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  • 51.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The risk with overestimating the risk – the example of metal exposure via drinking water around contaminated glassworks sites2015Ingår i: The Future of Risk Analysis in the Nordic Contries: 1st Nordic Chapter Risk Conference, Lund, Sweden, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of waste material with high concentrations of various metal(loid)s are common features at old glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden. As epidemiological data indicates increased health risks for local residents around these sites, questions about how exposure occurs have been raised. One important step in assessing site-specific total exposure is to quantify exposure via intake of drinking water, and the critical variable to determine here is the metal concentration in the water to be consumed. In many routine risk assessments this is, despite well-known uncertainties, done by applying conservative and simplified transport models that simulate concentrations in water abstraction wells at certain distances from the source of contamination. To assess the accuracy of such an approch, we used a probabilistic method to simulate metal concentrations in drinking water within 500 m distance from 10 heavily contaminated glassworks sites, by applying the transport equations of the Swedish EPA generic risk assessment model. Exposure was then calculated. When concentrations in drinking water were calculated using this modelling approach, the resulting exposure estimates indicated that as much as 100% of the local residents with private wells may reach a daily intake above applicable toxicological reference values. However, when assessing the risk from measured concentrations in household drinking water instead, not even the 95th percentile of the population reached the toxicological limit. It hence appears as if metals are efficiently sorbed to the solid matrix of the soil at these sites, leaving the drinking water with concentrations well below drinking water criteria. For the average risk assessor working with contaminated sites, who often lacks training in hydrogeochemistry, the contradictory results highlight the need of more realistic generic models to be used in routine assessments of water contamination and exposure via consumption of drinking water.

  • 52.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 269-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 53.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables: the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites2015Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 138, s. 181-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs),which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil,in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed toquantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure as-sessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 con-taminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soiland vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted toestimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that con-centrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and mostsamples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) wasassessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about afifth of the study population. Bioconcentrationfactors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasingmetal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected bythe choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be un-acceptable.

  • 54.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Elert, M.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Höglund, L. O.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste2016Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 154, s. 434-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  • 56.
    Bagliani, Marco
    et al.
    Università di Torino / Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Dalmazzone, Silvana
    Università di Torino / Università di Brescia, Italy.
    A consumption-based approach to environmental Kuznets curves using the ecological footprint indicator2008Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 650-661Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that consumption-based measures offer an insightful perspective on the debate on the relationship between economic growth and the environment. In this article we deepen the consumption-based line of inquiry by investigating the empirical evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis using 2001 ecological footprint data for 141 countries. We perform Ordinary Least Squares and Weighted Least Squares analysis on linear, quadratic and cubic functions, in standard and logarithmic specifications, as candidate models to represent the relationship between per capita income and environmental pressure. We replicate the cross country analysis also by estimating the regression function directly, through a nonparametric regression. In our analyses, with and without weighing data by population, the results do not show evidence of de-linking. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Bais, A. F.
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Lucas, R. M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Bornman, J. F.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Williamson, C. E.
    Miami Univ, USA.
    Sulzberger, B.
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Austin, A. T.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Wilson, S. R.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Andrady, A. L.
    North Carolina State Univ, USA.
    Bernhard, G.
    Biospher Inc, USA.
    McKenzie, R. L.
    NIWA, New Zealand.
    Aucamp, P. J.
    Ptersa Environm Consultants, South Africa.
    Madronich, S.
    Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, USA.
    Neale, R. E.
    Royal Brisbane Hosp, Australia.
    Yazar, S.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Young, A. R.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    de Gruijl, F. R.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Norval, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Takizawa, Y.
    Akita Univ, Japan.
    Barnes, P. W.
    Loyola Univ, USA.
    Robson, T. M.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Robinson, S. A.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Ballare, C. L.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Argentina;IFEVA CONICET, Argentina.
    Flint, S. D.
    Univ Idaho, USA.
    Neale, P. J.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, USA.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Rose, K. C.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Wängber, S. -A
    University of Gothenburg.
    Häder, D. -P
    Friedrich-Alexander Univ, Germany.
    Worrest, R. C.
    Columbia Univ, USA.
    Zepp, R. G.
    US EPA, USA.
    Paul, N. D.
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Cory, R. M.
    Univ Michigan, USA.
    Solomon, K. R.
    Univ Guelph, Canada.
    Longstreth, J.
    Inst Global Risk Res, USA.
    Pandey, K. K.
    Inst Wood Sci & Technol, India.
    Redhwi, H. H.
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, Saudi Arabia.
    Torikaiaj, A.
    Mat Life Soc Japan, Japan.
    Heikkila, A. M.
    Finnish Meteorol Inst R&D Climate Res, Finland.
    Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 20172018Ingår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 127-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the interactive effects of UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously held. Because of the Montreal Protocol, there are now indications of the beginnings of a recovery of stratospheric ozone, although the time required to reach levels like those before the 1960s is still uncertain, particularly as the effects of stratospheric ozone on climate change and vice versa, are not yet fully understood. Some regions will likely receive enhanced levels of UV radiation, while other areas will likely experience a reduction in UV radiation as ozone- and climate-driven changes affect the amounts of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces detailed Quadrennial Reports every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Update Reports of recent and relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2016 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, 16, 107-145). The present 2017 Update Report assesses some of the highlights and new insights about the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. A full 2018 Quadrennial Assessment, will be made available in 2018/2019.

  • 58.
    Bard, Vilhelm
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Metoder för återtagande av metaller från muddrade sediment: en litteraturstudie och förslag för kontaminerade sediment i Kalmar län2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal pollution in aquatic sediment is today a serious environmental problem that has been increasing ever since the industrial evolution. This literature study is investigating and comparing ten different articles and covers four different methods about metal extraction in aquatic sediments. The mentioned methods are chemical, biological, electrochemical and thermal extraction. This study concludes that there are potential effective methods available such as the chemical extraction using EDTA and EDDS and the biological extraction method for the metals Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. The chemical extraction method benefits with its effectiveness and short extraction time but the method can also leave trace levels of the EDTA in the sediments due to its persistent character. EDTA is also expensive to apply such as EDDS but this is degradable in natural environments. The biological method is also considered as a good alternative for metal extraction in sediments but has a very long extraction time. For extraction of Hg showed the thermal extraction the best results. However, it’s of great importance to investigate different methods on a given sediment before a decision can be made on which method is most effective on a given sediment and large scale remediation can be used, since there are several different factors that can affect the extraction results. 

  • 59. Barlow, Sue
    et al.
    Schlatter, Josef
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Castoldi, Anna
    Court Marques, Danièle
    Cutting, Andrew
    Jacobs, Miriam
    Lahaniatis, Majlinda
    Liem, Djien
    Manini, Paola
    Mohimont, Luc
    Rortais, Agnes
    Smille, Laura
    Steinkellner, Hans
    Scientific report of the Endocrine Active Substances Task Force2010Ingår i: EFSA Journal, ISSN 1831-4732, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. Article ID: 1932-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions within the Scientific Committee and the Advisory Forum have called for the development of a common approach within EFSA towards endocrine active substances. The aim of this report by an internal EFSA task force is to clarify the state-of-play, and provide recommendations for scientific and communication issues. Both specific issues and new regulations make it necessary to follow up on recent developments with the EU bodies, Member States, and internationally, in order to avoid diverging assessment approaches and the duplication of work. The proposed actions for EFSA are to contribute to the work in progress under the auspices of DG Environment and to continue its participation in the ongoing OECD activities in the area of testing of chemicals. The development of a generally accepted risk assessment methodology is an additional challenge due to the complexity of the issues involved. Here, the task force recommends that EFSA continues its activities aimed at developing harmonised methodologies for risk assessment of combined exposures to endocrine active substances in food. EFSA should continue to build a dialogue to develop a common strategy with the EC, other EU bodies, Member States’ Competent Authorities, international organisations and partners, as well as external experts and stakeholders on the before mentioned issues. In line with these recommendations, it is proposed that EFSA creates a working group of Panel experts and national experts to advise on prioritising the work on endocrine active substances. EFSA should also work with the experts in its Advisory Group on Risk Communications in conjunction with the communication experts from Member States, and continues to monitor and analyse media and stakeholder developments, in order to define a strategy for communications addressing both the collective group and specific endocrine active substances.

  • 60.
    Baun, Anders
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A methodology for ranking and hazard identification of xenobiotic organic compounds in urban stormwater2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 370, nr 1, s. 29-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a novel methodology (RICH, Ranking and Identification of Chemical Hazards) for ranking and identification ofxenobiotic organic compounds of environmental concern in stormwater discharged to surface water. The RICHmethod is illustrated as afunnel fitted with different filters that sort out problematic and hazardous compounds based on inherent physico-chemical and biologicalproperties. The outcomes of the RICH procedure are separate lists for both water phase and solid phase associated compounds. Theselists comprise: a justified list of compounds which can be disregarded in hazard/risk assessments, a justified list of stormwater prioritypollutants which must be included in hazard/risk assessments, and a list of compounds which may be present in discharged stormwater,but cannot be evaluated due to lack of data. The procedure was applied to 233 xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs) of relevance forstormwater. Of these 233 compounds, 121 compounds were found to be priority pollutants with regard to solids phases (i.e. suspendedsolids, soil, or sediments) when stormwater is discharged to surface water and 56 compounds were found to be priority pollutants withregard to the water phase. For 11% of the potential stormwater priority pollutants the screening procedure could not be carried out due tolack of data on basic physico-chemical properties and/or data on bioaccumulation, resistance to biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Thetiered approach applied in the RICH procedure and the focus on the phases relevant for monitoring or risk assessment in the aquaticenvironment refines the list of “compounds of concern” when compared to the outcome of existing classification schemes. In this paperthe RICH procedure is focused on effects in the aquatic environment exemplified with xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) found inurban stormwater, but it may be transferred to other environmental compartments and problems. Thus, the RICH procedure can be usedas a stand-alone tool for selection of potential priority pollutants or it can be integrated in larger priority setting frameworks.

  • 61.
    Beckman, Maja
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Silver och vismut i plaster och färger: Källor till förhöjda halter i slam?2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kemiska ämnen sprids diffust och okontrollerat till följd av en ökad konsumtion av varor. REVAQ är ett certifieringssystem som arbetar för att minska flödet av farliga ämnen till svenska reningsverk och att skapa en hållbar återföring av växtnäring. Enligt REVAQ får inte den årliga ackumuleringshastigheten för metaller öka mer än 0,2 % i mark, vilket den gör för silver och vismut. Silverhalten i slam har de senaste årtionde minskat signifikant, men de senaste åren dock planat ut. Vismut har ökat avsevärt sedan 2005. Därför är det viktigt att identifiera källor till silver och vismut i slam.

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att utforska vilka typer av plaster och färger silver respektive vismut återfinns i samt att undersöka om dessa kan vara signifikanta källor till uppmätta halter av silver och vismut i slam.

    Resultatet av den substansflödesanalys som använts i denna studie visar att vismut används i ABS-plast, polyetenplast och troligen även i polyamidplast. Plasterna används främst i hushållsartiklar.

    Inflödet av plast till Stockholm beräknas innehålla 5 kg silver och 1,2 - 5,7 ton vismut och för färg 19 kg silver och 2,5 - 3,3 ton vismut. Stocken för plast i Stockholm beräknas innehålla 25 - 50 kg silver och 5,7 - 57 ton vismut och för färg 97 - 194 kg silver och 12 -33 ton vismut.  Utflödet av metaller till Henriksdal reningsverk beräknas vara 300 g silver och 5- 25 kg för plast och 0,5 kg silver och 62 - 82 kg vismut för färg.

    Enligt denna studie är vismut i plast och färg en bidragande källa till uppmätta halter i slam (4,4 - 21 % respektive 54 - 73 % ). Silver i plast och färg är inte en bidragande källa till uppmätta mängder silver i reningsverkets slam.

  • 62.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Flow and accumulation of chromium in Sweden1989Ingår i: 7th International Conference, Geneva In Proc. Heavy Metals in the Environment; Vernet, J.P. (ed.), 1989Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 63.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Anderberg, S
    Lohm, Ulrik
    A reconstruction of emission, flow and accumulation of chromium in Sweden 1920-19801989Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 48, s. 391-407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconstruction of Cr emissions in Sweden is presented. Estimations of total flows for 1920in 1980 were based on trade statistics, production of goods and life-length of products in society. Asimple model was used to calculate amounts of Cr accumulated in soil and sediment at different times.The importance of production emissions from tanneries and ferrochrome and steel plants is obvious,but, in the future, diffuse emissions of the same magnitude may occur from Cr products within urbanareas. 

  • 64.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bayard, Ann-Christin
    Sustainable Sweden SouthEast.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Avfall i Småland - en resursgruva2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag till stor del i en linjär ekonomi där varor produceras, används och sedan slängs. En ökande materialanvändning genererar stora avfallsflöden, varav en stor mängd går till avfallsförbränning. Samhällets ämnesomsättning ger även upphov till stora mängder slam vid rening av avloppsvatten. Näringen i slammet behöver tas tillvara och återföras till jordbruksmark, vilken inte alltid sker idag. Om man jämför samhällets flöden av material med ekologiska system finns det inget som är avfall i naturen. Istället blir en organisms avfall någon annans näring. En mer cirkulär ekonomi vill härma naturen på det sättet.

    Projektet ”Samhällets restprodukter – framtidens resurser” vill närma sig den cirkulära ekonomin genom att fokusera hur två av samhällets största restprodukter, avfall och slam, bättre kan användas i ett resurseffektivt samhälle. Projektets syfte är att ge en ökad användning av samhällets restprodukter i Småland, ge företag bättre lönsamhet genom billigare råvaror samt stärka företag som utvecklar tekniska lösningar för utvinning av ämnen. Projektets övergripande mål är att identifiera strömmar av restprodukter i Småland som kan användas som en resurs av andra företag i närheten.

    Denna rapport ”Avfall i Småland – en resursgruva” redovisar efter det första projektåret främst en kunskapsbank vad gäller avfallsflöden i Småland. Det är första gången i Sverige som avfallsdata bryts ner på regional nivå på detta sätt, vilket gör det möjligt att mer detaljerat identifiera värdefulla och outnyttjade avfallsflöden. Rapporten innehåller data över resursgruvan avfall, avfall både från hushåll och olika verksamheter och även data om hur detta avfall tas om hand. Den innehåller också basfakta om Småland, befolkning och näringsliv samt en del om den speciella anda som finns i Småland, Smålandsandan som ger en god förutsättning för entreprenörskap. Vidare innehåller rapporten inledande tankar på hur man kan arbeta för att få resursanvändningen mer cirkulär i Småland. Här finns exempel på framgångsfaktorer utifrån erfarenheter från olika företag. Slutligen finns också en del om lagar och regler, t.ex. vad som gäller om man ska ta emot avfall.

    Rapporten visar att det finns mycket blandade fraktioner i det uppkomna avfallet i Småland. Vidare går en betydande del av det avfall som behandlas till förbränning. Det finns med andra ord en stor potential att sortera och återvinna mer. Detta ger goda förutsättningar att finna avfall från en verksamhet som kan vara en resurs för en annan. Huvudsyftet med projektets arbete år två är att verka för matchning mellan företag för att bättre använda restprodukten avfall. Arbetet kommer även att inriktas mot slam, med syftet att öka användningen av denna restprodukt.

     

  • 65.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Borg, L
    Effect of acidification on uptake of Rubidium, Potassium and Ammonium ions by Spruce1989Ingår i: Journal of plant nutrition, ISSN 0190-4167, E-ISSN 1532-4087, Vol. 12, s. 1473-1482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 66.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Borg, Lars
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Försurningens inverkan på upptaget av magnesium- och kalciumjoner hos gran1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Håkansson, K
    Karlsson, S
    Long-range spreading of metals from a mine waste deposit1989Ingår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, , s. 68-74s. 68-74Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Lead emissions in Sweden in a one hundred year perspective1991Ingår i: 8th International Conference, Edinburgh In Proc. Heavy Metals in the Environment; Farmer J.G. (ed), 1991Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    The immission landscape development in Sweden with regard to heavy metals1991Ingår i: 8th International Conference, Edinburgh In Proc. Heavy Metals in the Environment; Farmer J.G. (ed), 1991Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the sources, controls and risk aspects of fluoride in surface water and groundwater in a region of southeastern Sweden where the fluorine-rich 1.45 Ga circular Götemar granite (5 km in diameter) crops out in the surrounding 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites (TIB rocks). The materials of this thesis include both primary data, collected for the purpose of this thesis, and a large set of secondary data, retrieved from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., the Swedish Geological Survey and the Kalmar County Council. A characteristic feature of the area is high fluoride concentrations in all kinds of natural waters, including surface waters (such as streams) and groundwater in both the Quaternary deposits (regolith groundwater) and bedrock fractures (fracture groundwater). A number of potential sources and controls of the high fluoride concentrations were investigated, including a variety of geological, mineralogical, mineral-chemical and hydrological features and processes. For the stream waters and regolith groundwater, high fluoride concentrations were correlated with the location of the Götemar granite. This finding is explained by the discharge of fluoride-rich groundwater from fractures in the bedrock and/or the release of fluoride due to the weathering of fluorine-bearing minerals in the Quaternary deposits; however, the Quaternary deposits had considerably lower fluoride concentrations than the underlying bedrock. The high fluoride concentrations in the fresh fracture groundwater (up to 7.4 mg/L) in the TIB-rocks are proposed to be the result of long residence times and the alteration/dissolution of fluorine-bearing primary and secondary minerals along the fracture walls. In terms of risk aspects, this thesis shows that fluoride can add to the transport and inorganic complexation of aluminium in humic-rich, acidic streams. Additionally, 24 % of the children in households with private wells in Kalmar County were assessed to be at risk of excess fluoride intake based on the WHO drinking water guideline value (1.5 mg/L). However, the risk increased significantly when instead the US EPA reference dose (0.06 mg/kg-day) was used, both when all relevant exposure pathways were taken into account as well as water consumption alone. Hence, it is shown that the risk of an excess intake of fluoride is strongly dependent on the basis for evaluation.

  • 71.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Assessing the risk of an excessive fluoride intake in a region of southeastern Sweden2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 72.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, s. 948-960Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 73.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences;KTH Royal Inst Technol.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    The impact of fluoride on Al abundance and speciation in boreal streams2015Ingår i: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 409, s. 118-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of fluoride on the abundance and speciation of aluminium (Al) was investigated in three boreal streams characterised by overall high concentrations of fluoride and dissolved organic matter. Stream-water sampling was carried out several times a year for at least 4 years, and a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ) was applied in order to model the proportion of colloidal and organically/inorganically complexed Al in the waters. The Al concentrations in filtered (0.45 mu m) water samples were inversely correlated with pH, and reached values up to approximately 1 mg/L during low pH conditions (pH < 6.0). In a stream with high fluoride concentrations, as compared to a similar stream with only moderately elevated fluoride concentrations, the Al concentrations were consistently elevated. For the stream with high concentrations of fluoride and Al, the model predicted both high concentrations and proportions of Al-fluoride complexation. This prediction indicates that high fluoride levels contribute to raise both the Al abundance and the ratio of inorganic to organic Al complexation in stream water. In contrast, for another stream with high fluoride concentrations and consistently high (near neutral) pH, there was no evidence of fluoride affecting Al concentration or complexation. These results show that it is important to focus future studies on the role of high levels of dissolved fluoride on both the speciation and the toxicity of Al in stream water.

  • 74.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    High fluoride concentrations in surface water: example from a catchment in SE Sweden2010Ingår i: Abstract Volume of COST Action 637- METEAU 4th International Conference. Kristianstad, Sweden, October 13-15, 2010. / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Sandhi, A. and Rosborg, I., Stockholm: Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology , 2010, s. 80-81Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 75.
    Berglund, Sara
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Växjö kommun: En jämförande studie om svårigheter vid miljömålsformulering2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här är en jämförande studie gjord för Växjö kommun, mellan de fyra kommunerna Växjö, Helsingborg, Lund och Örebro. Avsikten var att ta reda på vilka typer av miljömå lsom de olika kommunerna har, hur deras miljömål är formulerade, vad det finns för problem och svårigheter vid formulering av miljömål samt vad det är som gör att vissa miljömål är mer lyckade än andra. Detta för att även kunna ta fram förslag på förbättringar eller hur erfarenheter från de andra kommunerna skulle kunna användas inom Växjö kommuns miljömålsarbete.

    Studien har visat att det inte är något lätt arbete att skapa miljömål inom en kommun. Svårigheterna i arbetet ligger främst i att hitta rätt sätt att mäta och vilken indikator som ska användas inom uppföljnings- och utvärderingsarbetet. Att en kommun har miljömål som omfattar områden där kommunen själv inte sitter med rådighet försvårar miljömålsarbetet, samtidigt som det är svårt att hitta rätt styrmedel för att påverka andra. För att lyckas med miljömålsarbetet inom en kommun är det av betydelse att sätta miljömål som är relevanta för kommunen samtidigt som miljömålen har en tydlig formulering och målsättning. Även att kommunen plockar fram styrmedel för att kunna påverka andra inom områden där de själva inte sitter med rådighet och att det finns tydliga ansvarsfördelningar inom förvaltningar och de personer som driver miljömålet framåt. Ett miljömål är inte självgående utan behöver fokus för att bli lyckat och uppnås.

  • 76.
    Bergman, Agneta
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Människan, kalven eller gödselbrunnen? Mjölkens destination och fördelning - hos mjölkbonden2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of food is produced and passes the whole chain by processing, transport and trade and finally it ends up with the consumer. But in many cases, the food is disposed before it is eaten. Some of the produced food does not even pass the whole entire chain before it turns to waste. The question about food waste in debates is a case of access to food for every human beeing. It is question of consumption of the resources, waste management and an issue of environmental impact. Measurable statistics can be found in the later stages of the chain, but the basis for the quantities that may be one of the primary production is not as clear. My object of this thesis has been to acquire knowledge about where the milk ends up at the farm. How much is direct food for humans, how much are destined for processing, how much goes back into production - to the calves, and how large proportion becomes waste that is converted into manure. I also wanted to know the causes of why the milk ends up where it actually does. After visiting 17 dairy farms in Bohuslän, Dalsland and Västra Götaland, and through discussions with involved farmers I have found that the milk that turns into manure are collectively less than 1% of the produced milk. The main reason why the milk in the daily production goes into manure heap from the farmers I have visited, is because of the cows that are sick with mastitis or lameness, and their following penicillin therapy makes the milk become contaminated. 3% of the produced milk is essential for the future, when it goes directly to the calves. The entire 97% is produced and reaches the goal with the dairy farmer's entire business - it goes further as a potential food for humans.

  • 77.
    Bergseije, Victor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Effects of Heat Transfer Fluid from District Heating Networks on Activated Sludge: A respirometric analysis using a dilution series to assess disruption of biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment facilities2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating has a long standing tradition in Sweden and today it is the most common way of producing and transporting heat. A District heating system (DH system) is divided into three parts: a production facility, distribution network (DH network) and one more heat stations. The heat produced in the facilities is distributed to the customers via a heat transfer medium, usually water (DH water), in piping networks that make up the DH network. The heat is transferred to the customers via the heat exchanger at which point they can use it as heated tap water or for heating purposes. The DH networks are often constructed in steel as it is cheap and a relatively resistant material. However it has the disadvantages of corrosion and expansions when it is exposed high temperatures which lead to damages in the DH network resulting in loss of the DH water, this is an unavoidable occurrence in any DH network. This results in addition of pollutants by leakages into the DH network or with the water that is used to compensate for the losses. The pollutants cause further corrosion, leading to metal contamination, and more damages on the DH network meaning there is a continuous degradation. Therefore various treatments are used to clean and ascertain an acceptable chemical environment in the DH systems. These treatments are effective but not at a level which is required so many chemicals are used to enhance the treatment of the water. Some of these are known to be toxic to humans and water ecosystems.

    As leakages are abundant and often end up in the WWTPs of the concerned municipality, which often have troubles with disturbances of the biological treatment, it was decided that an assessment of the toxic effects that DH water pose on activated sludge was to be investigated. This was done by testing water from two DH networks, Växjö and Kalmar, on the same activated sludge obtained from Tegelviken WWTP in Kalmar. A respirometric bioassay approach established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD standard 209; OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals was used with changes made to exposure and measuring time as this decrease the risk of misinterpretation of the results. A dilution series using different concentrations (6.25%, 25% and 100%) of DH water was tested and compered to a blank control samples containing only activated sludge. Assessment of toxicity on total oxidation, oxidation carbon and oxidation of nitrogen was made. To get some idea of what might cause toxic effect samples of the waters was sent to outside laboratories for analyses of metals. The result from the bioassay and metal analysis was used to formulate risk factors associated with a DH water spill and exposure to WWTPs.

    It was found that both DH waters have a significant inhibition on nitrification in WWTPs. The DH water from Kalmar exhibited similar toxicity dynamics, roughly 20% inhibition, despite large differences in concentration. The DH water from Växjö showed a negative correlation between an increase in concentration of DH water and toxicity, 74% for the lowest concentration and 11% for the highest. The metal analysis concluded that there was no abundance of metal contamination which led to the inference that toxicity is probably caused by the chemicals used for treatment. This poses a great risk for the Baltic Ocean as many WWTPs release their treated water directly into water courses with a short detention time before reaching the sea.

  • 78. Bergström, Jan
    et al.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Incineration of PCB and other hazardous wastes1987Ingår i: American Flame Research Committee, 1987Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79. Bergström, Jan
    et al.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Organiska mikroföroreningar från avfallsförbränning1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80.
    Berling, Peter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO). Lund University.
    Eng-Larsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University.
    Environmental implications of transport contract choice - capacity investment and pricing under volume and capacity contracts2017Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 261, nr 1, s. 129-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the observation that capacity contracts are used by some retailers to increase their transport provider's investments in green transport solutions, we investigate and compare a service provider's optimal investment, and its environmental implications under a volume and a capacity contract respectively. We solve the service provider's investment problem under the assumption that the retailer uses the service to replenish a warehouse with storable goods. We then show that a capacity contract leads to more green transports, but not necessarily a larger investment in green transport solutions. At the same time, the optimal solution involves heavy investment in inventory at the retailer. The investment in inventory is non-decreasing in the cost benefit of the green transports, which may have a significant negative environmental impact. The implication is that a capacity contract will lead to better environmental performance than a volume contract only when the green transports' cost benefit is within a given interval. Whether the capacity contract is the more profitable option for the service provider within this interval depends on inventory related costs and the relative environmental costs from transportation and inventory. Interestingly, owing to this, regulation that target the price of the conventional vehicles, such as a carbon tax, may lead to both an increase or a decrease in environmental performance. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 81.
    Bertilsson, Linn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Influencers, följarna och flyget: Kan influencers påverka följares flygvanor?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följare av social media influencers har visat sig kunna påverkas starkt av den information influencers sänder ut och förmedlar på sina kanaler. Hittills har dock inga studier uppmärksammat influencers flygvanor och hur de kan påverka och avspegla sig på följares flygvanor. Den här studien avsåg därför att undersöka om flygvanorna hos följare av influencers kan påverkas av den livsstil som influencers förmedlar. För att svara på syftet ställdes följande tre frågeställningar: Upplever följare av social media influencers att deras flygvanor påverkas av den livsstil som influencers förmedlar i sina inlägg? Upplever följare att de inspireras av influencers resor och reserelaterade inlägg? Använder följare sig medvetet av influencers som en källa till reseinspiration? Utifrån dessa frågeställningar utformades sedan en enkät som lades ut i nio olika grupper på Facebook. Resultatet av enkätstudien visade att närmare 40 % av följarna i viss eller hög grad blir inspirerade av influencers livsstil och resor. En stor del upplever även att inspiration från influencers i någon grad inverkar vid valet av resmål medan en mindre andel medvetet söker reseinspiration hos influencers. Det framgick även att majoriteten av följarna känner att influencers livsstil och flygvanor i varierande grad påverkar dem till att flyga mer. Sammantaget visar studien att följare upplever att influencers livsstil och flygvanor i viss utsträckning påverkar deras egna flygvanor.

  • 82.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering (YIEST), Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710, Gangwon-do, South Korea.
    Choi, Y.H.
    Yoon, Y.J.
    Shin, Y.
    Jeon, B.H.
    Kang, J.W.
    Bromate removal from water by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH)2009Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, nr 1, s. 134-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) for bromate removal from water has been studied. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as effect of contact time, initial bromate concentration, temperature, pH and effect of competing anions on bromate removal by GFH. The adsorption kinetics indicates that uptake rate of bromate was rapid at the beginning and 75% adsorption was completed in 5 min and equilibrium was achieved within 20 min. The sorption process was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption potential of GFH for bromate removal was 16.5 mg g−1 at 25 °C. The adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model. The increase in OH peak and absence of Br–O bonding in FTIR spectra indicate that ion-exchange was the main mechanism during bromate sorption on GFH. The effects of competing anions and solution pHs (3–9) were negligible. Results of the present study suggest that GFH can be effectively utilized for bromate removal from drinking water.

  • 83.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Fac Technol, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland.
    An overview of the modification methods of activated carbon for its water treatment applications2013Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 219, s. 499-511Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon has been recognized as one of the oldest and widely used adsorbent for the water and wastewater treatment for removing organic and inorganic pollutants. The application of activated carbon in adsorption process is mainly depends on the surface chemistry and pore structure of porous carbons. The method of activation and the nature of precursor used greatly influences surface functional groups and pore structure of the activated carbon. Therefore, the main focus of researchers is to develop or modifies the activation/treatment techniques in an optimal manner using appropriate precursors for specific pollutants. In recent years, emphasis is given to prepare the surface modified carbons using different procedures to enhance the potential of activated carbon for specific contaminants. Various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, impregnation treatment, ozone treatment, surfactant treatment, plasma treatment and microwave treatment have been studied to develop surface modified activated carbons. In this paper, these modification methods have been reviewed and the potential of surface modified activated carbons towards water treatment has been discussed. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of surface modification of activated carbon for water pollution control. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 84.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , South Korea.
    Ji, M.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , South Korea.
    Choi, Y.H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , South Korea.
    Jung, W.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , South Korea.
    Lee, S.H.
    Kim, S.J.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , South Korea.
    Lee, G.
    Suk, H.
    Kim, H.S.
    Min, B.
    Kim, S.H.
    Jeon, B.H.
    Kang, J.W.
    Removal of nitrate from water by adsorption onto zinc chloride treated activated carbon2008Ingår i: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Vol. 43, s. 886-907Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 85.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia2017Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 627-635Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m(3) of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (<40 mm) and coarse (>40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  • 86.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hogland, William
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paraskeva, Christakis A.
    Papadakis, Vagelis G.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control-a review2014Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 268-298Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5 % of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78 % between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  • 87.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Environmental Science & Technology Division, CBRI , Roorkee, India / Department of Environmental Engineering (YIEST) , Yonsei University , Wonju, South Korea.
    Kumar, Eva
    Department of Environmental Engineering (YIEST) , Yonsei University , Wonju, South Korea.
    Minocha, A.K.
    Jeon, B.H.
    Song, H.
    Seo, Y.C.
    Removal of anionic dyes from water using Citrus limonum (lemon) peel:  Equilibrium studies and kinetic modeling2009Ingår i: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Vol. 44, s. 316-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adsorption potential of Citrus limonum (lemon) peel as an adsorbent for the removal of two anionic dyes, Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration, and temperature by batch method. The adsorption capacities of lemon peel adsorbent for dyes were found 50.3 and 34.5 mg/g for MO and CR, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data was well described by the Langmuir model. Three simplified kinetic models viz. pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model were tested to describe the adsorption process. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities, and related correlation coefficients for each kinetic model were determined. It was found that the present system of dyes adsorption on lemon peel adsorbent could be described more favorably by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The results of the present study reveal that lemon peel adsorbent can be fruitfully utilized as an inexpensive adsorbent for dyes removal from effluents.

  • 88.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Environmental Science and Technology Division, CBRI, Roorkee, India,Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), 21073 Hamburg Harburg, Germany .
    Minocha, A.K.
    Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee ( Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water2010Ingår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 31, s. 97-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Acid Blue 25, with a monolayer sorption capacity of ca. 200 mg g-1. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the present system of dye adsorption on lychee peel adsorbent could be described more favourably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, namely free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) changes, were determined for the process. The results of the present study suggest that lychee peel waste can be used beneficially as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes.

  • 89.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Environmental Science and Technology Division, Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee 247667, India.
    Minocha, A.K.
    Utilization of industrial waste for cadmium removal from water and immobilization in cement2009Ingår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 150, s. 145-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the adsorption potential of metal sludge (a waste product of the electroplating industry) for the removal of cadmium from water. The adsorption capacity of the waste sludge for cadmium was ca. 40 mg g−1 at 25 °C. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, concentration and temperature by batch experiments. The adsorption has been found to be endothermic and data conform to the Langmuir model. The analysis of kinetic data indicates that the present adsorption system followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. After the adsorption studies, the metal-laden sludge adsorbent was immobilized in cement for its ultimate disposal. Physical properties such as initial and final setting time and the compressive strength of cement-stabilized wastes were tested to investigate the effect of the metal-laden sludge. The results of the present study clearly reveal that waste metal sludge can be used beneficially in treating industrial effluents containing cadmium and safely disposed of by immobilizing into cement. The proposed technology provides a two-fold advantage of wastewater treatment and solid waste management.

  • 90.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Environmental Science & Technology Division, Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) , Roorkee, India.
    Minocha, A.K.
    Environmental Science & Technology Division, Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) , Roorkee, India.
    Kumar, E.
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , Wonju, Gangwon-do, South Korea.
    Sillanpää, M.
    Laboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry (LAEC), Department of Environmental Sciences , University of Kuopio , Mikkeli, Finland.
    Jeon, BH
    Department of Environmental Engineering , Yonsei University , Wonju, Gangwon-do, South Korea.
    Removal of phenolic pollutants from water utilizing Mangifera indica (Mango) seed waste and cement fixation2009Ingår i: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Vol. 44, nr 13, s. 3150-3169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A process for the removal of two chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) from water using surface modified mango seed waste by adsorption process followed by cement fixation of the phenols-laden adsorbent is investigated. The two main objectives of this study were to develop efficient adsorbent utilizing mango seed waste by physiochemical activation and to an environmentally-friendly disposal of phenols-laden adsorbent into cement by a fixation process. The results of the present study reveal that the modified mango seed adsorbent showed an efficient adsorption potential for chlorophenols removal from water. The maximum adsorption potential of modified mango seed adsorbent for 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol was 40.6 and 72.3 mg g−1, respectively at 25°C. Adsorption kinetic data of chlorophenols adsorption on mango seed adsorbent could be described more favorably by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. After the adsorption studies, the phenol-laden adsorbent was immobilized in cement for its ultimate disposal. Leachates from the fixed phenols-laden adsorbent exhibit phenols concentrations lower than the drinking water standards. Results from this study suggest the potential utility of agricultural wastes as one of the most promising activated carbon precursors for phenols removal from water and wastewater and the safe disposal of phenol-laden adsorbent into cement by fixation process.

  • 91.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    aboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland.
    Sillanpää, Mika
    aboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, FI-50100 Mikkeli, Finland.
    Applications of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives for the detoxification of water and wastewater - A short Review2009Ingår i: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 152, s. 26-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitin and chitosan-derivatives have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups which show significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of chitin- and chitosan-derivatives from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. This paper will give an overview of the principal results obtained during the treatment of water and wastewater utilizing chitin and chitosan-derivatives for the removal of: (a) metal cations and metal anions; (b) radionuclides; (c) different classes of dyes; (d) phenol and substituted phenols; (e) different anions and other miscellaneous pollutants. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the various adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that chitin- and chitosan-derivatives have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale.

  • 92.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Vilar, V.J.P.
    Botelho, C.M.
    Boaventura, R.A.
    Optimization of nickel biosorption on surface modified algae, COBEQ2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 93.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    LSRE — Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
    Vilar, V.J.P.
    LSRE — Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
    Botelho, C.M.S.
    LSRE — Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
    Boaventura, R.A.R.
    LSRE — Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
    Coconut based biosorbents for water treatment: A review of the recent literature2010Ingår i: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 160, nr 1-2, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosorption is an emerging technique for water treatment utilizing abundantly available biomaterials (especially agricultural wastes). Among several agricultural wastes studied as biosorbents for water treatment, coconut has been of great importance as various parts of this tree (e.g. coir, shell, etc.) have been extensively studied as biosorbents for the removal of diverse type of pollutants from water. Coconut-based agricultural wastes have gained wide attention as effective biosorbents due to low-cost and significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of coconut-based biosorbents from vast literature has been compiled and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants as available in the literature are presented. Available abundantly, high biosorption capacity, cost-effectiveness and renewability are the important factors making these materials as economical alternatives for water treatment and waste remediation. This paper presents a state of the art review of coconut-based biosorbents used for water pollution control, highlighting and discussing key advancement on the preparation of novel adsorbents utilizing coconut wastes, its major challenges together with the future prospective. It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. However, still there is a need to find out the practical utility of such developed adsorbents on commercial scale, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.

  • 94.
    Bhend, Jonas
    et al.
    Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, Switzerland.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Stockholm University.
    Attributing causes of regional climate change in the Baltic Sea area2015Ingår i: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we assess to what extent the effect of forcing mechanisms on the observed climate change in the Baltic Sea area can be detected. In particular, we assess the effect of factors causing large-scale warming (mainly anthropogenic greenhouse gases) and the regional effect of atmospheric aerosols and land-cover and land-use changes. Unfortunately, only very few targeted analyses for the Baltic catchment area are available at the moment, but findings at the regional scale are generally qualitatively consistent with global or hemispheric analyses.

    The observed warming in summer cannot be explained without human influence (in particular the warming effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations). In other seasons and for other aspects of regional warming, findings are mixed or not significant as of yet. In addition, large-scale circulation and rainfall changes in the northern hemisphere and the Arctic have been detected to exceed natural internal variability. Other aspects of regional climate change including changes in storminess, snow properties, runoff and the changing physicalproperties of the Baltic Sea have not been formally attributed to human influence yet. Scientific understanding of the effect of aerosols on regional climate is still accumulating. It is likely that the major emission changes in Europe have had an effect on the climate in the Baltic region, the magnitude of which, however, is still unknown. Development of the modelling capability and targeted analyses are urgently needed to reduce the uncertainties related to the effect of aerosol changes on regional observed climate change. Historic deforestation and recent reforestation are the major anthropogenic land-cover changes affecting the Baltic Sea area. From all studies at hand it can be concluded that there is no evidence that anthropogenic land-cover change would be one of the forcings behind the recent warming in the Baltic region. However, past anthropogenic land-cover change may have influenced regional climate significantly already more than two thousand years ago.

  • 95.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Norway.
    Christophersen, Olav Albert
    Norwegian Government Scholarship Holder, Norway.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Italy.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norway ; Hedmark Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology2017Ingår i: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 156, s. 526-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States.

  • 96.
    Blanc, Rebecka
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sportfiskares slitage på Mörrumsåns stränder och konsekvenser för Tjockskalig målarmussla: - kan spänger skydda från erosion2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mörrumsån har de förutsättningar som krävs för att Tjockskalig målarmussla (Unio crassus) skall kunna leva och föröka sig, men detta sker inte i samma utsträckning som tidigare. Ett samband mellan vattnets riktning söderut mot utloppet till Östersjön och minskad föryngring av Tjockskalig målarmusslas inventerade bestånd i Mörrumsån finns. Föryngringen uteblir samtidigt som man hittat fler döda musslor ju närmre åmynningen man kommer. Orsakerna till detta kan vara flera då denna mussla är beroende av specifika förhållanden under flera faser i sin utveckling och fortplantning. Ett av hoten är grumling av bottnar. Grumling kan bero på att sträckor utmed Mörrumsåns sluttningar och stränder beträds frekvent av besökare. Vegetation slits bort längs med stigar och vandringsleder vilket leder till erosion av stränder och sluttningar. Organiskt och oorganiskt material av olika storlekar följer med åns vatten i strömriktningen och sedimenterar. En grupp som oftast använder stränderna är sportfiskare och de sliter mer på vegetation och stränder i perioder då fisket är intensivt. En av de mer intensiva perioderna är vid premiären av laxfisket på våren. Under denna tid syns ett bibehållet slitage på vissa sträckor vid ån samt även utökat slitage i form av bredare stigar och även parallella stigar på andra sträckor. De platser som uppvisade att erosion ägde rum innan fiskepremiären hade eroderat mer vid utvärdering två veckor efter premiären. Man skulle kunna skydda vegetation genom att anlägga spänger längs med känsliga och utsatta stigar och stränder. Detta skulle dock inte förhindra den erosion som sker längs med stränder där sportfiskare kliver i och ur ån samt går längs med stranden under fiskeaktiviteten. Det är svårt att förutspå var en fiskare tänker stå och därför kan det inte uteslutas att en fiskare väljer att stå på någon annan plats än den som man byggt en spång på. Spångbygge kan kombineras med information om syftet och att det finns skyddsvärda starkt hotade arter som Tjockskalig målarmussla vilka utsätts för färre risker om man använder spänger, stigar och rekommenderade platser

  • 97.
    Bollmann, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Petersen, Camilla Tang
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Lund University.
    Vollertsen, Jes
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Bester, Kai
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources2014Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 60, s. 64-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening.

  • 98. Boman, Anton
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fröjdö, Sören
    Sulfur dynamics in boreal acid sulphate soils rich in metastable iron sulfide – The role of artificial drainage2008Ingår i: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 255, nr 1-2, s. 68-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sulfur dynamics of boreal brackish-water sediments rich in metastable iron sulfide (average elemental composition of FeS1.1), which upon oxidation have a huge impact on stream-water chemistry, were studied. Two cores, extending from the upper oxidized layer (acid sulfate soil) into the underlying iron sulfide-bearing sediment (potential acid sulfate soil) were collected at a site close to the sea level and at another site about 40 m above the latter in a region of current isostatic land uplift (Finland). The data clearly show, in contrast to what is often argued, that these notorious acidic soils are formed not as a result of the natural uplift but because of extensive ditching of farmlands. Above the depth of artificial drainage, S and Ni are abundantly lost, while beneath that level pyrite is abundant and metastable iron sulfide is increasing with depth, and the Ni concentration is relatively stable. In the narrow zone between the reduced and oxidized layers, the processes are dynamic and result in preservation of elemental S at one of the locations. The sulfur isotopic composition for metastable iron sulfide and pyrite in the investigated acid sulfate soils were found to be distinctly bimodal and roughly corresponding to a similar distribution in stream-water sulfate earlier reported from the same region. This indicates that pyrite is the main source of sulfate and acidity in some affected drains, while in others it is metastable iron sulfide.

  • 99. Bonanni, L
    et al.
    Ebner, Hannes
    Hockenberry, M
    Sayan, B
    Brandt, Nils
    Csikszentmihàlyi, N
    Ishii, H
    Turpeinen, Marko
    Young, S
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Sourcemap. org: First Application of Linked and Open LCA Data to Support Sustainability2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 100.
    Bragée, P.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Mazier, F.
    Jean Jaures University, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lund University.
    Rosén, P.
    Umeå University.
    Fredh, D.
    Lund University.
    Broström, A.
    Lund University.
    Granéli, W.
    Lund University.
    Hammarlund, D.
    Lund University.
    Historical TOC concentration minima during peak sulfur deposition in two Swedish lakes2015Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 307-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decadal-scale variations in total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in lake water since AD1200 in two small lakes in southern Sweden were reconstructed based on visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) of their recent sediment successions. In order to assess the impacts of local land-use changes, regional variations in sulfur, and nitrogen deposition and climate variations on the inferred changes in TOC concentration, the same sediment records were subjected to multi-proxy palaeolimnological analyses. Changes in lake-water pH were inferred from diatom analysis, whereas pollen-based land-use reconstructions (Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm) together with geochemical records provided information on catchment-scale environmental changes, and comparisons were made with available records of climate and population density. Our long-term reconstructions reveal that inferred lake-water TOC concentrations were generally high prior to AD1900, with additional variability coupled mainly to changes in forest cover and agricultural land-use intensity. The last century showed significant changes, and unusually low TOC concentrations were inferred at AD1930-1990, followed by a recent increase, largely consistent with monitoring data. Variations in sulfur emissions, with an increase in the early 1900s to a peak around AD1980 and a subsequent decrease, were identified as an important driver of these dynamics at both sites, while processes related to the introduction of modern forestry and recent increases in precipitation and temperature may have contributed, but the effects differed between the sites. The increase in lake-water TOC concentration from around AD1980 may therefore reflect a recovery process. Given that the effects of sulfur deposition now subside and that the recovery of lake-water TOC concentrations has reached pre-industrial levels, other forcing mechanisms related to land management and climate change may become the main drivers of TOC concentration changes in boreal lake waters in the future.

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