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• 51. Abramowski, A.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 and derivation of an upper limit on its redshift2013Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 552, s. A118-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Very high-energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 was detected with the H. E. S. S. Cherenkov telescope array in December 2009. This blazar is one of the brightest extragalactic objects in the Fermi bright source list and has a hard spectrum in the MeV to GeV range. In the TeV range, a photon index of 3.89 +/- 0.37 (stat) +/- 0.22 (sys) and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV, phi(1) (TeV) = (3.5 +/- 1.1(stat) +/- 0.9(sys)) x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) TeV-1 were found. The detection with H. E. S. S. triggered observations in the X-ray band with the Swift and RXTE telescopes. Simultaneous UV and optical data from Swift UVOT and data from the optical telescopes ATOM and ROTSE are also available. The spectrum and light curve measured with H. E. S. S. are presented and compared to the multi-wavelength data at lower energies. A rapid flare is seen in the Swift XRT and RXTE data, together with a flux variation in the UV band, at a time scale of the order of one day. A firm upper limit of z < 0.59 on the redshift of PKS 0447-439 is derived from the combined Fermi-LAT and H. E. S. S. data, given the assumptions that there is no upturn in the intrinsic spectrum above the Fermi-LAT energy range and that absorption on the extragalactic background light (EBL) is not weaker than the lower limit provided by current models. The spectral energy distribution is well described by a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton scenario, if the redshift of the source is less than z less than or similar to 0.4.

• 52.
Univ Hamburg, Inst Experimentalphys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin 4, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia . Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany. Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia. Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany. Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany. Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia. Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England. DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany ; Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany. Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland. Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland. Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
The high-energy gamma-ray emission of AP Librae2015Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 573, artikel-id A31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The gamma-ray spectrum of the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae is studied, following the discovery of very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission up to the TeV range by the H.E.S.S. experiment. Thismakes AP Librae one of the few VHE emitters of the LBL type. The measured spectrum yields a flux of (8.8 +/- 1.5(stat) +/- 1.8(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1) above 130 GeV and a spectral index of Gamma = 2.65 +/- 0.19(stat) +/- 0.20(sys). This study also makes use of Fermi-LAT observations in the high energy (HE, E > 100 MeV) range, providing the longest continuous light curve (5 years) ever published on this source. The source underwent a flaring event between MJD 56 306-56 376 in the HE range, with a flux increase of a factor of 3.5 in the 14 day bin light curve and no significant variation in spectral shape with respect to the low-flux state. While the H.E.S.S. and (low state) Fermi-LAT fluxes are in good agreement where they overlap, a spectral curvature between the steep VHE spectrum and the Fermi-LAT spectrum is observed. The maximum of the gamma-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution is located below the GeV energy range.

• 53. Abramowski, A.
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Search for extended gamma-ray emission around AGN with HESS and Fermi-LAT2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 562, s. A145-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. Very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from blazars inevitably gives rise to electron-positron pair production through the interaction of these gamma-rays with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Depending on the magnetic fields in the proximity of the source, the cascade initiated from pair production can result in either an isotropic halo around an initially- beamed source or a magnetically- broadened cascade :aux. Aims. Both extended pair-halo (PH) and magnetically broadened cascade (MBC) emission from regions surrounding the blazars 1ES 1101-232, IRS 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 were searched for using VHE y-ray data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-ray data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Methods. By comparing the angular distributions of the reconstructed gamma-ray events to the angular profiles calculated from detailed theoretical models, the presence of PH and MBC was investigated. Results. Upper limits on the extended emission around lES 1101-232, lES 0229+200, and PKS 2155-304 are found to be at a level of a few per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 1 TeV, depending on the assumed photon index of the cascade emission. Assuming strong extra-Galactic magnetic field (EGME) values, >10(-12) G, this limits the production of pair haloes developing from electromagnetic cascades. For weaker magnetic fields, in which electromagnetic cascades would result in MBCs. EGMF strengths in the range (0.3-3) x 10(-15) G were excluded for PKS 2155-304 at the 99% confidence level, under the assumption of a 1 Mpc coherence length.

• 54. Abramowski, A.
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 562, s. 562-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of the remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H. E. S. S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV gamma-ray source, HESS J1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G15.4+0.1 is detected by H. E. S. S. and featurs a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of -2.3 +/- 0.3(stat) +/- 0.2(sys) and an integral flux of F(>0.42 TeV) = (0.9 +/- 0.3(stat) +/- 0.2(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). Furthermore, a recent observation with XMM-Newton reveals extended X-ray emission strongly peaked in the center of G15.4+0.1. The X-ray source shows indications of an energy-dependent morphology featuring a compact core at energies above 4 keV and more extended emission that fills the entire region within the SNR at lower energies. Together, the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray emission provide strong evidence of a PWN located inside the shell of G15.4+0.1 and this SNR can therefore be classified as a composite based on these observations. The radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray emission from the PWN is compatible with a one-zone leptonic model that requires a low average magnetic field inside the emission region. An unambiguous counterpart to the putative pulsar, which is thought to power the PWN, has been detected neither in radio nor in X-ray observations of G15.4+0.1.

• 55. Abramowski, A.
Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Flux upper limits for 47 AGN observed with HESS in 2004-20112014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 564, s. Article ID: A9-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. About 40% of the observation time of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is dedicated to studying active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the aim of increasing the sample of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sources and constraining the physical processes at play in potential emitters.Aims. H.E.S.S. observations of AGN, spanning a period from April 2004 to December 2011, are investigated to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. Only the 47 sources without significant excess detected at the position of the targets are presented.Methods. Upper limits on VHE fluxes of the targets were computed and a search for variability was performed on the nightly time scale.Results. For 41 objects, the flux upper limits we derived are the most constraining reported to date. These constraints at VHE are compared with the flux level expected from extrapolations of Fermi-LAT measurements in the two-year catalog of AGN. The H.E.S.S. upper limits are at least a factor of two lower than the extrapolated Fermi-LAT fluxes for 11 objects Taking into account the attenuation by the extragalactic background light reduces the tension for all but two of them, suggesting intrinsic curvature in the high-energy spectra of these two AGN.Conclusions. Compilation efforts led by current VHE instruments are of critical importance for target-selection strategies before the advent of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

• 56. Abramowski, A.
Heidelberg University. Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Search for TeV Gamma-ray Emission from GRB 100621A, an extremely bright GRB in X-rays, with HESS2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, s. 1-6, artikel-id A16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100621A, at the time the brightest X-ray transient ever detected by Swift-XRT in the 0.3-10 keV range, has been observed with the H.E.S.S. imaging air Cherenkov telescope array, sensitive to gamma radiation in the very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime. Due to its relatively small redshift of z similar to 0.5, the favourable position in the southern sky and the relatively short follow-up time (<700 s after the satellite trigger) of the H.E.S.S. observations, this GRB could be within the sensitivity reach of the HESS. instrument. The analysis of the HESS. data shows no indication of emission and yields an integral flux upper limit above similar to 380 GeV of 4.2 x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1) s (95% confidence level), assuming a simple Band function extension model. A comparison to a spectral-temporal model, normalised to the prompt flux at sub-MeV energies, constraints the existence of a temporally extended and strong additional hard power law, as has been observed in the other bright X-ray GRB 130427A. A comparison between the HESS. upper limit and the contemporaneous energy output in X-rays constrains the ratio between the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes to be greater than 0.4. This value is an important quantity for modelling the afterglow and can constrain leptonic emission scenarios, where leptons are responsible for the X-ray emission and might produce VHE gamma rays.

• 57.
Universität Hamburg, Germany.
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Germany ; Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia. Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Germany. Yerevan Physics Institute, Armenia ; National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Armenia. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany. University of Namibia, Namibia. University of Durham, UK. University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland. Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
H.E.S.S. reveals a lack of TeV emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A: (Research Note)2015Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 575, artikel-id A81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. Puppis A is an interesting similar to 4 kyr-old supernova remnant (SNR) that shows strong evidence of interaction between the forward shock and a molecular cloud. It has been studied in detail from radio frequencies to high-energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) gamma-rays. An analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has shown extended HE gamma-ray emission with a 0.2-100 GeV spectrum exhibiting no significant deviation from a power law, unlike most of the GeV-emitting SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. This makes it a promising target for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) to probe the gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV.

Aims. Very-high-energy (VHE, E >= 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray emission from Puppis A has been, for the first time, searched for with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.).

Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the direction and energy of the incident gamma-rays in order to produce sky images and source spectra. The profile likelihood method is applied to find constraints on the existence of a potential break or cutoff in the photon spectrum.

Results. The analysis of the HESS. data does not reveal any significant emission towards Puppis A. The derived upper limits on the differential photon flux imply that its broadband gamma-ray spectrum must exhibit a spectral break or cutoff. By combining Fermi-LAT and HESS. measurements, the 99% confidence-level upper limits on such a cutoff are found to be 450 and 280 GeV, assuming a power law with a simple exponential and a sub-exponential cutoff, respectively. It is concluded that none of the standard limitations (age, size, radiative losses) on the particle acceleration mechanism, assumed to be continuing at present, can explain the lack of VHE signal. The scenario in which particle acceleration has ceased some time ago is considered as an alternative explanation. The HE/VHE spectrum of Puppis A could then exhibit a break of non-radiative origin (as observed in several other interacting SNRs, albeit at somewhat higher energies), owing to the interaction with dense and neutral material, in particular towards the NE region.

• 58.
Univ Hamburg, Inst Expt Phys, D-22761 Hamburg, Germ ; Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germanyny.
Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Dublin 2, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia. Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany. Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Yerevan 375036, Armenia . Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany. Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Windhoek, Namibia. Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland ; Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA . Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Long-term monitoring of PKS2155-304 with ATOM and HESS:investigation of optical/gamma-ray correlations in different spectral states2014Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 571, artikel-id A39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy gamma-ray (> 200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy gamma-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct gamma-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and gamma-ray emission of PKS 2155 304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a gamma-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.

• 59.
University of Hamburg, Germany.
Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia. Max Planck Inst Kernphys, Germany. Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia. Humboldt Univ, Germany. Univ Namibia, Namibia. Univ Durham, UK. Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Poland. Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Université Paris Diderot, France.
H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud2015Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, s. 1-7, artikel-id A100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE; 0.1 GeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.) is reported. This makes it one of the farthest Galactic SNR ever detected in this domain. An integral flux F(E > 400 GeV) = (6.5 +/- 1.1(stat) +/- 1.3(syst)) x 10-11 ph cm(-2) s(-1) corresponding to similar to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma(VHE) = 2.8 +/- 0.27(stat) +/- 0.20(syst) are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma(HE) = 2.2 +/- 0.04.2(stat-0.31sys)(+0.13), The combined gamma-ray spectrum of 0349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power law (I3PL) or a power law with exponential (or sub exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E-br,E-gamma = 551(-30)(+70) GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case. the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E-cat,E-gamma = 1.4(-0.55)(+1.6) (respectively 0.35(-0.21)(+0.75)) TeV. A pion decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product or the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nu W-p similar to 5 x 10(51) erg cm(-3)

• 60.
Univ Hamburg, Germany.
Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany ; Dublin Inst Adv Studies, Ireland ; Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia. Max Planck Inst Kernphys,Germany. Natl Acad Sci Republ Armenia, Armenia ; Yerevan Phys Inst, Armenia. Humboldt Univ, Germany. Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany. Univ Namibia, Namibia. Univ Durham, UK. DESY, Germany ; Univ Potsdam, Germany . Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Poland. Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE). Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834-087 using HESS and Fermi LAT observations2015Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, artikel-id A27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the gamma-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. The gamma-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the gamma-ray emission toward W41. Results. The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (sigma(TeV) = 0.17 degrees +/- 0.01 degrees), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index Gamma(TeV) similar or equal to 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (sigma(GeV) = 0.15 degrees +/- 0.03 degrees) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index Gamma(GeV) = 2.15 +/- 0.12 and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the gamma-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions. Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to gamma-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected following a Maxwellian distribution by a pulsar with a high spin-down power (> 10(37) erg s(-1)). This additional low-energy component is not needed if we consider that the point-like TeV source is unrelated to the extended GeV and TeV sources. The interacting SNR scenario is supported by the spatial coincidence between the gamma-ray sources, the detection of OH (1720 MHz) maser lines, and the hadronic modeling.

• 61.
University of Hamburg, Germany.
Detailed spectral and morphological analysis of the shell type supernova remnant RCW 862018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. We aim for an understanding of the morphological and spectral properties of the supernova remnant RCW 86 and for insights into the production mechanism leading to the RCW 86 very high-energy gamma-ray emission. Methods. We analyzed High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) data that had increased sensitivity compared to the observations presented in the RCW 86 H.E.S.S. discovery publication. Studies of the morphological correlation between the 0.5-1 keV X-ray band, the 2-5 keV X-ray band, radio, and gamma-ray emissions have been performed as well as broadband modeling of the spectral energy distribution with two different emission models. Results. We present the first conclusive evidence that the TeV gamma-ray emission region is shell-like based on our morphological studies. The comparison with 2-5 keV X-ray data reveals a correlation with the 0.4-50 TeV gamma-ray emission. The spectrum of RCW 86 is best described by a power law with an exponential cutoff at E-cut = (3.5 +/- 1.2(stat)) TeV and a spectral index of Gamma approximate to 1.6 +/- 0.2. A static leptonic one-zone model adequately describes the measured spectral energy distribution of RCW 86, with the resultant total kinetic energy of the electrons above 1 GeV being equivalent to similar to 0.1% of the initial kinetic energy of a Type Ia supernova explosion (10(51) erg). When using a hadronic model, a magnetic field of B approximate to 100 mu G is needed to represent the measured data. Although this is comparable to formerly published estimates, a standard E-2 spectrum for the proton distribution cannot describe the gamma-ray data. Instead, a spectral index of Gamma(p) approximate to 1.7 would be required, which implies that similar to 7 x 10(49)/n(cm-3) erg has been transferred into high-energy protons with the effective density n(cm-3) = n/1 cm(-3). This is about 10% of the kinetic energy of a typical Type Ia supernova under the assumption of a density of 1 cm(-3).

• 62. Acero, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
First detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006 by HESS2010Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 516, s. A62-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. Recent theoretical predictions of the lowest very high energy (VHE) luminosity of SN 1006 are only a factor 5 below the previously published HESS upper limit, thus motivating further in-depth observations of this source. Methods. Deep observations at VHE energies (above 100 GeV) were carried out with the high energy stereoscopic system (HESS) of Cherenkov Telescopes from 2003 to 2008. More than 100 h of data have been collected and subjected to an improved analysis procedure. Results. Observations resulted in the detection of VHE gamma-rays from SN 1006. The measured gamma-ray spectrum is compatible with a power-law, the flux is of the order of 1% of that detected from the Crab Nebula, and is thus consistent with the previously established HESS upper limit. The source exhibits a bipolar morphology, which is strongly correlated with non-thermal X-rays. Conclusions. Because the thickness of the VHE-shell is compatible with emission from a thin rim, particle acceleration in shock waves is likely to be the origin of the gamma-ray signal. The measured flux level can be accounted for by inverse Compton emission, but a mixed scenario that includes leptonic and hadronic components and takes into account the ambient matter density inferred from observations also leads to a satisfactory description of the multi-wavelength spectrum.

• 63. Acero, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
PKS2005-489 at VHE: four years of monitoring with HESS and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations2010Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 511, s. A52-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. Our aim is to study the very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from BL Lac objects and the evolution in time of their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods. VHE observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from 2004 through 2007. Three simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns at lower energies were performed during the HESS data taking, consisting of several individual pointings with the XMM-Newton and RXTE satellites. Results. A strong VHE signal, similar to 17 sigma total, from PKS 2005-489 was detected during the four years of HESS observations (90.3 h live time). The integral flux above the average analysis threshold of 400 GeV is similar to 3% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula and varies weakly on time scales from days to years. The average VHE spectrum measured from similar to 300 GeV to similar to 5 TeV is characterized by a power law with a photon index, Gamma = 3.20 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.10(syst). At X-ray energies the flux is observed to vary by more than an order of magnitude between 2004 and 2005. Strong changes in the X-ray spectrum (Delta Gamma(X) approximate to 0.7) are also observed, which appear to be mirrored in the VHE band. Conclusions. The SED of PKS 2005-489, constructed for the first time with contemporaneous data on both humps, shows significant evolution. The large flux variations in the X-ray band, coupled with weak or no variations in the VHE band and a similar spectral behavior, suggest the emergence of a new, separate, harder emission component in September 2005.

• 64. Acero, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Discovery and follow-up studies of the extended, off-plane, VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-6222011Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 525, s. A45-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. The detection of gamma-rays in the very-high-energy (VHE) range (100 GeV-100 TeV) offers the possibility of studying the parent population of ultrarelativistic particles found in astrophysical sources, so it is useful for understanding the underlying astrophysical processes in nonthermal sources. Aims. The discovery of the VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 is reported and possibilities regarding its nature are investigated. Methods. The H. E. S. S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) has a high sensitivity compared with previous instruments (similar to 1% of the Crab flux in 25 h observation time for a 5 sigma point-source detection) and has a large field of view (similar to 5 degrees in diameter). HESS J1507-622 was discovered within the ongoing H. E. S. S. survey of the inner Galaxy, and the source was also studied by means of dedicated multiwavelength observations. Results. A Galactic gamma-ray source, HESS J1507-622, located similar to 3.5 degrees. from the Galactic plane was detected with a statistical significance >9 sigma. Its energy spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index Gamma = 2.24 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.20(sys) and a flux above 1 TeV of (1.5 +/- 0.4(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). Possible interpretations (considering both hadronic and leptonic models) of the VHE gamma-ray emission are discussed in the absence of an obvious counterpart.

• 65. Acero, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
HESS upper limits on very high energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar GRS 1915+1052009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, nr 3, s. 1135-1140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. High energy particles reside in the relativistic jets of microquasars, making them possible sources of very high energy radiation (VHE, > 100 GeV). Detecting this emission would provide a new handle on jet physics. Aims. Observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the HESS telescope array were undertaken in 2004-2008 to search for VHE emission. Methods. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results. There is no evidence for a VHE gamma-ray signal either from the direction of the microquasar or its vicinity. An upper limit of 6.1 x 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) (99.9% confidence level) is set on the photon flux above 410 GeV, equivalent to a VHE luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) at 11 kpc. Conclusions. The VHE to X-ray luminosity ratio in GRS 1915+105 is at least four orders of magnitude lower than the ratio observed in gamma-ray binaries. The VHE radiative efficiency of the compact jet is less than 0.01% based on its estimated total power of 10(38) erg s(-1). Particle acceleration in GRS 1915+105 is not efficient at high energies and/or the magnetic field is too strong. It is also possible that VHE gamma-rays are produced by GRS 1915+105, but the emission is highly time-dependent.

• 66. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-3222010Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 521, s. A69-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069) is a "high-frequency-peaked" BL Lac object and a candidate very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter, due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations at the VHE band provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in this source and the radiation processes at work. Methods. We report observations made between October 2004 and January 2008 with the HESS array, a four imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes. Contemporaneous UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite in November 2006 are also reported. Results. PKS 0548-322 is detected for the first time in the VHE band with HESS We measure an excess of 216 gamma-rays corresponding to a significance of 5.6 standard deviations. The photon spectrum of the source is described by a power-law, with a photon index of Gamma = 2.86 +/- 0.34(stat) +/- 0.10(sys). The integral flux above 200 GeV is similar to 1.3% of the flux of the Crab Nebula, and is consistent with being constant in time. Contemporaneous Swift/XRT observations reveal an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of F2-10 keV = (2.3 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) erg cm(-2) s(-1), an intermediate intensity state with respect to previous observations. The spectral energy distribution can be reproduced using a simple one-zone synchrotron self Compton model, with parameters similar those observed for other sources of this type.

• 67. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Detection of very high energy radiation from HESS J1908+063 confirms the Milagro unidentified source MGRO J1908+062009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 499, nr 3, s. 723-728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. Detection of gamma-ray source above 300 GeV is reported, confirming the unidentified source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro collaboration at a median energy of 20 TeV. Methods. The source was observed during 27 h as part of the extension of the HESS Galactic plane survey to longitudes > 30 degrees. Results. HESS J1908+063 is detected at a significance level of 10.9 sigma with an integral flux above 1 TeV of (3.76 +/- 0.29 (stat) +/- 0.75(sys)) x 10(-12) ph cm(-2) s(-1), and a spectral photon index Gamma = 2.10 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The positions and fluxes of HESS J1908+063 and MGRO J1908+06 are in good agreement. Possible counterparts at other wavelengths and the origin of the gamma-ray emission are discussed. The nearby unidentified GeV source, GRO J1908+0556 (GeV) which also remains unidentified and the new Fermi pulsar 0FGL J1907.5+0617, may be connected to the TeV source.

• 68. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris 07, CNRS, UMR 7164, CEA,Observ Paris, F-75205 Paris 13, France. Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the second exceptional gamma-ray flare of PKS2155-304 in July 20062009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 502, nr 3, s. 749-770Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)

Aims. The X-ray-TeV connection and the evolution of the emitting particle population is studied in high-energy peaked BL Lac objects, by obtaining spectral information in both bands on sub-hour timescales. Methods. Simultaneous observations with HESS, Chandra and the Bronberg optical observatory were performed on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 in the night of July 29-30 2006, when the source underwent a major gamma-ray outburst during its high-activity state of Summer 2006. This event took place about 44 h after the other major outburst of the night of July 27-28, which is known for its ultrafast variability. An unprecedented 6 to 8 h of simultaneous, uninterrupted coverage was achieved, with spectra and light curves measured down to 7 and 2 min timescales, respectively. Results. The source exhibited one major flare along the night, at high energies. The gamma-ray flux reached a maximum of similar to 11 times the Crab flux (>400 GeV), with rise/decay timescales of similar to 1 h, plus a few smaller-amplitude flares superimposed on the decaying phase. The emission in the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray bands is strongly correlated, with no evidence of lags. The spectra also evolve with similar patterns, and are always soft ( photon index G > 2), indicating no strong shift of the peaks in the spectral energy distribution towards higher energies. Only at the flare maximum is there evidence that the gamma-ray peak is inside the observed passband, at similar to 400-600 GeV. The VHE spectrum shows a curvature that is variable with time and stronger at higher fluxes. The huge VHE variations (similar to 22x) are only accompanied by small-amplitude X-ray and optical variations (factor 2 and 15% respectively). The source has shown for the first time in a high-energy peaked BL Lac object a large Compton dominance (L(C)/L(S) similar to 10) - rapidly evolving - and a cubic relation between VHE and X-ray flux variations, during a decaying phase. These results challenge the common scenarios for the TeV-blazar emission.

• 69. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Probing the ATIC peak in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with HESS2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 508, nr 2, s. 561-564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The measurement of an excess in the cosmic-ray electron spectrum between 300 and 800 GeV by the ATIC experiment has - together with the PAMELA detection of a rise in the positron fraction up to approximate to 100 GeV - motivated many interpretations in terms of dark matter scenarios; alternative explanations assume a nearby electron source like a pulsar or supernova remnant. Here we present a measurement of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum with H. E. S. S. starting at 340 GeV. While the overall electron flux measured by H. E. S. S. is consistent with the ATIC data within statistical and systematic errors, the H. E. S. S. data exclude a pronounced peak in the electron spectrum as suggested for interpretation by ATIC. The H. E. S. S. data follow a power-law spectrum with spectral index of 3.0 +/- 0.1(stat.) +/- 0.3(syst.), which steepens at about 1 TeV.

• 70. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Very high energy gamma-ray observations of the binary PSR B1259-63/SS2883 around the 2007 Periastron2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 507, nr 1, s. 389-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. This article presents very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) data from the gamma-ray binary PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the 3.4 year binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Methods. Observations of VHE gamma-rays with the HESS telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The HESS instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 degrees and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. Results. VHE gamma-ray emission from PSR B1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of gamma-rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 2.8 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.2(sys) and flux normalisation Phi(0) = (1.1 +/- 0.1(stat) +/- 0.2(sys)) x 10(-12) TeV(-1) cm(-2) s(-1). PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of.-rays is seen in those observations. Conclusions. PSR B1259-63 has been re-confirmed as a variable TeV gamma-ray emitter. The firm detection of VHE photons emitted at a true anomaly theta approximate to -0.35 of the pulsar orbit, i.e. already similar to 50 days prior to the periastron passage, disfavors the stellar disc target scenario as a primary emission mechanism, based on current knowledge about the companion star's disc inclination, extension, and density profile.

• 71. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
HESS upper limit on the very high energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 499, nr 1, s. 273-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Observations of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104), which contains at least 23 ms pulsars, were performed with the HESS telescope system. The observations lead to an upper limit of F(E > 800 GeV) < 6.7 x 10(-13) cm(-2) s(-1) on the integral gamma-ray photon flux from 47 Tucanae. Considering millisecond pulsars as the unique potential source of gamma-rays in the globular cluster, constraints based on emission models are derived: on the magnetic field in the average pulsar nebula and on the conversion efficiency of spin-down power to gamma-ray photons or to relativistic leptons.

• 72. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Spectrum and variability of the Galactic center VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1745-2902009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 503, nr 3, s. 817-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. A detailed study of the spectrum and variability of the source HESS J1745-290 in the Galactic Center (GC) region using new data from the H. E. S. S. array of Cherenkov telescopes is presented. Flaring activity and quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) of HESS J1745-290 are investigated. Methods. The image analysis is performed with a combination of a semi-analytical shower model and the statistical moment-based Hillas technique. The spectrum and lightcurves of HESS J1745-290 are derived with a likelihood method based on a spectral shape hypothesis. Rayleigh tests and Fourier analysis of the H. E. S. S. GC signal are used to study the periodicity of the source. Results. With a three-fold increase in statistics compared to previous work, a deviation from a simple power law spectrum is detected for the first time. The measured energy spectrum over the three years 2004, 2005 and 2006 of data taking is compatible with both a power law spectrum with an exponential cut-off and a broken power law spectrum. The curvature of the energy spectrum is likely to be intrinsic to the photon source, as opposed to effects of interstellar absorption. The power law spectrum with an exponential cut-off is characterized by a photon index of 2.10 +/- 0.04(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and a cut-off energy at 15.7 +/- 3.4(stat) +/- 2.5(syst) TeV. The broken power law spectrum exhibits spectral indices of 2.02 +/- 0.08(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and 2.63 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) with a break energy at 2.57 +/- 0.19(stat) +/- 0.44(syst) TeV. No significant flux variation is found. Increases in the gamma-ray flux of HESS J1745-290 by at least a factor of two would be required for a 3 sigma detection of a flare with time scales of an hour. Investigation of possible QPO activity at periods claimed to be detected in X-rays does not show any periodicities in the H. E. S. S. signal.

• 73. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Very high energy gamma-ray observations of the galaxy clusters Abell 496 and Abell 85 with HESS2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 495, nr 1, s. 27-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. The nearby galaxy clusters Abell 496 and Abell 85 are studied in the very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) band to investigate VHE cosmic rays (CRs) in this class of objects which are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the Universe. Methods. HESS, an array of four imaging atmospheric cherenkov telescopes (IACT), was used to observe the targets in the range of VHE gamma rays. Results. No significant gamma-ray signal is found at the respective position of the two clusters with several different source size assumptions for each target. In particular, emission regions corresponding to the high-density core, to the extension of the entire X-ray emission in these clusters, and to the very extended region where the accretion shock is expected are investigated. Upper limits are derived for the gamma-ray flux at energies E > 570 GeV for Abell 496 and E > 460 GeV for Abell 85. Conclusions. From the non-detection in VHE gamma rays, upper limits on the total energy of hadronic CRs in the clusters are calculated. If the cosmic-ray energy density follows the large-scale gas density profile, the limit on the fraction of energy in these non-thermal particles with respect to the total thermal energy of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) is 51% for Abell 496 and only 8% for Abell 85 due to its higher mass and higher gas density. These upper limits are compared with theoretical estimates. They predict about similar to 10% of the thermal energy of the ICM in non-thermal particles. The observations presented here can constrain these predictions especially for the case of the Abell 85 cluster.

• 74. Aharonian, F.
Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Constraints on the multi-TeV particle population in the Coma galaxy cluster with HESS observations2009Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 502, nr 2, s. 437-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims. Galaxy clusters are key targets in the search for ultra high energy particle accelerators. The Coma cluster represents one of the best candidates for such a search owing to its high mass, proximity, and the established non-thermal radio emission centred on the cluster core. Methods. The HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System) telescopes observed Coma for similar to 8 h in a search for gamma-ray emission at energies > 1 TeV. The large 3.5 degrees FWHM field of view of HESS is ideal for viewing a range of targets at various sizes including the Coma cluster core, the radio-relic (1253+275) and merger/infall (NGC 4839) regions to the southwest, and features greater than 1 degrees away. Results. No evidence for point-like nor extended TeV gamma-ray emission was found and upper limits to the TeV flux F(E) for E > 1, > 5, and > 10 TeV were set for the Coma core and other regions. Converting these limits to an energy flux E(2)F(E) the lowest or most constraining is the E > 5 TeV upper limit for the Coma core (0.2 degrees radius) at similar to 8% Crab flux units or similar to 10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1). Conclusions. The upper limits for the Coma core were compared with a prediction for the gamma-ray emission from proton-proton interactions, the level of which ultimately scales with the mass of the Coma cluster. A direct constraint using our most stringent limit for E > 5 TeV, on the total energy content in non-thermal protons with injection energy spectrum alpha E(-2.1) and spatial distribution following the thermal gas in the cluster, is found to be similar to 0.2 times the thermal energy, or similar to 10(62) erg. The E > 5 TeV gamma-ray threshold in this case corresponds to cosmic-ray proton energies greater than or similar to 50 TeV. Our upper limits rule out the most optimistic theoretical models for gamma ray emission from clusters and complement radio observations which constrain the cosmic ray content in clusters at significantly lower proton energies, subject to assumptions on the magnetic field strength.

• 75. Aharonian, F.
Université Paris Diderot, France. Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmology, CNRS,IN2P3,CEA,Irfu, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris C, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
Simultaneous HESS and Chandra observations of Sagitarius A(star) during an X-ray flare2008Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 492, nr 1, s. L25-L28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

The rapidly varying (similar to 10 min timescale) non-thermal X-ray emission observed from Sgr A(star) implies that particle acceleration is occuring close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole. The TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1745-290 is coincident with Sgr A(star) and may be closely related to its X-ray emission. Simultaneous X-ray and TeV observations are required to elucidate the relationship between these objects. We report on joint HESS/Chandra observations performed in July 2005, during which an X-ray flare was detected. Despite a factor of approximate to 9 increase in the X-ray flux of Sgr A(star), no evidence is found for an increase in the TeV gamma-ray flux from this region. We find that an increase in the gamma-ray flux of a factor of 2 or greater can be excluded at a confidence level of 99%. This finding disfavours scenarios in which the keV and TeV emission are associated with the same population of accelerated particles and in which the bulk of the gamma-ray emission is produced within similar to 1014 cm (similar to 100 RS) of the supermassive black hole.

• 76.
Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and HESS observations2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient particle acceleration is taking place in the system. Aims. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to periodic eclipses (P-orb similar to 13.1 days) and precession of the circumstellar disk (P-pre similar to 162 days) periodically covering the central binary system is expected to be at its minimum. The eastern and western SS 433/W50 interaction regions are also examined using the whole data set available. We aim to constrain some theoretical models previously developed for this system with our observations. Methods. We made use of dedicated observations from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of SS 433 taken from 2006 to 2011. These observation were combined for the first time and accounted for a total effective observation time of 16.5 h, which were scheduled considering the expected phases of minimum absorption of the putative VHE emission. Gamma-ray attenuation does not affect the jet/medium interaction regions. In this case, the analysis of a larger data set amounting to similar to 40-80 h, depending on the region, was employed. Results. No evidence of VHE gamma-ray emission either from the central binary system or from the eastern/western interaction regions was found. Upper limits were computed for the combined data set. Differential fluxes from the central system are found to be less than or similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1) in an energy interval ranging from similar to few x 100 GeV to similar to few TeV. Integral flux limits down to similar to 10(-12)-10(-13) ph cm(-2) s(-1) and similar to 10(-13)-10(-14) ph cm(-2) s(-1) are obtained at 300 and 800 GeV, respectively. Our results are used to place constraints on the particle acceleration fraction at the inner jet regions and on the physics of the jet/medium interactions. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the fraction of the jet kinetic power that is transferred to relativistic protons must be relatively small in SS 433, q(p) <= 2.5 x 10(-5), to explain the lack of TeV and neutrino emission from the central system. At the SS 433/W50 interface, the presence of magnetic fields greater than or similar to 10 mu G is derived assuming a synchrotron origin for the observed X-ray emission. This also implies the presence of high-energy electrons with E-e up to 50 TeV, preventing an efficient production of gamma-ray fluxes in these interaction regions.

• 77.
Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A2018Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 612, artikel-id A110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of Ti-44, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims. Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods. We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17 '' (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the similar to 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results. We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 +/- 0.48 M-circle dot for an assumed gas temperature of T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114 '' +/- 6 '' and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta (as more and more material meets the reverse shock and heats up) cannot account for the observed low-frequency behaviour of the secular decline rate. Conclusions. To reconcile our low-frequency absorption measurements with models that reproduce much of the observed behaviour in Cas A and predict little mass in the unshocked ejecta, the ejecta need to be very clumped or the temperature in the cold gas needs to be low (similar to 10 K). Both of these options are plausible and can together contribute to the high absorption value that we find.

• 78.
ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands .
Dense gas in luminous infrared galaxies2008Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 477, nr 3, s. 747-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)

Aims.Molecules that trace the high-density regions of the interstellar medium have been observed in (ultra-)luminous (far-)infrared galaxies, in order to initiate multiple-molecule multiple-transition studies to evaluate the physical and chemical environment of the nuclear medium and its response to the ongoing nuclear activity.

Methods.The HCN(1-0), HNC(1-0), ${\rm HCO}^+$(1-0), CN(1-0) and CN(2-1), CO(2-1), and CS(3-2) transitions were observed in sources covering three decades of infrared luminosity including sources with known OH megamaser activity. The data for the molecules that trace the high-density regions were augmented with data available in the literature.

Results.The integrated emissions of high-density tracer molecules show a strong relation to the far-infrared luminosity. Ratios of integrated line luminosities were used for a first-order diagnosis of the integrated molecular environment of the evolving nuclear starbursts. Diagnostic diagrams display significant differentiation among the sources that relate to the initial conditions and the radiative excitation environment. Initial differentiation was introduced between the FUV radiation field in photon-dominated-regions and the X-ray field in X-ray-dominated-regions. The galaxies displaying OH megamaser activity have line ratios typical of photon-dominated regions.

• 79. Coenen, T.