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  • 51.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Universität Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balenderan, S.
    University of Durham, UK.
    Balzer, A.
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    H.E.S.S. reveals a lack of TeV emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A: (Research Note)2015Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 575, artikkel-id A81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Puppis A is an interesting similar to 4 kyr-old supernova remnant (SNR) that shows strong evidence of interaction between the forward shock and a molecular cloud. It has been studied in detail from radio frequencies to high-energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) gamma-rays. An analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has shown extended HE gamma-ray emission with a 0.2-100 GeV spectrum exhibiting no significant deviation from a power law, unlike most of the GeV-emitting SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. This makes it a promising target for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) to probe the gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV.

    Aims. Very-high-energy (VHE, E >= 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray emission from Puppis A has been, for the first time, searched for with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.).

    Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the direction and energy of the incident gamma-rays in order to produce sky images and source spectra. The profile likelihood method is applied to find constraints on the existence of a potential break or cutoff in the photon spectrum.

    Results. The analysis of the HESS. data does not reveal any significant emission towards Puppis A. The derived upper limits on the differential photon flux imply that its broadband gamma-ray spectrum must exhibit a spectral break or cutoff. By combining Fermi-LAT and HESS. measurements, the 99% confidence-level upper limits on such a cutoff are found to be 450 and 280 GeV, assuming a power law with a simple exponential and a sub-exponential cutoff, respectively. It is concluded that none of the standard limitations (age, size, radiative losses) on the particle acceleration mechanism, assumed to be continuing at present, can explain the lack of VHE signal. The scenario in which particle acceleration has ceased some time ago is considered as an alternative explanation. The HE/VHE spectrum of Puppis A could then exhibit a break of non-radiative origin (as observed in several other interacting SNRs, albeit at somewhat higher energies), owing to the interaction with dense and neutral material, in particular towards the NE region.

  • 52.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Balenderan, S.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    dewilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Fukui, Y.
    Diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission with HESS2014Inngår i: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 90, nr 12, s. Article ID: 122007-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse gamma-ray emission is the most prominent observable signature of celestial cosmic-ray interactions at high energies. While already being investigated at GeVenergies over several decades, assessments of diffuse gamma-ray emission at TeVenergies remain sparse. After completion of the systematic survey of the inner Galaxy, the H.E.S.S. experiment is in a prime position to observe large-scale diffuse emission at TeVenergies. Data of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey are investigated in regions off known gamma-ray sources. Corresponding gamma-ray flux measurements were made over an extensive grid of celestial locations. Longitudinal and latitudinal profiles of the observed gamma-ray fluxes show characteristic excess emission not attributable to known gamma-ray sources. For the first time large-scale gamma-ray emission along the Galactic plane using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes has been observed. While the background subtraction technique limits the ability to recover modest variation on the scale of the H.E.S.S. field of view or larger, which is characteristic of the inverse Compton scatter-induced Galactic diffuse emission, contributions of neutral pion decay as well as emission from unresolved gamma-ray sources can be recovered in the observed signal to a large fraction. Calculations show that the minimum gamma-ray emission from pi(0) decay represents a significant contribution to the total signal. This detection is interpreted as a mix of diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission and unresolved sources.

  • 53.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balzer, A.
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
    Berge, D.
    University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Birsin, E.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Carr, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM,UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chretien, M.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cologna, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Couturier, C.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Cui, Y.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Djannati-Ata, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Dyks, J.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Dyrda, M.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ernenwein, J-P
    Espigat, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Farnier, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feinstein, F.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fernandez, D.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Foerster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gajdus, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Goyal, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Grondin, M-H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Hadasch, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Haeffner, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hillert, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofverberg, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Janiak, M.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzynski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katz, U.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieffer, M.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kolitzus, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krayzel, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Krueger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lefranc, V.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lopatin, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lu, C-C
    Lui, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mayer, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Orange Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Menzler, U.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Odaka, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oettl, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Opitz, B.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Pekeur, N. W.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Pelletier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poon, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Prokoph, Heike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    de los Reyes, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Romoli, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rulten, C. B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Salek, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Seyffert, A. S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Spengler, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Spies, F.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stinzing, F.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Stycz, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Tavernet, J-P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS, IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Valerius, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van der Walt, J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Orange Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris 07, LPNHE, Univ Paris 06, CNRS,IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vuillaume, T.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, P.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Weidinger, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Weitzel, Q.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, R.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Willmann, P.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Woernlein, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Wouters, D.
    CEA Saclay, DSM, Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zabalza, V.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zefi, F.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre2016Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 531, nr 7595, s. 476-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts(1) (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators ('PeVatrons'), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies(2). Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 10(13) electronvolts) were inferred from recent gamma-ray observations(3). However, none of the currently known accelerators-not even the handful of shell-type supernova remnants commonly believed to supply most Galactic cosmic rays-has shown the characteristic tracers of petaelectronvolt particles, namely, power-law spectra of.-rays extending without a cut-off or a spectral break to tens of teraelectronvolts(4). Here we report deep.-ray observations with arcminute angular resolution of the region surrounding the Galactic Centre, which show the expected tracer of the presence of petaelectronvolt protons within the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy. We propose that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is linked to this PeVatron. Sagittarius A* went through active phases in the past, as demonstrated by X-ray outbursts(5) and an outflow from the Galactic Centre(6). Although its current rate of particle acceleration is not sufficient to provide a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays, Sagittarius A* could have plausibly been more active over the last 10(6)-10(7) years, and therefore should be considered as a viable alternative to supernova remnants as a source of petaelectronvolt Galactic cosmic rays.

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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia .
    Anguner, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Balenderan, S.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland ; Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA .
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernlohr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Bottcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    dewilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Forster, A.
    Fuling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadsch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kiefeer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Kruger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schussler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    Van Eldik, C.
    Van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Volk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Wornlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Long-term monitoring of PKS2155-304 with ATOM and HESS:investigation of optical/gamma-ray correlations in different spectral states2014Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 571, artikkel-id A39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy gamma-ray (> 200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy gamma-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct gamma-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and gamma-ray emission of PKS 2155 304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a gamma-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.

  • 55.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Balenderans, S.
    Univ Durham, UK.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chatraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O ' C
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, O.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. P.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Anibas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P-O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J-P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H-S
    H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud2015Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, s. 1-7, artikkel-id A100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE; 0.1 GeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.) is reported. This makes it one of the farthest Galactic SNR ever detected in this domain. An integral flux F(E > 400 GeV) = (6.5 +/- 1.1(stat) +/- 1.3(syst)) x 10-11 ph cm(-2) s(-1) corresponding to similar to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma(VHE) = 2.8 +/- 0.27(stat) +/- 0.20(syst) are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma(HE) = 2.2 +/- 0.04.2(stat-0.31sys)(+0.13), The combined gamma-ray spectrum of 0349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power law (I3PL) or a power law with exponential (or sub exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E-br,E-gamma = 551(-30)(+70) GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case. the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E-cat,E-gamma = 1.4(-0.55)(+1.6) (respectively 0.35(-0.21)(+0.75)) TeV. A pion decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product or the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nu W-p similar to 5 x 10(51) erg cm(-3)

  • 56.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia.
    Angüner, E.
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Balenderan, S.
    University of Durham, UK.
    Balzer, A.
    DESY, Germany ; University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Barnacka, A.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Ataie, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lennarz, D.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Szostek, A.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zajczyk, A.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    HESS J1640-465-an exceptionally luminous TeV gamma-ray supernova remnant2014Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, nr 3, s. 2828-2836Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of follow-up observations of the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Gamma = 2.11 +/- 0.09(stat) +/- 0.10(sys), and a cut-off energy of E-2 = 6.0(-1.2)(+2.0) TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the northwestern part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new HESS results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data and multiwavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the supernova remnant shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as W(p)n(H) similar to 4 x 10(52)(d/10kpc)(2) erg cm(-3).

  • 57.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Angüner, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Anton, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Balenderans, S.
    Univ Durham, UK.
    Balzer, A.
    DESY, Germany ; Univ Potsdam, Germany .
    Barnacka, A.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Brucker, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheesebrough, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Dalton, M.
    Daniel, M. K.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kneiske, T.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    Naumann, C. L.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Perez, J.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Raue, M.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    Reyes, R. de los
    Rieger, F.
    Rob, L.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Acero, F.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Giordano, F.
    Guillemot, L.
    Lande, J.
    Pletsch, H.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834-087 using HESS and Fermi LAT observations2015Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, artikkel-id A27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the gamma-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. The gamma-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the gamma-ray emission toward W41. Results. The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (sigma(TeV) = 0.17 degrees +/- 0.01 degrees), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index Gamma(TeV) similar or equal to 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (sigma(GeV) = 0.15 degrees +/- 0.03 degrees) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index Gamma(GeV) = 2.15 +/- 0.12 and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the gamma-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions. Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to gamma-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected following a Maxwellian distribution by a pulsar with a high spin-down power (> 10(37) erg s(-1)). This additional low-energy component is not needed if we consider that the point-like TeV source is unrelated to the extended GeV and TeV sources. The interacting SNR scenario is supported by the spatial coincidence between the gamma-ray sources, the detection of OH (1720 MHz) maser lines, and the hadronic modeling.

  • 58.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia.
    Angüner, E. O.
    Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Namibia.
    Balenderans, S.
    Univ Durham, UK.
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnacka, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Biteau, J.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casanova, S.
    Chadwick, P. M.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, J.
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, C.
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Harris, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jahn, C.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C. -C
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    McComb, T. J. L.
    Mehault, J.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, M.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Mora, K.
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Nolan, S. J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwarzburg, S.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, G.
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Valerius, K.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Volpe, F.
    Vorster, M.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, R. M.
    Ward, M.
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zechlin, H. -S
    Constraints on an Annihilation Signal from a Core of Constant Dark Matter Density around the Milky Way Center with HESS2015Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 114, nr 8, artikkel-id 081301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An annihilation signal of dark matter is searched for from the central region of the Milky Way. Data acquired in dedicated on-off observations of the Galactic center region with H.E.S.S. are analyzed for this purpose. No significant signal is found in a total of similar to 9 h of on-off observations. Upper limits on the velocity averaged cross section, <sigma upsilon >, for the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses in the range of similar to 300 GeV to similar to 10 TeV are derived. In contrast to previous constraints derived from observations of the Galactic center region, the constraints that are derived here apply also under the assumption of a central core of constant dark matter density around the center of the Galaxy. Values of <sigma upsilon > that are larger than 3 x 10(-24) cm(3)/s are excluded for dark matter particles with masses between similar to 1 and similar to 4 TeV at 95% C.L. if the radius of the central dark matter density core does not exceed 500 pc. This is the strongest constraint that is derived on <sigma upsilon > for annihilating TeV mass dark matter without the assumption of a centrally cusped dark matter density distribution in the search region.

  • 59.
    Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia.
    Angüner, E. O.
    Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.
    Backes, M.
    University of Namibia, Namibia.
    Balzer, A.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
    Berge, D.
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bernhard, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Birsin, E.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Blackwell, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Boettcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Brun, P.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Carr, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chevalier, J.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Chretien, M.
    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cologna, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Couturier, C.
    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Cui, Y.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    deWilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Dyks, J.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Dyrda, M.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Espigat, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Farnier, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feinstein, F.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fernandez, D.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Foerster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Haeffner, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
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    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Krakau, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krayzel, F.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Krueger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lefranc, V.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lopatin, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lu, C. -C
    Lui, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marcowith, A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mariaud, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marx, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Mayer, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Menzler, U.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Meyer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Niemiec, J.
    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Odaka, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oettl, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Opitz, B.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Pekeur, N. W.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Pelletier, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Petrucci, P. -O
    Peyaud, B.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poon, H.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Prokoph, Heike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Punch, Michael
    Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Reimer, A.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    de los Reyes, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Heidelberg Univ, ITA, DFG, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Romoli, C.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Rulten, C. B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sahakian, V.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Salek, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Sasaki, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schuessler, F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Schwemmer, S.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Spanier, F.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Spengler, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Spies, F.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Stawarz, L.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Steenkamp, R.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Stegmann, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stinzing, F.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Stycz, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sushch, I.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Tavernet, J. -P
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Terrier, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC,Ast, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Tluczykont, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Tuffs, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Valerius, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van der Walt, J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Eldik, C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Universe & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Veh, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Venter, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Viana, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS, IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Voelk, H. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
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    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Weidinger, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
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    PAN, Inst Fizyki Jadrowej, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
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    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Yang, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zabalza, V.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Zaborov, D.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zacharias, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Detailed spectral and morphological analysis of the shell type supernova remnant RCW 862018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikkel-id A4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We aim for an understanding of the morphological and spectral properties of the supernova remnant RCW 86 and for insights into the production mechanism leading to the RCW 86 very high-energy gamma-ray emission. Methods. We analyzed High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) data that had increased sensitivity compared to the observations presented in the RCW 86 H.E.S.S. discovery publication. Studies of the morphological correlation between the 0.5-1 keV X-ray band, the 2-5 keV X-ray band, radio, and gamma-ray emissions have been performed as well as broadband modeling of the spectral energy distribution with two different emission models. Results. We present the first conclusive evidence that the TeV gamma-ray emission region is shell-like based on our morphological studies. The comparison with 2-5 keV X-ray data reveals a correlation with the 0.4-50 TeV gamma-ray emission. The spectrum of RCW 86 is best described by a power law with an exponential cutoff at E-cut = (3.5 +/- 1.2(stat)) TeV and a spectral index of Gamma approximate to 1.6 +/- 0.2. A static leptonic one-zone model adequately describes the measured spectral energy distribution of RCW 86, with the resultant total kinetic energy of the electrons above 1 GeV being equivalent to similar to 0.1% of the initial kinetic energy of a Type Ia supernova explosion (10(51) erg). When using a hadronic model, a magnetic field of B approximate to 100 mu G is needed to represent the measured data. Although this is comparable to formerly published estimates, a standard E-2 spectrum for the proton distribution cannot describe the gamma-ray data. Instead, a spectral index of Gamma(p) approximate to 1.7 would be required, which implies that similar to 7 x 10(49)/n(cm-3) erg has been transferred into high-energy protons with the effective density n(cm-3) = n/1 cm(-3). This is about 10% of the kinetic energy of a typical Type Ia supernova under the assumption of a density of 1 cm(-3).

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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
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    Discovery of the Hard Spectrum VHE γ-Ray Source HESS J1641–4632014Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 794, nr 1, s. Article ID: L1-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This Letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641-463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641-463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640-465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of phi(E > 1TeV) = (3.64 +/- 0.44(stat)+/- 0.73(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1), corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Gamma = 2.07 +/- 0.11(stat)+/- 0.20(sys). It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of sigma = 3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE gamma-ray flux of HESS J1641-463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641-463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE gamma-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641-463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

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    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia..
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    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
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    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    Kyoto Univ, Yukawa Inst Theoret Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    INFN, Sez Roma La Sapienza, Ple Aldo Moro 2, Rome, Italy..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
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    Ibaraki Univ, Fac Sci, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan..
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    Univ Catolica Norte, Ave Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile..
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    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
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    IRAP, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, Toulouse 4, France..
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    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 340, Santiago, Chile..
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    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
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    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave,Johannesburg, South Africa..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
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    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
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    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Via Bassini 15, Milan, Italy..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Japan Aerosp Explorat Agcy, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Chuo Ku, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2525210, Japan..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
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    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
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    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, Berlin, Germany..
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    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
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    Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Sezione Trieste, Trieste, Italy..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense S-N, Madrid, Spain..
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    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas, Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
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    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
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    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas,Edif A3, Jaen, Spain..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB,Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
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    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
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    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense Madrid, Spain..
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    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Miyazaki Univ, Dept Appl Phys, Gakuen Kibana Dai Nishi, Miyazaki 8892192, Japan..
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    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
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    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Italy..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
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    Univ Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK.
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    Kitasato Univ, Sch Allied Hlth Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2288555, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    RIKEN, Inst Phys & Chem Res, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
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    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, R Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
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    Polish Acad Sci, Henryk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow, Poland..
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
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    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
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    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
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    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
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    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
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    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
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    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
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    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
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    Tokushima Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Technol, Tokushima 7708506, Japan..
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    INAF IRA, INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
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    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
    Pavy, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS, UMR 7638, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Palaiseau, France..
    Pe'er, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;INFN, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Osserv Astron Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, Udine, Italy..
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    Univ Joseph Fourier, INSU CNRS, Inst Planetol & Astrophys Grenoble, 621 Ave Cent,Domaine Univ, Grenoble 9, France..
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    Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, Lvov, Ukraine..
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    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, Bialystok, Poland..
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Prast, J.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Principe, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1,Erlangen, Germany..
    Prouza, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland..
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, Tubingen, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
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    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Technikerstr , Innsbruck, Austria..
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    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, Montpellier 5, France..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona, Spain..
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    IFAE, Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Rizi, V.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, INFN, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1, Laquila, Italy..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Fernandez, G. Rodriguez
    INFN, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, Rome, Italy..
    Rodriguez Vazquez, J. J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, Madrid, Spain..
    Romano, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Romeo, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, Catania, Italy..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Rousselle, J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, Warsaw, Poland..
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, Germany..
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
    Saito, T.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Sanchez, D.
    Univ Savoie, CNRS, IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules, 9 Chemin Bellevue BP 110, Annecy Le Vieux, France..
    Sangiorgi, P.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Sano, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys & Astrophys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
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    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK.
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    Aoyama Gakuin Univ, Dept Math & Phys, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 2298558, Japan..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, Geneva 4, Switzerland..
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    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SPP, Bat 141, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
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    Ivan Franko Natl Univ Lviv, Astron Observ, 1 Univ Ska St, City Of Lviv, Ukraine..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Manitoba, 540 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada..
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    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
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    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio, Finland..
    Simone, D.
    INFN, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, Bari, Italy..
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    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, Versoix, Switzerland..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, UK.
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    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
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    CEA Saclay, CEA, IRFU, SAp, Bat 709, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Szanecki, M.
    Univ Lodz, Fac Phys & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Pomorska Lodz, Poland..
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    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, Krakow, Poland..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Takahashi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Takeda, J.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
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    KEK High Energy Accelerator Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
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    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, Av Complutense, Madrid, Spain..
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str, Golm, Germany..
    Temnikov, P.
    BAS, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Blvd Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
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    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama City, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
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    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis, Via Marzolo 8, Padua, Italy..
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    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashi Wwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany..
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    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
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    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
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    Inst Space Sci IEEC CSIC, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain.;ICREA, Campus UAB,Caner Can Magrans Cerdanyola Del Valles, Spain..
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    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, Milan, Italy..
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    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM, 163 Ave Luminy, Marseille, France..
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    Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy..
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    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Vagelli, V.
    INFN, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, Perugia, Italy..
    Vallania, P.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Turin, Italy..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia,Ed G, Naples, Italy..
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    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, 500 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vassiliev, V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Vecchi, M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Ave Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U La Malfa 153, Palermo, Italy..
    Vergani, S.
    Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France.;Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, Meudon, France..
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, Turin, Italy..
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    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Vrastil, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys, Slovance, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Vazquez Acosta, M. L.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea, Tenerife, Spain..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fohringer Ring 6, Munich, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Univ Vagen 10 A, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Prospects for Cherenkov Telescope Array Observations of the Young Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-39462017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 840, nr 2, artikkel-id 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform simulations for future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observations of RX J1713.7-3946, a young supernova remnant (SNR) and one of the brightest sources ever discovered in very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Special attention is paid to exploring possible spatial (anti) correlations of gamma rays with emission at other wavelengths, in particular X-rays and CO/H I emission. We present a series of simulated images of RX J1713.7-3946 for CTA based on a set of observationally motivated models for the gamma-ray emission. In these models, VHE gamma rays produced by high-energy electrons are assumed to trace the nonthermal X-ray emission observed by XMM-Newton, whereas those originating from relativistic protons delineate the local gas distributions. The local atomic and molecular gas distributions are deduced by the NANTEN team from CO and H I observations. Our primary goal is to show how one can distinguish the emission mechanism(s) of the gamma rays (i.e., hadronic versus leptonic, or a mixture of the two) through information provided by their spatial distribution, spectra, and time variation. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the capabilities of CTA to achieve various proposed scientific goals by observing this important cosmic particle accelerator.

  • 62.
    Acharyya, A.
    et al.
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    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Chile.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Univ Aquila, Italy;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Italy.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    PSL Res Univ, France.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
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    Univ Oxford, UK.
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, Spain.
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    Univ Montpellier, France.
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    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
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    Monash Univ, Australia.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    INAF, Italy.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    Univ Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Inst Phys & Chem Res, RIKEN, Japan.
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    Ctr Brasileiro Pesquisas Fis, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
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    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Bastieri, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Becerra Gonzalez, J.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, Univ Str 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany..
    Bellizzi, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;Univ Siena, DSFTA, Sez Fis, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Benbow, W.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02180 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernardos, M. , I
    Bernloehr, K.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Berti, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Berton, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Bertucci, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Beshley, V
    NASU, Pidstryhach Inst Appl Problems Mech & Math, 3B Naukova St, UA-79060 Lvov, Ukraine..
    Biasuzzi, B.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
    Bigongiari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Bird, R.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bissaldi, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Politecn Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Biteau, J.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Phys Nucleaire, IN2P3,CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, F-91406 Orsay, France..
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    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Blazek, J.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Boisson, C.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bonanno, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bonardi, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Bonavolonta, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;Univ Siena, DSFTA, Sez Fis, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, Potchefstroom Campus, ZA-2531 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Bruegge, K.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, IN2P3, CNRS, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Bruno, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bulgarelli, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Phys, Astron Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Burton, M.
    Armagh Observ & Planetarium, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
    Burtovoi, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Busetto, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Cameron, R.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SIAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Canestrari, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Capalbi, M.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Caproni, A.
    Univ Cruzeiro Sul, Nucl Astrofis Teor, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, BR-01506000 Libertade, SP, Brazil..
    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Caraveo, P.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Carosi, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Casanova, S.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Cascone, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Cassol, F.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France.;163 Ave Luminy, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Catalani, F.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Area & Estr Municipal Campinho, Escola Engn Lorena, Area 1 Estr Municipal Campinho S-N, BR-12602810 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Catalano, O.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Cauz, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chaty, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chernyakova, M.
    Dublin City Univ, Ctr Astrophys & Relat, Sch Phys Sci, Dublin 9, Ireland..
    Chiaro, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Cieslar, M.
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Phys, Astron Observ, Aleje Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Colak, S. M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Conforti, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Congiu, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Costa, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Costantini, H.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, IN2P3, CNRS, Marseille, France.;163 Ave Luminy, F-13288 Marseille 09, France..
    Cotter, G.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Denys Wilkinson Bldg,Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, England..
    Cristofari, P.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Cumani, P.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Cusumano, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ai, A.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Dangeon, L.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Da Vela, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56217 Pisa, Italy..
    Dazzi, F.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    De Angelis, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Caprio, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    de Cassia dos Anjos, R.
    Univ Fed Parana Setor Palotina, Dept Engenharias & Exatas, Rua Pioneiro 2153, BR-85950000 Jardim Dallas, Parana, Brazil..
    De Frondat, F.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    De Lotto, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    De Martino, D.
    Univ Cruzeiro Sul, Nucl Astrofis Teor, Rua Galvao Bueno 8687,Bloco B,Sala 16, BR-01506000 Libertade, SP, Brazil..
    de Naurois, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, V
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Del Santo, M.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Delgado, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    della Volpe, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Di Girolamo, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia Ed G, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Di Venere, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Diaz, C.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Diebold, S.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dmytriiev, A.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Donini, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Udine, Via Sci 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Campus Hubland Nord,Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Dournaux, J-L
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ebr, J.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Ekoume, T. R. N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Elsaesser, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Falceta-Goncalves, D.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Artes Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, BR-03828000 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fedorova, E.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Fegan, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Feng, Q.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Ferrand, G.
    Inst Phys & Chem Res, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Fiandrini, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, LAPP, CNRS,IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.;9 Chemin Bellevue,BP 110, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Filipovic, M.
    Western Sydney Univ, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 1797, Australia..
    Fioretti, V
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fiori, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Flis, S.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Fonseca, M. , V
    Fontaine, G.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Leprince Ringuet, Ecole Polytech, CNRS,IN2P3,UMR 7638, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Freixas Coromina, L.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Fukami, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Fukui, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Dept Phys, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648602, Japan..
    Funk, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fuessling, M.
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Observ, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Gaggero, D.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Inst Fis Teor, CSIC, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Fis Teor, Campus Cantoblanco,C Nicolas Cabrera 13-75, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Galanti, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Garcia Lopez, R. J.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gascon, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Dept Fis Quant & Astrofis, IEEC UB, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gasparetto, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Edif C3,Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Ghalumyan, A.
    Yerevan Phys Inst, Alikhanyan Natl Sci Lab, 2 Alikhanyan Bros St, Yerevan 0036, Armenia..
    Gianotti, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giglietto, N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Politecn Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Giordano, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Giroletti, M.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Gironnet, J.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Glicenstein, J-F
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gnatyk, R.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Goldoni, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gonzalez, J. M.
    Univ Andres Bello UNAB, Republ 252, Santiago, Region Metropol, Chile..
    Gonzalez, M. M.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Ciudad De Mexico 04510, Mexico..
    Gourgouliatos, K. N.
    Univ Durham, Dept Phys, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Adv Instrumentat, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Grabarczyk, T.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Granot, J.
    Open Univ Israel, Dept Nat Sci, 1 Univ Rd,POB 808, IL-43537 Raanana, Israel..
    Green, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Greenshaw, T.
    Univ Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Liverpool L69 7ZE, Merseyside, England..
    Grondin, M-H
    Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, IN2P3, CNRS,UMR 5797, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Gueta, O.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Hassan, T.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Konan Univ, Dept Phys, Kobe, Hyogo 6588501, Japan..
    Heller, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Hinton, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hiroshima, N.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050801, Japan..
    Hnatyk, B.
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Astron Observ, 3 Observatorna St, UA-04053 Kiev, Ukraine..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Horvath, P.
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Hrabovsky, M.
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Hrupec, D.
    Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Trg Svetog Trojstva 3, Osijek 31000, Croatia..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Huetten, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Inada, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Iocco, F.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, ICTP South Amer Inst Fundamental Res, Inst Fis Teor, Rua Dr Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, BR-01140070 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ionica, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Iori, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Piazza Aldo Moro 5 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Iwamura, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Appl Comp Sci, Ul Prof Stanislawa Lojasiewicza 11, PL-30348 Krakow, Poland..
    Janecek, P.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jean, P.
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, CNRS, INSU, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Jouvin, L.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Jurysek, J.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic.;Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, RCPTM, 17 Listopadu 1192-12, Olomouc 77146, Czech Republic..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Kadowaki, L. H. S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Karkar, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, IRFU,CNRS,IN2P3,APC,CEA, Paris, France.;10 Rue Alice Damon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieda, D.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Kimeswenger, S.
    Leopold Franzens Univ, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, Tech Str 25-8, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Knapp, J.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Knodlseder, J.
    Univ Paul Sabatier, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, CNRS, INSU, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Kobayashi, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Koch, B.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Avda Libertador Bernardo O Higgins 340, Santiago, Chile..
    Kocot, J.
    Acad Comp Ctr CYFRONET AGH, Ul Nawojki 11, PL-30950 Krakow, Poland..
    Komin, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2000 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kong, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Kowal, G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Artes Ciencias & Humanidades, Rua Arlindo Bettio 1000, BR-03828000 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Krause, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kubo, H.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Kushida, J.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, 4-1-1 Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Kushwaha, P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    La Parola, V
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    La Rosa, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Lallena Arquillo, M.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lang, R. G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Lapington, J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Le Blanc, O.
    PSL Res Univ, Observ Paris, CNRS, LUTH & GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, CNRS,AIM,CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.
    Univ Fed ABC, Ctr Ciencias Naturais & Humanas, Rua Santa Adelia 166, BR-09210170 Santo Andre, SP, Brazil..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, IN2P3, CNRS,UMR 5797, 19 Chemin Solarium,CS 10120, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lenain, J-P
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Leto, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lico, R.
    INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Dept Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lombardi, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astronom Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Via Valerio 2 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Lopez, A.
    Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Oramas, A.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Loporchio, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy..
    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Lagunillas S-N,Edif A3, Jaen 23071, Spain..
    Lyard, E.
    Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Observ Geneva, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Via U Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo, Italy..
    Mach, E.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Maggio, C.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Unitat Fis Radiac, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Edif C3,Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Malaguti, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Scienza Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mallamaci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Na Slovance 1999-2, Prague 18221 8, Czech Republic..
    Maneva, G.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, 72 Boul Tsarigradsko Chaussee, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Manganaro, M.
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Mangano, S.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Marculewicz, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, PL-15254 Bialystok, Poland..
    Mariotti, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Marti, J.
    Univ Jaen, Escuela Politecn Super Jaen, Campus Lagunillas S-N,Edif A3, Jaen 23071, Spain..
    Martinez, M.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Martinez, G.
    CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Martinez-Huerta, H.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Av Trabalhador Sao Carlense 400, BR-13566590 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Masuda, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Mazin, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, Fuhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Meunier, J-L
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,CNRS,IN2P3,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, Dept Phys, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SIAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Micanovic, S.
    Univ Rijeka, Dept Phys, Radmile Matejc 2, Rijeka 51000, Croatia..
    Millul, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via Brera 28, I-20121 Milan, Italy..
    Minaya, I. A.
    Univ Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Liverpool L69 7ZE, Merseyside, England..
    Mitchell, A.
    Univ Zurich, Phys Inst, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Phys Inst, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Moralejo, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Morcuende, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Morlino, G.
    Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Sci Fis & Chim, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Via Vetoio 1,Viale Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Morselli, A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 West 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Munar, P.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis & Planetol Spaziali IAPS, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Mundell, C.
    Univ Bath, Dept Phys, Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, England..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nagai, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, 24 Rue Gen Dufour, CH-41211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Sakura Ku, 255 Simo Ohkubo, Saitama, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Naito, T.
    Yamanashi Gakuin Univ, Fac Management Informat, Kofu, Yamanashi 4008575, Japan..
    Nakamori, T.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Phys, Yamagata, Yamagata 9908560, Japan..
    Nemmen, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Cidade Univ,R Matao 1226, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Niemiec, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Hernyk Niewodniczanski Inst Nucl Phys, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Nieto, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, EMFTEL Dept, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, IPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nikolajuk, M.
    Univ Bialystok, Fac Phys, Ul K Ciolkowskiego 1L, PL-15254 Bialystok, Poland..
    Ninci, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, Inst Fis Altes Energies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Barcelona, Spain..
    Nishijima, K.
    Tokai Univ, Dept Phys, 4-1-1 Kita Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Nosek, D.
    Charles Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000 8, Czech Republic..
    Noethe, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, Otto Hahn Str 4, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Nozaki, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Div Phys & Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Ohishi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Ohtani, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwa No Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan..
    Okumura, A.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Chikusa Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Punch, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, France.
    Monte Carlo studies for the optimisation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array layout2019Inngår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 111, s. 35-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the major next-generation observatory for ground-based veryhigh-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will improve the sensitivity of current ground-based instruments by a factor of five to twenty, depending on the energy, greatly improving both their angular and energy resolutions over four decades in energy (from 20 GeV to 300 TeV). This achievement will be possible by using tens of imaging Cherenkov telescopes of three successive sizes. They will be arranged into two arrays, one per hemisphere, located on the La Palma island (Spain) and in Paranal (Chile). We present here the optimised and final telescope arrays for both CTA sites, as well as their foreseen performance, resulting from the analysis of three different large-scale Monte Carlo productions.

  • 63.
    Ahl, Anton
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Magnetfältsmätning avmagneter till MAX IV2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om elektromagneter som används i partikelacceleratorer. Främst vissa av de som ska användas i den nya acceleratoranläggningen MAX IV i Lund och som produceras av Scanditronix Magnet AB. Denna uppsats är begränsad genom att enbart behandla en dipolmagnet och en kvadrupolmagnet.

    Fokus i arbetet ligger på fältmätningarna som utförs på magneterna och på de metodersom används för att analysera resultaten. Men för att kunna förstå de olika mätningarna och varför de utförs så behövs det en mängd teori som förklarar vissa principer och modeller. De fältmätningsmetoder som tas upp i denna uppsats är hallprob och så kallade roterande spole.

    För att få en mer grundläggande förståelse för elektromagneter och hur de första stegen i magnetdesign går till, tas även teorin som används vid de första stadierna i magnetdesignen upp. Främst den som krävs för att få en snabb uppskattning av hur det magnetiska fältet beror av den exciterande strömmen igenom magnetens spolar. Men också fördjupning av hur magnetfältet hänger ihop med de magnetiska potentialerna ingår.

    Resultaten som tas upp i denna uppsats fokuserar mest på analyser för att verifiera positioneringarna under mätningarna och därigenom minimera de felkällor som finns. Uppsatsen fick denna inriktning då de system som byggdes genomgick stora förändringar och utvecklades under arbetets gång för att förbättra kvalitén och reperterbarheten av fältmätningarna.

    Min roll i arbetslaget under projektets gång har kretsat kring beräkningarna som genomförs för att analysera data som fås vid de olika mätningarna. Både beräkningar för att presentera resultaten enligt MAX-labs specifikationer, men även för att lokalisera och åtgärda fel i systemen. Utöver detta har jag varit delaktig i framtagandet av de program som används under mätningarna.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Performance of MLSE over Fading Channels2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines the performance of a wireless transceiver system. The environment is indoor channelsimulated by Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. The modulation scheme implemented is GMSK inthe transmitter. In the receiver the Viterbi MLSE is implemented to cancel noise and interference dueto the ltering and the channel. The BER against the SNR is analyzed in this thesis. The waterfallcurves are compared for two data rates of 1 M bps and 2 Mbps over both the Rayleigh and Rician fadingchannels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Thesis
  • 65.
    AHMAD, SHOAIB
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Finite Precision Error in FPGA Measurement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Finite precision error in digital signal processing creates a threshold of quality of the processed signal. It is very important to agree on the outcome while paying in terms of power and performance.

    This project deals with the design and implementation of digital filters FIR and IIR, which is further utilized by a measurement system in order to correctly measure different parameters. Compared to analog filters, these digital filters have more precise and accurate results along with the flexibility of expected hardware and environmental changes. The error is exposed and the filters are implemented to meet the requirements of a measurement system using finite precision arithmetic and the results are also verified through MATLAB. Moreover with the help of simulations, a comparison between FIR and IIR digital filters have been presented.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Thesis Project
  • 66.
    Ahmed, Abdirahman
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Undersökning av en högspänningsomvandlare: Parameteridentifiering, modellering och simulering av högfrekvent kraftomvandlare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har genom experiment, simuleringar, beräkningar och tester undersökt en högspänningskrafttransformator för höga frekvenser. Med hjälp av en steganalys identifierades parasitelemet i kraftomvandlaren. En transformator modell och en likriktarmodell kunde tas fram. Genom att använda LT-spice kunde resultatet valideras.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Undersökning av en högspänningsomvandlare
  • 67.
    Ahnen, M. L.
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ansoldi, S.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Antonelli, L. A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Arcaro, C.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Babie, A.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Banerjee, B.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Bangale, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;ICREA & Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068501, Japan. CBPF MCTI, Xavier Sigaud 150, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Bednarek, W.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Bernardini, E.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Berti, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Biasuzzi, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Blanch, O.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Borracci, F.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Carosi, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Carosi, A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Chatterjee, A.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Colin, P.
    Colombo, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Covino, S.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Cumani, P.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Da Vela, P.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Dazzi, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Wilhelmi, E. de Ona
    Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Di Pierro, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Doert, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Dominguez, A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Prester, D. Dominis
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Einecke, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Glawion, D. Eisenacher
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Engelkemeier, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ramazani, V. Fallah
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Fernandez-Barra, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Fidalgo, D.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Font, L.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Fruck, C.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Galindo, D.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Giammaria, P.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Godinovie, N.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Gora, D.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Griffiths, S.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Guberman, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Hahn, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hassan, T.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Hayashida, M.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Herrera, J.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hose, J.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hrupec, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Hughes, G.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ishio, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Konno, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kubo, H.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kushida, J.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Kuvezdie, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lelas, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Lombardi, S.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Longo, F.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Lopez-Oramas, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;CEA Saclay, WuServ Astrophys, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM,UMR 7158 CEA DSM CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Makariev, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Maneva, G.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Manganaro, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Mannheim, K.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.;Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Maraschi, L.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Mariotti, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Martinez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Mazin, D.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.;CEA Saclay, WuServ Astrophys, Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM,UMR 7158 CEA DSM CNRS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Menzel, U.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Minev, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Moralejo, A.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Moreno, V.
    Univ Autenoma Barcelona, Unitat Fis Radiat, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Moretti, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Munar-Adrover, P.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Neustroev, V.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Niedzwiecki, A.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Nilsson, K.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland.;Univ Trieste, Trieste, Italy.;FINCA, Turku, Finland..
    Nishijima, K.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Nogues, L.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Paiano, S.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Palacio, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Paneque, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Paoletti, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Paredes-Fortuny, X.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Pedaletti, G.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Peresano, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Perri, L.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, I-40126 Bologna, Italy..
    Moroni, P. G. Prada
    Inst Nucl Energy Res, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Puljak, I.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Garcia, J. R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Rhode, W.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Riti, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Saito, T.
    Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Dept Phys, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Satalecka, K.
    Deutsch Elektr Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schroeder, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schweizer, T.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Shore, S. N.
    Inst Nucl Energy Res, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria..
    Sillanpaa, A.
    Univ Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Sitarek, J.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    S'nidarie, I.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Sobczynskall, D.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Stamerra, A.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Strzys, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Surie, T.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Takalo, L.
    Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Tavecchio, F.
    INAF, Natl Inst Astrophys, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Temnikov, P.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokai Univ, Kyoto Univ, Hakubi Ctr, Tokushima 7708501, Japan..
    Terzie, T.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Tescaro, D.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Teshima, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Torres, D. F.
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Torres-Alla, N.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, ICC, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Treves, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Vanzo, G.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Acosta, M. Vazquez
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Vovk, I.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Ward, J. E.
    Barcelona Inst Sci & Technol, IFAE, Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Will, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38200, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dpto Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Wu, M. H.
    Inst Space Sci CSIC IEEC, Barcelona 08193, Spain..
    Zarie, D.
    Univ Osijek, Univ Zagreb FER, Univ Split FESB, Croatian MAGIC Consortium,Rudjer Boskov Inst Univ, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Abdalla, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Abramowski, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Aharonian, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Dublin Inst Adv Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.;Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia..
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.;Yerevan Phys Inst, 2 Alikhanian Bros St, Yerevan 375036, Armenia..
    Andersson, T.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Angtiner, E. O.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Arakawa, M.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Arrieta, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Aubert, P.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Balzer, A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Barnard, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Becherini, Yvonne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Berge, D.
    Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Bernhard, S.
    Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bernlohr, K.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Blackwell, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bottcher, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Bolmont, J.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Bordas, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bregeon, J.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Brun, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, P.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Bryan, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Btichele, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Capasso, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Carr, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Casanova, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cerruti, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Chevalier, J.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Chretien, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Coffaro, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Cologna, G.
    Condon, B.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cui, Y.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Davids, I. D.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Decock, J.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Degrange, B.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Dei, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Dewilt, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Dirson, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Domainko, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Donath, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Drury, L. O 'C.
    Dutson, K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Dyks, J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Edwards, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Eger, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Ernenwein, J. -P
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Farnier, C.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Weltraum & Astrophys, Inst Theoret Phys, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fegan, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Forster, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Ftifiling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gabici, S.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Gajdus, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Garrigoux, T.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giebels, B.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Gottschal, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Goya, A.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Hahn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hawkes, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hermann, G.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hofmann, W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holler, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Horns, D.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Ivascenko, A.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.;Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.;Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Iwasaki, H.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Janiak, M.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jingo, M.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Jogler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Katarzyfiski, K.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Fac Phys Astron & Informat, Ctr Astron, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Katsuragawa, M.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Japan Aerpspace Explorat Agcy JAXA, Kanagawa 2298510, Japan..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    Khangulyan, D.
    Rikkyo Univ, Dept Phys, Toshima Ku, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Tokyo 1718501, Japan..
    Khelifi, B.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Kieffer, M.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ,LPNHE, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 5, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Klochkov, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kluiniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kolitzus, D.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kosack, K.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Krakau, S.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Krtiger, P. P.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Laffon, H.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Lamanna, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Lau, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Lees, J. -P
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, PSL Res Univ, LUTH,Observat Paris, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lefranc, V.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Lemiere, A.
    Sorbonne Paris Cite, Observ Paris, Univ Paris Diderot, APC,CNRS IN2P3,CEA Irfu, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etudes Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Lohse, T.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Liu, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lypova, I.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Marandon, V.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, CNRS IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Marcowith, A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mariaud, C.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Lab Annecy Le Vieux Phys Particules, CNRS IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France..
    Marx, R.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Maurin, G.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, 13301 Private Bag, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Maxted, N.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Mayer, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Meyer, M.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mitche, A. M. W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mohamed, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Ntirnberg, Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Mora, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, Albanova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moulin, E.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France. Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Prokoph, Heike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and HESS observations2018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikkel-id A14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient particle acceleration is taking place in the system. Aims. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to periodic eclipses (P-orb similar to 13.1 days) and precession of the circumstellar disk (P-pre similar to 162 days) periodically covering the central binary system is expected to be at its minimum. The eastern and western SS 433/W50 interaction regions are also examined using the whole data set available. We aim to constrain some theoretical models previously developed for this system with our observations. Methods. We made use of dedicated observations from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of SS 433 taken from 2006 to 2011. These observation were combined for the first time and accounted for a total effective observation time of 16.5 h, which were scheduled considering the expected phases of minimum absorption of the putative VHE emission. Gamma-ray attenuation does not affect the jet/medium interaction regions. In this case, the analysis of a larger data set amounting to similar to 40-80 h, depending on the region, was employed. Results. No evidence of VHE gamma-ray emission either from the central binary system or from the eastern/western interaction regions was found. Upper limits were computed for the combined data set. Differential fluxes from the central system are found to be less than or similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1) in an energy interval ranging from similar to few x 100 GeV to similar to few TeV. Integral flux limits down to similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) and similar to 10(-13)-10(-14) ph cm(-2) s(-1) are obtained at 300 and 800 GeV, respectively. Our results are used to place constraints on the particle acceleration fraction at the inner jet regions and on the physics of the jet/medium interactions. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the fraction of the jet kinetic power that is transferred to relativistic protons must be relatively small in SS 433, q(p) <= 2.5 x 10(-5), to explain the lack of TeV and neutrino emission from the central system. At the SS 433/W50 interface, the presence of magnetic fields greater than or similar to 10 mu G is derived assuming a synchrotron origin for the observed X-ray emission. This also implies the presence of high-energy electrons with E-e up to 50 TeV, preventing an efficient production of gamma-ray fluxes in these interaction regions.

  • 68.
    Aikebaier, Faluke
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Effects of electron-electron interaction in pristine and doped graphene2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this master thesis is to investigate the eect of electron-electron interaction on electronic properties of graphene that can be measured experimentally. A tight-binding model, which includes up to next-nearest-neighbor hopping, with parameters tted to density functional theory calculations, has been used to describe the electronic structure of graphene. The electron-electron interaction is described by the Hubbard model using a mean- eld approximation. Based on the analysis of dierent tight-binding models available in the literature, we conclude that a next-nearest-neighbor tight-binding model is in better agreement with density functional theory calculations, especially for the linear dispersion around the Dirac point. The Fermi velocity in this case is very close to the experimental value, which was measured by using a variety of techniques. Interaction-induced modi cations of the linear dispersion around the Dirac point have been obtained. Unlike the non-local Hartree-Fock calculations, which take into account the long-range electron-electron interaction and yield logarithmic corrections, in agreement with experiment, we found only linear modi cations of the Fermi velocity. The reasons why one cannot obtain logarithmic corrections using the mean- eld Hubbard model have been discussed in detail. The remaining part of the thesis is focused on calculations of the local density of states around a single substitutional impurity in graphene. This quantity can be directly compared to the results of the scanning tunneling microscopy in doped graphene. We compare explicitly non-interacting and interacting cases. In the latter case, we performed self-consistent calculations, and found that electron-electron interaction has a signi cant eect on the local density of states. Furthermore, the band gap at high-symmetry points of the Brillouin zone of a supercell, triggered by the impurity, is modi ed by interactions. We use a perturbative model to explain this eect and quantitative agreement with numerical results. In conclusion, it is expected that the long-range electron-electron nteraction is extremely strong and important in graphene. However, as this thesis has shown, interactions at the level of the Hubbard model and mean- eld approximation also introduce corrections to the electronic properties of graphene.

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    Aikebaier, Faluke
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Pertsova, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Effects of short-range electron-electron interactions in doped graphene2015Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, nr 15, artikkel-id 155420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study theoretically the effects of short-range electron-electron interactions on the electronic structure of graphene, in the presence of substitutional impurities. Our computational approach is based on the π orbital tight-binding model for graphene, with the electron-electron interactions treated self-consistently at the level of the mean-field Hubbard model. The finite impurity concentration is modeled using the supercell approach. We compare explicitly noninteracting and interacting cases with varying interaction strength and impurity potential strength. We focus in particular on the interaction-induced modifications in the local density of states around the impurity, which is a quantity that can be directly probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy of doped graphene. We find that the resonant character of the impurity states near the Fermi level is enhanced by the interactions. Furthermore, the size of the energy gap, which opens up at high-symmetry points of the Brillouin zone of the supercell upon doping, is significantly affected by the interactions. The details of this effect depend subtly on the supercell geometry. We use a perturbative model to explain these features and find quantitative agreement with numerical results.

  • 70.
    Akeab, Imad
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Accurate techniques for 2D electromagnetic scattering2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three parts. The first part is an introduction and referencessome recent work on 2D electromagnetic scattering problems at high frequencies. It alsopresents the basic integral equation types for impenetrable objects. A brief discussionof the standard elements of the method of moments is followed by summaries of thepapers.Paper I presents an accurate implementation of the method of moments for a perfectlyconducting cylinder. A scaling for the rapid variation of the solution improves accuracy.At high frequencies, the method of moments leads to a large dense system of equations.Sparsity in this system is obtained by modifying the integration path in the integralequation. The modified path reduces the accuracy in the deep shadow.In paper II, a hybrid method is used to handle the standing waves that are prominentin the shadow for the TE case. The shadow region is treated separately, in a hybridscheme based on a priori knowledge about the solution. An accurate method to combinesolutions in this hybrid scheme is presented.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 71.
    Akeab, Imad
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    High frequency scattering and spectral methods2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five parts. The first part is an introduction with references to some recent work on 2D electromagnetic scattering problems at high frequencies. It also presents the basic integral equation types for impenetrable objects and the standard elements of the method of moments. An overview of frequency modulated radar at low frequencies is followed by summaries of the papers.

    Paper I presents an accurate implementation of the method of moments for a perfectly conducting cylinder. A scaling for the rapid variation of the solution improves accuracy. At high frequencies, the method of moments leads to a large dense system of equations. Sparsity in this system is obtained by the modification of the path in the integral equation. The modified path reduces the accuracy in the deep shadow.

    In paper II, a hybrid method is used to handle the standing waves that are prominent in the shadow for the cylindrical TE case. The shadow region is treated separately, in a hybrid scheme based on a priori knowledge about the solution. An accurate method to combine solutions in this hybrid scheme is presented.

    In paper III, the surface current in the shadow zone of a convex or a concave scatterer is approximated by extracting the dominant waves. An accurate technique based on the symmetric discrete Fourier transform is used to extract the complex wavenumbers and amplitudes for those waves. The dominant waves constitute a concise form of scaling that is used to improve the performance of the method of moments. The effect of surface curvature on the dominant waves has been investigated in this work.

    In paper IV, frequency modulated continuous wave radar (FMCW) at low frequency is studied as a way to locate targets that are normally not detected by conventional radar. Three separate platforms with isotropic antennas are used for this purpose. The trilateration method is a way to locate the targets accurately by means of spectral techniques.

    The problem of ghost targets has been studied for monostatic and multistatic radar. In the case of confluent echoes in the spectra, potentially missing echoes are reinserted in order to locate all targets. The Capon method is used to obtain high resolution spectra and thus reduce the confluence problem. The need for bandwidth is also reduced.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Imad Akeab, Doctoral Thesis (Kappa)
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  • 72. Aksimsek, Sinan
    et al.
    Cinar, Gökhan
    Nilsson, Börje
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Nordebo, Sven
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    TEM wave scattering by a step discontinuity on the outer wall of a coaxial waveguide2013Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 61, nr 8, s. 2783-2791Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the propagation of TEM waves along a coaxial waveguide with a step discontinuity on its outer wall is investigated rigorously by applying the direct Fourier transform and reducing the problem into the solution of a modified Wiener–Hopf equation. The solution for the field terms are determined in terms of an infinite number of unknown coefficients, which satisfy an infinite set of linear algebraic equations. These equations are solved numerically and the effect of area ratio is presented graphically at the end of the analysis. The same problem is also analyzed by applying the mode-matching technique and the results of the two approaches are compared. It is observed numerically that the Wiener–Hopf technique provides a better convergence than the mode-matching technique.

  • 73.
    Alam, Md. Ariful
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Mobile Network Planning and KPI Improvement2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, coverage planning in GSM networks as well as capacity and frequency planning has been studied. Various signal interruptions and the necessary steps to remove those interruptions in order to maintain signal quality in mobile communication have been studied. Precautions that should be taken for reducing the effects of interruptions have also been discussed. A drive test has been performed as a part of the improvement process. Guidelines for key performance indicators (KPI) pave the way for radio network quality, coverage and the smooth functioning of the GSM system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    DFM degree Master Thesis
  • 74.
    Algabroun, Hatem
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Ingwald, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT). Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Assessment of the impact of maintenance integration within a plant using MFD: A case study2019Inngår i: Asset Intelligence through Integration and Interoperability and Contemporary Vibration Engineering Technologies: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management and the 13th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery / [ed] Joseph MathewC.W. LimLin MaDon SandsMichael E. CholettePietro Borghesani, Springer, 2019, s. 61-71Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decades the recognition of maintenance as an effective part of the company competitiveness has grown. In order to enhance maintenance performance and its positive impact, integration with the rest of the plant activities should be planned and performed. In this study, Maintenance Function Deployment model was applied on a real data of a case company. The model was used to analyse the company’s production with respect to the business and economic variables. This was done first through finding loss causes of the strategic goals of the case company, then breaking down these causes and their costs into their root causes. Based on economic estimations, the results show that the major root causes behind losses are insufficient training of personnel and lack of maintenance integration. It is concluded that properly considering the integration of maintenance within the company’s activities, reduces loss and improves the company’s performance. Also, that applying MFD eases the identification of the root-causes behind losses as well as quantifying and prioritizing the economic losses. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

  • 75.
    Alhasan, Raghda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Software defined radio2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology is used to receive and transmit radio signals. Radio signals can be received using the SDR_sharp software that can be downloaded to a personal computer and combined with the RTL-SDR dongle hardware that is connected to the computer. This report gives a brief explanation of the SDR receiver, the supported software, and some applications that can be implemented with SDR. Moreover, it is shown how to install the SDR_sharp software and the hardware Zadig. After installation, wideband FM (WFM) reception and adjustment of RF gain and frequency error is illustrated. The reception of some national, regional and community/commercial stations that can be received in Växjö Sweden is presented.

    Keyword: Software defined radio, FM radio.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Software Defined Radio
  • 76.
    Al-Masaraa, Zakaria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Rahimi, Majid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Energikartläggning hos Holtab AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En energikartläggning är en granskning av företagets energianvändning i förhållande till företagets behov. Syftet med energikartläggningen är att visa hur elenergin används.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga och genomföra energimätningar på anläggningarna som finns på Holtab AB.

    I detta examensarbete genomförs en inledande kartläggning som skall fånga åtminstone fyra största enhetsprocesserna per byggnad samt mäta dessa med hjälp av två amperemätare med logger, Fluke 345 och två kanals Chauvin Arnoux ML912.

    De största enhetsprocesserna som kunde fångas var ventilation, tryckluft, elvärme och belysning.

    I slutet av kartläggningen och mätningarna som genomfördes hos företaget blev den totala energianvändningen på ca 820 MWh per år för de största enhetsprocesserna vilket är över 85 % av den totala förväntade elenergianvändningen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 77.
    Alsouda, Yasser
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    An IoT Solution for Urban Noise Identification in Smart Cities: Noise Measurement and Classification2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is defined as any undesired sound. Urban noise and its effect on citizens area significant environmental problem, and the increasing level of noise has become a critical problem in some cities. Fortunately, noise pollution can be mitigated by better planning of urban areas or controlled by administrative regulations. However, the execution of such actions requires well-established systems for noise monitoring. In this thesis, we present a solution for noise measurement and classification using a low-power and inexpensive IoT unit. To measure the noise level, we implement an algorithm for calculating the sound pressure level in dB. We achieve a measurement error of less than 1 dB. Our machine learning-based method for noise classification uses Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients for audio feature extraction and four supervised classification algorithms (that is, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, bootstrap aggregating, and random forest). We evaluate our approach experimentally with a dataset of about 3000 sound samples grouped in eight sound classes (such as car horn, jackhammer, or street music). We explore the parameter space of the four algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values for the classification of sound samples in the dataset under study. We achieve noise classification accuracy in the range of 88% – 94%.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    An IoT Solution for Urban Noise Identification in Smart Cities
  • 78.
    Alsouda, Yasser
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kurti, Arianit
    RISE Interactive, Sweden.
    A Machine Learning Driven IoT Solution for Noise Classification in Smart Cities2018Inngår i: Machine Learning Driven Technologies and Architectures for Intelligent Internet of Things (ML-IoT), August 28, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic, Euromicro , 2018, s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a machine learning based method for noise classification using a low-power and inexpensive IoT unit. We use Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients for audio feature extraction and supervised classification algorithms (that is, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbors) for noise classification. We evaluate our approach experimentally with a dataset of about 3000 sound samples grouped in eight sound classes (such as, car horn, jackhammer, or street music). We explore the parameter space of support vector machine and k-nearest neighbors algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values for classification of sound samples in the dataset under study. We achieve a noise classification accuracy in the range 85% -- 100%. Training and testing of our k-nearest neighbors (k = 1) implementation on Raspberry Pi Zero W is less than a second for a dataset with features of more than 3000 sound samples.

  • 79.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Grahn Johansson, Viktoria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Exploring recontextualization of didactic ability and vocational teacher students’ professional learning through video analysis2018Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 36-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how vocational teacher education (VTE) students experience professional learning through the use of video analysis, their reflection among peers and their meaning-making of the ‘didactic ability’ concept during the beginning of their education. The empirical data consists of an online survey and semi-structured interviews with five vocational teacher education students. Bernstein’s concept of ‘pedagogic discourse’ and a conceptual framework of recontextualisation in vocational education and training developed by Evans, Guile and Harris guide the research. The findings strongly support observations from previous research that emphasise that the use of video promotes and supports teacher students’ professional growth. The VTE students develop a new understanding of how to organise content and to analytically handle the relationship between theoretical aspects and professional action. The emerging meanings of didactic ability are a new discursive understanding of work-knowledge and the teaching content, as well as a strategic structuring of the content for sense-making, transcending the theory and practice divide through visual artefacts and practical tasks and the ability to use different teaching strategies. Language, actions, content and meanings in terms of workplace codes tend to ‘move’ and to be recontextualised from the school’s pedagogic discourse.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 80.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Nelson, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Journeys in Search of the Baltic Sea Teacher: Cross-Border Collaboration and Dialogues within the Cohab Project2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Journeys in Search of the Baltic Sea Teacher
  • 81.
    Alvunger, Per-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Yrkeskunnandets problematik: En studie i yrkeskunnande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna essä handlar bland annat om det dilemma som finns mellan rollen som yrkesarbetare och lärarrollen. Essän är ett försök av mig att titta på mitt eget yrkeskunnande och kika på några andras berättelser för att försöka hitta nyckelord, analogier och olika exempel som kanske kan leda till en fördjupad förståelse vad ett yrkeskunnande handlar om. Syftet med denna essä är att se om jag lyckas att hitta de nyckelord som jag förknippar med yrkeskunnande och om dessa ord kan återfinnas i andras berättelser. Jag berättar om olika möten jag har haft med människor och redogör för händelser i mitt liv som påverkat mitt eget kunnande. Jag har med några människors berättelser och de redogör för erfarenheter som har påverkat deras kunskap på något sätt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Peo.Alvunger-Magisteruppsats
  • 82.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Läraranställning och anställningsordning vid Linnéuniversitetet: Förslag för förnyelse2019Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 83.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Elektronikingenjörens vardag: - ett rymdäventyr2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Masteruppsatsen Elektronikingenjörens vardag - ett rymdäventyr är skriven inom programmet yrkeskunnande och professionsutveckling vid Linnéuniversitetet. Uppsatsen beskriver ett yrkeskunnande som både innehåller avancerade datorsimuleringar och handfasta lödningar av elektriska komponenter, där teori och praktik samverkar. Uppsatsen är skriven i essäform, där händelser och situationer i yrkeslivet utforskas.

    Uppsatsen är skriven för att belysa yrkeskunnandet hos en elektronikingenjör från olika synvinklar; arbetslivet, lärandet och moralen. Genom att behandla tre olika sidor av yrket är tanken att få en större insikt om yrkets helhet. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 84.
    Andersson, Tom
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Inverse Compton gamma-rays from Markarian 421: A study of GeV and TeV emission from Mrk 421 based on Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis summarizes a senior project on the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Markarian 421 (Mrk 421). Observations of Gev and TeV flux with Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) were compared with previous reports and publications of flux analyses of the gamma-ray emission from Mrk 421. Power laws with exponential cutoffs made consistent fits to most SEDs in the GeV and TeV bands.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 85.
    Argyropoulou, Eftychia
    et al.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Ioannidis, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    The eigenvalue problem for a bianisotropic cavity2013Inngår i: PIERS proceedings 2013: Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Electromagnetics Acad , 2013, s. 858-862Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the eigenvalue problem for a perfectly conducting bianisotropic cavity. We formulate the corresponding mathematical problem and we give a characterization of the eigenelements (non-zero eigenfrequencies and modes) via a perturbation argument involving the eigenelements of the hollow cavity.

  • 86.
    Arias, M.
    et al.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vink, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Netherlands.
    de Gasperin, F.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Salas, P.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Oonk, J. B. R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, R. J.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    van Amesfoort, A. S.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Anderson, J.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Germany.
    Beck, R.
    Max Planck Inst Radio Astron, Germany.
    Bell, M. E.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Bentum, M. J.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Best, P.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Blaauw, R.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Breitling, F.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Germany.
    Broderick, J. W.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Brouw, W. N.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Kapteyn Astron Inst, Netherlands.
    Brueggen, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Germany.
    Butcher, H. R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Ciardi, B.
    Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Germany.
    de Geus, E.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;SmarterVision BV, Netherlands.
    Deller, A.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Swinburne Univ Technol, Australia.
    van Dijk, P. C. G.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Duscha, S.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Eisloeffel, J.
    Thuringer Landessternwarte, Germany.
    Garrett, M. A.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands;Univ Manchester, UK.
    Griessmeier, J. M.
    Univ Orleans, France.
    Gunst, A. W.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    van Haarlem, M. P.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Heald, G.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.;CSIRO Astron & Space Sci, Australia.
    Hessels, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Horandel, J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Holties, H. A.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    George Washington Univ, USA.
    Iacobelli, M.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Juette, E.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Germany.
    Krankowski, A.
    Univ Warmia & Mazury, Poland.
    van Leeuwen, J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Mann, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Germany.
    McKay-Bukowski, D.
    Univ Tromsö, Norway;STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, UK.
    McKean, J. P.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Kapteyn Astron Inst, Netherlands.
    Mulder, H.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Nelles, A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, USA.
    Orru, E.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Paas, H.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pandey-Pommier, M.
    Observ Lyon, France.
    Pandey, V. N.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands;Kapteyn Astron Inst, Netherlands.
    Pekal, R.
    Poznan Supercomp & Networking Ctr PCSS, Poland.
    Pizzo, R.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Polatidis, A. G.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Reich, W.
    Max Planck Inst Radio Astron, Germany.
    Rottgering, H. J. A.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Rothkaehl, H.
    Space Res Ctr PAS, Poland.
    Schwarz, D. J.
    Univ Bielefeld, Germany.
    Smirnov, O.
    Rhodes Univ, South Africa;SKA South Africa, South Africa.
    Soida, M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Steinmetz, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Germany.
    Tagger, M.
    Univ Orleans, France.
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Toribio, M. C.
    Leiden Univ,Netherlands;Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Vocks, C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Germany.
    van der Wiel, M. H. D.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Wijers, R. A. M. J.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wucknitz, O.
    Max Planck Inst Radio Astron, Germany.
    Zarka, P.
    Observ Paris, France;Observ Paris, France.
    Zucca, P.
    Netherlands Inst Radio Astron, Netherlands.
    Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A2018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikkel-id A110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of Ti-44, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims. Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods. We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17 '' (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the similar to 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results. We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 +/- 0.48 M-circle dot for an assumed gas temperature of T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114 '' +/- 6 '' and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta (as more and more material meets the reverse shock and heats up) cannot account for the observed low-frequency behaviour of the secular decline rate. Conclusions. To reconcile our low-frequency absorption measurements with models that reproduce much of the observed behaviour in Cas A and predict little mass in the unshocked ejecta, the ejecta need to be very clumped or the temperature in the cold gas needs to be low (similar to 10 K). Both of these options are plausible and can together contribute to the high absorption value that we find.

  • 87.
    Arrabito, L.
    et al.
    Univ Montpellier 2, France.
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier 2, France.
    Haupt, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). DESY, Germany.
    Graciani Diaz, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Stagni, F.
    CERN, Switzerland.
    Tsaregorodtsev, A.
    CNRS, France.
    Prototype of a production system for Cherenkov Telescope Array with DIRAC2015Inngår i: 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTING IN HIGH ENERGY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS (CHEP2015), PARTS 1-9, 2015, s. Article ID: 032001-, artikkel-id 032001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) an array of many tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes deployed on an unprecedented scale is the next generation instrument in the field of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA will operate as an open observatory providing data products to the scientific community. An average data stream of about 10 GB/s for about 1000 hours of observation per year, thus producing several PB/year, is expected. Large CPU time is required for data-processing as well for massive Monte Carlo simulations needed for detector calibration purposes. The current CTA computing model is based on a distributed infrastructure for the archive and the data off-line processing. In order to manage the off-line data-processing in a distributed environment, CTA has evaluated the DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) system, which is a general framework for the management of tasks over distributed heterogeneous computing environments. In particular, a production system prototype has been developed, based on the two main DIRAC components, i.e. the Workload Management and Data Management Systems. After three years of successful exploitation of this prototype, for simulations and analysis, we proved that DIRAC provides suitable functionalities needed for the CTA data processing. Based on these results, the CTA development plan aims to achieve an operational production system, based on the DIRAC Workload Management System, to be ready for the start of CTA operation phase in 2017-2018. One more important challenge consists of the development of a fully automatized execution of the CTA workflows. For this purpose, we have identified a third DIRAC component, the so-called Transformation System, which offers very interesting functionalities to achieve this automatisation. The Transformation System is a 'data driven' system, allowing to automatically trigger data-processing and data management operations according to pre-defined scenarios. In this paper, we present a brief summary of the DIRAC evaluation done so far, as well as the future developments planned for the CTA production system. In particular, we will focus on the developments of CTA automatic workflows, based on the Transformation System. As a result, we also propose some design optimizations of the Transformation System, in order to fully support the most complex workflows, envisaged in the CTA processing.

  • 88.
    Avdic, Armin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Larsson, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Korrigering av sågplacering: En flervariabel tidsdiskret reglering av sågplacering i ett sågverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet handlar om sågreglering i syfte att förbättra precisionen i sågningen. I dagens sågverk är utrustningen modern men sättet att bestämma korrigeringsvärden för bandsågar är omodernt. Arbetet innehåller analys, programmering samt kalkylering. En del i arbetet består av att finna störningar i sågprocessen och eliminera störningarna med hjälp av sågkorrigering. Mätningen sker med en noggrannheten på en tiondels millimeter. En algoritm som korrigerar sågarna för bästa möjliga resultat har implementerats i PLC och Excel. Denna algoritm ger ett snabbt svar för korrigeringsvärdet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 89.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Boström, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Technology in children’s picture books as an agent for reinforcing or challenging traditional gender stereotypes2019Inngår i: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy. Children start to stereotype everyday life regarding this dichotomy as early as the age of two. The preschool, through its activities—among them reading aloud from picture books—is an arena where societal norms can be either preserved or challenged. Books about different artefacts, e.g. cars, airplanes and boats, often serve as an introduction for children about the human application of technology and may influence how they identify and categorise the technology they encounter in everyday life. The aim of this study was to investigate the technological content in a selection of picture books from a gender perspective. Since preschools in Sweden often use books from libraries in their daily activities, the empirical material was derived from the library sections Facts for youngsters and Technology for youngsters, aimed at children aged 1–3 and 3–6. A thematic analysis was used to discover the dominant themes within the books. The results show that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation of how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 90.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Quantum Holonomy for Many-Body Systems and Quantum Computation2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research of this Ph. D. thesis is in the field of Quantum Computation and Quantum

    Information. A key problem in this field is the fragile nature of quantum states. This

    becomes increasingly acute when the number of quantum bits (qubits) grows in order to

    perform large quantum computations. It has been proposed that geometric (Berry) phases

    may be a useful tool to overcome this problem, because of the inherent robustness of such

    phases to random noise. In the thesis we investigate geometric phases and quantum

    holonomies (matrix-valued geometric phases) in many-body quantum systems, and elucidate

    the relationship between these phases and the quantum correlations present in the systems.

    An overall goal of the project is to assess the feasibility of using geometric phases and

    quantum holonomies to build robust quantum gates, and investigate their behavior when the

    size of a quantum system grows, thereby gaining insights into large-scale quantum

    computation.

    In a first project we study the Uhlmann holonomy of quantum states for hydrogen-like

    atoms. We try to get into a physical interpretation of this geometric concept by analyzing its

    relation with quantum correlations in the system, as well as by comparing it with different

    types of geometric phases such as the standard pure state geometric phase, Wilczek-Zee

    holonomy, Lévay geometric phase and mixed-state geometric phases. In a second project we

    establish a unifying connection between the geometric phase and the geometric measure of

    entanglement in a generic many-body system, which provides a universal approach to the

    study of quantum critical phenomena. This approach can be tested experimentally in an

    interferometry setup, where the geometric measure of entanglement yields the visibility of

    the interference fringes, whereas the geometric phase describes the phase shifts. In a third

    project we propose a scheme to implement universal non-adiabatic holonomic quantum

    gates, which can be realized in novel nano-engineered systems such as quantum dots,

    molecular magnets, optical lattices and topological insulators. In a fourth project we propose

    an experimentally feasible approach based on “orange slice” shaped paths to realize non-

    Abelian geometric phases, which can be used particularly for geometric manipulation of

    qubits. Finally, we provide a physical setting for realizing non-Abelian off-diagonal

    geometric phases. The proposed setting can be implemented in a cyclic chain of four qubits

    with controllable nearest-neighbor interactions. Our proposal seems to be within reach in

    various nano-engineered systems and therefore opens up for first experimental test of the

    non-Abelian off-diagonal geometric phase.

  • 91.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry.
    Non-Abelian off-diagonal geometric phases in nano-engineered four-qubit systems2013Inngår i: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 103, nr 6, s. 60011-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of off-diagonal geometric phase (GP) has been introduced in order to recover interference information about the geometry of quantal evolution where the standard GPs are not well-defined. In this Letter, we propose a physical setting for realizing non-Abelian off-diagonal GPs. The proposed non-Abelian off-diagonal GPs can be implemented in a cyclic chain of four qubits with controllable nearest-neighbor interactions. Our proposal seems to be within reach in various nano-engineered systems and therefore opens up for first experimental test of the non-Abelian off-diagonal GP.

  • 92.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    et al.
    University of Isfahan, Iran.
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University.
    Spin-electric Berry phase shift in triangular molecular magnets2016Inngår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 94, nr 23, artikkel-id 235423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a Berry phase effect on the chiral degrees of freedom of a triangular magnetic molecule. The phase is induced by adiabatically varying an external electric field in the plane of the molecule via a spin-electric coupling mechanism present in these frustrated magnetic molecules. The Berry phase effect depends on spin-orbit interaction splitting and on the electric dipole moment. By varying the amplitude of the applied electric field, the Berry phase difference between the two spin states can take any arbitrary value between zero and π, which can be measured as a phase shift between the two chiral states by using spin-echo techniques. Our result can be used to realize an electric-field-induced geometric phase-shift gate acting on a chiral qubit encoded in the ground-state manifold of the triangular magnetic molecule.

  • 93.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 518, Se-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unifying geometric entanglement and geometric phase in a quantum phase transition2013Inngår i: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. Article ID: 012310-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometric measure of entanglement and geometric phase have recently been used to analyze quantum phase transition in the XY spin chain. We unify these two approaches by showing that the geometric entanglement and the geometric phase are respectively the real and imaginary parts of a complex-valued geometric entanglement, which can be investigated in typical quantum interferometry experiments. We argue that the singular behavior of the complex-valued geometric entanglement at a quantum critical point is a characteristic of any quantum phase transition, by showing that the underlying mechanism is the occurrence of level crossings associated with the underlying Hamiltonian.

  • 94.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University ; National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Universal Non-adiabatic Holonomic Gates in Quantum Dots and Single-Molecule Magnets2014Inngår i: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 013029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometric manipulation of a quantum system offers a method for fast, universal, and robust quantum information processing. Here, we propose a scheme for universal all-geometric quantum computation using non-adiabatic quantum holonomies. We propose three different realizations of the scheme based on an unconventional use of quantum dot and single-molecule magnet devices,which offer promising scalability and robust efficiency.

  • 95.
    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala Univ.
    Non-Abelian geometric phases in a system of coupled quantum bits2014Inngår i: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 89, nr 2, s. 022117-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common strategy to measure the Abelian geometric phase for a qubit is to let it evolve along an orange-slice-shaped path connecting two antipodal points on the Bloch sphere by two different semi-great-circles. Since the dynamical phases vanish for such paths, this allows for direct measurement of the geometric phase. Here, we generalize the "orange-slice" setting to the non-Abelian case. The proposed method to measure the non-Abelian geometric phase can be implemented in a cyclic chain of four qubits with controllable interactions.

  • 96.
    Baranska, M.
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Dluzewski, P.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Kret, S.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Morawiec, K.
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Li, Tian
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Sadowski, Janusz
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Polish Acad Sci, Poland ; Lund University.
    Off-Axis Electron Holography of Magnetic Nanostructures: Magnetic Behavior of Mn Rich Nanoprecipitates in (Mn,Ga) As System2017Inngår i: Acta Physica Polonica. A, ISSN 0587-4246, E-ISSN 1898-794X, Vol. 131, nr 5, s. 1406-1408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lorentz off-axis electron holography technique is applied to study the magnetic nature of Mn rich nanoprecipitates in (Mn,Ga) As system. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated in detection of the magnetic field even for small nanocrystals having an average size down to 20 nm.

  • 97.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Farnier, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Stockholms universitet.
    Prokhorov, Dmitry
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Punch, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Abbott, B. P.
    LIGO, California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Abbott, R.
    LIGO, California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Abbott, T. D.
    Louisiana State University, USA.
    Acernese, F.
    Università di Salerno, Italy;INFN, Italy.
    Ackley, K.
    University of Florida, USA;OzGrav, Australia.
    Adams, C.
    LIGO Livingston Observatory, USA.
    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 48, nr 2, artikkel-id L12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

  • 98.
    Becherini, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Thoudam, Satyendra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Punch, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Paris Diderot University, France.
    Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Very-High-Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the ALTO observatory2018Inngår i: 35th International Cosmic Ray Conference;ICRC2017, Busan, Korea, July 10-20, 2017, Trieste: Sissa Medialab , 2018, artikkel-id 782Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ALTO is a concept/project in the exploratory phase since 2013 aiming to build a wide-field Very-High-Energy gamma-ray observatory at very high altitude in the Southern hemisphere. The operation of such an observatory will complement the Northern hemisphere observations performed by HAWC and will make possible the exploration of the central region of our Galaxy and the hunt for PeVatrons, and to search for extended Galactic objects such as the Vela Supernova Remnant and the Fermi bubbles. 

    The ALTO project is aiming for a substantial improvement of the Water Cherenkov Detection Technique by increasing the altitude of the observatory in order to lower the energy threshold, by using a layer of scintillator below the water tank to optimize the signal over background discrimination, by minimizing the size of the tanks and having a more compact array to sample the air-shower footprints with better precision, and by using precise electronics which will provide time-stamped waveforms to improve the angular and energy resolution. ALTO is designed to have as low an energy threshold as possible so as to act as a fast trigger alert to other observatories -- primarily to the Southern part of CTA -- for transient Galactic and extra-galactic phenomena. 

    The wide field-of-view resulting from the detection technique allows the survey of a large portion of the sky continuously, thus giving the possibility to access emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts, Active Galactic Nuclei and X-ray binary flares, and extended emissions of both Galactic (Vela SNR, Fermi bubbles) and extra-galactic (AGN radio lobes) origin. The ALTO observatory will be composed of about a thousand detection units, each of which consists of a Water Cherenkov Detector positioned above a liquid Scintillation Detector, distributed within an area of about 200 m in diameter. The project is in the design study phase which is soon to be followed by a prototyping phase. The ALTO concept, design study and expected sensitivity together with the prototype status and plans for final deployment in the Southern hemisphere will be the subjects of this presentation.