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  • 51.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany.
    Tomaso, Herbert
    Friedrich Loeffler Inst, Germany.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania;Bundeswehr Inst Microbiol, Germany;German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania2018Inngår i: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Results: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens. Rickettsia spp. was the most commonly detected pathogen, occurring in 10.6% (87/824) of ticks. Several species were detected: Rickettsia helvetica, R. raoultii, R. massiliae, R. monacensis, R. slovaca and R. aeschlimannii. A single occurrence of the zoonotic bacterium Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Anaplasma phagocytophilum occurred in four samples, and sequences similar to Anaplasma marginale/ovis were abundant in ticks from ruminants. In addition, molecular screening showed that ticks from dogs were carrying an Ehrlichia species identical to the HF strain as well as the enigmatic zoonotic pathogen "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". An organism similar to E. chaffeensis or E. muris was detected in an Ixodes ricinus collected from a fox. Conclusions: We describe an abundant diversity of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from animal hosts in Romania, both on the level of species and genotypes/strains within these species. Several findings were novel for Romania, including Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii that causes bacteremia and endocarditis in dogs. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Previously, a single case of infection in a dog was diagnosed in Germany. The results warrant further studies on the consequences of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Romania.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI VET Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Radbea, Gabriel
    Sal Vet Private Vet Clin, Romania.
    Rubel, Franz
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Austria.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    Inst Diag & Anim Hlth, Romania ; German Ctr Infect Res DZIF Partner Munich, Germany.
    Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania2017Inngår i: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, nr 8, s. 2291-2297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Tamba, Paula
    Institute for Diagnosis and Animal Health, Romania.
    Stefanache, Mircea
    PAUMI-VET Private Veterinary Clinics, Romania.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dobler, Gerhard
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia
    German Center for Infection Research, Germany.
    Canine tick-borne diseases in pet dogs from Romania2017Inngår i: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2092Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tick-borne diseases are of substantial concern worldwide for animals as well as humans. Dogs have been a human companion for millennia, and their significant impact on human life renders disease in dogs to be of great concern. Tick-borne diseases in dogs represent a substantial diagnostic challenge for veterinarians in that clinical signs are often diffuse and overlapping. In addition, co-infections with two or more pathogens enhance this problem further. Molecular methods are useful to disentangle co-infections and to accurately describe prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne diseases. At this point, this information is lacking in many areas worldwide. Romania is one such area, where prevalence and distribution of several important pathogens need to be further investigated. To address this, we screened blood samples from 96 sick dogs with molecular methods for eight different pathogens including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", Mycoplasma spp., and Borrelia spp. Results: As many as 45% (43/ 96) of the dogs in the study were infected with protozoan parasites. Babesia canis was the most frequent of these (28 infected dogs), whereas Hepatozoon canis was detected in 15% (14/ 96) and Babesia gibsoni was found in a single sample. Bacterial infection with Mycoplasma spp. occurred in 18% (17/ 96) of the sampled dogs. Obtained bacterial sequences revealed the occurrence of two species: Mycoplasma canis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum". In several cases co-infection with protozoan parasites and Mycoplasma sp. were detected. All dogs were negative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and for Borrelia spp. Conclusions: The results from the present study reinforce the notion that Babesia canis is an important pathogen in the Romanian dog population. However, more surprisingly, another protozoan species, H. canis, seems to be infecting dogs to a larger extent than previously recognized in Romania. Well-known tick-borne bacterial disease agents such as Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. were not detected. In contrast, less wellstudied bacteria such as hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. were detected frequently. Moreover, co-infection might aggravate disease and complicate diagnosis and should be further studied in dogs.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vichova, Bronislava
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Krzyzanowska, Sandra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Maria E.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Co-infection with Babesia divergens and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle (Bos taurus), Sweden2017Inngår i: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 933-935Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babesiosis is a severe disease in cattle worldwide. In Europe, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis is Babesia divergens. In some areas, this species is reported to have declined or even disappeared, and its etiological role overtaken by other piroplasmid species. Moreover, co-infection with other tick-transmitted pathogens can be expected to complicate diagnosis in cattle. Hence, molecular identification of the causative agent of babesiosis should be a priority. Therefore, samples from 71 domestic cattle, 39 with clinical signs of babesiosis and 32 without, from southern Sweden were screened for Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. using molecular methods Babesia divergens was detected in 38 of the samples, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 17. Co-infections with both pathogens were frequent, occurring in 18% of the animals with a B. divergens infection. The possibility of co-infection should be considered in diagnosis and treatment of bovine babesiosis.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Biologiundervisningens hur och varför: En studie om hur lärare i årskurs 4-6 väcker intresse och främjar förståelse2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka didaktiska val som lärare i årskurs 4-6 gör i sin undervisning, inom ämnet biologi, för att väcka intresse och hur de främjar förståelse hos eleverna. Läroplanens centrala innehåll Natur och Samhälle fungerar som utgångspunkt. Enligt egna erfarenheter bearbetas innehållet i undervisningen på olika sätt beroende på läraren sätt att se på lärande samt förutsättningar med anknytning till skolan.

    Studien genomförs med hjälp av semistrukturerade-, personliga intervjuer för att samla in kvalitativa data och sex stycken lärare deltar i studien. Datan som samlas in bearbetas genom tematisk analys och resultatet presenteras med exempel på lärarsvar utifrån kategorier som identifieras.

    I resultatet framkommer det att lärarna som deltagit i studien till viss del har skilda uppfattningar på hur undervisningen ska ta tillvara på och skapa intresse respektive främja förståelse. Det finns även likheter i hur lärarna uttrycker sig kring bägge delar vilket visar sig i lärarsvar som återkommer under de olika huvudrubrikerna. Studiens forskningsfrågor berör även möjligheter och hinder som lärare upplever att de har eller skapar när de genomför sin undervisning. Med resultatet för detta som grund blir slutsaten med studien att det finns både skilda och snarlika uppfattningar hos lärare hur de gör för att ta tillvara på och skapa intresse respektive främja förståelse. Att lärarna upplever ha möjligheter eller hinder att utföra undervisningen kan påverka de didaktiska valen som lärarna gör både vid planering och genomförande. 

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  • 56. Andrady, Anthony
    et al.
    Aucamp, Pieter J.
    Austin, Amy T.
    Bais, Alkiviadis F.
    Ballare, Carlos L.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    Bernhard, Germar H.
    Bjoern, Lars Olof
    Bornman, Janet F.
    Congdon, Nathan
    Cory, Rose M.
    Flint, Stephan D.
    de Gruijl, Frank R.
    Haeder, Donat-P.
    Heikkilae, Anu
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Longstreth, Janice
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Madronich, Sasha
    McKenzie, Richard L.
    Neale, Patrick
    Neale, Rachel
    Norval, Mary
    Pandey, Krishna K.
    Paul, Nigel
    Rautio, Milla
    Redhwi, Halim Hamid
    Robinson, Sharon A.
    Rose, Kevin C.
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Sulzberger, Barbara
    Waengberg, Sten-Ake
    Williamson, Craig E.
    Wilson, Stephen R.
    Worrest, Robert C.
    Young, Antony R.
    Zepp, Richard G.
    Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 20162017Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 107-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will bemade available in 2018.

  • 57.
    Angeland, Ida
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Utvärdering av polymerers sedimenteringsegenskaper i aktivt avloppsslam2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den idag mest använda biologiska metoden för rening av avloppsvatten är processen som kallas för aktivt slam. Denna är normalt uppbyggd av luftningsbassäng och sedimenteringsbassäng. Kärnan i processen består av mikroorganismer vars sammansättning varierar. Detta beror på en rad olika yttre faktorer. Mikroorganismer bryter ned löst organiskt material i avloppsvattnet och bildar så kallade flockar, som sedan sjunker ner till bassängbottnen i sedimentationssteget. På detta sätt separerar man vattnet ifrån slammet. Det man vill uppnå är så snabb och kompakt sedimentation som möjligt.

    Polymerer används i samband med avloppsvattenrening för att förbättra flockbildningen och då speciellt när förutsättningarna för naturlig flockning är nedsatt.

    Syftet med den här studien var att laborativt utvärdera ett antal konventionella polymerprodukter och ett miljövänligare alternativ baserad på potatisstärkelse ur effektiv flockning- och sedimenteringssynvinkel. Där resultat för slamvolym, turbiditet och färgtal har vägts mot varandra, samt koncentrationen av polymer och den tid för sedimentering som krävts.

    Resultaten har visat att Magnafloc® 919 var den polymer med effektivast och mest optimala egenskaper. Fler polymerer så som t.ex. Magnafloc® 455 hade snarlika resultat, men krävde en högre koncentration av flockningsmedlet, vilket gör Magnafloc® 919 till det bättre alternativet. Resultaten kommer att ligga till grund för rekommendation av polymerprodukt att testa i fullskala.

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  • 58.
    Ankarling, Åsa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dechiffrerandet av Detox: Bland sanningar och myter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Försäljare av detoxpreparat hävdar att kroppens reningsmekanismer i vårt moderna samhälle inte längre räcker till och behöver hjälp på vägen, företrädesvis i form av påstått utrensande örtblandningar. Vissa förespråkar även tarmsköljningar och joniserande fotbad. Syftet med den här studien är att kartlägga floran av detoxprodukter i form av kosttillskott: vilka typer det finns, vilka ingredienser som ingår och vilka påståenden som görs. Påståendena har klassificerats efter testbarhet och trovärdigheten har bedömts genom sökningar i PubMed och Web of Science. Några av de testbara påståendena verkar helt sakna evidens, något påstående lutar sig mot studier behäftade med problematiska brister medan vissa påståenden förtjänar vidare studier, då de bygger på studier med preliminärt lovande resultat. Det går inte att utesluta en framtid för evidensbaserade detoxdieter, lika lite som det går att säga att detoxdieter av idag håller vad de lovar. Det krävs fler kliniska, placebokontrollerade studier och en tydligare skiljelinje mellan det som är ren bluff och det som är seriös forskning. Konsumenter bör vara medvetna om bristen på evidens och riskerna som finns, exempelvis i form av kontaminerade produkter och risk för interaktioner med läkemedel.

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  • 59.
    Anselius, Lotta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kabinavfall - möjligheter att sortera och återvinna?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygindustrin ökar med ca 5 % varje år och prognosen är att det kommer att fortsätta så fram till 2030. Vårt behov av att resa och förflytta oss är stort och oåterkalleligt men samtidigt når utsläpp av växthusgaser hela tiden nya nivåer och klimatförändringar blir allt kännbarare. Flygindustrin världen över genererar, förutom växthusgasutsläpp och buller, en stor mängd avfall från ombordserveringar som idag till största del går till förbränning eller deponi. I den här studien har en undersökning av kabinavfall gjorts för att se vilka olika fraktioner av kabinavfall och vilken mängd som genereras. Kabinavfall från 30 flygplan ankommande till Stockholm Arlanda Airport har sorterats och vägts. Till Stockholm Arlanda Airport ankommer i genomsnitt nära 10 000 flygplan i månaden och deras kabinavfall går till förbränning vid Brista kraftvärmeverk. EU´s lagar om hur matavfall antingen måste förbrännas eller deponeras om det kommer från ett land utanför EUs regler för animaliska biprodukter gör det svårare för flygbolagen att införa system för sortering och insamling ombord. Det finns dock stora miljövinster att göra med återvinning av olika fraktioner kabinavfall. Fraktioner av avfall från flygplan ankommande till Stockholm Arlanda Airport har i den här studien sorterats och vägts och resultatet visar att plast utgör den största delen kabinavfall. Metall (aluminium) är den fraktion som vid återvinning sparar mest energi (95 %) och CO2-utsläpp (95 %) och är tillsammans med delar av plastfraktionen lättast att sortera och återvinna. Flygbolag och flygplatsverksamheter måste gemensamt arbeta för att öka återvinning av avfall men i en konkurrensutsatt bransch som flygbranschen måste miljöfördelarna med återvinning lyftas fram. Strävan för ökad sortering och återvinning tillsammans med minskad avfallsuppkomst måste intensifieras.

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  • 60.
    Aparicio, Fran L.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nieto-Cid, Mar
    CSIC, Spain.
    Borrull, Encarna
    CSIC, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    CSIC, Spain;CREA, Spain.
    Montserrat Sala, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Marrase, Celia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Eutrophication and acidification: Do they induce changes in the dissolved organic matter dynamics in the coastal Mediterranean Sea?2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 563, s. 179-189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two mesocosms experiments were conducted in winter 2010 and summer 2011 to examine how increased pCO(2) and/or nutrient concentrations potentially perturbate dissolved organic matter dynamics in natural microbial assemblages. The fluorescence signals of protein-and humic-like compounds were used as a proxy for labile and non-labile material, respectively, while the evolution of bacterial populations, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used as a proxy for biological activity. For both seasons, the presence of elevated pCO(2) did not cause any significant change in the DOC dynamics (p-value < 0.05). The conditions that showed the greatest changes in prokaryote abundances and Chl a content were those amended with nutrients, regardless of the change in pH. The temporal evolution of fluorophores and optical indices revealed that the degree of humification of the organic molecules and their molecular weight changed significantly in the nutrient-amended treatment. The generation of protein-like compounds was paired to increases in the prokaryote abundance, being higher in the nutrient-amended tanks than in the control. Different patterns in the magnitude and direction of the generation of humic-like molecules suggested that these changes depended on initial microbial populations and the availability of extra nutrient inputs. Based on our results, it is expected that in the future projected coastal scenarios the eutrophication processes will favor the transformations of labile and recalcitrant carbon regardless of changes in pCO(2). (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 61.
    Arahal, David R.
    et al.
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Lucena, Teresa
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Carmen Macian, M.
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Ruvira, Maria A.
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Univ La Laguna, Spain.
    Lekumberri, Itziar
    Univ Girona, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pujalte, Maria J.
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Marinomonas blandensis sp nova, a novel marine gammaproteobacterium2016Inngår i: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, ISSN 1466-5026, E-ISSN 1466-5034, Vol. 66, s. 5544-5549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, chemoorganotrophic, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, strain MED121(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected at the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, retrieved from the whole-genome sequence, showed that this bacterium was most closely related to Marinomonas dokdonensis and other Marinomonas species (96.3 and 93.3-95.7% sequence similarities, respectively), within the family Oceanospirillaceae. Strain MED121(T) was included into a whole-genome sequencing study and, subsequently, it was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. It was found to be oxidase and catalase positive, its cells are cocci to short rods, it does not ferment carbohydrates and does not reduce nitrate to nitrite or gas and it requires at least 2.5% (w/v) marine salts and tolerates up to 7% (w/v) salts. Its major cellular fatty acids in order of abundance are C-16:1 omega 7c/C-16:1 omega 6c,C-18:1 omega 7c(1), C-16:0 and C-10:0 3-OH. Its genome had an approximate length of 5.1 million bases and a DNA G+C content equal to 40.9 mol%. Analysis of the annotated genes reveals the capacity for the synthesis of ubiquinone 8 (O8) and the polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolannine, in agreement with other members of the genus. All the data collected supported the creation of a novel species to accommodate this bacterium, for which the name Marinomonas blandensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MED121(T) (=CECT 7076(T)=LMG 29722(T)).

  • 62.
    Arneson, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Att motverka dehydrering hos äldre i teori och praktik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att kartlägga likheter och skillnader i åtgärder och hjälpmedel mot dehydrering hos äldre i teori och praktik.

    Metod: Initialt utfördes litteraturstudier via universitetsbibliotekets söktjänst OneSearch. Tre intervjuer utfördes på undersköterskor på gruppboende, demensboende och hemtjänst. Dessa erbjuder en inblick i den praktiska verksamheten.

    Resultat: Följande faktorer av betydelse för att förebygga eller motverka dehydrering identifierades samstämmigt i litteratur och vid intervjuer: (1) kunskap om den äldre via dokumentation, (2) anpassning av tillvägagångssätt vid servering av dryck efter den äldres preferenser och tillstånd, (3) hemtrevlig miljö med sociala interaktioner, (4) bedömning av vätskeintag, väskebalans och riskfaktorer via uppmärksamhet, vätskeregistrering och med hjälp av flera andra yrkesgrupper samt med hänsyn till den äldres historik, (5) påminnelser (särskilt vid demens) och en stor mängd lättabsorberade drycker som intas succesivt vid diarré och kräkningar, (6) lättanvända och specialutformade hjälpmedel. Följande metoder särskilde sig: (1) utbildning för vårdare; begränsad på de undersökta platserna, (2) tekniska hjälpmedel och sväljterapi (kostmodifieringar, anpassade huvudpositioner, sväljträning) vid dysfagi; kostmodifieringar används på de undersökta platserna, (3) färgsättning av koppar och kannor, vilket visats kunna ha betydelse för intag.

    Slutsats: Skillnader fanns gällande utbildning och användning av sväljterapi, tekniska hjälpmedel och infusioner. Utbildning av personalen, mer frekvent vätskeregistrering och fullständig sväljterapi utgör förbättringsmöjligheter. Vissa av dessa åtgärder kräver ökade resurser och/eller tydliga riktlinjer. Acceptans för tekniska hjälpmedel är inte en självklarhet. Undersökningar gällande möjligheterna i att med färgval och design av dryckeskärl stimulera de äldre att dricka mer kan vara värt att undersöka vidare. Intervjuerna syftade främst till att ge en inblick i den praktiska verksamheten och generaliserbarheten av erhållna resultat är begränsad. De flesta åtgärder som har identifierats är ”mjuka” till sin karaktär. Det är svårt att få en klar bild av olika metoders effektivitet. Några av metoderna som har utvärderats med goda resultat vid dysfagi och som därför kan förbättra vätskeintaget är sväljterapi och stimulering av sväljmuskulatur. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 63.
    Aronsson, Josefina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Den småskaliga vattenkraftens framtid: En övergripande studie för Sverige samt en fallstudie i Lyckebyån2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this bachelor's thesis was to get knowledge concerning the trend of small scale hydropower plants and the possibility according the present legislation to use small scale hydropower as energy source in Sweden. The result aims also to conclude if it is possible to get permission for small scale hydropower stations at the river Lyckebyån.

     

    To achieve this, ten legal cases where five of them have been permitted and five of them has been denied license have been examined. These cases were dated between 2010-2016. These have been analyzed from given questions. They may describe the trend of small scale hydropower in Sweden. To examine the cases at Lyckebyån different sources were used, such as literature studies, interviews and by using information from different databases.

     

    The results shows that it is possible to get permission for small scale hydropower production in Sweden today, but it is a complicated process and the result of the probation depends on many factors. The legislation sets high standards and there exist conflicting interests which are against small scale hydropower stations due to their effects on biodiversity. There are both positive and negative environmental consequences of hydropower production at Lyckebyån. However, there are no evident obstacles for permission in Lyckebyån.  

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Ask, Paulin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Regnvatten från hustak som resurs: Användning av takavrinningsvatten som resurs och kvalitetskriterier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding from rainwater in megacities around the world is a major problem which is growing even bigger with the scenarios that has been predicted by IPCC. The problem has to be taken care of somehow and one possible solution could be to use the water once it just hit the ground area. This study will show some of the opportunities we have to use runoff water from roofs with local solutions in Gothenburg and analyse quality differences of run off-water with raw water from the river Göta Älv, which today is used as drinking water in Gothenburg. Among some of the existing solutions for rainwater today, for example stone filter and trees, the result will show specifically one solution which is used at Stadsbyggnadskontoret in Gothenburg city center. The results of the run off-water show higher values of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus than Göta Älv and comparison between run off from green roof and run off from other roof materials shows lower values of the same chemical parameters. Since the values are taken from a report which contains schablon values, the results are just symbolic. A hypothetical calculation which shows that one year of estimated volume rainwater on a building example could provide for either 31 people/year total consumption or 100 people/year only for laundry and flushing toilets.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 65.
    Asplund, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Frihet under ansvar kräver mycket kunskap: Privata skogsägares kompetens att bedöma naturvärden och deras förståelse för biologisk mångfald2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljömålen i skogen uppnås inte och den biologiska mångfalden minskar trots att produktionsmål och miljömål ska vara likställda i skogsbruket. Skogsvårdslagen bygger på devisen Frihet under ansvar, där lagen anger minimikrav och skogsägarna förväntas ta ett större ansvar än lagen kräver. Produktionsmålen tenderar att ta överhand och synen på vad som är god miljöhänsyn varierar, vilket kan ligga till grund för de konflikter som uppstår kring skogsbruket. Syftet med den här undersökningen var därför att ta reda på hur skogsägarnas kunskap kring miljöhänsyn och biologisk mångfald var, då det är de som äger skogen som är ansvariga. För att undersöka det skickades enkäter ut till privata skogsägare i södra Sverige. Resultatet visade på en övertro hos skogsägarna att bedöma naturvärden i sin skog och bristande förståelse för den biologiska mångfaldens betydelse. Med bristande kunskap om de vad de förväntas ta ansvar för och dålig förståelse för varför det är viktigt blir det svårt att uppnå de miljömål som finns. Den här undersökningen visar på ett behov att förbättra den kunskapen hos skogsägarna.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Frihet under ansvar kräver mycket kunskap.
  • 66.
    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sundh, John
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dupont, Chris L.
    Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Allen, Andrew E.
    Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    McCrow, John P.
    Craig Venter Institute, USA.
    Celepli, Narin A.
    Stockholm University.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University.
    Ininbergs, Karolina
    Stockholm University.
    Ekman, Martin
    Stockholm University.
    Diversity and expression of bacterial metacaspases in an aquatic ecosystem2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, s. 1-18, artikkel-id 1043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacaspases are distant homologs of metazoan caspase proteases, implicated in stress response, and programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria and phytoplankton. While the few previous studies on metacaspases have relied on cultured organisms and sequenced genomes, no studies have focused on metacaspases in a natural setting. We here present data from the first microbial community-wide metacaspase survey; performed by querying metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets from the brackish Baltic Sea, a water body characterized by pronounced environmental gradients and periods of massive cyanobacterial blooms. Metacaspase genes were restricted to ~4% of the bacteria, taxonomically affiliated mainly to Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The gene abundance was significantly higher in larger or particle-associated bacteria (<0.8 μm), and filamentous Cyanobacteria dominated metacaspase gene expression throughout the bloom season. Distinct seasonal expression patterns were detected for the three metacaspase genes in Nodularia spumigena, one of the main bloom-formers. Clustering of normalized gene expression in combination with analyses of genomic and assembly data suggest functional diversification of these genes, and possible roles of the metacaspase genes related to stress responses, i.e., sulfur metabolism in connection to oxidative stress, and nutrient stress induced cellular differentiation. Co-expression of genes encoding metacaspases and nodularin toxin synthesis enzymes was also observed in Nodularia spumigena. The study shows that metacaspases represent an adaptation of potentially high importance for several key organisms in the Baltic Sea, most prominently Cyanobacteria, and open up for further exploration of their physiological roles in microbes and assessment of their ecological impact in aquatic habitats.

  • 67.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Ny, Sofia
    Public Health Agency of Sweden;Karolinska Institutet.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Byfors, Sara
    Public Health Agency of Sweden.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalmar County Council;Linköping University.
    ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish gulls: A case of environmental pollution from humans?2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id e0190380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ESBL-producing bacteria are present in wildlife and the environment might serve as a resistance reservoir. Wild gulls have been described as frequent carriers of ESBL-producing E. coli strains with genotypic characteristics similar to strains found in humans. Therefore, potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria between the human population and wildlife need to be further investigated. Occurrence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish wild gulls were assessed and compared to isolates from humans, livestock and surface water collected in the same country and similar time-period. Occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is about three times higher in gulls compared to Swedish community carriers (17% versus 5%) and the genetic characteristics of the ESBL-producing E. coli population in Swedish wild gulls and Swedish human are similar. ESBL-plasmids IncF-and IncI1-type carrying ESBL-genes blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-14 were most common in isolates from both gulls and humans, but there was limited evidence of clonal transmission. Isolates from Swedish surface water harbored similar genetic characteristics, which highlights surface waters as potential dissemination routes between wildlife and the human population. Even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden, the occurrence of ESBL producing E. coli in wild gulls and the human population appears to be connected and the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is likely a case of environmental pollution.

  • 68.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Mourkas, Evangelos
    Uppsala University;Univ Bath, UK.
    Meric, Guillaume
    Univ Bath, UK.
    Pascoe, Ben
    Univ Bath, UK;MRC CLIMB Consortium, UK.
    Wang, Helen
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    Univ Bath, UK;MRC CLIMB Consortium, UK.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University.
    Ellström, Patrik
    Uppsala University.
    The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 591Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc., or rather to strain specific adaptation to the intestinal environment of specific hosts. We compared colonization dynamics in vivo between two host-specific C. jejuni from a song thrush (ST-1304 complex) and a mallard (ST-995), and a generalist strain from chicken (ST-21 complex) in a wild host, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). In 18-days infection experiments, the song thrush strain showed only weak colonization and was cleared from all birds after 10 days, whereas both mallard and chicken strains remained stable. When the chicken strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection of the same birds with a mallard strain, it was rapidly outcompeted by the latter. In contrast, when the mallard strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection with the chicken strain, the mallard strain remained and expansion of the chicken strain was delayed. Our results suggest strain-specific differences in the ability of C. jejuni to colonize mallards, likely associated with host origin. This difference might explain observed host association patterns in C. jejuni from wild birds.

  • 69.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Osbjer, Kristina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden;Food & Agr Org United Nations, Cambodia.
    Tepper, Viktoria
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Rajala, Elisabeth
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Linköping University, Sweden;Kalmar County Council, Sweden;Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Seng, Sokerya
    Food & Agr Org United Nations, Cambodia.
    Holl, Davun
    Minist Agr Forestry & Fisheries, Cambodia.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden;Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jarhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Carriage of carbapenemase- and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in humans and livestock in rural Cambodia; gender and age differences and detection of bla(OXA-48 )in humans2019Inngår i: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 603-617Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal samples were obtained from 307 humans and 285 livestock including large ruminants, pigs and poultry living in 100 households in rural Cambodia in 2011. Each household was interviewed, and multilevel logistic model determined associations between household practices/meat consumption and faecal carriage of ESCE/K. CPE and ESCE/K were detected and further screened for colistin resistance genes. Results CPE/K isolates harbouring bla(OXA-48 )were identified in two humans. The community carriage of ESCE/K was 20% in humans and 23% in livestock. The same ESBL genes: bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-27), bla(CTX-M-55), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-12), bla(SHV-28); AmpC genes: bla(CMY-2), bla(CMY-42,) bla(DHA-1); and colistin resistance genes: mcr-1-like and mcr-3-like were detected in humans and livestock. ESCE/K was frequently detected in women, young children, pigs and poultry, which are groups in close contact. The practice of burning or burying meat waste and not collecting animal manure indoors and outdoors daily were identified as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K. Conclusions Faecal carriage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum cephalosporinase genes are common in the Cambodian community, especially in women and young children. Exposure to animal manure and slaughter products are risk factors for intestinal colonization of ESCE/K in humans.

  • 70.
    Atterby, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ramey, Andrew M.
    US Geological Survey, USA.
    Hall, Gabriel Gustafsson
    Uppsala University.
    Järhult, Josef
    Uppsala University.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Kalmar County Hospital.
    Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in Southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments2016Inngår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 32334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.

    METHODS: Escherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.

    RESULTS: Screening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  • 71.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metal speciation in soil at a contaminated glassworks site in southeastern Sweden2014Inngår i: Linnaeus Eco-tech 2014, Kalmar, 26th November 2014 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    A probabilistic view of risks associated with consumption of drinking water in an area with natural fluoride enrichments2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach2014Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, s. 192-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

  • 74.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Probabilistic exposure assessment challenges the safety margin in drinking water criteria – the example of fluoride2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mazier, Florence
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Saarinen, Timo
    Effects of land use and climate change on erosion intensity and sediment geochemistry at Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2013Inngår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 1247-1259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate the possible relationships between erosion intensity and changes in climate and land use during the past 5.5 cal. k years at Lake Lehmilampi, eastern Finland. In this study we compare a detailed geochemical sediment record with (1) forest and land use history inferred from the first pollen and charcoal records from Lake Lehmilampi, and (2) existing archaeological surveys and independent proxy-records of climate change in the study region. The physical and geochemical sediment parameters examined include grain size analysis data and 23 chemical elements, determined with four selective extractions and ICP-MS. There are indications of possible human impact in the lake catchment as early as the Neolithic period, c. 3000-2550 bc, but the first undisputable signs are dated to 1800-100 bc. Cereal pollen reappears at c. ad 1700 and increases rapidly until c. ad 1950. The Holocene Thermal Maximum, its end c. 2000 bc, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly' were major climate events that had a prominent effect on erosion intensity, while human impact was a more significant factor during the period 3000 bc-ad 800 and from ad 1500 onwards. Although signs of changes in erosion intensity found in the sediment were small in this small catchment, they were significant enough to have a clear impact on the fraction of potentially mobile element species. This fraction increases with decreasing erosion intensity, which is probably related to a higher degree of chemical weathering and leaching during periods of decreased erosion.

  • 76.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Vattenfall Heat.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Persistent hazardous waste and the quest towards a circular economy: the example of arsenic in Chromated Copper Arsenate-treated wood2017Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 689-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a circular economy is today widely accepted and advocated, but among the challenges in achieving this, we find difficulties in the implementation of legislation and policies designed to control various waste streams from society. The example used in this article is wood that has been treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which, in Sweden, has been covered by the rules for hazardous waste since 2002. One year later, in 2003, a survey showed that only 42% to 50% of the expected amount of CCA waste could be traced to the public waste management system. An updated material flow analysis for 2010 revealed that the figure had increased to 73%, whereas the fraction of correctly treated CCA wood waste had increased from 11% to 35%. However, almost one third of the expected volume was still not tracable, and half of the amount that was correctly submitted was incinerated together with nontoxic waste fractions. This results in, for example, arsenic contamination of slag and fly ashes that prevents the further use of these residue products. So, despite legislative instruments, there is still an urgent need for an improved collection of hazardous wood waste, as well as better routines for identifying hazardous flows and separating them from nonhazardous ones. For a circular economy to be achievable, a key priority should be to reduce the gap between intended directions and legislation, on one hand, and activities in practice on the other.

  • 77.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Health risks from drinking water around contaminated glassworks sites2014Inngår i: ABSTRACTS OF SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS 2014 NGL ANNUAL SCIENCE MEETING: Oskarshamn, Sweden 3-4 of November 2014, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kalmar and Kronoberg Counties, there are numerous glassworks areas with high levels of arsenic, lead and cadmium in soil and groundwater. To investigate whether metals are leached into drinking water to such an extent that it may constitute a health risk for local inhabitants, 57 water samples were collected from private wells within a radius of 500 m from eight glassworks sites. The results show that concentrations are well below drinking-water criteria in most samples; only three Pb- and one Asanalysis were above these limits. What these results indicate, is that metals that leach from glass waste and can be detected in groundwater around landfill areas, are effectively immobilized as the groundwater flows towards areas where the pollution level of the surrounding solid phase decreases. There is thus reason to focus further efforts toward understanding these sorption mechanisms, in order to take them into account in future risk assessments.

  • 78.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The risk with overestimating the risk – the example of metal exposure via drinking water around contaminated glassworks sites2015Inngår i: The Future of Risk Analysis in the Nordic Contries: 1st Nordic Chapter Risk Conference, Lund, Sweden, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of waste material with high concentrations of various metal(loid)s are common features at old glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden. As epidemiological data indicates increased health risks for local residents around these sites, questions about how exposure occurs have been raised. One important step in assessing site-specific total exposure is to quantify exposure via intake of drinking water, and the critical variable to determine here is the metal concentration in the water to be consumed. In many routine risk assessments this is, despite well-known uncertainties, done by applying conservative and simplified transport models that simulate concentrations in water abstraction wells at certain distances from the source of contamination. To assess the accuracy of such an approch, we used a probabilistic method to simulate metal concentrations in drinking water within 500 m distance from 10 heavily contaminated glassworks sites, by applying the transport equations of the Swedish EPA generic risk assessment model. Exposure was then calculated. When concentrations in drinking water were calculated using this modelling approach, the resulting exposure estimates indicated that as much as 100% of the local residents with private wells may reach a daily intake above applicable toxicological reference values. However, when assessing the risk from measured concentrations in household drinking water instead, not even the 95th percentile of the population reached the toxicological limit. It hence appears as if metals are efficiently sorbed to the solid matrix of the soil at these sites, leaving the drinking water with concentrations well below drinking water criteria. For the average risk assessor working with contaminated sites, who often lacks training in hydrogeochemistry, the contradictory results highlight the need of more realistic generic models to be used in routine assessments of water contamination and exposure via consumption of drinking water.

  • 79.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Berglund, Marika
    Karlsson, Helen
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Challenges in assessing metal exposure around contaminated sites: the example of local vegetable consumption in the Swedish glassworks district2017Inngår i: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 80.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 269-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 81.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fröberg, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden;Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Failure of generic risk assessment model framework to predict groundwater pollution risk at hundreds of metal contaminated sites: Implications for research needs2020Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 185, s. 1-9, artikkel-id 109252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil pollution constitutes one of the major threats to public health, where spreading to groundwater is one of several critical aspects. In most internationally adopted frameworks for routine risk assessments of contaminated land, generic models and soil guideline values are cornerstones. In order to protect the groundwater at contaminated sites, a common practice worldwide today is to depart from health risk-based limit concentrations for groundwater, and use generic soil-to-groundwater spreading models to back-calculate corresponding equilibrium levels (concentration limits) in soil, which must not be exceeded at the site. This study presents an extensive survey of how actual soil and groundwater concentrations, compiled for all high-priority contaminated sites in Sweden, relate to the national model for risk management of contaminated sites, with focus on As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results show that soil metal concentrations, as well as total amounts, constitute a poor basis for assessing groundwater contamination status. The evaluated model was essentially incapable of predicting groundwater contamination (i.e. concentrations above limit values) based on soil data, and erred on the "unsafe side" in a significant number of cases, with modelled correlations not being conservative enough. Further, the risk of groundwater contamination was almost entirely independent of industry type. In essence, since neither soil contaminant loads nor industry type is conclusive, there is a need for a supportive framework for assessing metal spreading to groundwater accounting for site-specific, geochemical conditions.

  • 82.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables: the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites2015Inngår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 138, s. 181-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs),which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil,in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed toquantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure as-sessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 con-taminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soiland vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted toestimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that con-centrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and mostsamples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) wasassessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about afifth of the study population. Bioconcentrationfactors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasingmetal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected bythe choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be un-acceptable.

  • 83.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 84.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Elert, M.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Höglund, L. O.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste2016Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 154, s. 434-443Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  • 85.
    Avril, Alexis
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Grosbois, Vladimir
    CIRAD, France.
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Georgia, USA.
    Gaidet, Nicolas
    CIRAD, France.
    Tolf, Conny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Capturing individual-level parameters of influenza A virus dynamics in wild ducks using multistate models2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1289-1297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease prevalence in wildlife is governed by epidemiological parameters (infection and recovery rates) and response to infection, both of which vary within and among individual hosts. Studies quantifying these individual-scale parameters and documenting their source of variation in wild hosts are fundamental for predicting disease dynamics. Such studies do not exist for the influenza A virus (IAV), despite its strong impact on the global economy and public health. Using capture-recaptures of 3500 individual mallards Anas platyrhynchos during seven migration seasons at a stopover site in southern Sweden, we provide the first empirical description of the individual-based mechanisms of IAV dynamics in a wild reservoir host. For most years, prevalence and risk of IAV infection peaked at a single time during the autumn migration season, but the timing, shape and intensity of the infection curve showed strong annual heterogeneity. In contrast, the seasonal pattern of recovery rate only varied in intensity across years. Adults and juveniles displayed similar seasonal patterns of infection and recovery each year. However, compared to adults, juveniles experienced twice the risk of becoming infected, whereas recovery rates were similar across age categories. Finally, we did not find evidence that infection influenced the timing of emigration.Synthesis and applications. Our study provides robust empirical estimates of epidemiological parameters for predicting influenza A virus (IAV) dynamics. However, the strong annual variation in infection curves makes forecasting difficult. Prevalence data can provide reliable surveillance indicators as long as they catch the variation in infection risk. However, individual-based monitoring of infection is required to verify this assumption in areas where surveillance occurs. In this context, monitoring of captive sentinel birds kept in close contact with wild birds is useful. The fact that infection does not impact the timing of migration underpins the potential for mallards to spread viruses rapidly over large geographical scales. Hence, we strongly encourage IAV surveillance with a multistate capture-recapture approach along the entire migratory flyway of mallards.

  • 86.
    Axelsson, Amanda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åtgärder för att minska humushalten i en dricksvattentäkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vedborme träsk är en utdikad sjö på norra Öland som utreds för restaurering till en funktionell våtmark. Åtgäderna syftar till förbättrad vattenkvalitet och biologisk mångfald. Hornsjöns ytvattentäkt som ligger nedströms avrinningsområdet behöver skyddas genom att minska belastningen av humusämnen. Humusämnen leder till brunifiering, en process som färgar vatten brunt. Höga halter kan ge negativa effekter på både vattenrening och ekosystemet. idag är Vedborme träsk torrlagt större delen av året. Jordmånen består av torv i olika nedbrytninsstadier. Tidigare utredning tyder på att våtmarken både läcker och faastlägger humus. Även andra torvmarker i området tros bidra till uppmätta höga halter av humusämnen. Åtgärder för ökad uppehållstid på vattnet och minskning av torv i träsket förelås. Detta examensarbete syftar till att undersöka de föreslagna åtärderna från tidigare utredning och få bättre kunskap om våtmarkens effekter på humusretentionen. För att svara på frågan har ett laboratorieexperiment utförts. Ett mesokosomexperiment utfördes i ett konstantrum med tre olika substrat av torv, gyttja och vatten från Vedborme träsk. Varje substrat hade 10 replikat varav hälften av replikaten blev behandlade med ljus och andra hälften utan ljus. Resultaten visar att underliggande gyttjor har en bättre renande effekt på humus jämfört med torv i testerna. Gruppen men torv skiljde sig från övriga grupper i färgtal när de hade exponerats för ljus (Medianvärden: Torv=125, Gyttja=85, Vatten=125 mg/l Pt). Samma skillnad kunde visas i testet med TOC som responsvariabel. Ljusexponering indikerade en renande effekt på substratet vatten och skulle kunna utredas vidare genom fler analyser av insamlad data från detta experiment. 

    Slutsatserna av detta experiment är följande:

    -Experimenten visar att substatet gyttja från träsket har en bättre renande effekt i ljus och mörker jämfört med torv. Vilket motiverar en bortforsling av torv för att öka reningen i våtmarken. 

    -Torv hade högst TOC och färgtal i experimenten jämfört med andra grupper.

    -Ljuset verkar ha ahft en renande effekt på vattnets halt av humus.

    -Resultaten var förväntade baserat på tidigare forskning.  

    Download (pdf)
    Sammanfattning
  • 87.
    Axelsson Olsson, Diana
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Interaktioner mellan bakterier och protozoer i vattenmiljö, ett dolt hot?2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 88.
    Baichoo, Shakuntala
    et al.
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Botha, Gerrit
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Jaufeerally-Fakim, Yasmina
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Mungloo-Dilmohamud, Zahra
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Stockholm University.
    Mulder, Nicola
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Promponas, Vasilis J.
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Ouzounis, Christos A.
    Centre for Research & Technology (CERTH), Greece.
    H3ABioNet computational metagenomics workshop in Mauritius: training to analyse microbial diversity for Africa2015Inngår i: Standards in Genomic Sciences, ISSN 1944-3277, E-ISSN 1944-3277, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of recent international initiatives to bolster genomics research for Africa, and more specifically to develop bioinformatics expertise and networks across the continent, a workshop on computational metagenomics was organized during the end of 2014 at the University of Mauritius. The workshop offered background on various aspects of computational biology, including databases and algorithms, sequence analysis fundamentals, metagenomics concepts and tools, practical exercises, journal club activities and research seminars. We have discovered a strong interest in metagenomics research across Africa, to advance practical applications both for human health and the environment. We have also realized the great potential to develop genomics and bioinformatics through collaborative efforts across the continent, and the need for further reinforcing the untapped human potential and exploring the natural resources for stronger engagement of local scientific communities, with a view to contributing towards the improvement of human health and well-being for the citizens of Africa.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 89.
    Bais, A. F.
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami Univ, USA.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Austin, A. T.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Wilson, S. R.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State Univ, USA.
    Bernhard, G.
    Biospher Inc, USA.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    NIWA, New Zealand.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environm Consultants, South Africa.
    Madronich, S.
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, USA.
    Neale, R. E.
    Royal Brisbane Hosp, Australia.
    Yazar, S.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    de Gruijl, F. R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Norval, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Takizawa, Y.
    Akita Univ, Japan.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Loyola Univ, USA.
    Robson, T. M.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Robinson, S. A.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Ballare, C. L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Flint, S. D.
    Univ Idaho, USA.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Wängber, S. -A
    University of Gothenburg.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander Univ, Germany.
    Worrest, R. C.
    Columbia Univ, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    US EPA, USA.
    Paul, N. D.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Cory, R. M.
    Univ Michigan, USA.
    Solomon, K. R.
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Longstreth, J.
    Inst Global Risk Res, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Inst Wood Sci & Technol, India.
    Redhwi, H. H.
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Torikaiaj, A.
    Mat Life Soc Japan, Japan.
    Heikkila, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst R&D Climate Res, Finland.
    Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20172018Inngår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 127-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the interactive effects of UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously held. Because of the Montreal Protocol, there are now indications of the beginnings of a recovery of stratospheric ozone, although the time required to reach levels like those before the 1960s is still uncertain, particularly as the effects of stratospheric ozone on climate change and vice versa, are not yet fully understood. Some regions will likely receive enhanced levels of UV radiation, while other areas will likely experience a reduction in UV radiation as ozone- and climate-driven changes affect the amounts of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces detailed Quadrennial Reports every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Update Reports of recent and relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2016 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, 16, 107-145). The present 2017 Update Report assesses some of the highlights and new insights about the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. A full 2018 Quadrennial Assessment, will be made available in 2018/2019.

  • 90.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Arístegui, Javier
    Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Yokokawa, Taichi
    Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Netherlands.
    Herndl, Gerhard J.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Bacterial Versus Archaeal Origin of Extracellular Enzymatic Activity in the Northeast Atlantic Deep Waters2013Inngår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 277-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined the total and dissolved extracellularenzymatic activity (EEA) of α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase(AGase and BGase), alkaline phosphatase (APase) and leucineaminopeptidase (LAPase) activities in the epi-, meso- andbathypelagic waters of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.EEA was also determined in treatments in which bacterialEEAwas inhibited by erythromycin. Additionally, EEA decayexperiments were performed with surface and deep waters todetermine EEA lifetimes in both water masses. The proportionof dissolved to total EEA (66–89 %, 44–88 %, 57–82 % and86–100 % for AGase, BGase, APase and LAPase, respectively)was generally higher than the cell-associated (i.e.,particulate) EEA. The percentage of dissolved to total EEAwas inversely proportional to the percentage of erythromycininhibitedto total EEA. Since erythromycin-inhibited plusdissolved EEA equaled total EEA, this tentatively suggeststhat cell-associated EEA in the open oceanic water column isalmost exclusively of bacterial origin. The decay constants ofdissolved EEAwere in the range of 0.002–0.048 h−1 dependingon the type of extracellular enzyme, temperature and depthin the water column. Although dissolved EEA can have differentorigins, the major contribution of Bacteria to cellassociatedEEA and the long life-time of dissolved EEAsuggest that Bacteria—and not mesophilic Archaea—areessentially the main producers of EEA in the open subtropicalNortheast Atlantic down to bathypelagic layers.

  • 91.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Cell-free extracellular enzymatic activity is linked to seasonal temperature changes: a case study in the Baltic Sea2016Inngår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, nr 9, s. 2815-2821Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA) are a crucial step on the degradation of organic matter. Dissolved (cell-free) extracellular enzymes in seawater can make up a significant contribution of the bulk EEA. However, the factors controlling the proportion of dissolved EEA in the marine environment remain unknown. Here we studied the seasonal changes in the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA (of alkaline phosphatase [APase], β-glucosidase, [BGase], and leucine aminopeptidase, [LAPase]), in the Baltic Sea for 18 months. The proportio n of dissolved EEA ranged between 37-100%, 0-100%, 34-100% for APase, BGase and LAPase, respectively. A consistent seasonal pattern in the proportion of dissolved EEA was found among all the studied enzymes, with values up to 100% during winter and <40% du ring summer. A significant negative relation was found between the 21proportion of dissolved EEA and temperature, indicating that temperature might be a critical factor controlling the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA in marine environments. Our results suggest a strong decoupling of hydrolysis rates from mi crobial dynamics in cold waters. This implies that under cold conditions, cell-free enzymes can contribute to substrate availability at large distances from the producing cell, increasing the dissociation between the hydrolysis of organic compounds and the actual microbes producing the enzymes. This also indicates that global warming could come to affect the hydrolysis of organic matter by reducing the hydrolytic activity of cell-free enzymes.

  • 92.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Otago, New Zealand.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lekunberri, Itziar
    Univ Vienna, Austria;Inst Catala Recerca Aigua, Spain.
    Reinthaler, Thomas
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Herndl, Gerhard J.
    Univ Vienna, Austria;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Prokaryotic Responses to Ammonium and Organic Carbon Reveal Alternative CO2 Fixation Pathways and Importance of Alkaline Phosphatase in the Mesopelagic North Atlantic2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 1670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To decipher the response of mesopelagic prokaryotic communities to input of nutrients, we tracked changes in prokaryotic abundance, extracellular enzymatic activities, heterotrophic production, dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation, community composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and community gene expression (metatranscriptomics) in 3 microcosm experiments with water from the mesopelagic North Atlantic. Responses in 3 different treatments amended with thiosulfate, ammonium or organic matter (i.e., pyruvate plus acetate) were compared to unamended controls. The strongest stimulation was found in the organic matter enrichments, where all measured rates increased >10-fold. Strikingly, in the organic matter treatment, the dark DIC fixation rates-assumed to be related to autotrophic metabolisms-were equally stimulated as all the other heterotrophic-related parameters. This increase in DIC fixation rates was paralleled by an up-regulation of genes involved in DIC assimilation via anaplerotic pathways. Alkaline phosphatase was the metabolic rate most strongly stimulated and its activity seemed to be related to cross-activation by nonpartner histidine kinases, and/or the activation of genes involved in the regulation of elemental balance during catabolic processes. These findings suggest that episodic events such as strong sedimentation of organic matter into the mesopelagic might trigger rapid increases of originally rare members of the prokaryotic community, enhancing heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon uptake rates, ultimately affecting carbon cycling. Our experiments highlight a number of fairly unstudied microbial processes of potential importance in mesopelagic waters that require future attention.

  • 93.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Unrein, Fernando
    Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Spain.
    Catala, Philippe
    Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University, France.
    Hornak, Karel
    Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Simek, Karel
    Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Vaque, Dolors
    Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Spain.
    Massana, Ramon
    Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Spain.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marine bacterial community structure resilience to changes in protist predation under phytoplankton bloom conditions2016Inngår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 568-581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To test whether protist grazing selectively affects the composition of aquatic bacterial communities, we combined high-throughput sequencing to determine bacterial community composition with analyses of grazing rates, protist and bacterial abundances and bacterial cell sizes and physiological states in a mesocosm experiment in which nutrients were added to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom. A large variability was observed in the abundances of bacteria (from 0.7 to 2.4 x 10(6) cells per ml), heterotrophic nanoflagellates (from 0.063 to 2.7 x 10(4) cells per ml) and ciliates (from 100 to 3000 cells per l) during the experiment (similar to 3-, 45- and 30-fold, respectively), as well as in bulk grazing rates (from 1 to 13 x 10(6) bacteria per ml per day) and bacterial production (from 3 to 379 mu g per Cl per day) (1 and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively). However, these strong changes in predation pressure did not induce comparable responses in bacterial community composition, indicating that bacterial community structure was resilient to changes in protist predation pressure. Overall, our results indicate that peaks in protist predation (at least those associated with phytoplankton blooms) do not necessarily trigger substantial changes in the composition of coastal marine bacterioplankton communities.

  • 94.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Otago, New Zealand.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Salazar, Guillem
    CSIC, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    CSIC, Spain ; Inst Catalana Recerca & Estudis Avancats, Spain.
    Marrase, Celia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Gasol, Josep M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of rare, common and abundant bacterioplankton to anthropogenic perturbations in a Mediterranean coastal site2015Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 91, nr 6, artikkel-id UNSP fiv058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton communities are made up of a small set of abundant taxa and a large number of low-abundant organisms (i.e. 'rare biosphere'). Despite the critical role played by bacteria in marine ecosystems, it remains unknown how this large diversity of organisms are affected by human-induced perturbations, or what controls the responsiveness of rare compared to abundant bacteria. We studied the response of a Mediterranean bacterioplankton community to two anthropogenic perturbations (i.e. nutrient enrichment and/or acidification) in two mesocosm experiments (in winter and summer). Nutrient enrichment increased the relative abundance of some operational taxonomic units (OTUs), e.g. Polaribacter, Tenacibaculum, Rhodobacteraceae and caused a relative decrease in others (e.g. Croceibacter). Interestingly, a synergistic effect of acidification and nutrient enrichment was observed on specific OTUs (e.g. SAR86). We analyzed the OTUs that became abundant at the end of the experiments and whether they belonged to the rare (<0.1% of relative abundance), the common (0.1-1.0% of relative abundance) or the abundant (>1% relative abundance) fractions. Most of the abundant OTUs at the end of the experiments were abundant, or at least common, in the original community of both experiments, suggesting that ecosystem alterations do not necessarily call for rare members to grow.

  • 95.
    Baltar, Federico
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Reinthaler, Thomas
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Herndl, Gerhard J.
    University of Vienna, Austria;Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), The Netherlands.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Major Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Bacterioplankton Metabolism in the Northeast Atlantic2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id e61051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide have the potential to alter metabolic rates of marine prokaryotes, ultimately impacting the cycling and bioavailability of nutrients and carbon. We studied the influence of H2O2 on prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and extracellular enzymatic activities (i.e., beta-glucosidase [BGase], leucine aminopeptidase [LAPase] and alkaline phosphatase [APase]) in the subtropical Atlantic. With increasing concentrations of H2O2 in the range of 100-1000 nM, LAPase, APase and BGase were reduced by up to 11, 23 and 62%, respectively, in the different water layers. Incubation experiments with subsurface waters revealed a strong inhibition of all measured enzymatic activities upon H2O2 amendments in the range of 10-500 nM after 24 h. H2O2 additions also reduced prokaryotic heterotrophic production by 36-100% compared to the rapid increases in production rates occurring in the unamended controls. Our results indicate that oxidative stress caused by H2O2 affects prokaryotic growth and hydrolysis of specific components of the organic matter pool. Thus, we suggest that oxidative stress may have important consequences on marine carbon and energy fluxes.

  • 96.
    Bard, Vilhelm
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metoder för återtagande av metaller från muddrade sediment: en litteraturstudie och förslag för kontaminerade sediment i Kalmar län2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Metal pollution in aquatic sediment is today a serious environmental problem that has been increasing ever since the industrial evolution. This literature study is investigating and comparing ten different articles and covers four different methods about metal extraction in aquatic sediments. The mentioned methods are chemical, biological, electrochemical and thermal extraction. This study concludes that there are potential effective methods available such as the chemical extraction using EDTA and EDDS and the biological extraction method for the metals Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. The chemical extraction method benefits with its effectiveness and short extraction time but the method can also leave trace levels of the EDTA in the sediments due to its persistent character. EDTA is also expensive to apply such as EDDS but this is degradable in natural environments. The biological method is also considered as a good alternative for metal extraction in sediments but has a very long extraction time. For extraction of Hg showed the thermal extraction the best results. However, it’s of great importance to investigate different methods on a given sediment before a decision can be made on which method is most effective on a given sediment and large scale remediation can be used, since there are several different factors that can affect the extraction results. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 97.
    Barnes, Paul W.
    et al.
    Loyola Univ, USA..
    Williamson, Craig E.
    Miami Univ, USA.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Robinson, Sharon A.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Madronich, Sasha
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, USA.
    Paul, Nigel D.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Bornman, Janet F.
    Murdoch Univ, Australia.
    Bais, Alkiviadis F.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Sulzberger, Barbara
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol Eawag, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Stephen R.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, Anthony L.
    North Carolina State Univ, USA.
    McKenzie, Richard L.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, New Zealand.
    Neale, Patrick J.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Austin, Amy T.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Bernhard, Germar H.
    Biospher Inc, USA.
    Solomon, Keith R.
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Neale, Rachel E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Australia.
    Young, Paul J.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Norval, Mary
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Rhodes, Lesley E.
    Univ Manchester, UK.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Salford Royal NHS Fdn Trust, UK.
    Rose, Kevin C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Longstreth, Janice
    Inst Global Risk Res, USA.
    Aucamp, Pieter J.
    Ptersa Environm Consultants, South Africa.
    Ballare, Carlos L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Cory, Rose M.
    Univ Michigan, USA.
    Flint, Stephan D.
    Univ Idaho, USA.
    de Gruijl, Frank R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Haeder, Donat-P
    Friedrich Alexander Univ, Germany.
    Heikkila, Anu M.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst R&D Climate Res, Finland.
    Jansen, Marcel A. K.
    Univ Coll Cork, Ireland.
    Pandey, Krishna K.
    Inst Wood Sci & Technol, India.
    Robson, T. Matthew
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Sinclair, Craig A.
    Canc Council Victoria, Australia.
    Wangberg, Sten-Ake
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Worrest, Robert C.
    Columbia Univ, USA.
    Yazar, Seyhan
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Young, Antony R.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Zepp, Richard G.
    US EPA, USA.
    Ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, climate change and prospects for a sustainable future2019Inngår i: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, nr 7, s. 569-579Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in stratospheric ozone and climate over the past 40-plus years have altered the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions at the Earth's surface. Ozone depletion has also contributed to climate change across the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are interacting in complex ways to affect human health, food and water security, and ecosystem services. Many adverse effects of high UV exposure have been avoided thanks to the Montreal Protocol with its Amendments and Adjustments, which have effectively controlled the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. This international treaty has also played an important role in mitigating climate change. Climate change is modifying UV exposure and affecting how people and ecosystems respond to UV; these effects will become more pronounced in the future. The interactions between stratospheric ozone, climate and UV radiation will therefore shift over time; however, the Montreal Protocol will continue to have far-reaching benefits for human well-being and environmental sustainability.

  • 98.
    Beckman, Maja
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Silver och vismut i plaster och färger: Källor till förhöjda halter i slam?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical substances are spread diffusely and uncontrollably as a result of the increased consumption of goods. REVAQ is a certification system that works to reduce the flow of hazardous substances to Swedish treatment plants and to create a sustainable nutrient recycling. According to REVAQ, the yearly accumulating rate of metals should not exceed 0.2% in soil per year. Silver and bismuth are two metals that do not fulfill this requirement. The silver concentration in sludge decreased during the last decade, however the last few years, it has leveled off. The bismuth concentration has increased significantly since 2005.

    The aim of this study was to explore the types of plastics and paints that could be found to contain silver respectively bismuth, and to investigate whether these can be important sources of measured concentrations of silver and bismuth in sludge.

    The results of the substance flow analysis which was used in this study show that bismuth is probably found in ABS plastics, polyethylene plastics and polyamide plastics. These plastics are mainly found in household items.

    The inflows of metals in plastic to Stockholm are estimated to be 5 kg silver and 1.2 to 5.7 tons bismuth. In paints, the numbers are 19 kg of silver and 2.5 to 3.3 tons of bismuth.

    The stocks of metals in plastic in Stockholm are estimated to be 25 - 50 kg silver and 5.7 to 57 ton bismuth and in paints between 98 and 195 kg silver and 12 to 33 tons bismuth.

    The outflow of metals in plastic to Henriksdals treatment plants are estimated to be 300 g silver and 5-25 kg bismuth and in paints 0.5 kg silver and between 62 to 82 kg bismuth.

    According to this study, bismuth in plastic and paint are a contributing source to the measured concentrations in sludge (4.4 - 21 % respective 54 - 73 %). Silver in plastic and paints are not a relevant source for the amount of silver in sludge in treatment plants.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 99. Beja, Oded
    et al.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Spudich, John L.
    Proteorhodopsins: widespread microbial light-driven proton pumps2013Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity / [ed] Levin S.A., Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 2013, 2:nd edition, vol. 2, s. 280-285Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteorhodopsins (PRs) are membrane-embedded, retinal-containing proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Since their discovery in 2000 in uncultured marine bacteria, PRs have been detected in numerous bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukarya. PRs have now been detected in diverse habitats, including marine, brackish, and freshwater environments; leaf surfaces; and soil crusts. Their widespread distribution and relatively simple single-molecule design suggests them as the earliest light-energy transducing proteins to have evolved. Currently, PRs represent the simplest biological means to convert light energy into chemical energy.

  • 100.
    Bellenberg, Sören
    et al.
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Galli, Vanni
    Univ Appl Sci Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Ilie, Olga
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Herold, Malte
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Christel, Stephan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Boretska, Mariia
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Pivkin, Igor V.
    Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, Switzerland.
    Wilmes, Paul
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Sand, Wolfgang
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany;Donghua Univ, Peoples Republic of China;Tech Univ Bergakad Freiberg, Germany.
    Vera, Mario
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Automated Microscopic Analysis of Metal Sulfide Colonization by Acidophilic Microorganisms2018Inngår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 84, nr 20, artikkel-id UNSP e01835-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial biomining processes are currently focused on metal sulfides and their dissolution, which is catalyzed by acidophilic iron(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Cell attachment on metal sulfides is important for this process. Biofilm formation is necessary for seeding and persistence of the active microbial community in industrial biomining heaps and tank reactors, and it enhances metal release. In this study, we used a method for direct quantification of the mineral-attached cell population on pyrite or chalcopyrite particles in bioleaching experiments by coupling high-throughput, automated epifluorescence microscopy imaging of mineral particles with algorithms for image analysis and cell quantification, thus avoiding human bias in cell counting. The method was validated by quantifying cell attachment on pyrite and chalcopyrite surfaces with axenic cultures of Acidithiobacillus caldus, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans. The method confirmed the high affinity of L. ferriphilum cells to colonize pyrite and chalcopyrite surfaces and indicated that biofilm dispersal occurs in mature pyrite batch cultures of this species. Deep neural networks were also applied to analyze biofilms of different microbial consortia. Recent analysis of the L. ferriphilum genome revealed the presence of a diffusible soluble factor (DSF) family quorum sensing system. The respective signal compounds are known as biofilm dispersal agents. Biofilm dispersal was confirmed to occur in batch cultures of L. ferriphilum and S. thermosulfidooxidans upon the addition of DSF family signal compounds. IMPORTANCE The presented method for the assessment of mineral colonization allows accurate relative comparisons of the microbial colonization of metal sulfide concentrate particles in a time-resolved manner. Quantitative assessment of the mineral colonization development is important for the compilation of improved mathematical models for metal sulfide dissolution. In addition, deep-learning algorithms proved that axenic or mixed cultures of the three species exhibited characteristic biofilm patterns and predicted the biofilm species composition. The method may be extended to the assessment of microbial colonization on other solid particles and may serve in the optimization of bioleaching processes in laboratory scale experiments with industrially relevant metal sulfide concentrates. Furthermore, the method was used to demonstrate that DSF quorum sensing signals directly influence colonization and dissolution of metal sulfides by mineral-oxidizing bacteria, such as L. ferriphilum and S. thermosulfidooxidans.

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