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  • 51.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings2017Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, nr 1, s. 718-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9-14 kWh/m(2) depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 52.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    On input parameters, methods and assumptions for energy balance and retrofit analyses for residential buildings2017Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 137, s. 76-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore key parameter values, methods and assumptions used for energy balance modelling of residential buildings in the Swedish context and analyse their effects on calculated energy balance of a typical multi-storey building from 1970s and on energy savings of energy efficiency retrofit measures. The parameters studied are related to microclimate, building envelope, occupancy behaviour, ventilation, and heat gains from electric appliances and persons. Our study shows that assumed indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units have significant effect on the simulated energy performance of the studied building and energy efficiency measures. Of the considered microclimate parameter values and assumptions, the outdoor temperature, ground solar reflection and window shading have significant impact on the simulated space heating and cooling demands. On the contrary, the simulated energy performances are less affected by the variations in air pressure outside and the percentage of wind load that hits the building. We found that input data and assumptions used for energy balance calculations and energy saving analyses vary significantly in the Swedish context. These result in significantly different calculated final energy performance of buildings and energy efficiency measures. To inform accurate analysis of energy performance of building and energy saving measures, input parameters used in simulation models need to be appropriate.

  • 53.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building2017Inngår i: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, s. 1064-1073Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and demonstrates a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures for buildings. Based on the method, cost-optimal energy efficiency measures are calculated considering total and marginal investment costs as well as net present value of energy savings for the measures under different technical and economic scenario. The method is applied to a 1970s Swedish multi-family building to explore the profitability of different energy renovation measures when implemented individually or in packages. The measures analysed include improved thermal insulation for exterior and basement walls as well as attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electrical appliances, efficient water taps, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. Our results show that the economic viability of the retrofit measures is sensitive to the techno-economic parameters used including, real discount rates, energy price increases and technical lifetime of retrofit measures. Still, about 34–51 % reduction of final heat demands is economically viable for the analysed building. Resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure while improved thermal envelope insulation for exterior walls is the least cost-effective among the measures analysed for the studied building. This study shows the significance of different technical and economic parameters in achieving deep-energy savings from renovation of a building in a cold climate. 

  • 54.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon footprint of wood-frame conventional and passive houses with biomass-based energy supply. 2012Inngår i: Presentation at the International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012, Jul 5-8, 2012, Suzhou, China, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Mötzl, Hildegard
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Fundamentals: greenhouse gas and primary energy balances over a building life cycle2013Inngår i: Wood in carbon efficient construction: Tools, methods and applications / [ed] Kuittinen M., Ludvig, A. and Weiss, G., Finland: Hämeen Kirjapaino Oy , 2013, s. 24-31Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Impact of ventilation heat recovery on primary energy use of apartment buildings built to conventional and passive house standard2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 57.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use in buildings of high energy standards2010Inngår i: ACEEE Summer study on energy efficiency in buildings. Pacific Grove, California, USA, August 15-20, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings2011Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 38-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the effects of end-use energy efficiency measures on different district heat production systems with combined heat and power (CHP) plants for base load production and heat-only boilers for peak and medium load productions. We model four minimum cost district heat production systems based on four environmental taxation scenarios, plus a reference district heat system used in Östersund, Sweden. We analyze the primary energy use and the cost of district heat production for each system. We then analyze the primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures applied to a case-study apartment building, taking into account the reduced district heat demand, reduced cogenerated electricity and increased electricity use due to ventilation heat recovery. We find that district heat production cost in optimally-designed production systems is not sensitive to environmental taxation. The primary energy savings of end-use energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the district heat production system and the type of end-use energy efficiency measures. Energy efficiency measures that reduce more of peak load than base load production give higher primary energy savings, because the primary energy efficiency is higher for CHP plants than for boilers. This study shows the importance of analyzing both the demand and supply sides as well as their interaction in order to minimize the primary energy use of district heated buildings.

  • 59.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate change effects over the lifecycle of a building - Report on methodological issues in determining the climate change effects over the life cycle of a building: Final report for Boverket2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 60.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Primary energy implications of heat savings in district heated buildings2012Inngår i: Presentation at International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012, Jul 5-8, 2012, Suzhou, China, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 61.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures2011Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 3420-3427Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012Inngår i: COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures in about one million existing apartments that are likely to be refurbished within the next 20 years. System analyses of installation of energy efficient windows, and increased insulation in attic and in exterior walls for an existing multi-story building showed that the primary energy savings for the measures depend on the energy supply system. Energy efficiency potential was higher with installation of efficient windows than improved attic insulation. Responses of 673 chairpersons of co-operative hosing associations to a mail-in survey in 2010 also showed that greater proportion of respondents perceived that energy efficient windows had advantages over insulation improvements. However, majority had no intention to implement such measures during next 10 years and economic factors guide their decisions. Lack of expertise to assess the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the most cited hindrances to energy efficiency investments.

  • 63.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Materials for the Thermal Upgrade of an Existing Building2019Inngår i: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, artikkel-id 012044Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing building stock is estimated to need major renovations in the near future. At the same time, the EU energy-efficiency strategy entails upgrading the energy performance of renovated buildings to meet the nearly-zero energy standard. To upgrade existing buildings, two main groups of measures can be adopted: thermally-improved building envelope and energy-efficient technical devices. The first measure usually involves additional building materials for thermal insulation and new building cladding, as well as new windows and doors. A number of commercially-available materials can be used to renovate thermal building envelopes. This study compares the life-cycle primary energy use and CO2 emission when renovating an existing building using different materials, commonly used in renovated buildings. A Swedish building constructed in 1972 is used as a case-study building. The building's envelope is assumed to be renovated to meet the Swedish passive house standard. The entire life cycle of the building envelope renovation is taken into account. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly reduce the production primary energy and associated CO2 emissions by up to 62% and 77%, respectively. The results suggest that a careful material choice can significantly contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions associated with energy renovation of buildings, especially when renewable-based materials are used.

  • 64.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Energy and carbon balance of materials used in a building envelope renovation2019Inngår i: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, artikkel-id 012045Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) are a priority waste stream in EU's polices, accounting for about 30% of all waste generated. At the same time, according to the EU energy-efficiency directive, existing buildings subject to significant renovation need to be upgraded in their thermal building envelope in order to meet higher energy performance standard. This involves additional building materials and hence increases the CDW generation. This study investigates the energy and CO2 emission balance of building envelope renovation when using different building materials, taking into account the production and end-of-life stages. The study is based on a Swedish case-study building assumed to be upgraded to the passive house standard. Benefits from waste recovering are considered, including construction and demolition wastes. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly affect the primary energy and CO2 emission balances. Depending on the material alternative the end-of-life primary energy use and net CO2 emission can be reduced by 5%-21% and 2%-24%, respectively, compared to the initial primary energy use and net CO2 emission. Therefore, a careful material choice at the design stage, as well as an efficient waste management, can contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission associated with energy renovation of existing buildings.

  • 65.
    Piccardo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Retrofitting with different building materials: life-cycle primary energy implications2020Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 192, s. 1-13, artikkel-id 116648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy retrofitting of existing buildings reduces the energy use in the operation phase but the use ofadditional materials influence the energy use in other life cycle phases of retrofitted buildings. In thisstudy, we analyse the life cycle primary energy implications of different material alternatives whenretrofitting an existing building to meet high energy performance levels. We design retrofitting optionsassuming the highest and lowest value offinal energy use, respectively, for passive house standardsapplicable in Sweden. The retrofitting options include the thermal improvement of the building enve-lope. We calculate the primary energy use in the operation phase (operation primary energy), as well asin production, maintenance and end-of-life phases (non-operation primary energy). Our results showthat the non-operation primary energy use can vary significantly depending on the choice of materialsfor thermal insulation, cladding systems and windows. Although the operation energy use decreases by63e78%, wefind that the non-operation energy for building retrofitting accounts for up to 21% of theoperation energy saving, depending on the passive house performance level and the material alternative.A careful selection of building materials can reduce the non-operation primary energy by up to 40%,especially when using wood-based materials

  • 66.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lippke, Bruce
    University of Washington, Seatle.
    Marlanda, Gregg
    Appalachian State University.
    Masanet, Eric
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Solberg, Birger
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Werner, Frank
    Environm & Dev, Zurich.
    Comment on “Material nature versus structural nurture: the embodied carbon of fundamental structural elements"2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 3595-3596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Report on methodological issues in determining primary energy and greenhouse gas balances over a building life cycle. Methodological report of Work Package 1 for €CO2 project2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Carbon balances for a low energy apartment building with different structural frame materials2019Inngår i: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, s. 4254-4261Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the life cycle carbon implications of a building, with structural frame of prefabricated concrete, prefabricated modular timber or cross laminated timber (CLT) elements, designed to meet the Swedish passive house criteria. The analysis covers non-biogenic carbon flows related to the building alternatives, over an assumed life time of 80 years. The building alternatives are all modelled to have the same housing service and operation energy demand. Substitution factors, showing the efficiency of CO2 emissions reductions when wood alternatives are used instead of non-wood alternatives, are calculated for the CLT and modular alternatives with reference to the concrete alternative. The results show that the CLT and modular buildings give less carbon emissions to the atmosphere during production and when the buildings are demolished at the end-of-life. Moreover, the wood residues from the production and end-of-life activities for the timber alternatives far exceed that for the concrete alternative. The substitution factors differ slightly between the CLT and the modular alternatives, and are significantly lower when fossil gas is substituted by wood residues instead of fossil coal. In summary, the life cycle carbon emissions are significantly lower for the timber alternatives.

  • 69.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Design strategies and measures to minimise operation energy use for passive houses under different climate scenarios2019Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 299-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, the implications of different design strategies and measures in minimising the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden are analysed under different climate change scenarios. The analyses are conducted for recent (1996-2005) and future climate periods of 2050-2059 and 2090-2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in Southern Sweden. The considered design strategies and measures encompass efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, solar shading of windows, window size and properties, building orientation and mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand as well as risk of overheating increases under future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies and measures are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window U-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40-51%, and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy use for operation decreased by 42-54%. This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climates.

  • 70.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Design strategies for a Swedish residential building to minimize primary energy use and CO2 emission2016Inngår i: The 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems : SDEWES 2016: September 4-9, 2016. Lisbon, Portugal, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate2017Inngår i: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, s. 1185-1195Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyse the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building version, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden and explore various design strategies to minimise these demands under different climate change scenarios. The analysis is performed for recent (1996–2005) and future climate periods of 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in South of Sweden. Design strategies include efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, window solar shading, building orientation, window size and properties, besides mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand increases as the risk of overheating under the future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window u-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40–51 % and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy for operating the building versions decreased by 49–54 % This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and the potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climate scenarios.

  • 72.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effect of different frame materials on the primary energy use of a multi storey residential building in a life cycle perspective2019Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 185, s. 259-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary energy implications over the life cycle of a multi storey residential building with different building systems are explored here. The main structural materials of the buildings include precast concrete, cross laminated timber (CLT) and prefabricated timber modules (modular). The analysis covers energy and material flows from different life cycle phases of the building versions, designed to meet the energy performance of the Swedish building code (BBR) and passive house criteria. The CLT and modular buildings were found to result in lower production primary energy use and higher biomass residues compared to the concrete alternative. The heating value of the recoverable biomass residues from the production phase of the CLT building is significantly larger than the primary energy required for its production. Primary energy use for production and construction constitutes 20-30% and 36-47% of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for the BBR and passive buildings, respectively. Space heating with combined heat and power (CHP) and ventilation electricity for the BBR and passive building versions form 70-79% and 52-63%, respectively, of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for a lifespan of 80 years. The CLT and modular buildings give 20-37% and 9-17% lower total life cycle primary energy use, respectively, than the concrete alternative when space heating is from CHP. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 73.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of different insulation materials on primary energy and CO2 emission of a multi-storey residential building2014Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, s. 369-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyzed the implications of various insulation materials on the primary energy and CO2emission for material production of a residential building. We modeled changes to the original design ofthe building to achieve reference buildings to energy-efficiency levels of the Swedish building code of2012 or the Swedish Passivhus 2012 criteria. We varied the insulation materials in different parts of thereference buildings from mineral rock wool to glass wool, cellulose fiber, expanded polystyrene or foamglass. We compared the primary energy use and CO2emission from material production of functionallyequivalent reference and optimum versions of the building. The results showed a reduction of about 6–7%in primary energy use and 6–8% in CO2emission when the insulation material in the reference buildingsis changed from rock wool to cellulose fiber in the optimum versions. Also, the total fossil fuel use for onlyinsulation material production was reduced by about 39%. This study suggests that enhancing materialproduction technologies by reducing fossil fuel-use and increasing renewable energy sources, as wellas careful material choice with renewable-based raw materials can contribute significantly in reducingprimary energy use and GHG emission in the building sector.

  • 74.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates2017Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, s. 846-860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climate change on the final and primary energy use of versions of a multi-storey residential building have been analysed. The building versions are designed to the Swedish building code (BBR 2015) and passive house criteria (Passive 2012) with different design and overheating control strategies under different climate scenarios. Future climate datasets are based on Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099. The analysis showed that strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the Passive 2012 building version remained the same under all climate scenarios. In contrast, strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the BBR 2015 version varied, as cooling demand became more significant under future climate scenarios. Cooling demand was more dominant than heating for the Passive 2012 building version under future climate scenarios. Household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology gave the biggest reduction in total primary energy use among considered strategies. Overall, annual total operation primary energy decreased by 37–54% for the building versions when all strategies are implemented under the considered climate scenarios. This study shows that appropriate design strategies could result in significant primary energy savings for low-energy buildings under changing climates.

  • 75.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Impacts of parameter values interactions on simulated energy balance of residential buildings2017Inngår i: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 132, s. 57-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we use dynamic simulation to explore the interactive impacts of different uncertain parameter values in energy balance modelling of existing and improved variants of a Swedish multi-storey residential building. We modelled variations as well as interactive influence of different simulation assumptions and parameters encompassing outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and technical installations including household equipment. The results indicate that the interactive influence of the parameters on calculated space heating of buildings seems to be small and relatively more evident for a low-energy building than for a conventional building. The influence of the interactions between the parameter combinations becomes more evident as several parameters are varied simultaneously. The results also indicate that calculated space heating demand of a building is noticeably influenced by how heat gains from household equipment and technical installations are modelled. The calculated final energy for space heating for the analysed building versions varied between 13-43% depending on the energy efficiency levels for household equipment and technical installations as well as their interactions with other parameter values variations. This study shows the importance of appropriate input parameters and assumptions for building energy balance calculation.

  • 76.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 104, s. 132-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment.

  • 77.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Primary energy implications of different wall insulation materials for buildings in a cold climate2014Inngår i: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 61, s. 1204-1207Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the influence of different external wall insulation systems on the primary energy use of a case study building in southern Sweden. We vary the insulation material of the external walls from rock wool to glass wool or expanded polystyrene (EPS) to achieve different energy-efficiency standards of the building. We apply appropriate thicknesses of the different insulation materials to achieve similar thermal transmittance (U-value) of the external walls under the different energy-efficiency standards. The different options are based on the same architectural design. We calculate and compare the primary energy for production of the insulation materials and for operation of the buildings. Rock wool gives the lowest primary energy for production, followed by glass wool and EPS for each energy efficiency standard, although the difference between rock wool and glass wool is small.

  • 78.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Primary energy implications of different external wall configurations for residential buildings2014Inngår i: World Sustainable Building 2014, Barcelona Conference: Sustainable Building:Results ; Are We Moving as Quickly as We Should? It's up to us!, GBCe , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 79.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 142, s. 1114-1127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the final and primary energy savings for different energy efficiency measures in a multi-apartment building when heated by small-, medium- or large-scale district-heat production systems (DHSs). The small-scale system is based on heat-only boilers, whereas the other two also include cogeneration of district heat and electricity. In the systems with cogeneration units, a change in building's heat demand may influence cogenerated electricity and hence the overall power system. For the building analyzed, the estimated annual total final heat and electricity savings were 136 (54%) and 30 MWh (52%), respectively, giving total annual primary energy savings of 177–289 MWh. This varies as the ratio of primary and final heat savings depends on the type of energy efficiency measure and the energy supply. For the same heat savings measure, a system with a heat-only boiler gave the highest primary energy savings, whereas a system based mostly on cogeneration of district heat and electricity in combination with averaged-efficiency standalone power plants gave the lowest primary energy savings. When the energy supply is based on energy-efficient renewable-based system, the differences in primary energy savings between large- and small-scale DHSs are minor for the same energy efficiency measure.

  • 80.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Effects of energy-efficiency measures and climate change mitigation policy instruments on primary energy use in district-heated buildings2013Inngår i: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings: rethink, renew, restart, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2013, s. 515-522Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in a district-heated building can be complex, as it depends on how energy is produced and used. In this study, a primary energy analysis was conducted based on a case study of a Swedish apartment building that is connected to a district heat production system while considering different climate change mitigation policy instruments including carbon taxes corresponding to Social cost-Business-as-usual or Social cost-550 ppm scenarios. The potential to reduce final heat and electricity demands by different energy-efficiency measures was analyzed for the building used in the case study. The impacts of reducing final energy from the different energy-efficiency measures and the climate change policy instruments on primary energy use and cost of district heat production were investigated using a systems analysis approach. We discussed the importance of analyzing the demand and supply sides and their interaction to minimize primary energy use in district-heated buildings. We showed that climate change mitigation policy instruments have a minimal effect on heat production costs for optimally designed district heat production. The primary energy savings for the energy-efficiency measures depend partly on the characteristics of the district heat production system, which is influenced by the policy instruments.

  • 81.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 118, s. 57-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings for the building versions. In contrast to the other heat savings measures, VHR gives lower primary energy savings as it also increases electricity demand. Primary energy savings for the building versions are lower where the minimum-cost DH production system includes cogeneration unit compared to where the minimum-cost DH production system comprises heat-only boilers. The primary energy savings are mainly from peak and medium-load boilers even though these production units cover a small share of the total DH production. This study shows that it is essential to consider the interaction between end-use energy saving measures and supply systems for district-heated buildings, to estimate the primary energy efficiency of energy saving measures.

  • 82.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Final and primary energy use for heating new residential area with varied exploitation levels, building energy performance and district heat temperatures2019Inngår i: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions / [ed] Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, s. 6544-6550Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to build new energy-efficient building blocks in combination with efficient energy supply systems. Such a development will contribute to achieve national energy and climate goals as well as the overall aim for a sustainable development. Here, we analyze final and primary energy use for heating a new residential area by using district-heating. The area, located in Växjö, in south Sweden has potentially varied land exploitation levels, energy performance of buildings and district heat supply/return temperatures. The results show that the district heating demand will be reduced by about 52-56% if buildings in the area meet the Swedish passive house criteria instead of the Swedish building code. The exploitation levels of construction in the area strongly influence the total heating demands. A dense instead of a low exploitation will increase the area’s heating demand more than four times. But, the heat demand density of the residential area has quite a small impact on the total heat losses of the distribution network in contrast to changed supply and return temperatures. The distribution heat losses could be reduced by up to 50% with lower supply/return temperatures. However, a reduction of district heat supply/return temperatures to 50/20oC increases electricity use for boosting hot water temperature to avoid the risk of legionella bacteria. This causes a shift from district heat production to electricity production and increases the primary energy use. The results of this study can be used for further considerations of costs and benefits of energy supply options for new residential areas.

  • 83.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Renewable-based heat supply of multi-apartment buildings with varied heat demands2015Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 93, s. 1053-1062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the cost and primary energy use to heat an existing multi-apartment building in Sweden, before and after deep energy efficiency renovation, with different types of renewable-based systems. District heating systems of different scales as well as local heat production based on bioelectric boilers, ground-source bioelectric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers with or without solar heating are considered. The annual energy demand of the building, calculated hour by hour, with and without energy efficiency improvements, are matched against the renewable-based heat supply options by techno-economic modeling to minimize cost for each considered heat supply option. The results show that the availability of heating technologies at the building site and the scale of the building's heat demand influence the cost and the primary energy efficiency of the heating options. District heat from large-scale systems is cost efficient for the building without energy-efficiency improvement, whereas electric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers are more cost efficient when implementing energy-efficiency improvement. However, the cost difference is small between these alternatives and sensitive to the size of building. Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is most primary energy efficient while heat pumps and medium-scale district heating are nearly as efficient.

  • 84.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Heat supply of multi-apartment buildings with varied heat demands2014Inngår i: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 61, s. 1464-1467Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In multi-apartment buildings, changes in energy demand may influence cost-optimal heat supply options. District heat based on combined heat and power production has proved to be cost- and primary energy-efficient option for heating purposes in the residential sector. However, for customers with a low heat demand, local heat supply options may be more cost-efficient than district heat supply options. In this study, we investigated cost-optimal options to supply heat to a multi-apartment building in Växjö city, Sweden. We considered biomass-based alternatives for district heating and local heating based on wood pellet boiler and ground-source electric heat pump, also combined with solar heating systems. Furthermore, we evaluated how a varied yearly heat demand influences the cost and primary energy efficiency of the different heat technologies. We found that both fuel costs and initial investment costs of heating systems play an important role for the cost efficiency of the different heat supply options. District heat is not always cost efficient for multi-apartment buildings especially for low energy buildings with minimum heat demand. There is also a tradeoff between heating cost and primary energy use in supplying heat to multi-apartment buildings.

  • 85.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Implications of supplying district heat to a new urban residential area in Sweden2020Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 194, s. 1-18, artikkel-id 116876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the cost, primary energy and CO2 implications of supplying district heat, considering different supply and return temperatures, to a new residential area in Växjö, Sweden. We explore four land exploitation alternatives consisting different types of buildings with various heated floor areas as well as occupancy densities and two levels of building energy efficiency, based on the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. The analysis shows that energy performance of the buildings and land exploitation alternatives strongly influence the annual heat demand and its profile, which steers the design of the local heat distribution network. Additionally, supply and return temperatures of district heat somewhat influence the design of the network. The distribution heat losses could be reduced by 25% and 50% if district heating systems of 65/30 °C and 50/20 °C, respectively, are used instead of a conventional 80/40 °C system. However, for the same land exploitation alternative, the local distribution heat losses are about the same whether or not the buildings are designed to meet the Swedish building code or passive house criteria, since the same pipe distance is required and the variation of pipe diameters is small. A 50/20 °C system increases electricity use to boost hot water temperature to avoid the risk of legionella bacteria, and this influences quantity of district heat supply, primary energy use and costs. Therefore, a 65/30 °C system appears to be more primary energy and cost efficient than a 50/20 °C system. Increased insulation of district heating network reduces heat losses but this is not cost effective due to increased investment cost. The results are similar whether or not the analysis is based on current energy supply or future renewable based energy supply. This study increases understanding of strategies for planning and designing new urban residential areas and their energy supply systems to reduce primary energy use as well as monetary costs, and to minimize the climate impacts of the built environment.

  • 86.
    Vadiee, Amir
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    A Comparison Between Four Dynamic Energy Modeling Tools for Simulation of Space Heating Demand of Buildings.2019Inngår i: Cold Climate HVAC 2018. CCC 2018 / [ed] Johansson D., Bagge H., Wahlström Å., Springer, 2019, s. 701-711Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different building energy modelling programs exist and are widely used to calculate energy balance of building in the context of energy renovation of existing buildings or in the design of energy performance of new buildings. The different tools have unique benefits and drawbacks for different conditions. In this study, four different types of building energy system modelling tools including TRNSYS, Energy Plus, IDA-Indoor Climate Energy (IDA-ICE) and VIP-Energy are used to calculate the energy balance of a recently built six-storey apartment building in Växjö, Sweden. The building is designed based on the current Swedish building code. The main outcomes of the software include hourly heating and cooling demands and indoor temperature profiles. We explore the general capabilities of the software and compare the results between them. For the studied building with similar input conditions such as weather climate data file, infiltration and ventilation ratio and internal heat gain, IDA-ICE modeled the highest space heating demand while the TRNSYS the lowest due to the simplification of thermal bridges. The main advance feature of VIP-Energy is the detail thermal bridge analysis while the main drawback is the complexity of using the model. EnergyPlus and TRNSYS can be used for energy supply system integration with the ability to add mathematical sub-modules to the models.

  • 87.
    Vadiee, Amir
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggteknik (BY).
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Heat Supply Comparison in a Single-Family House with Radiator and Floor Heating Systems2020Inngår i: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-22, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Floor heating and radiators are two of the most common types of hydronic heating systemsused for space heating in single-family houses in cold climate regions. Notwithstanding, there are fewcomparative studies on indoor temperature distribution and system cost evaluations for radiatorsand floor heating. Furthermore, there are no aligned outcomes in terms of total heat supply fora single-family house with radiators or floor heating. In this study, the eect of building energyeciency level and construction type, including flooring material, on the supply heating demand andtransmission heat losses were studied for both radiator and floor heating systems. For this purpose,a single-family house located in Växjö, Sweden, was modeled as a case study. The heating demandwas supplied with a district heating system with a similar supply temperature at 45 C for both theradiator and floor heating system. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to assess the eect offlooring configurations on the annual supply heating demand for both conventional and passiveversions of the case-study building. The results showed that the radiator-integrated building had alower supply heating demand in comparison with the floor heating-integrated buildings. Based onthe sensitivity studies, the flooring material did not have a significant influence on the supply heatingdemand and on the transmission heat losses in the case of the radiators. The supply heating demandwas only reduced up to 3% if the flooring U-value was improved by 60%. The results also showedthat refurbishment in a standard conventional building with a radiator heating system based on thepassive criteria led to a 58% annual energy savings, while this amount for a building with a floorheating system was approximately 49%.

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