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  • 51.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    (I can’t get no) job satisfaction?: Differences by sexual orientation in Sweden2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men, on average, seem more satisfied with their job than heterosexual men; lesbians appear less satisfied with their job than heterosexual women. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite their high degree of job satisfaction, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that discrimination and prejudice may lead gay men to have low expectations about their job; these low expectations may translate into high job satisfaction. In contrast, prejudice and discrimination may hinder lesbians from realizing their career plans, resulting in low job satisfaction.

  • 52.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Swahnberg, Hanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sexual orientation and job satisfaction: survey-based evidence from Sweden2020Ingår i: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique nationwide survey conducted in Sweden on sexual orientation and job satisfaction. Our results show that gay men are more likely to be very satisfied with their job than heterosexual men, both in general and with different aspects of the job. In contrast, lesbians appear less satisfied with their job in general and with promotion prospects than heterosexual women. Among women, we find no differences in the probability of being very satisfied with the job by sexual orientation. However, the issue of sexual orientation and job satisfaction is complex since gay men, despite that they more often are very satisfied with the job, like lesbians find their job more mentally straining than heterosexuals. We conclude that gay men and lesbians are facing other stressers at work than heterosexuals do. We also conclude that the worker’s own expectations about the job and possibilities to fulfill career plans may be possible driving forces to our results. Previous research has documented discrimination against gay males and lesbians in hiring. Our results underline that measures to prevent discrimination in hiring is not enough to create an equal working life for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Measures within the workplace are also needed.

  • 53.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Culture and the gender gap in major choice: an analysis using sibling comparisons2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the importance of culture on gender roles – preferences and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society – for the gender gap in choice of major, using the epidemiological approach. We focus on second-generation immigrants in Sweden and compare the major choices at high school and college among opposite-sex siblings. By incorporating sibling fixed effects we can more convincingly than in previous literature control for factors apart from culture on gender roles that may affect educational choices. We use the female relative share in traditionally male fields to proxy for culture on gendered beliefs about educational choices in the source country. We find a negative gender gap in the probability of having majored in a STEM or male-dominated field, and that this gender gap varies with the proxy for culture on gender roles. We observe the same pattern when we study the probability to have majored in a female-dominated field. Our results clearly indicate that policies aimed at changing stereotypical gendered beliefs about educational choices have the potential to decrease the gender gap in major choice.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Essays on immigrant self-employment and labour supply2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate’s thesis consists of two essays on immigrant self-employment and labour supply.

    The first essay (co-author Mats Hammarstedt), Intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations, reviews intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment over three generations. More precisely, we study whether self-employment is transferred both from grandfather to grandson and from father to son, as well as if there are any differences between immigrant groups and differences between immigrants and natives. In addition, we investigate the importance of the intergenerational transfer of general and specific human capital for choice of business line. The results show that having a self-employed father and self-employed grandfather have a strong positive effect on self-employment propensities for male third-generation immigrants. On the other hand, natives were found to transfer self-employment from father to son, but not from grandfather to grandson. The results also indicate that immigrants inherit self-employment abilities from their self-employed fathers increasing the self-employment propensity, but not necessarily in the same business line. In contrast, native self-employed fathers transfer human capital to their sons making them more prone to become self-employed in the same business line as the father is in.

    The second essay, Female immigrant labour supply: The effect of an in-work benefit, focuses on immigrant labour supply, and evaluates the effect of a recently introduced in-work benefit, the so called job deduction, on the labour supply of single immigrant women. In this study, we address the following questions: What is the effect of the in-work benefit on the labour supply of single immigrant women? Does the effect of the in-work benefit on working hours differ between immigrant groups? The results show that, on average, there is no major effect of the in-work benefit on the labour supply of single immigrant women. However, households with the lowest incomes increase their working hours quite strongly. Furthermore, on average, there appears to be no difference in the effect of the in-work benefit between immigrant groups. In the low-income households, though, immigrants from non-European countries and from Southern and Eastern European countries, increase their labour supply relatively more than immigrants from Nordic countries and Western Europe. Finally, the relatively large increase in working hours for single immigrant women with the lowest incomes appears, above all, to be a result of increased participation in the labour market. However, part of the effect is related to an increase in the number of working hours of already employed women.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Essays on economic outcomes of immigrants and homosexuals2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five essays on the economic outcomes of immigrants and homosexuals on the labour and housing market.

    Essay I evaluates the effect of an in-work benefit on the labour supply of single immigrant women by means of simulation. Although, on average, there is no significant effect, we find that the in-work benefit increases the working hours of single women with low incomes and slightly decreases the working hours of those with high incomes. The increase in working hours is primarily a result of increased participation. As expected, the positive effect is largest for the immigrant groups with the lowest participation rates and lowest labour incomes.

    Essay II studies intergenerational transmissions in self-employment. The results show that immigrants transfer general human capital over three generations in the sense that individuals whose fathers and grandfathers are self-employed have a higher self-employment propensity. For natives, only the father’s self-employment affects the son’s probability of becoming self-employed. Furthermore, the results show that natives transfer specific human capital from father to son, which increases the probability of sons becoming self-employed in the industry in which their fathers are self-employed.

    Essay III explores the effect of self-employment experience on subsequent earnings and the employment of male and female immigrant wage earners. We find that, relative to continued wage employment, self-employment is associated with lower earnings and difficulties in returning to paid employment for both immigrant men and women. The effect is less severe for natives. Among immigrant groups, the results give little support that self-employment experience improves earnings and employment prospects compared to experience from wage employment. 

    Essay IV applies a field experiment to investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination against male Arab/Muslim applicants on the rental housing market. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the magnitude of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of applicant information will not reduce discrimination.

    Essay V studies possible discrimination against lesbians in the rental housing market using a field experiment. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one homosexual, apply for vacant apartments on the Internet. We then explored if there were differences in callbacks, invitations to further contact and/or showings. The results show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    Female immigrant labour supply: The effect of an in-work benefitManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 57.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants2011Ingår i: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 900-922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Self-employment has been stressed as a way for immigrants to enter and improve their situation in the labour market. However, research shows that some people who become self-employed revert to wage employment or unemployment. The purpose of the paper is to study the labour market consequences of temporary self-employment on paid employment among immigrants.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses micro-econometric methods to estimate the effect of self-employment, relative to continued wage employment, on earnings and employment opportunities in 2006. The paper also identifies the type of wage earner that temporarily enters self-employment.

    Findings – The paper finds that, relative to continued wage employment, self-employment, with few exceptions, does not improve outcomes in the wage sector of immigrants and may in fact be associated with lower earnings and difficulties in returning to paid employment.

    Practical implications – The results indicate that encouraging immigrant wage earners to become self-employed should be done with care, since self-employment does not necessarily improve subsequent labour market outcomes.

    Originality/value – This study will be valuable to those who are interested in the economic consequences of immigrant self-employment.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    The female immigrant labour supply: The effect of an in-work benefit2011Ingår i: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 198-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the effect of an in-work benefit on the labour supply of single immigrant women in Sweden. Using a simulation approach, we find that, on average, the in-work benefit has no effect on the labour supply of these women. However, women with low incomes increase their labour supply, a response that is strongest among non-European and Eastern and Southern European women, and is mainly a result of increased participation in the labour market. High-income earners slightly reduce their working hours. Thus, the results suggest that the in-work benefit may strengthen the labour market attachment of low-income immigrant women.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ethnic enclaves, networks and self-employment among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden2015Ingår i: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 27-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of immigrants from countries in the Middle East living in Sweden has increased since the 1970s, and it is a well-known fact that immigrants from the Middle East suffer from low earnings and high rates of unemployment on the Swedish labour market. There are often great hopes that self-employment will enable immigrants to improve their labour market situation. Further, in Sweden as in many other countries, the question of whether the existence of ethnic enclaves are good or bad for immigrants’ earnings and employment opportunities has also been widely debated. This paper presents a study of the extent to which Middle Eastern ethnic enclaves and networks in Sweden enhance or hinder immigrants’ self-employment. The results show that the presence of ethnic enclaves increases the propensity for self-employment. Thus, immigrants in ethnic enclaves provide their co-ethnics with goods and services that Swedish natives are not able to provide. The results also show that ethnic networks seem to be an obstacle to immigrant self-employment. One explanation is that an increase in network size implies increased competition for customers among self-employed immigrants. The question of whether ethnic enclaves are good or bad for the integration of immigrants into the labour market has been widely debated. The results of this paper provide us with information about the integration puzzle. Ethnic enclaves seem to enhance self-employment propensities among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden.

  • 60.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Intergenerational transmission in immigrant self-employment: Evidence from three generations2010Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 34, s. 261-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first study of intergenerational transmissions in immigrant self-employment across three generations. Based on a Swedish data set, the results show that having a self-employed father, as well as having a self-employed grandfather, has a positive effect on self-employment propensities for male third-generation immigrants. For native Swedes having a self-employed father is of importance for self-employment propensities, while having a self-employed grandfather is not. Evidently, there appears to be a generational link in self-employment across three generations for immigrants, but not for natives. Since immigrants transfer general self-employment abilities, third-generation immigrants with self-employed ancestors are overrepresented in self-employment. Many of them, however, are not necessarily in the same business line as their fathers. In contrast, when natives transfer general self-employment abilities, their offspring tend to become self-employed in the same business

  • 61.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Invandrares egenföretagande - trender, branscher, storlek och resultat2011Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 31-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 62.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV. Nationalekonomi.
    Jobbavdragets effekter på invandrarkvinnors arbetsutbud2008Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, s. 33-42Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 63.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Self-employment matching: an analysis of dual-earner couples in Sweden2010Ingår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 2197-2209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of self-employment matching among dual-earner couples in Sweden. The results show that self-employment propensities are positively correlated across partners. Self-employment propensities are significantly higher for both males and females whose spouses are self-employed. The existence of ‘positive assortative mating' and the fact that self-employment knowledge and abilities are transferred across partners are presented as explanations for the results. One policy conclusion that can be drawn from the results is that if governments and policymakers want to increase the rate of female self-employment, stimulating overall self-employment might be effective, since an important determinant of female self-employment is having a self-employed spouse.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Transmission of self-employment across immigrant generations: The importance of ethnic background and gender2011Ingår i: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 555-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper studies the intergenerational transmissions of self-employment

    abilities among immigrants in Sweden. The results show that second-generation

    immigrants are over-represented in self-employment compared to natives.

    Male immigrants from countries neighbouring to Sweden and natives alike seem to

    use both mothers and fathers as role models in their self-employment decision, but

    the father is the stronger role model among male immigrants from more geographically

    distant regions. Female immigrants use both their father and their

    mother as role models in their self-employment decision. Furthermore, male

    immigrants and male natives tend to become self-employed in the same business

    sector as their fathers; female immigrants and female natives with self-employed

    parents are over-represented in self-employment but not necessarily in the same

    business sector as their parents.

  • 65.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hussain, Shakir
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ethnic origin, local labour markets and self-employment in Sweden: A multlilevel approach2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the importance of ethnic origin and local labour markets conditions for self-employment propensities in Sweden. In line with previous research we find differences in the self-employment rate between different immigrant groups as well as between different immigrant cohorts. We use a multilevel regression approach in order to quantify the role of ethnic background, point of time for immigration and local market conditions in order to further understand differences in self-employment rates between different ethnic groups. We arrive at the following: The self-employment decision is to a major extent guided by factors unobservable in register data. Such factors might be i.e. individual entrepreneurial ability and access to financial capital. The individual’s ethnic background and point of time for immigration play a smaller role for the self-employment decision but are more important than local labour market conditions.

  • 66.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians: Evidence from Sweden2015Ingår i: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 90-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a study of sexual prejudice and differentials in labor market outcomes due to sexual orientation. It uses data from a nationwide Swedish survey on public attitudes toward homosexuals, conducted in 1999, and combines them with register data for 2007, which include information about sexual orientation, employment status, and yearly earnings for the total population in Sweden. It finds that prejudice against homosexuals negatively affects the relative employment and relative earnings of gay men. Lesbians are affected negatively by prejudice against homosexuals in terms of employment, but the relationship is less clear in regard to earnings. Discrimination against homosexuals, as well as social norms, occupational sorting and self-selection in, geographic mobility are presented as explanations for the results.

  • 67.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    "Gör det enklare för äldre människor att driva företag"2017Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2017-10-16Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre egenföretagare upplever högre livskvalitet än såväl löneanställda som de som lämnat arbetsmarknaden. Att stimulera entreprenörskap bland äldre kan vara ett effektivt sätt för samhället att öka arbetskraftsutbudet och minska påfrestningarna på pensionssystemet, skriver Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén vid Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 68.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: evidence from Sweden2017Ingår i: Presented at the 29th European Association of Labour Economists (EALE) conference, St. Gallen, Switzerland, September 21-23, 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. We are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration. During a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 125,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years, the cost is between 37,000 SEK and 95,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment.

  • 69.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey based evidence from Sweden2018Ingår i: Paper presented at the 58th ERSA Congress “Places for People: Innovative, Inclusive and liveable Regions”, Cork, Ireland, August, 28-31, 2018, The European Regional Science Association (ERSA) , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 70.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Två nationalekonomer: Företagande inte rätt väg2017Ingår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    DEBATT. Förhoppningen om att företagande ska öka sysselsättningen hos nyanlända är riskabel. De som startar företag i brist på andra alternativ kan faktiskt försämra sina möjligheter på lång sikt. Och utomeuropeiska företagare möter andra problem än svenskfödda, skriver Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén.

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