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  • 51.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and product substitution in Sweden - preliminary results2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce with use of harvested timber for construction and use of remaining woody biomass for heat and power production gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare under the assumptions made. The use of willow for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for a wood product mix lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in our scenarios. Spruce cultivations can achieve considerable carbon emission reductions in the long term, but willow and poplar might be a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  • 52.
    Eggers, Thies
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and biomass utilisation2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce in southern Sweden with use of harvested timber for material or construction gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare in the long term. The use of willow and poplar for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for construction lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in southern and central Sweden. Short-rotation willow and poplar are a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  • 53. Eriksson, Erik
    et al.
    Gillespie, Andrew
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Langvall, Ola
    Olsson, Mats
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest management practices and wood substitution2007Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 671-681Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex fluxes between standing and harvested carbon stocks, and the linkage between harvested biomassand fossil fuel substitution, call for a holistic, system-wide analysis in a life-cycle perspective to evaluate the impacts offorest management and forest product use on carbon balances. We have analysed the net carbon emission under alternativeforest management strategies and product uses, considering the carbon fluxes and stocks associated with tree biomass,soils, and forest products. Simulations were made using three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest managementregimes (traditional, intensive management, and intensive fertilization), three slash management practices (no removal, removal,and removal with stumps), two forest product uses (construction material and biofuel), and two reference fossilfuels (coal and natural gas). The greatest reduction of net carbon emission occurred when the forest was fertilized, slashand stumps were harvested, wood was used as construction material, and the reference fossil fuel was coal. The lowest reductionoccurred with a traditional forest management, forest residues retained on site, and harvested biomass was used asbiofuel to replace natural gas. Product use had the greatest impact on net carbon emission, whereas forest management regime,reference fossil fuel, and forest residue usage as biofuel were less significant.

  • 54.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    METLA .
    Kallio, Maarit
    METLA .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    University of Helsinki.
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    METLA .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Solberg, Birger
    UMB .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Valsta, Lauri
    University of Helsinki.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012Inngår i: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, nr 1, s. 131-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 55.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    METLA .
    Kallio, Maarit
    METLA .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    University of Helsinki.
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    METLA .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Solberg, Birger
    UMB .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Valsta, Lauri
    University of Helsinki.
    Climate implications of increased wood use in the construction sector - towards an integrated modeling framework2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 56.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Adoption of energy-efficient windows and improved attic insulation in Swedish detached houses2009Inngår i: World Sustainable Energy Days 2009, 25-27 February, Wels, Austria, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Installing energy-efficient windows and improving attic insulation enhances energy efficiency of detached houses. However, realization of the potential benefits depends on the adoption of such measures, which further depends on homeowners’ need and perception of the measures. To analyze these issues, we conducted a survey of 1500 owners of Swedish detached houses during May – July 2008. About 37% of homeowners, selected by Statistics Sweden (SCB) using stratified random sampling method, responded. The majority of respondents was satisfied with their existing windows and attic insulation and did not plan to improve the thermal performance of them over the next ten years. Homeowners who were dissatisfied were more likely to implement an energy efficiency measure. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were poor performance of existing installations and/or high energy cost. We also studied homeowners’ perception of energy-efficient windows and attic insulation with respect to variables like annual energy cost, investment cost, and environmental benefits. Homeowners perceive that improved attic insulation had greater advantages than energy-efficient windows for a majority of such parameters. Furthermore, more homeowners would recommend attic insulation over energy-efficient windows to their friends and peers. Still, a higher proportion of respondents had planned to replace their windows rather than improving attic insulation. This trend may be because more homeowners were dissatisfied with their windows compared to attic insulation and hence may be more inclined to change their windows. Along with this the financial incentive available for installing energy-efficient windows may influence the adoption, as respondents gave high priority to investment cost in their adoption decision.

  • 57.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    An Organizational Culture Perspective on the Role of Swedish Energy Utilities in Promoting Energy-Efficient End-Use Technologies1994Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Volume 1: Human Dimensions of Energy Consumption, 1994Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Bioenergy in the environment - some examples of bioenergy applications in sweden1998Inngår i: Proceedings of Bioenergy in the environment - An update of global and New Zealand bioenergy initiatives, Rotorua, New Zealand, 10 March, 1998, 1998Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 59.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Biomass and district heating systems1994Inngår i: Climate change, energy and the environment: World Renewable Energy Congress : 11-16 September 1994, Reading, UK, Oxford: Pergamon , 1994, s. 838-840Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies for biomass gasification are being developed which increase the potential to cogenerate electricity and may reduce costs compared with steam turbine technology. Cogeneration is a more energy-efficient way to convert biomass into heat and electricity than separate electricity and heat production. The potential to cogenerate electricity in the Swedish district-heating systems is estimated to be 20% of current electricity production when using combined cycle technology. The electricity and heat costs from cogeneration with biomass are higher than the costs from fossil fuel plants at current fuel prices when external costs are excluded.

  • 60.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    CO2 Mitigation Costs1999Inngår i: Wood Energy News, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 18-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part I1994Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 81-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part II1994Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    District Heating Systems and Local Energy Strategies1994Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy conservation in district-heated buildings1993Inngår i: The Energy Efficiency Challenge for Europe, The European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Oslo, Norway: proceedings of the 1993 ECEEE summer study, OSLO 1993, [Oslo]: European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy , 1993Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy Efficiency and Competitiveness for Biomass-Based Energy Systems1997Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 959-967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Greenhouse gas and primary energy balances overbuildings life cycle2013Inngår i: Lifecycle greenhouse gas and primary energy balances of a building. International Holzbau-Forum Nordic (IHN 13), May 23-24, 2013, Kouvola, 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Klimatfördelar med att bygga i trä2007Inngår i: Bioenergi - till vad och hur mycket?, Stockholm, Sweden: Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande , 2007, s. 337-350Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 68.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    On ecological engineering and sustainable development in a Swedish context2001Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Ecological Engineering Conference, Lincoln University, New Zealand, November 2001, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 69.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Substitution effects of wood-based construction materials2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Harvested wood products in the context of climate change policies, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 70.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Variability in carbon dioxide balance of wood- and concrete-framed buildings2004Inngår i: 2nd World Biomass Conference, Rome, Italy 2004, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Vi måste använda bioenergin effektivt2007Inngår i: Bioenergi - till vad och hur mycket?, Stockholm, Sweden: Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande , 2007, s. 103-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Biomass Utilisation and Transportation Demands1996Inngår i: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress - IV: Denver, Colorado, USA, June 1996, 1996Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    CO2 Mitigation Cost: Bioenergy Systems and Natural Gas Systems with Decarbonization1998Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 699-714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Power production and treatment of waste water with energy crops1997Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly, Vancouver, Canada, 1997Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Johansson, B
    Svenningsson, P
    Reducing CO2 Emissions by Substituting Biomass for Fossil Fuels1995Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 1097-1113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 76.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building2017Inngår i: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, s. 1064-1073Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and demonstrates a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures for buildings. Based on the method, cost-optimal energy efficiency measures are calculated considering total and marginal investment costs as well as net present value of energy savings for the measures under different technical and economic scenario. The method is applied to a 1970s Swedish multi-family building to explore the profitability of different energy renovation measures when implemented individually or in packages. The measures analysed include improved thermal insulation for exterior and basement walls as well as attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electrical appliances, efficient water taps, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. Our results show that the economic viability of the retrofit measures is sensitive to the techno-economic parameters used including, real discount rates, energy price increases and technical lifetime of retrofit measures. Still, about 34–51 % reduction of final heat demands is economically viable for the analysed building. Resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure while improved thermal envelope insulation for exterior walls is the least cost-effective among the measures analysed for the studied building. This study shows the significance of different technical and economic parameters in achieving deep-energy savings from renovation of a building in a cold climate. 

  • 77.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon footprint of wood-frame conventional and passive houses with biomass-based energy supply. 2012Inngår i: Presentation at the International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012, Jul 5-8, 2012, Suzhou, China, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Mötzl, Hildegard
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Fundamentals: greenhouse gas and primary energy balances over a building life cycle2013Inngår i: Wood in carbon efficient construction: Tools, methods and applications / [ed] Kuittinen M., Ludvig, A. and Weiss, G., Finland: Hämeen Kirjapaino Oy , 2013, s. 24-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 79.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Impact of ventilation heat recovery on primary energy use of apartment buildings built to conventional and passive house standard2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 80.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use in buildings of high energy standards2010Inngår i: ACEEE Summer study on energy efficiency in buildings. Pacific Grove, California, USA, August 15-20, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 81.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings2011Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 38-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the effects of end-use energy efficiency measures on different district heat production systems with combined heat and power (CHP) plants for base load production and heat-only boilers for peak and medium load productions. We model four minimum cost district heat production systems based on four environmental taxation scenarios, plus a reference district heat system used in Östersund, Sweden. We analyze the primary energy use and the cost of district heat production for each system. We then analyze the primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures applied to a case-study apartment building, taking into account the reduced district heat demand, reduced cogenerated electricity and increased electricity use due to ventilation heat recovery. We find that district heat production cost in optimally-designed production systems is not sensitive to environmental taxation. The primary energy savings of end-use energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the district heat production system and the type of end-use energy efficiency measures. Energy efficiency measures that reduce more of peak load than base load production give higher primary energy savings, because the primary energy efficiency is higher for CHP plants than for boilers. This study shows the importance of analyzing both the demand and supply sides as well as their interaction in order to minimize the primary energy use of district heated buildings.

  • 82.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Eriksson, Lisa
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Costs and CO2 benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement2011Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 192-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO2 benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO2 emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO2 emission balance.

  • 83.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Eriksson Näslund, Lisa
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Cost of collection, processing and transportation of forest residues and CO2 benefits of fossil fuel replacement2008Inngår i: Biofuels and Bioenergy: Challanges and Opportunities. Proceedings of the joint IEA Bioenergy Task 29, 31 and 39 workshop, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 27-30 August 2006. Biomass and Bioenergy. IEA Bioenergy, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 84.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Lundblad, Mattias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ortiz, Carina A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Wikberg, Per-Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Climate change effects of forestry and substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels2017Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 67, nr January, s. 612-624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the climate effects of directing forest management in Sweden towards increased carbon storage in forests with more land set-aside for protection, or towards increased forest production for the substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels, relative to a reference case of current forest management. We develop various scenarios of forest management and biomass use to estimate the carbon balances of the forest systems, including ecological and technological components, and their impacts on the climate in terms of radiative forcing. The scenario with increased set-aside area and the current level of forest residue harvest resulted in lower cumulative carbon emissions compared to the reference case for the first 90 years, but then showed higher emissions as reduced forest harvest led to higher carbon emissions from energy and material systems. For the reference case of current forest management, increased harvest of forest residues gave increased climate benefits. The most climatically beneficial alternative, expressed as reduced cumulative radiative forcing, in both the short and long terms is a strategy aimed at high forest production, high residue recovery rate, and high efficiency utilization of harvested biomass. Active forest management with high harvest levels and efficient forest product utilization will provide more climate benefit, compared to reducing harvest and storing more carbon in the forest.

  • 85.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ortiz, Carina A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate effects of bioenergy from forest residues in comparison to fossil energy2015Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 138, s. 36-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest residues can be left at the harvest site to gradually decompose, or can be collected for energy purposes. This study analyzes the primary energy and climate impacts of bioenergy systems where forest residues are collected and used for electricity, heat and transportation, compared to fossil-based energy systems where fossil fuels provide the same services while forest residues are left on site to decompose. Time profiles are elaborated of primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from various energy applications fulfilled by bioenergy or fossil energy systems. Different biological decay functions are considered based on process-based modeling and inventory data across various climate zones. For all scenarios, the changes in cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) are calculated over a 300-year period, to evaluate the short- and long-term contributions of forest residue to climate change mitigation. A life cycle perspective along the full energy chains is used to evaluate the overall effectiveness of each system. The results show largest primary energy and climate benefits when forest residues are collected and used efficiently for energy services. Using biomass to substitute fossil coal provides greater climate change mitigation benefits than substituting oil or fossil gas. Some bioenergy substitutions result in positive CRF, i.e. increased global warming, during an initial period. This occurs for relatively inefficient bioenergy conversion pathways to substitute less carbon intensive fossil fuels, e.g. biomotor fuel used to replace diesel. More beneficial bioenergy substitutions, such as efficiently replacing coal, result immediately in reduced CRF. Biomass decay rates and transportation distance have less influence on climate benefits.

  • 86.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dynamic impacts of forest residues on primary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions2014Inngår i: The 9th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - SDEWES. September 20 - 27, 2014, Venice-Istanbul, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dornburg, Veronica
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction2007Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 5671-5691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

  • 88.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Biomass-fired energy systems for space heating. Extended abstract.2004Inngår i: World Bioenergy Conference & Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping 2-4 June 2004, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 89.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Energy conservation and conversion of electrical heating systems in detached houses2007Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 717-726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a Swedish house built in 1974, heated with resistance heaters was analysed. Different options for changing the heating system and electricity production were compared for this type of detached house, assuming coal-based electricity production as a reference. Changes in the fuel used, the electricity production technology, the end-use heating technology and the heat demand were analysed. The aim was to show how these different parts of the energy system interact and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reducing CO2 emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results showed that the CO2 emission and primary energy use could be reduced by 95 and 70%, respectively, without increased heating costs in a national economic perspective. The choice of end-use heating system had a greater influence than the energy conservation measures on the parameters studied. The energy conservation measures were less cost-effective in combination with the more energy-efficient heating systems, although the fact that they reduced the heat demand, and thus also the investment cost of the new heating system, was taken into account.

  • 90.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings2010Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 210-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the Life cycle energy use. The Life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO2 emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO2 emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO2 emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house.

  • 91.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy use of multi-storey wood buildings in a life cycle perspective2008Inngår i: Passivhus Norden 2008, Trondheim, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building2010Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 230-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the life cycle primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building are analyzed. All life cycle phases are included, including acquisition and processing of materials, on-site construction, building operation, demolition and materials disposal. The calculated primary energy use includes the entire energy system chains, and carbon flows are tracked including fossil fuel emissions, process emissions, carbon stocks in building materials, and avoided fossil emissions due to biofuel substitution. The results show that building operation uses the largest share of life cycle energy use, becoming increasingly dominant as the life span of the building increases. The type of heating system strongly influences the primary energy use and CO2 emission; a biomass-based system with cogeneration of district heat and electricity achieves low primary energy use and very low CO2 emissions. Using biomass residues from the wood products chain to substitute for fossil fuels significantly reduces net CO2 emission. Excluding household tap water and electricity, a negative life cycle net CO2 emission can be achieved due to the wood-based construction materials and biomass-based energy supply system. This study shows the importance of using a life cycle perspective when evaluating primary energy and climatic impacts of buildings.

  • 93.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Uddin, Noim
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Large scale biomass-based heating systems and energy conservation2004Inngår i: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection : Second World Biomass Conference; proceedings of the world conference held in Rome, Italy, 10 - 14 May 2004; [held jointly with the 13th European Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection]: World Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection ; 2 (Rome) : 2004.05.10-14, Florens and Munich: ETA , 2004, s. 1978-1983Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 94.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Joelsson, Jonas M.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET). Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Where are biomass fuels best used in the Swedish energy system?: efficient use of biomass fuels given different targets with respect to CO2 emission and oil use reduction2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 95.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Johansson, B
    Cogeneration: One Way to Use Biomass Efficiently1994Inngår i: Heat Recovery Systems & CHP, ISSN 0890-4332, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 117-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Johansson, B
    Identifying environmentally benign regional energy futures1993Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on a System Analysis Approach, Tallinn, Estonia, 1993Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 97.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bülow-Hübe, Helena
    An Environmentally Benign Energy Future for Western Scania, Sweden1992Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 17, nr 9, s. 809-822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 98.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karjalainen, T
    Marland, G
    Savolainen, I
    Schlamadinger, B
    Apps, M
    Project-based Greenhouse Gas Accounting: guiding principles with a focus on baselines and additionality2000Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, nr 13, s. 935-946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    A System Perspective on the Heating of Detached Houses2002Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 553-574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Karlsson, Å
    Biomass energy systems for single family houses - efficiency, emissions and costs1998Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference and Technology Exhibition, Biomass for Energy and Industry, Würzburg, Germany, 1998Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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