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  • 51.
    Bergh Nestlog, Ewa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för språk och litteratur, SOL.
    Var är meningen?: Elevtexter och undervisningspraktiker2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is about how pupils in years 4 to 6 of compulsory school and their teachers make meaning in teaching activities and texts. The aim of the study is to investigate the teaching and learning of writing and the pupils’ discursive texts. Another aim is to use linguistic theories and develop methods and analytical concepts for studying teaching practices.

    Sources for the material are the teaching practices in two classes, the teachers and the pupils. The field studies lasted for two years, consisting of observations and interviews. Twelve pupils’ texts and four writing projects are studied in depth.

    The theoretical framework is linked to systemic functional linguis­tics, critical discourse analysis, dialogical conception of language and new literacy studies. Analytical tools are also derived from rhetorical structure theory, relief theory and theory of text sequences. These tools have been adap­ted and are also applied in the analysis of the teaching practice. To analyse pupils’ meaning making in their texts, a theory of mobility in texts is used.

    The analyses show two different categories of texts and teaching practices. The hierarchically composed texts are characterized by hierarchies concerning the entire text. The sequentially coupled texts are charac­terized by many vague relations between text entities. One conclusion is that the students in the hierarchically composed texts develop knowledge during writing. They make meaning recursively when writing and they seem to grasp the text as a whole in a way they do not in the sequentially coupled ones. In the sequentially coupled texts, pupils seem to develop knowledge mostly before they write the text, rather than during the writing. In the hierarchically composed practice the pupils deepen their knowledge about text.

    The result can be interpreted as showing that pupils primarily need education about global text levels in order to develop text knowledge and subject knowledge. Teaching practice seems to promote all pupils’ meaning making if the practice is characterized by many interpersonal relations in the chains of spoken and written texts and if pupils learn to write texts that can structure their meaning making in a functional way.

  • 52.
    Thurang, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV.
    Vardagslivet och vårdandet för kvinnor och män med alkoholberoende: En studie om alkoholberoende kvinnor och mäns levda erfarenhet av att leva med och vårdas för alkoholberoende2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of men and women suffering from alcohol dependency is increasing.Today there are shortcomings in knowledge about the lived experiences of being a woman or a man with alcohol dependency; knowledge which might be of importance for meeting these individual’s specific care needs.

    The overall aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of women and men's experience of living with alcohol dependency and being professionally cared for. The qualitative investigation design was exploratory and founded in a life world perspective. Data were collected from fourteen women and fifteen men with alcohol dependency by means of open in-depth interviews and subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis.

    It was found that living with alcohol dependency encompasses a complex but limited life situation in which both women and men strive for social acceptance and adjustment. Women turned out to live a more introverted life than men and presented false facades. Men turned out to live a life in action, risk taking and control. Professional caring was shown to mean availability and confirmation of needs. For men with alcohol dependency professional caring meant support and gentle guidance in their active struggle against their alcohol dependency.

    For women, professional caring meant having an active caregiver who cherished them and enabled them to rest. Professional caring reduced senses of shame in both women and men.

    It may be concluded that in order to offer care for men and women with alcohol dependency professional carers have to consider gender specific needs of support and guidance. In addition, in order to alleviate suffering, professional caregivers have to be accessible, supportive and directed toward the alcohol dependent women's and men’s everyday world.

  • 53.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Vid existensens gräns: Etiskt vårdande och professionellt ansvar vid hjärtstopp utanför sjukhus2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe and interpret patients’, family members’ and ambulance personnel’s experiences with regard to survival, attendance, and caring at cardiac arrests and deaths, and to analyze ethical conflicts that arise in relation to families and how the personnel’s ethical competence can affect caring and the ability to handle ethical problems.

    Method: The three interview studies were guided by a reflective lifeworld approach grounded in phenomenology and analyzed by searching for the essence of the phenomenon in two studies and by attaining a main interpretation in one study. In the fourth study, the general approach was supplemented by “reflective equilibrium” that guided the ethical analysis.

    Results: The survivors are striving towards a good life by means of efforts to reach meaning and coherence, facing existential fear and insecurity as well as gratitude and the joy of life. Family members lose everyday control through feelings of unreality, inadequacy and overwhelming responsibility. Ambulance personnel’s care mediates hope and despair until the announcement of survival or death. After the event, family members risk involuntary loneliness and anxiety about the future. For the ambulance personnel, caring for families involves a need for mobility in decision making, forcing the personnel to balance their own perceptions, feelings and reactions against interpretative reasoning. To base decision making on emotional reactions creates the risk of erroneous conclusions and a care relationship with elements of dishonesty, misdirected benevolence and false hopes. Identification with family members can promote recognition of and response to their existential needs, but also frustrate meeting family members emotions’ and handling one’s own vulnerability and inadequacy. It was found that futile cardiopulmonary resuscitation, administered to patients for the benefit of family members, is not an acceptable moral practice, due both to norms of not deliberately treating persons as mere means and to norms of taking care of families.

    Conclusions: Ethical conflicts exist when it comes to conveying realistic hope, relief from guilt, participation, responsibility for decision making, and fairness in the professional role. Ambulance personnel need support to enhance ethical caring competence and to deal with personal discomfort, as well as clear guidelines on family support.

  • 54.
    Jonsson, Cecilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete, SA.
    Volontärerna: Internationellt hjälparbete från missionsorganisationer till volontärresebyråer2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A new form of foreign travel called “voluntourism” has emerged in Sweden. In advertisements that invite to “make a difference”, travel agencies promote short- term aid opportunities at for example orphanages or schools in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. International volunteer work is nothing new. Rather, the volunteer agencies have entered an old and established organizational field. Using theories of new institutionalism and the analytical phrase “the story about”, this thesis investigates the way international aid work originated and evolved, and how commercial volunteer agencies entered the field. The thesis is partly based on historical data from organizational reports, biographies of aid work icons, and interviews with volunteers active during the 1960s and 1970s. Additionally, it makes use of contemporary data from interviews with representatives from volunteer travel agencies and volunteers. It also includes an analysis of how the travel agencies present their business operations on their websites.

    The thesis concludes that travel agencies apply the common perception of international aid work’s characteristics when marketing volunteer travels. This common perception can be traced through the evolution of international aid work. Travel agencies attract volunteers by offering access to this exclusive field. The volunteers are well-educated young women from middle class families. They are looking for experiences from international aid work, perspective on their own lives, and first-hand knowledge of local and traditional societies in poor countries. Nevertheless, due to the esteem in which the organizational field is viewed, a brief period spent as an aid worker is considered a desirable qualification for a job applicant. I interpret volunteer travel as a “grand tour”.

12 51 - 54 av 54
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