such as in Eisner's works. The article examines the concept of learning outcomes, as interpreted in education policy, and discusses it within Eisner's framing of teaching and learning. Analysing policy developments and the introduction oflearning outcomes in two Scandinavian countries, we ask what is taken for granted in the interpretation of learning outcomes. The analysis contributes to a widened narrative on what education could be about by illuminating alternative ways of interpreting and conceptualising learning outcomes in education.

  • 64.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Skolans villkor som kommunal angelägenhet under 60 år2014In: Vägval i skolans historia, ISSN 2002-0147, no 3/4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Styrning och tillit i kommunal skolpolitik 1950-2000: några noteringar från ett pågående forskningsprojekt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att bidra med några historiskt grundade reflektioner kring frågor om styrning och tillit i kommunal skolpolitik. Rapportens empiriska   underbyggnad är hämtad från projektet ”Vem har styrt skolan? Kommun, skola och    stat under 60 år av skolreformer i en föränderlig värld”. I projektet studeras hur  ovanstående frågor hanterats och konkretiserats i kommunerna Stockholm, Växjö och Tierp. De stora skolreformerna som genomfördes under 1960-­ och 1990-talen utgör projektets nationella kontexter för denna kommunala hantering och konkretisering. Betoningen i forskningsprojektet ligger främst på perioden 1950–80, vilket medför att denna period behandlas något mer utförligt även i denna rapport.   

  • 66.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Geografisk rättvisa i svenska skolreformer: Ett kommunalt perspektiv2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar: En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román, Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016, p. 344-363Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    50 years of Swedish school reform visions from a municipal perspective: Historio-geographical reform aspects as a contribution to curriculum theory2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    Who governs the Swedish school?: Local school policy research from a historical and transnational curriculum theory perspective2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 81-94, article id 27009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a comparative research project on municipal school policy in Sweden 1950–2010 which in our view contributes to the research fields of education policy and curriculum theory. Our project which started in 2014 links to a line of international research on education policy concerned with the tensions between decentralisation and globalisation and comparative research investigating transnational transfers of education policy ideas. In this article, we provide some preliminary findings which display municipal school policy dealing with national and transnational school initiatives and affecting local school actions. Most of the findings in this article concern the time period 1950–1975, during which the present two Swedish school forms, Grundskolan (a 9-year comprehensive school) and Gymnasieskolan (upper secondary school), were introduced and established. We compare local policy, through six interrelated indicators, in two municipalities with different structures and origins. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that municipal school policy research in a comparative and historical perspective is an important field of research as it reveals the complexity of school governance. Historical studies of municipal school policy and practice are crucial for exploring different dimensions of curriculum theory, including the transnational dimension.

  • 69.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala university.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Building a new school: Municipal school planning during the Swedish comprehensive school reform 1950-19702017In: Presented at ECER 2017, Copenhagen, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of increased globalization, the national level has been challenged as the prime unit of education policy analysis, generating an increased interest not only for international policy, but also for regional and local policy making. This paper explores how municipal variations – in terms of educational and socio-economic resources, local initiatives and decisiveness – have affected municipal responses to national school reforms in the case of Sweden. The Swedish school system generally has relied on a complex balance between national, regional and local governing and responsibilities, but though municipalities always have been important school policy actors, municipality agency has been quite neglected in historical school policy research in Sweden (Roman et al., 2015).   

    This study is part of the comparative project ‘Who has governed the Swedish school?’ which started in 2014 and will finish 2017. The overall project aim is to compare over-time variations in balance between municipal and national school governing in different Swedish municipalities. We trace local school policy events 1950 – 2010 in three distinctly diverse municipalities  (a big city, a mid-range city and a rural community). Our main research questions are: To what extent has the Swedish school been homogeneously organized and acted out? What actions have been taken to claim municipal interests, while dealing with national directives and guidelines? Which international influences are visible in the context of municipal school policy? 

    This paper concentrates on the materialization of the Swedish comprehensive school reform of the 1960s, focusing the planning, construction and furnishing of school buildings and school-supporting facilities ( such as audio-visual support centers, libraries etc) as a fundamental means for enabling the comprehensive school reform ideals: to introduce a highly standardized and modern school throughout the country. Design and location of school facilities was a key education policy issue during the reform period, and appears as a good case for comparing municipal variation. The national standards associated with the introduction of the comprehensive school met with a very fragmented educational landscape, affecting pace and strength of the standardization process at the municipal level. The Swedish comprehensive school reform was strongly promoted as a main road to modernity, democracy, rationality, prosperity and internationalization.  Our contribution lies in the interest for these reform changes from a local point of view, taking both national and transnational education policy into account.

    Theoretically our project draws on the curriculum theory tradition developed by Dahllöf (1967, 1971), Lundgren (1977, 1979, 1984) and Englund (1986/2005), focusing societal and political prerequisites for education and educational change. This structural approach though has generally emphasized the national level of schooling, with regards to policy formulation and to actual school activities and outcomes, while partly ignoring local variations. We stress the importance of historical studies of local school making, in order to produce sophisticated reform analyses. To support this theoretical claim, we relate to international research on decentralization, marketization and globalization (cf. Ball et al 2007; Hopmann 2008; Schriewer 2009; Lawn & Grek 2012). These theoretical strands constitutes an analytical framework where the historical comparison of local school policy relate to intertwined local, national and transnational policy arenas, which together constitute a complex socio-political context for local policy navigation(Nóvoa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003).

    In this mainly descriptive study, we make use of the concepts of geographical asymmetry and geographical justice (partly linked to the concept of spatial justice, Soja 2010, Clement & Kanai 2015) within and between different local policy-arenas. These concepts cover fundamental infrastructural disparities between different types of geographical areas,  in this case specifically referring to school buildings and educational resources.

    Method

    We use a comparative approach in search for similarities and differences in terms of functional equivalence (Schriewer, 2011), This includes thick descriptions of how local policies relate to and handle educational problems, for instance their supply of school buildings and facilities. Education policy in three Swedish municipalities are being described and compared. Our three chosen municipalities are in many respects distinctively different. Stockholm is a major city and the national capital, Växjö is a mid-size city and a regional capital while Tierp is a rural community. This means they differ in general conditions (geography, demography, socio-economic and political conditions, level of education) and educational infrastructure (types and numbers of schools and other educational institutions) before and during the reform periods studied, yet allowing for irregular initiatives and changes enabled by local actors. In our project, two empirical descriptive themes are displayed: 1) Political actions, including national policy exchange and local administrative development; 2) Educational efforts, including communication technology investments and transnational exchange. In this paper we elaborate on these descriptive themes through the lens of school building policy. The main empirical material in our project is municipal school policy documents from our three case municipalities during the period of 1950-2010, giving empirical weight to the first half of this period. We regard this period as constitutive for how municipalities established the Swedish comprehensive school. The municipality archives include varied and detailed materials and are rich on content. This material provides substantial information on the different local educational situations and initiatives as well as municipal relations to national school policy. Archive material of this kind has not previously been used that often in similar historical studies, as municipal school policy has, as mentioned, been rather neglected. In addition to the municipal archive material, we also use data from official and semi-official sources at the national arena, such as National School Agency (and its predecessor) and Swedish Municipal Association (SKL), and media articles (newspaper and agency journal articles).

    Expected Outcomes

    Municipal school policy changes following the 1960s school reforms in Sweden implied increased conformity, both at the municipal and the school level. The reforms increased the amount of national regulations, limiting the municipal scope of action and leading to a more homogeneous school, as 9-year comprehensive schools and upper secondary schools were established nation-wide. But municipal school-administrative conditions and traditions kept being highly relevant for school-making, and the national standardization agenda met with more or less resistant local conditions and aspirations. We define this interplay as a matter of geographical justice, suggesting that each municipality has had its unique way of materializing political visions. The comprehensive school reform of Sweden took more than two decades to complete. Comprehensive school buildings and supporting facilities thus were constructed and furnished during quite different conditions, depending on demographic varieties and changes in building standard ideals. Cities mainly faced the challenge of combining population growth and school system exchange, which meant handling a lot of construction work and teacher recruitment while expanding its administration. Rural municipalities partly faced similar challenges but rural population decline interfered with the reform ambitions, causing inter-municipal competition and animosity about qualifying for secondary schooling. School always has varied due to geographical asymmetries leading to different municipal conditions and actions. The interplay between municipal conditions-actions and nationally run reform agendas, and the municipal consequences of that interplay, must be understood as key components in the establishment of new schools as part of school reforming. Relating historical comparisons to different policy arenas enables a more complex analysis of school governing in the tension-field between centralization and decentralization, exceeding a simplified logic of implementation. In addition, it enables historical school policy analyses which emphasize the local importance of education in its own right, as part of a local infrastructure and local traditions.

  • 70.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    School history, municipalities and geographical justice: Comparisons in time and space2017In: Abstract book. NERA 2017. Learning and education - material conditions and consequences. Copenhangen, Denmark, 23-25 March, 2017, 2017, p. 159-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim   The project Who governs the Swedish school? compares over-time variations in balance between municipal and national school governing in different Swedish municipalities. In times of increased globalization, the national level has been challenged as the prime unit of educational policy analysis, generating an increased interest for international policy studies. This has by time also led to stronger interests for regional-local policy making, but mainly towards contemporary conditions. Local school history research has been rare. (Roman et al. 2015). This paper contribute to curriculum theory by highlighting and theorizing local school activities and policy in a historical context, addressing the question: What is school-making in a municipal perspective? This focus helps to problematize the idea of school as a national unit.   Theoretical framework A geo-historical perspective (cf. Linné 2012) enables an exploration of local school policy as a national reform component and as an autonomous force. This is a contribution to curriculum theory studies on educational change and stability in relation to societal prerequisites, following a Scandinavian tradition (cf. Dahllöf 1967, Lundgren 1972, Englund 1986). We elaborate on geographical justice, a concept partly linked to spatial justice (Soja 2010, Clement & Kanai 2015). Geographical justice works as a vehicle for historically defining and comparing different approaches to geographical asymmetries in terms of educational resources. Our comparisons illuminate municipal similarities and differences, by focusing local policy enactments on educational problems, located and relocated in different times and spaces (cf. Nóvoa & Yariv-Mashal 2003, Popkewiz et al 2001).   Methodology/research design Our data mainly consist of municipal school policy archive documents from three case municipalities, representing three distinct municipal types. This material provides varied and detailed information on different local educational situations and initiatives, and on municipal-national relations. In addition, we use data from official and semi-official national sources.   Expected conclusions/findings National school reforms always meet asymmetric local conditions. Urban and rural areas have different sets of educational resources and policy options. Big city areas differ substantially from smaller cities. Overall, there are both inter-municipal and intra-municipal differences. In Sweden, national school policy recipes for handling this asymmetry in order to promote geographical justice have varied. In the 1960s, centralization and standardization was expected to make school less dependent on geographical circumstances and socio-economic differences. In the 1990s, decentralization and consumer choice partly implied the opposite: asymmetry was moderately endorsed by allotting more organization responsibility to individuals, schools and municipalities. Our point is that school regardless of national strategies is always carried out in a local context, exceeding the municipality as a school organizer. We also stress the importance of the municipality as a school provider (for all schools within its borders) and as a supply of educational resources. These resources include educational infrastructures (i.e. formal and informal educational institutions, inhabitants educational capital), and specific policy actions taken in response to the local infrastructure. Historical comparative analyses taking all municipal dimensions into account contribute to curriculum theory-based research on school policy ambitions in relation to school practice. Especially, in Nordic countries with their long traditions of municipal self-government.

  • 71.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Swedish comprehensive school reforms and geographical justice.: Municipal school policy in Stockholm, Växjö and Tierp 1950-20102015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research, Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the comparative project Who governs the Swedish school? (Roman et.al 2013, 2014), which started out in 2014 and is funded by the Swedish Research Council. Departing from a modified curriculum theory perspective, we explore the dynamics between local, national and transnational education policy from a historical point of view, mainly by studying local school policy actions in relation to school practice. The project aim is to compare over-time variations in balance between municipal and national school governing in a number of Swedish municipalities, thereby contributing to a more complex understanding of the concepts re/nationalization and municipalization, which generally are used quite hasty in the contemporary Swedish school debate (Jarl 2012, Hallsén et.al 2014). Our approach also provides historical and local context insights to the issues of decentralization and school marketization as well as globalization and transition. The Swedish comprehensive school reforms of the 1960s were promoted as a means to increase equality, i.e. decrease differences in educational opportunities between students (Hadenius, 1990). The comprehensive school reforms aimed to diminish differences due to gender, socio-economic and educational conditions, and geographical belonging (living in urban or rural areas). In the 1990s another reform bundle was launched, also purporting to promote increased equality but now through decentralization, which implied an opposite approach compared to the previous reforms, coined in the term equity replacing equality (Englund & Quennerstedt 2008).

    Our study is relevant from a European perspective: it sheds new light on the Swedish school (often portrayed as nationally uniform) and highlights the local-national school policy interplay, which mirrors the international-national policy exchanges. Theoretically, it draws on the curriculum theory tradition developed by Dahllöf (1967, 1971), Lundgren (1977, 1979, 1984) and Englund (1986, 2005), focusing on the societal and political prerequisites for understanding education and educational change. It also relates to international research on decentralization and globalization (Ball et al 2007; Hopmann 2008; Grek et al 2009; Lundahl 2007). Combining the national gaze of the curriculum theory tradition with the global perspective on educational development constitutes an analytical framework where the historical comparison of local school policy in three Swedish municipalities is related to three arenas, the local, the national and the transnational. These arenas are understood as intertwined, constituting the societal and political context in which local policy makers has to navigate. Relating historical comparisons to different policy arenas thus enables a more complex analysis of school governing in the tension-field between centralization and decentralization, exceeding the simplified logic of implementation.

    The comparisons comprises the following three Swedish municipalities: Stockholm (a large capital city with strong educational resources), Växjö (a middle town with fairly strong educational resources), and Tierp (a rural region with fairly weak educational resources).

    The study includes five parts. 1) A theoretically informed introduction is followed by 2) a comparison of the starting points for the three municipalities in the late 1950s, in terms of general conditions (geography, demography, socio-economic and political conditions, level of education) and educational infrastructure (types and numbers of schools and other educational institutions).

    Then two empirical themes are displayed:

    • 3.  Political actions, including national policy exchange and local administrative development

    • 4. Educational efforts, including communication technology investments and transnational exchange

    Finally (5) we analyze and discuss how the policy actions and education efforts have affected the general conditions and educational infrastructure of the three municipalities, i.e. the geographical distribution of educational opportunities (within each municipality and in comparison to one another)? This will be discussed as a matter of geographical justice, a concept intended to cover and analyze the different policy efforts taken to standardize and/or individualize Swedish education (equality/equity). 

    Method

    The empirical material consists of municipal school policy from the case municipalities. The Swedish municipality archives are underused as school policy and school history sources. They include varied and detailed materials which reveal different local educational situations and initiatives as well as municipal relations to national school policy. Studies of municipalities as school actors during the Swedish comprehensive school era starting in the 1950s are rare. Archive material of this kind has not often been used in comparative studies on the modern school history of Sweden. We process the material by collecting, structuring and cross-checking it. We systematically analyze the municipal school board protocols, but also include protocol attachments, municipal committee investigations and other local material. In addition, we analyze data from official and semi-official sources at the national arena, such as National School Agency (and its predecessor) and Swedish Municipal Association (SKL). Geographical position, size and structure, political majorities and school traditions are aspects that has formed the selection criteria in our choice of case municipalities. They also work as a point of departure for the analysis in this specific study. Stockholm, Växjö and Tierp represent different nodes in the municipal landscape of Sweden. The capital city Stockholm is close to the national policy arena and is by far the most populated Swedish municipality. It has since 1950 experienced both periods of strong population growth and decline. The political power has shifted between socialist and non-socialist majorities. Stockholm has held strong school traditions for all of types of schools. In the 1950s, the population was well-educated compared to other municipalities. Växjö is a middle-range municipality with a constant population growth since 1950. It holds long school traditions, with one of Sweden ́s first gymnasium (upper secondary school) established in the 17th century. Politically, non-socialist majorities have dominated since 1950, although the Social Democrats generally have been the largest party. In the 1950s, the population was relatively well-educated compared to other municipalities. Tierp is located in the midst of Sweden, but it resembles the sparsely populated norther regions. It is a quite sparsely populated municipality consisting of a number of small communities, divided into 7 municipalities until 1974, and with fairly weak school traditions. Tierp has had a stagnating population growth. Since 1974 a socialist majority has governed the municipality. In the 1950s, the population was relatively low-educated compared to other municipalities.

    Expected Outcomes

    Municipal school policy changes following the two Swedish school reforms (1960s, 1990s) imply increased conformity as well as diversity, both at the municipal and the school level . The 1960s’ reforms increased the amount of national regulations, which limited the municipal scope of action. But local school administrative conditions and traditions kept being important. Stockholm stayed very administratively resourceful compared to Växjö and especially to Tierp. The second reform-wave of the 1990s – which increased the municipal school responsibility – implied a municipal re-administration, decentralizing administrative resources to the schools. This down-sizing of central administrative resources affected Stockholm much more compared to Växjö and Tierp. But Stockholm kept strengthening its supply of centrally run educational resources (such as ICT investments, and international exchanges) more than the other two case municipalities. At the school level it is hard to determine how geographical, demographic, socioeconomic and educational differences between the municipalities and within them have been affected by the school reforms and/or the administrative changes described above. It is clear that the local conditions, not least geographical circumstances, remain an important social determinant for students´ school careers. The reforms of the 1960s had substantial impact for increasing educational opportunities for all students. Rural areas like Tierp which previously offered a meager supply of education, since 1970 hosted 9-year comprehensive schools as well as a 3-year upper secondary school. The level of education increased in Tierp, but stayed relatively low compared to the urban municipalities. The urban cities (Stockholm, Växjö) experienced similar challenges, with regards to its different townships. Finally, we discuss to what extent the equality/equity visions of the 1960s’/1990s' reforms have been fulfilled taking into account the geographical and municipal aspects. This final discussion elaborates on the concept of geographical justice (locally, nationally and transnationally).

    References

    Ball, S.J., Goodson, I., & Maguire, M. (Eds.). (2007). Education, globalisation, and new times. Oxon: Routledge. Dahllöf, U. (1967). Skoldifferentiering och undervisningsförlopp: Komparativa mål-och processanalyser av skolsystem [School differentiation and teachin processes: comparative goal- and process analyses of school systems]. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. - (1971). Svensk utbildningsplanering under 25 år: argument, beslutsunderlag och modeller för utvärdering [Swedish education planning during 25 years: arguments, basis of decision making and models for evaluation]. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Englund, T. (1986). Curriculum as a political problem: Changing educational conceptions, with special reference to citizenship education (Dissertation). Uppsala University, Sweden. - (2005). Läroplanens och skolkunskapens politiska dimension [The political dimension of curriculum and school knowledge]. Göteborg: Daidalos. Englund, T. & Quennerstedt, A. (red.) (2008). Vadå likvärdighet?: studier i utbildningspolitisk språkanvändning. Göteborg: Daidalos Grek, S., Lawn, M., Lingard, B., Ozga, J., Rinne, R., Segerholm, C., & Simola, H. (2009). National policy brokering and the construction of the European Education Space in England, Sweden, Finland and Scotland. Comparative Education, 45(1), 5 - 21. Hadenius, K. (1990). Jämlikhet och frihet: politiska mål för den svenska grundskolan [Equality and liberty: political purposes of the Swedish compulsory school]. Diss. Uppsala : Univ.. Uppsala. Hallsén, S., Ringarp, J. Román, H., & Nordin, A., (2014). Skolans villkor som kommunal angelägenhet under 60 år. In Vägval i skolans historia (3-4/2014), Föreningen för svensk undervisningshistoria. Hopmann, S.T. (2008). No child, no school, no state left behind: Schooling in the age of accountability. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40(4), 417-456. Lundahl, L. (2007). Swedish, European, global: The transformation of the Swedish welfare state. In B. Lingard & J. Ozga (Eds.), The RoutledgeFalmer reader in education policy and politics (pp. 117 -130). Oxon: Routledge. Lundgren, U.P. (1977). Model analysis of pedagogical processes. Lund: LiberLäromedel/Gleerup. - (1979) Att organisera omvärlden: En introduktion till läroplansteori [To organize the world. An introduction to curriculum theory]. Stockholm: LiberFörlag. - (1984). Between hope and happening: Text and context in curriculum. Victoria: Deakin University. Jarl, Maria (2012). Skolan och det kommunala huvudmannaskapet, Malmö, Gleerups. Román, H., Hallsén, S., Nordin, A., & Ringarp, J. (2015). Who governs the Swedish school? Local school policy research from a historical and transnational curriculum theory perspective. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy 1(1), 81-94. - (2014). Who governs the Swedish school? Municipality, school and state during 60 years of Swedish school reforms in a world of change. Project application to the Swedish Research Council [Vetenskapsrådet]. Vetenskapsrådet: Stockholm.

  • 72.
    Román, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ringarp, Johanna
    Uppsala University.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala University.
    Who governs the Swedish school?: Municipality, school and state during 60 years of Swedish school reforms in a world of change2014In: Abstracts. NERA 42nd Congress, Education for Sustainable Development, N 21. Politics of Education and Education Policy Studies (B), Parallell sessions 3, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish school debate, school governing has been a recurrent issue with regards to the balance between municipal and state governing. In this presentation, we draw the outlines for an upcoming comparative project which has its origins in three studies on municipal school policy in Stockholm (1950-2010). The purpose of the project is to analyze, from a historical perspective, how the balance between national and municipal governing has changed in the making of school policy within four different municipalities in Sweden (Stockholm, Malmö, Växjö and Tierp) during the period 1950-2010. The main research questions are: 1) To what extent has the Swedish school been homogeneously organized and acted out? 2) What actions have been taken to claim municipal interests (introducing and defendig local initiatives), while dealing with national directives and guidelines? 3) To what extent are international influences visible in the context of municipal school policy?

    The project comprises five empirical studies and a concluding comparative analysis. The empirical material consists of municipal school policy that includes activities performed by the municipal school boards and their administrations. We expect to find different strategies on how to balance transnational, national and local interests within the municipal governing of the school and the project thus will contribute to the understanding of the local conditions of schooling in a world of change. Theoretically, our project is linked to international research on education policy concerned with the tensions between decentralization and globalization, following the economic changes within education and other public welfare sectors, often addressed as New Public Management (Hopmann et al 2007, Hopmann 2008, Ball et al 2007, 2012, Ball & Junemann 2012, Grek et al 2009, Karseth & Sivesind 2010, Lundahl 2007, Nordin 2012) as well as to similar research on urban politics and policy (see Mossberger et al 2012 for a review, or Dannestam 2009 for a Swedish example). Following Hopmann (2008), we will relate our findings to this set of theories rather than using one of them as our starting point. Like Hopmann, we claim the need to recognize that local and national conditions affect the globalization impact.

  • 73.
    Sellbjer, Stefan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    I laughed aloud when I read that knowledge requirements come from middle school-Knowledge Progression in the Swedish Educational System2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Hybrid competences in Swedish curriculum policy making2019In: Presented at CIES 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Reframing Curriculum Change: The Potentials of Discursive Institutionalism in Globalised Education2018In: Symposium: Comparative curriculum studies: discursive institutionalism, curriculum and educational leadership, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Re-visiting the Content Oriented Curriculum: European Policy Discourses Reconceptualised in Swedish Comprehensive School Reform2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Exploring European Education Policy Through the Lens of Dewey's Democracy and Education2016In: Public Scholarship to Educate Diverse Democracies, AERA 2016, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington D.C., April 8-12, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use the basic concepts of Dewey’s pedagogical philosophy on democracy and education as analytical tools for exploring the democratic potential of a transnational education policy within the contemporary European risk discourse. A Deweyan reading of main policy documents, starting with the 2000 Lisbon Strategy, allows for critical discussion of some of the basic assumptions and consequences of the EU-advocated transnational education policy. The data sources include 28 EU policy documents from 2000 to 2014. The analysis shows that in addition to a prevailing “human capital” discourse, there is potential for a communicative “democratic discourse” that promotes social cohesion. The democratic discourse underlines the full and free communication between different groups as the only way to promote and ensure the conditions for social cohesion. In this crisis of nearby wars, terror attacks and refugees in Europe, economy and competition are not viable concepts for seeking solutions. We argue that a shift to a language adapted to the real crisis and the fear of future crises in Europe is needed. We argue that a language that understands social efficiency, communication and a moral interest in the way Dewey outlined the concepts in Democracy and Education corresponds to the strong need to maintain and strengthen a democratic education and a democratic way of living for all.

  • 78.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Hallbäck, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Externalisation as standardisation?: Examining the use of references in the Swedish school commission2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 101-102Conference paper (Refereed)
12 51 - 78 of 78
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf