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  • 53351.
    Woosnam, Kyle M.
    et al.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Strzelecka, Marianna
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Jagiellonian Univ, Poland.
    Nisbett, Gwendelyn S.
    Univ North Texas, USA.
    Keith, Samuel J.
    Univ Georgia, USA.
    Examining Millennials' Global Citizenship Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions to Engage in Environmental Volunteering2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volunteering for nature conservation has become an important resource in solving local environmental problems of global importance. The study at hand assessed how well millennials' global citizenship attitudes explain their behavioral intentions to engage in volunteer projects, as well as how prior experience of volunteering in environmental projects affects millennials' global citizenship attitudes. Those who reported past participation in this type of volunteer experience were generally more inclined to partake in future environmental volunteering than those without prior experience. Likewise, for those with prior experience, global citizen factors played a greater role in intentions to experience environmental volunteering. This study makes valuable contributions to the literature surrounding nature conservation, as it illustrates that millennials' global citizenship attitudes predict participation in environmental volunteering. This work concludes with insights concerning what programs (that provide millennials with opportunities to fulfill environmental duties associated with their global environmental citizenship) can do to provide a more valuable experience for young volunteers.

  • 53352. World Wide Web Consortium, W3C
    Smjernice za osiguravanje pristupačnosti mrežnih sadržaja 1.0: [ Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 ]2002Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53353. Worm, Boris
    et al.
    Lotze, Heike K.
    Boström, Christoffer
    Engkvist, Roland
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Labanauskas, Vytautas
    Sommer, Ulrich
    Marine diversity shift linked to interactions among grazers, nutrients and propagule banks1999In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, Vol. 185, p. 309-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse coastal seaweed communities dominated by perennial fucoids become replaced by species-poor turfs of annual algae throughout the Baltic Sea. A large scale field survey and factorial field experiments indicated that grazers maintain the fucoid cornmunity through selective consumption of annual algae. Interactive effects between grazers and dormant propagules of annual algae. stored in a 'marine seed bank', determine the response of this system to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Nutrients override grazer control and accelerate the loss of algal diversity in the presence but not in the absence of a propagule bank. This irnplies a novel role of propagule banks for community regulation and ecosystem response to manne eutrophication.

     

  • 53354. Wouters, Denis
    et al.
    Lenain, Jean-Philippe
    Becherini, Yvonne
    University Paris Diderot.
    Harris, Jon
    Brun, Pierre
    Kaufman, Sarah
    Boisson, Catherine
    Cerruti, Matteo
    Sol, Helene
    Zech, Andreas
    H.E.S.S. Observations of the distant BL Lac PKS 0301-2432012In: HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY ASTRONOMY, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012, p. 498-501Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PKS 0301-243 is a distant (z=0.266) high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, detected both at high and very high energies (VHE) with Fermi/LAT and H. E. S. S., and which experienced a flare in May 2010 in the GeV band. H. E. S. S. observations of PKS 0301-243 carried out between September 2009 and December 2011 result in a strong detection of VHE gamma-rays from the source with a significance of 9.8 standard deviations. Multi-wavelength observations from optical to GeV gamma-rays are also presented. The VHE spectrum is used to derive an upper limit on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays.

  • 53355.
    Wouters, Johanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hetrocystous cyanobacteria living within symbiosomes: genetic and physiological aspects2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis was to get a deeper genetic and physiological insight into the two heterocystous cyanobacterial species known today to live within symbiosomes: the marine cyanobacterium Richelia and the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc. Symbiosomes are organelle-like structures formed by algal and plant hosts that accommodate symbiotic microbes inside their cellular compartment. Both cyanobacterial species are contained in photosynthesizing hosts, however while Richelia forms a symbioses with unicellular diatoms (algae), Nostoc is hosted by multi-cellular higher plants, among them species of the angiosperm genus Gunnera. Special emphasis was on the Nostoc-angiosperm symbiosis as it can be reconstituted in vitro. Phylogenetic analysis using the hetR gene showed Richelia and Nostoc to be separate lineages in the cyanobacterial genetic radiation, hence, symbiosome structures in conjunction with heterocystous cyanobacteria have evolved at least twice. In contrast to the Nostoc-angiosperm symbiosis, the Richelia-diatom symbiosis has a distinct species to host specificity and is possibly evolving towards a permanent organelle. Similar to Richelia, Nostoc is known as epiphytic or endophytic on its host, Nostoc is in addition occurring as free-living, it is speculated that the epiphytic character is a key to how cyanobiont symbiosomes may have evolved. Although the genetic cyanobiont specificity is lower and the genetic diversity is higher in the Nostoc-angiosperm symbiosis, the isolation of the infection process expressed cgt gene shows that there are regions in the Nostoc genome that are, although not unique to symbiosis forming strain, regions that are typical for symbiosis forming strains. Hexoses are shown to be carbohydrates that induce cellular responses such as heterocyst differentiation and nitrogen fixation in the symbiotically competent Nostoc PCC 9229 when contained in darkness. The data suggest that a hexose-type compound is likely to be supplied by the angiosperm host to the cyanobiont living in darkness in return for the fixed nitrogen. Other carbohydrates were shown to support cell survival. Two key metabolic genes, coding for the enzymes, sucrose synthase and glutamine synthetase were isolaled from the host: Gunnera, neither gene showed an altered expression pattern by the presence of Nostoc inside the tissue. It is speculated that once the Nostoc symbiosome is established, Nostoc is perceived as a pseudo-plastid by its host and that nitrogen fixation and other cellular processes are intimately controlled by Gunnera. This is possible as Nostoc and plastids are genetically related and cyanobacterial genes and metabolic pathways are present in all plants.

  • 53356.
    Wouters, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Janson, Sven
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Cloning and expression of a putative cyclodextrine glycosyltransferase from the symbiotically competet cyanobacteruium Nostoc sp. PCC 92292003In: FEMS Microbioloy Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, Vol. 219, no 2, p. 181-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to isolate a Nostoc sp. PCC 9229 cDNA from infected glands of Gunnera chilensis. The complete gene sequence was isolated from a genomic Nostoc sp. PCC 9229 library. Sequence analysis showed 84% amino acid similarity to a putative cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and the gene was therefore termed cgt. Southern blot revealed that the cgt gene was present in symbiotically competent cyanobacteria. The cgt gene was expressed in free-living nitrogen-fixing cultures in light or in darkness when supplemented with fructose. This is the first expression analysis of a cgt gene from a cyanobacterium.

  • 53357.
    Wouters, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Elväng, Anneli
    Pawlowski, Katarina
    Bergan, Brigitta
    Sucrose synthase and glutamine synthetase expression in greenhouse cultivated Gunnera manicata forming symbiosis with Nostoc sp.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 53358.
    Wouters, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Jansson, Sven
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergman, Birgitta
    The effect of exogenous carbohydrates on nitrogen fixation and hetR expression in Nostoc PCC 9229 forming symbiosis with Gunnera.2000In: Symbiosis, ISSN 0334-5114, Vol. 28, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 9229 forms an intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the angiosperm Gunnera. In symbiosis the cyanobacterium is enclosed in darkness and receives carbon from the plant in an unknown form. Out of five putative plant carbohydrate sources tested in vitro, fructose and glucose were found to support nitrogen fixation in darkness. The other three dextrin, sucrose and Gunnera sp. mucilage could not induce nitrogenase activity in darkness. The stimulatory effect by fructose was also observed in illuminated samples. After four weeks incubation in darkness, nitrogenase was still active in cultures when fructose was added and multiple thick-walled nitrogen-fixing cells (heterocysts) were observed, and chlorophyll levels unchanged. The expression as shown by Northern blot analysis revealed that fructose influenced the gene expression of hetR, a gene necessary for heterocyst formation, in darkness. Fructose and glucose may therefore be the carbohydrates supplied by the host plant to induce heterocyst differentiation and nitrogen fixation in the cyanobiont Nostoc PCC 9229.

  • 53359. Woxblom, Lotta
    et al.
    Karlsson, Reine
    Palm, Johan
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lönsamt lövträ: affärsutveckliing för lövträrelaterad tillverkningsindustri 2007-20102011Report (Other academic)
  • 53360.
    Wraae, August
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Transboundary Water Politics: The Case of Egypt and Sudan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) there has been a change in the power dynamics of the Nile River Basin. Previous literature tackling this issue have primarily been focused on the Ethiopian challenge of Egyptian hegemony in the Nile, often ignoring other riparian actors. This study will take a critical look at cooperation and conflict in the Nile, analysing the changes in the relationship between Egypt and Sudan by applying the analytical framework: Transboundary Water Interaction Nexus (TWINS). This study attempts to broaden the discussion on the Nile issue trough studying the role of Sudan. Focusing on the period between 2012-2018, this study applies a qualitative content analysis on the material, in this case the official documents that Egypt and Sudan are party to as well as statements made by both state actors found in newspaper articles from one Egyptian and one Sudanese Newspaper. This study found that while initially the Egyptian-Sudanese position on the Nile has been nearly identical, this has changed dramatically during the time covered. The development of the GERD has put a strain on Egyptian-Sudanese relations and Sudan is seemingly using the project to further enhance its position in the Nile River Basin. Sudanese actors are starting to realise their own potential as a power player in the Nile, independent from Egyptian hegemony.

  • 53361.
    Wrangel, Axel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Johansson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Ledarskap och engagemang: En kvalitativ studie om hur ledare kan främja medarbetares engagemang för arbetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Medarbetares engagemang för arbetet är en viktig faktor för att en organisation ska uppnå goda resultat. Trots detta visar studier att få medarbetare är engagerade på arbetsplatsen, vilket resulterar i stora kostnader för organisationer. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om och i så fall hur medarbetare upplever att det transformativa ledarskapet främjar deras engagemang för arbetet. Studien behandlar ett teoretiskt ramverk samt tidigare forskning som beskriver JD-R-modellen, medarbetares engagemang och transformativt ledarskap. Metoden som har använts är av kvalitativ sort och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med totalt fem medarbetare. Resultatet återger vad det är medarbetarna anser ledaren kan göra för att främja deras engagemang för arbetet. Slutsatsen av studien visar att det transformativa ledarskapet främjar medarbetarnas engagemang för arbetet. Detta sker dels genom ledarens sätt att agera och dels genom att ledaren tar hänsyn till de enskilda individernas olika behov.

  • 53362.
    Wrangö, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Motivation på gymnasiet: Lärare och elevers syn på motivation för studier2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete ämnar ta reda på hur gymnasielärare ser på sitt arbete för att motivera elever och hur deras arbete relaterar till de teorier som behandlas i bakgrunden. Arbetet kommer även granska vad elever anser om lärarnas och skolans arbete med motivation och om det är i linje med vad de intervjuade lärarna tror. I bakgrunden presenteras främst mekanisk och kognitiva synsätt på motivation. Dessutom innehåller bakgrunden forskning om skolans struktur, socio­ekonomiska aspekter på motivation för studier och genusteorier. Resultatet visar att lärarna inte hade något direkt svar på vad motivation är, men att de arbetar med det omedvetet. Vissa försökte öka motivationen hos eleverna genom att ta vara på deras intressen. Eleverna anser att framtiden är en stor yttre motivationsfaktor. I diskussionen framgår det att lärarna inte är helt insatta i motivationsteorier, men det finns kopplingar till forskning. De hade även idéer på hur man kan öka motivationen hos elever. Eleverna och lärarna hade inte direkt några konkreta förslag på vad skolan kunde förbättra. Eleverna och lärarna utgick från olika perspektiv, men inte helt skilda åsikter om motivation för studier.

  • 53363.
    Wrangö, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Poe's Gothic Protagonist: Isolation and melancholy in four of Poe's works2008Student paper other, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will argue that there are similarities between “The Raven”, “The Fall of the House of Usher”, “Ligeia” and “Berenice” in their treatment of the common motifs of isolation and melancholy, and, furthermore, that their protagonists are similar due to their relation to these two motifs. The paper will also argue that the usage of the motif of isolation is a strategic way for the author to emphasise the Gothic horror. In order to support my argument, I will, firstly, provide an outline of how melancholy, isolation and the Gothic were understood in the nineteenth century. Secondly, I will demonstrate ways in which the works are similar. By comparing the characters’ personalities and behaviour to each other, I will illustrate how melancholy and isolation are represented in similar ways in the works of this study. Thirdly, I will show how the motif of isolation reinforces the Gothic.

  • 53364.
    Wrangö, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Samtidskonst på museum: Hur fyra konstpedagoger ser på sitt arbete med samtidskonst och elever2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka fyra konstpedagogers syn på konst­pedagogik och samtidskonst. Med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer vill jag undersöka eventuella skillnader i arbetet med samtidskonst jämfört med modernistisk konst. I bakgrunden presenteras främst litteratur om samtidskonst och modernistisk konst samt konst­pedagogik. Resultatdelen sammanfattar intervjuerna med konstpedagogerna. I diskus­sionen analyseras resultatet och kopplas till bakgrunden. Diskussionen är indelad i rubriker som samstämmer med frågeställningarna från syftet. Här behandlas några arbets­­­sätt med samtidskonst såsom dialog mellan konstpedagogen och eleverna. Diskus­sionen ger också en förklaring till hur samtidskonsten och konstpedagogiken kan gynna elever, till exempel genom samhällsfrågor och förståelse för vårt bildsamhälle.

  • 53365.
    Wredberg, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Harrysson, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors kunskaper om undernäring.: – attityder och kunskaper om nutrition och nutritionsbedömningar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bland äldre patienter i Sverige är undernäring ett problem som växer sig allt större.

    Forskning har visat att många äldre patienter riskerar att drabbas av ohälsa, minskat

    välbefinnande och lägre egenvårds kapacitet vid undernäring (Johansson, 2004).

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att genom omvårdnadsforskning belysa

    sjuksköterskors attityder och kunskaper till nutritionsbehov och

    nutritionsbedömningar hos äldre patienter över 65 år. En systematisk litteraturstudie

    valdes som metod, systematisk sökning, kritisk granskning, dataanalys samt

    sammanställning av vetenskapliga artiklar inom problemområdet gjordes. I

    dataanalysen framkom teman som sjuksköterskors attityd till nutrition,

    nutritionsbehov och nutritionsbedömning av äldre patienter. Sjuksköterskors kunskap

    och utbildning om nutritionens betydelse för patienternas välbefinnande. Resultatet i

    denna studie visar att nutritionskunskap och utbildning bland sjuksköterskor i dag är

    otillräcklig. Slutsatsen blir således, för att kunna fastställa och tillgodose äldre

    patienter nutritionsstatus bör en ökad kompetens utveckling bland sjuksköterskor

    ske.

  • 53366. Wredle, U
    et al.
    Walles, B
    Hakman, Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Chromoplasts are formed in Vicia faba suspensor cells2000In: International journal of plant sciences, Vol. 161 (5), p. 713-719Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53367. Wredle, U
    et al.
    Walles, B
    Hakman, Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    DNA fragmentation and nuclear degradation during programmed cell death in the suspensor and endosperm of Vicia faba2001In: International journal of plant sciences, Vol. 162 (5), p. 1053-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53368.
    Wreinerth, Joachim
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hjalmarsson, Joel
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Undersökning av vindlaster på en parabolantenn2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi fick i uppdrag av Swepart Transmission AB att med lämpliga metoder beräkna vindlaster på en godtycklig parabolantenn samt att konstruera en växellåda för att positionera den. Vi insåg i ett tidigt skede att vi var tvungna att ta fram vindlastfaktorerna laborativt. Och på grund av den begränsade tiden var vi tvungna att fokusera endast på vindlasterna på en parabolform.

    Först uppskattade vi de maximala vindlaster som kunde uppkomma för att kunna dimensionera vår mätram. Sedan beräknade vi lastcellerna och konstruerade erforderlig elektronik. För att simulera vind monterades parabolen och dess mätram på ett fordon, mätningarna utfördes sedan på Uråsa flygfält. Efter mätningen kunde vi fastslå de sökta vindlastfaktorerna och deras ekvationer

  • 53369.
    Wretljung Alonso, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Suecia, o la torre de Babel: Análisis de las imágenes de Suecia en la novela El camino a Ítaca de Carlos Liscano2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to investigate what images of Sweden are transmitted in the novel The road to Ithaca (1994), by the Uruguayan author Carlos Liscano. The study focuses on the first half part of the novel for this taking place in Stockholm, Sweden, in the early nineties. The aim is to investigate by what literary strategies and literary subgenres the images of Sweden are transmitted.

       The theoretical framework applied derives from studies of the literary genre of the picaresque novel and its bufonesco mood, such as the literary strategies irony and laconism. For the analysis Mieke Bal´s concept of focalization and semantic axes are used.  

       The study shows that in Sweden there are parallel worlds to the official world of the welfare state; in the shadow side of society there are the metecos, unwanted residents: the undocumented and the mentally ill. Through a picaresque and ironic style, the author shows that Sweden is a neat, clean, but culturally hermetic society; almost perfect on the surface, but with a lot of hidden “trash” beneath.

       The welfare state of Sweden seams benevolent in its integrative intention, but is, at the same time, blind, or even worse, disinterested in the new reality of the country; that of the welfare state in dissolution and Sweden as a Tower of Babel. 

  • 53370.
    Wretman, Christian
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammargren, Christian
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Rönegård, Joakim
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Leverantörsval och leverantörsutvärdering: En studie av möbelbranschen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inköp är idag en av de viktigaste enheterna i ett företag, då inköp av material står för en stor del av de totala kostnaderna. För att kunna producera till låga kostnader och säkra en bra kvalitet, krävs det att företag har en tillfredställande leverantörsbas. Då trenden generellt sett går mot att reducera antalet leverantörer, använda sig av singel sourcing, blir valet av leverantör allt viktigare. Utvecklingen för möbelbranschen är i allmänhet god, vilket visar sig i ökad efterfrågan och behovet av att nyrekrytera personal. I och med den förväntade efterfrågeökningen, och därmed det ökade behovet av material, blir leverantörsvalet en alltmer betydelsefull funktion hos företagen.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva arbetet vid leverantörsval och leverantörsutvärdering, gällande företag i möbelbranschen. Uppsatsen syftar också till att redogöra och förklara de urvalskriterier som företag i möbelbranschen tar i beaktning vid leverantörsval och leverantörsutvärdering.

    Valet av teori gjordes för att kunna besvara vår problemformulering. Teorin är hämtad från många olika källor, såväl böcker som vetenskapliga artiklar. Den teoretiska referensramen är uppbyggd utifrån leverantörsval, leverantörsutvärdering och urvalskriterier, samt områden som på något sätt påverkar dessa aspekter.

    Vår empiriska intervjustudie har genomförts på fem tillverkande företag inom möbelbranschen. Vi har undersökt hur företagen arbetar med val och utvärdering av leverantörer, samt vilka urvalskriterier de anser vara betydelsefulla vid detta arbete.

  • 53371. Wright, DA
    et al.
    Dawson, R
    Cutler, SJ
    Cutler, HG
    Orano-Dawson, CE
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Naphthoquinones as broad spectrum biocides for treatment of ship’s ballast water: Toxicity to phytoplankton and bacteria2007In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 41, p. 1294-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53372.
    Wrywood, Zsuzsanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan vitamin-D tillskott användas som ett förebyggande behandlingsalternativ av vinterdepression samt lägre sinnesstämning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Man har länge vetat att vitamin D har grundläggande funktioner för vår kropps välbefinnande. Det finns två källor för att ta till oss D-vitamin, via endogen produktion och via födointag. Till en större del får vi vårt D-vitamin-behov genom den endogena processen, men på grund av färre UV-B strålar under vissa säsonger eller geografiska platser så kan denna process bli otillräcklig. Vilket gör oss tvungna att konsumera specifik mat eller kosttillskott för att ej få D-vitaminbrist. Detta har blivit ett stort problem för länder uppe i norr, på grund av att perioden utan tillräckliga mängder UV-B strålning är lång. Vissa länder till exempel Sverige försöker motverka detta genom att berika vissa livsmedel, bland annat mjölk, ost och smör, med D-vitamintillskott. Dock verkar detta mestadels inte vara tillräckligt. Då flera studier har visat ett mönster mellan D-vitaminbrist och lägre sinnesstämning, så har studier angående D-vitamin-påverkan på både kroppens mentala och fysiska tillstånd blivit allt viktigare.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att granska D-vitamins gynnsamma effekt och om den kan klassificeras som läkemedel vid behandling av vinterdepression.

    Metod: Fem litteraturstudier med fokus på D-vitaminforskning och dess motverkande effekt av seasonal affective disorder (SAD) eller negativ sinnesstämning har granskats. Dessa studier valdes från databaserna; PubMed, Sciencedirect och OneSearch.

    Resultat: Studierna visade en svag koppling mellan D-vitamin och sinnesstämning. Dock kunde inga konkreta svar uppnås om hur D-vitamin påverkar oss mentalt. På grund av detta kan D-vitamintillskott inte ses eller rekommenderas som medicin för olika former av negativ sinnesstämning eller depression.

    Diskussion: För få studier har hittills gjorts för att kunna svara på hur D-vitamin påverkar oss mentalt och vilka följder en låg eller förhöjd 25-OH D koncentration har på en persons sinnesstämning.

    Fler studier behöver göras med både noggrannare och mer varierande metoder och kontroller för att kunna finna ett konkret svar på hur vår D-vitaminhalt är kopplad till vår sinnesstämning. Samt om en höjd nivå kan leda till förebyggandet av SAD, negativ sinnesstämning eller mild depression.

  • 53373.
    Wrångelin, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Österström, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Utomhuspedagogik? Det är en jävligt bra fråga!: Idrottslärares definitioner och uppfattningar om utomhuspedagogik i ämnet idrott och hälsa.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 53374.
    Wrååk, Jonathan
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Individuals’ risk propensity and job search activity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the Dutch panel data from LISS, Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Science in trying to establish if a relationship between individuals’ risk propensity and job search activity is present. When looking at employed and unemployed job seekers jointly, a positive significant relationship is present. Looking at these groups separately shows that the relationship is driven by employed job seekers. No relationship for unemployed job seekers can be identified when being looked at separate. However, when taking into account possible biases from changes in risk propensity over time as well as the classification of actively searching individuals, no relationship is present at all. We hence are cautious towards the significant estimates received that potentially could suffer from biases. Further studies should be made with a bigger sample of individuals and a continuously updated measure of risk propensity to minimizing potential bias.

  • 53375.
    Wu, Fei
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Cyan in mist: Sustainable packaging design for Chinese tea2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging is a topic under debate and scrutiny intoday’s society, due to its obvious environmentaldetriment – but also the business opportunities – tied tominimizing or even eliminating packaging.therefore, in this thesis, the aim is to introduce Chinesetea culture to the Swedish through packaging design,By tea culture studies and surveys of the Swedishmarket, with less is more, and minimalism designtheory to design elegant and Sustainable package. Withthis design, convey the Chinese tea ceremony cultureand Zen philosophy.Through the study of Chinese tea culture, then analysiscurrent tea packaging on Chinese and Swedish markets,from the structure, color, material...every aspects ofpackaging design to show the Chinese tea culture in theSwedish market.4According to our respondents and theory, packaging isa big component in a brand's marketing strategy and tocommunicate the brand’s message and values.Marketing information can be designed into visualelements that are used on the package to communicatea message which could speak out the consumers'emotions. But packaging is a topic under debate andscrutiny in today’s society, due to its obviousenvironmental detriment – but also the businessopportunities.So, how to balance the commercial and environmentalthose two aspects and how to express sustainabledesign in my project, is the major issues I have to figureout.Key words: Chinese tea culture, less is more,sustainable packaging design, graphic design, Zen andtea ceremony, tea business marketing

  • 53376.
    Wu, Liming
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Li, Kai
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Water Simulating in Computer Graphics2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid simulating is one of the most difficult problems in computer graphics. On the other hand, water appears in our life very frequently. This thesis focuses on water simulating. We have two main methods to do this in the thesis: the first is wave based water simulating; Sine wave summing based and Fast Fourier Transform based methods are all belong to this part. The other one is physics based water simulating. We make it based on Navier-Stokes Equation and it is the most realistic animation of water. It can deal with the boundary and spray which other method cannot express. Then we put our emphasis on implement by the physics method using Navier-Stokes Equation.

  • 53377.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark;COWI AS, Denmark.
    Fridh, Katja
    Lund University.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Geiker, Mette
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Impact of sample crushing on porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes by low temperature calorimetry: Comparison of powder and cylinder samples2018In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 665, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theimpact of sample crushing on the detected porosity of hardened cement pastes bylow temperature calorimetry (LTC) was studied using powder and cylindersamples. Two types of cements, CEM I and CEM III were used to prepare thepastes. A model porous material, MCM-41, was also used in order to investigatesome aspects of the measurement and the evaluation approach. The powder andcylinder samples of the cement pastes were compared in terms of the calculatedice content curves, total pore volumes and pore size distribution curves. For thetwo studied cement pastes, the calculated ice content curves of freezing of thepowder sample differed from that of the cylinder samples, especially for thepaste CEM III. The results indicate that sample crushing changed the poreconnectivity as compared to non-crushed samples. One important differencebetween the powder sample and the cylinder samples of the paste CEM III wasthat the determined maximum ice content in the powder sample was much higherthan that in the cylinder samples, the relatively difference being about 40–50%.However, this kind of marked difference was not found in the paste CEM I. Theobserved difference between the calculated pore volume of the powder and thecylinder samples of the paste CEM III is possibly due to some of the “isolated”pores which, presumably, cannot be fully filled with water in the preparationof the cylinder samples. However, sample crushing makes it possible to saturatethe pores to a greater extent if the crushing contributes to open up the“isolated” pores. Consequently, more pores are detected in the powder samples.The argument that the “isolated” pores have a tendency to be opened up by thecrushing process is supported by results using gravimetric measurements and“dynamic (water) vapor sorption” measurements on powder samples.

  • 53378.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Fridh, Katja
    Lund University.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of science and Technology, Norway.
    Influence of frost damage and sample preconditioning on the porosity characterization of cement based materials using low temperature calorimetry2015In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 607, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature calorimetry (LTC) can be used to study the meso-porosity of cement based materials. The influence of frost damage on the meso-porosity determination by LTC was explored on a model material MCM-41 and two cement pastes by conducting repeated cycles of freezing and melting measurements. The results indicate that the pressure generated during freezing and melting measurements has little impact on the pore structure of the powder MCM-41 samples. As for the studied cylinder samples of cement pastes, frost damage probably took place and it changed the pore connectivity while it had limited effect on changing the interior size distribution of the meso-pores. The analysis of the freezing and melting behavior of the pore liquid of cement based materials is complicated by the presence of ions. The freezing and melting behavior of the pore solution of cement paste samples preconditioned in either a small amount or a big amount of saturated limewater was compared. The results suggest that either the preconditioning in a big amount of limewater does not change the ionic concentration of the pore solution very much or the possible leaching of ions from cement hydrates during the preconditioning has limited influence on the freezing and melting behavior of the pore solution in the studied cement paste samples.

  • 53379.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Impact of sample saturation on the detected porosity of hardened concrete using low temperature calorimetry 2014In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 580, p. 66-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work studied the impact of sample saturation on the analysis of pore volume and pore size distribution by low temperature (micro-)calorimetry. The theoretical background was examined, which emphasizes that the freezing/melting temperature of water/ice confined in non-fully saturated pores is further depressed compared with that when the pores are fully saturated. The study of the experimental data on hardened concrete samples showed that for a same concrete mix, the total pore volume detected from the capillary saturated samples was always lower than that of the vacuum saturated samples and a higher proportion of pores with small radii were found in the capillary saturated samples. In addition, the observed hysteresis between the freezing and melting curves of ice content of the capillary saturated samples was more pronounced than that of the vacuum saturated samples. The major reason for the observed phenomena could be related to that capillary saturation cannot fully saturate the pores under study.

  • 53380.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A preliminary study of the influence of ions in the pore solution of hardened cement pastes on the porosity determination by low temperature calorimetry2014In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 589, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamic modeling was used to predict the ionic concentrations in the pore solution of cement pastes at different temperatures during a freezing and melting measurement in low temperature calorimetry (LTC) studies. By using the predicted ionic concentrations, the temperature depressions caused by the ions presented in the pore solution were determined. The influence of the freezing/melting point depression caused by the ions on the determined pore size distribution by LTC was demonstrated. Thermodynamic modeling using the program PHREEQC was performed on the cylinder and powder samples of cement pastes prepared by two types of cements, i.e., CEM 132.5 R and CEM III/B 42.5 N. Using the modeled ionic concentrations, the calculated differential pore size distributions for the studied samples with and without considering the temperature depression caused by the ions in the pore solution were compared. The results indicate that for the studied cement paste samples, the influence of the temperature depression caused by the presence of the ions in the pore solution on the determination of the pore size distribution by LTC is limited. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 53381.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark ; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A review: Self-healing in cementitious materials and engineered cementitious composite as a self-healing material2012In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 571-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cementitious materials are the most widely used building materials all over the word. However, deterioration is inevitable even since the very beginning of the service life, then maintenance and repair work, which are often labor- and capital-intensive, would be followed. Thus, self-healing of the affected cementitious materials is of great importance. Self-healing phenomenon in cementitious materials has been noticed and been studying for a long time. The possible mechanisms for self-healing phenomenon in cementitious materials, which are summarized based on substantial experimental studies and practical experience, are reviewed. In order to endow or enhance the self-healing property of cementitious materials, many different and innovative strategies have been proposed and developed during the past decades. Then the different strategies employed for the self-healing of cementitious materials, i.e. the use of hollow fibers, microencapsulation, expansive agents and mineral admixtures, bacteria and shape memory materials, are reviewed and summarized. A comparison study is conducted subsequently on different strategies to self-healing and on different healing agents used as well. Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) is a new type of cement-based materials, which has unique properties compared with traditional cementitious materials. Further, a summary about the research status of self-healing on ECC is given. It shows that ECC bears great potential in realizing effective self-healing due to its unique micro-crack behavior and tight crack-width control property combined with its relatively high percentage of cementitious components and low water–binder ratio.

  • 53382.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    A study of the water vapor sorption isotherms of hardened cement pastes: Possible pore structure changes at low relative humidity and the impact of temperature on isotherms2014In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 56, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using water vapor sorption isotherms measured by the “dynamic vapor sorption” (DVS) method, a resaturation study was conducted to investigate possible pore structure changes of hardened cement paste samples caused by the drying at low relative humidity during desorption measurements. The results indicate that either the relatively short term drying does not cause any microstructure changes or the pore structure of the hardened cement paste samples can be restored during the absorption process. Additionally, the temperature dependency of sorption isotherms was investigated using both hardened cement paste samples and a model material MCM-41. The pronounced impact of temperature on desorption isotherms of cement based materials as reported in literature was not found in this investigation. The results suggest that the differences between the sorption isotherms measured at different temperatures are mainly caused by the temperature dependent properties of water.

  • 53383.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 66, p. 621-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water vapor sorption can be used to study important properties of porous materials including specific surface area and pore size distribution (PSD). However, the data analysis is somewhat inconsistent in literature. In this work, the important factors influencing the analyzed results using sorption data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption and the desorption isotherms for comparison: The calculated specific surface area was quite dependent on which equation is considered for multilayer adsorption. For the studied hardened cement pastes, three characteristic peaks were found in the calculated PSD curves from the desorption isotherms with corresponding radii of 1.4, 1.8 and 3.0 nm while the peak at 1.4 nm was missing in the PSD curves calculated from the absorption isotherm. The network theory, suggesting desorption is controlled by the pore entry sizes while absorption is controlled by the interior pore sizes, can be used to explain some of the results.

  • 53384.
    Wu, Min
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Johannesson, Björn
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Geiker, Mette Rica
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Determination of ice content in hardened concrete by low-temperature calorimetry2014In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 1335-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature calorimetry has been used to determine the ice content in concrete at different temperatures when exposed to low-temperature environments. However, the analysis of the ice content from the measured data of heat flow is not straightforward. In this study, two important factors influencing the ice content calculation are discussed. The importance of the baseline determination for the calculation of the ice content is realized. Two different methods of generating the baseline are discussed. First, the ‘J-baseline’ is discussed which is a recently proposed extrapolation method based on the accumulated heat curves measured in the freezing and the melting process. Second, the ‘C-baseline’ is discussed in which a calculated baseline is used where the heat capacity of both water and ice and the phase changing behaviour under different testing temperatures are considered. It turns out that both the ‘J-baseline’ method and the ‘C-baseline’ method can be used to calculate the approximate baseline. The heat of fusion of the water confined in small pores is another important parameter to be considered in ice content calculation. This property must be carefully analyzed in order to accurately calculate the ice contents at different temperatures in the freezing and melting process. It should be noted that there is no general agreement on how to obtain the important temperature dependence of the heat of fusion of water confined in small pores. By performing comparison studies, the present study shows the influence of the different values of the heat of fusion commonly adopted on the calculated ice content for the studied concrete samples. The importance and necessity to use an accurate value of the heat of fusion is emphasized. Based on the calculation of the baseline proposed in this work and by carefully selecting the values for the heat of fusion, the ice content in a hardened concrete sample is expected to be estimated with an acceptable accuracy.

  • 53385.
    Wu, Philip
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Paschoal Jr, Waldomiro
    Lund University.
    Kumar, Sandeep
    Lund University.
    Borschel, Christian
    Jena University.
    Ronning, Carsten
    Jena University.
    Canali, Carlo M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Halmstad University.
    Linke, Heiner
    Lund University.
    Thermoelectric Characterization of Electronic Properties of GaMnAs Nanowires2012In: Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN 1687-9503, E-ISSN 1687-9511, p. Article ID: 480813-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanowires with magnetic doping centers are an exciting candidate for the study of spin physics and proof-of-principle spintronics devices. The required heavy doping can be expected to have a significant impact on the nanowires’ electron transport properties.

    Here, we use thermopower and conductance measurements for transport characterization of Ga0.95Mn0.05As nanowires over a broad temperature range. We determine the carrier type (holes) and concentration and find a sharp increase of the thermopower below temperatures of 120 K that can be qualitatively described by a hopping conduction model. However, the unusually large thermopower suggests that additional mechanisms must be considered as well.

  • 53386.
    Wu, Po-Han
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan..
    Hwang, Gwo-Jen
    National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ke, Hui-Ru
    ´Department of Information and Learning Technology, National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
    Huang, Yueh-Min
    Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology.
    An innovative concept map approach for improving students’ learning performance with an instant feedback mechanism2012In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 217-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concept maps have been widely employed for helping students organise their knowledgeas well as evaluating their knowledge structures in a wide range of subject matters.Although researchers have recognised concept maps as being an important educationaltool, past experiences have also revealed the difficulty of evaluating the correctness of aconcept map. It usually takes days or weeks for teachers to manually evaluate theconcept maps developed by students; consequently, the students cannot receive timelyfeedback from the teachers, which not only affects their learning schedules, but alsosignificantly influences the students’ learning achievements. In this paper, a computerbasedconcept map-oriented learning strategy with real-time assessment and feedback isproposed in order to cope with the problems mentioned above. Our approach providesimmediate evaluation of concept maps and gives also real-time feedback to the students.An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this new strategy incomparison with the conventional computer-based concept map approach. It is foundthat our innovative approach can be significantly beneficial to promote learningachievements as well as the learning attitudes of students.

  • 53387.
    Wu, Tzu-Yi
    et al.
    Acad Sinica, Taiwan.
    Lin, Chung-Ying
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Griffiths, Mark D.
    Nottingham Trent Univ, UK.
    Brostrom, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Qazvin Univ Med Sci, Iran;Jönköping University.
    Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions?2017In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 256-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale -Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF). Results: The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = -0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming. Conclusions: Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming.

  • 53388.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Structure and function of microbial communities in acid sulfate soil and the terrestrial deep biosphere2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the use of different DNA sequencing technologies to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities in two extreme environments, boreal acid sulfate soil and the terrestrial deep biosphere.

    The first of the two investigated environments was soils containing un-oxidized metal sulfides that are termed ‘potential acid sulfate soil’ (PASS) materials. If these materials are exposed to atmospheric oxygen by either natural phenomena (e.g., land uplift) or human activities (e.g., drainage) then the metal sulfides become oxidized and the PASS becomes acidic and is defined as an ‘acid sulfate soil’ (ASS). The resulting acid and metal release from metal sulfide oxidation can lead to severe environmental damage. Although acidophilic microorganisms capable of catalyzing acid and metal release have been identified from many sulfide mineral containing environments, the microbial community of boreal PASSs/ASSs remains unclear. This study investigated the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of PASSs and ASSs from the Risöfladan experimental field in Vasa, Finland. Sanger sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences of microorganisms present in the PASSs and ASSs were mostly assigned to acidophilic species and environmental clones previously identified from acid- and metal-contaminated environments. Enrichment cultures inoculated from the ASS demonstrated that the acidophilic microorganisms were responsible for catalyzing acid and metal release from PASSs/ASSs. Lastly, the study investigated how to mitigate metal sulfide oxidation and the concomitant formation of sulfuric acid by treating ASSs in situ with CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 suspensions. The DNA sequencing still identified acidophilic microorganisms after the chemical treatments. However, the increased pH during and after treatment suggested that the activity of the acidophiles might be inhibited. This study was the first to identify the microbial community present in boreal PASSs/ASSs and suggested that treatment with basic compounds may inhibit microbial catalysis of metal sulfide dissolution.

    The second studied environment was the deep, dark terrestrial subsurface that is suggested to be both extremely stable and highly oligotrophic. Despite the scarcity of carbon and energy sources, the deep biosphere is estimated to constitute up to 20% of the total biomass on earth and thus, represents the largest microbial ecosystem. However, due to the difficulties of accessing this environment and our inability to cultivate the indigenous microbial populations, details of the diversity and metabolism of these communities remain largely unexplored. This study was carried out at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and utilized second-generation sequencing to identify the taxonomic composition and genetic potential of planktonic and biofilm populations. Community DNA sequencing of planktonic cells from three water types at varied age and depth (‘modern marine’, ‘undefined mixed’, and ‘old saline’) showed the existence of ultra-small cells capable of passing through a 0.22 μm filter that were phylogenetically distinct communities from the >0.22 μm fraction. The reduced cell size and/or genome size suggested a potential adaptation to the oligotrophic environment in the terrestrial deep biosphere. The identified planktonic communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea, and unclassified bacteria. Functional analysis of the assembled genomes showed that the planktonic population from the shallow modern marine water demonstrated a predominantly anaerobic and heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, old saline water was more closely aligned with the hypothesis of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. Metagenomic analysis of subsurface biofilms from ‘modern marine’ and ‘old saline’ water types suggested only a subset of populations were involved in initial biofilm formation. The identified biofilm populations from both water types were distinct from the planktonic community and were suggested to be dominated by hydrogen fed, chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic populations.

  • 53389.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hubalek, Valerie
    Uppsala University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Microbial metagenomes from three aquifers in the Fennoscandian shield terrestrial deep biosphere reveal metabolic partitioning among populations2016In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1192-1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms in the terrestrial deep biosphere host up to 20% of the earth's biomass and are suggested to be sustained by the gases hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A metagenome analysis of three deep subsurface water types of contrasting age (from <20 to several thousand years) and depth (171 to 448 m) revealed phylogenetically distinct microbial community subsets that either passed or were retained by a 0.22 μm filter. Such cells of <0.22 μm would have been overlooked in previous studies relying on membrane capture. Metagenomes from the three water types were used for reconstruction of 69 distinct microbial genomes, each with >86% coverage. The populations were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea and unclassified bacteria. The estimated genome sizes of the <0.22 μm populations were generally smaller than their phylogenetically closest relatives, suggesting that small dimensions along with a reduced genome size may be adaptations to oligotrophy. Shallow 'modern marine' water showed community members with a predominantly heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, 'old saline' water adhered more closely to the current paradigm of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. The data were finally used to create a combined metabolic model of the deep terrestrial biosphere microbial community.

  • 53390.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Karsten
    Microbial Analytics Sweden.
    Edlund, Johanna
    Eriksson, Lena
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Anders
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hydrogen fed chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic populations initiate biofilm formation in oligotrophic, deep terrestrial subsurface watersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 53391.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pedersen, Karsten
    Micans - Microbial Analytics Sweden AB.
    Edlund, Johanna
    Micans - Microbial Analytics Sweden AB.
    Eriksson, Lena
    Micans - Microbial Analytics Sweden AB.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Potential for hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic populations to initiate biofilm formation in oligotrophic, deep terrestrial subsurface waters2017In: Microbiome, ISSN 0026-2633, E-ISSN 2049-2618, Vol. 5, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. Results: In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we showed that planktonic and attached populations were dissimilar while gene frequencies in the metagenomes suggested that hydrogen-fed, carbon dioxide-and nitrogen-fixing populations were responsible for biofilm formation across the two aquifers. Metagenome analyses further suggested that only a subset of the populations were able to attach and produce an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Initial biofilm formation is thus likely to be mediated by a few bacterial populations which were similar to Epsilonproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and unclassified bacteria. Conclusions: Populations potentially capable of attaching to a surface and to produce extracellular polysaccharide matrix for attachment were identified in the terrestrial deep biosphere. Our results suggest that the biofilm populations were taxonomically distinct from the planktonic community and were enriched in populations with a chemolithoautotrophic and diazotrophic metabolism coupling hydrogen oxidation to energy conservation under oligotrophic conditions.

  • 53392.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sten, Pekka
    Vaasa University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Engblom, Sten
    Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Nowak, Pawel
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 526, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity.

  • 53393.
    Wu, Xiaofen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wong, Zhen Lim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sten, Pekka
    Engblom, Sten
    Osterholm, Peter
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Microbial community potentially responsible for acid and metal release from an Ostrobothnian acid sulfate soil2013In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 555-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils containing an approximately equal mixture of metastable iron sulfides and pyrite occur in the boreal Ostrobothnian coastal region of Finland, termed 'potential acid sulfate soil materials'. If the iron sulfides are exposed to air, oxidation reactions result in acid and metal release to the environment that can cause severe damage. Despite that acidophilic microorganisms catalyze acid and metal release from sulfide minerals, the microbiology of acid sulfate soil (ASS) materials has been neglected. The molecular phylogeny of a depth profile through the plough and oxidized ASS layers identified several known acidophilic microorganisms and environmental clones previously identified from acid- and metal-contaminated environments. In addition, several of the 16S rRNA gene sequences were more similar to sequences previously identified from cold environments. Leaching of the metastable iron sulfides and pyrite with an ASS microbial enrichment culture incubated at low pH accelerated metal release, suggesting microorganisms capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation were present. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the presence of species similar to Acidocella sp. and other clones identified from acid mine environments. These data support that acid and metal release from ASSs was catalyzed by indigenous microorganisms adapted to low pH.

  • 53394.
    Wu, Xue
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Can Google Earth enhance Business Intelligence?: Exploring innovative uses of a new GIS tool2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are facing a period that coming into information time, which forced us to live in a new living style. It seems that every business movement is related with information transformation. When computers are used to deal with business data, we begin to search a way to make digital data into refined format information in order to let people to understand. This change results in a changing of business forms. For example, e-services refer to provide a certain service or play function on line, which has the tendency to replace the place of traditional service. How this kind of service can be developed remains a question mark to us.

    The challenge of e-service is how to get different functions into integration. This thesis begins to research it focusing the point view of GIS (Geography Information System). Take Google earth as an example to illustrate how GIS is being used and what possible future uses of it can be developed. By exploring its use in data collecting, and analyzing, the possible applications in business world can be obviously released.

  • 53395.
    Wu, YQ
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Qu, H
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Sfyroera, G
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Tzekou, A
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Kay, BK
    University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Uppsala University Hospital.
    Ricklin, D
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Lambris, JD
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Protection of Nonself Surfaces from Complement Attack by Factor H-Binding Peptides: Implications for Therapeutic Medicine2011In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 186, no 7, p. 4269-4277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure of nonself surfaces such as those of biomaterials or transplanted cells and organs to host blood frequently triggers innate immune responses, thereby affecting both their functionality and tolerability. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement plays a decisive role in this unfavorable reaction. Whereas previous studies demonstrated that immobilization of physiological regulators of complement activation (RCA) can attenuate this foreign body-induced activation, simple and efficient approaches for coating artificial surfaces with intact RCA are still missing. The conjugation of small molecular entities that capture RCA with high affinity is an intriguing alternative, as this creates a surface with autoregulatory activity upon exposure to blood. We therefore screened two variable cysteine-constrained phage-displayed peptide libraries for factor H-binding peptides. We discovered three peptide classes that differed with respect to their main target binding areas. Peptides binding to the broad middle region of factor H (domains 5–18) were of particular interest, as they do not interfere with either regulatory or binding activities. One peptide in this group (5C6) was further characterized and showed high factor H-capturing activity while retaining its functional integrity. Most importantly, when 5C6 was coated to a model polystyrene surface and exposed to human lepirudin-anticoagulated plasma, the bound peptide captured factor H and substantially inhibited complement activation by the alternative pathway. Our study therefore provides a promising and novel approach to produce therapeutic materials with enhanced biocompatibility.

  • 53396.
    Wu, Yuan-Qi
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Expatriatehantering i Sverige: En kvantitativ studie om hur man kan minska expatriate-failures i landet som korats som ”årets förlorare”2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden visar på att expatriates världen över fortsätter att ökas och värderas mer. Ett allmänt problem i hanteringen av expatriates är att de slutar i förtid och att de kan känna sig hindrade av att prestera till sina fulla kapaciteter. Årets resultat i en omfattande undersökning av expatriates världen över, där man mäter hur lyckliga de är, visade på att Sverige är årets förlorare. Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på vilka sätt det finns för HR-ansvariga att använda, för att sänka risken för expatriate-failures i Sverige. Utifrån syftet formulerades två frågeställningar som undersökningen baserades på, på vilka sätt kan man minska risken för att expatriate-failures ska ske i Sverige och är de etablerade tillvägagångssätten giltiga i Sverige. Metoden bestod av en enkätundersökning som undersökte vad anledningarna för övervägan att sluta i förtid var för expatsen i Sverige samt hur deras besittning av vissa attribut korrelerade till att ha en risk för expatriate-failure. Undersökningen visade på att kulturshockar var huvudanledningen för att expatriate-failures sker i Sverige och att besittning av eftertraktade attribut skulle minska risken för expatriate-failures. Resultatet visade då på att de etablerade tillvägagångssätten är giltiga i Sverige för att minska risken för expatriate-failure. Andra effektiva tillvägagångssätt gavs också som förslag för att motverka frekventa anledningarna som emprin visade på.

  • 53397.
    Wu, Yuan-Zhong
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Ottosson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Visualiseringsverktyg för röstkommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Saab har utvecklat en produkt, Remote Tower, som tillåter flygledningen att fjärrstyra en flygplats, det vill säga att övervaka och kontrollera en flygplats på distans. Ett viktigt verktyg för flygledarna är VCS, Voice Communication System, som är Saabs egna röstkommunikationssystem, där både radio- och telefonkommunikation ingår. VCS används för att kommunicera med piloter och markpersonal på flygplatsen. Målet är att i framtiden kunna fjärrstyra fler flygplatser samtidigt, och då finns ett behov att visualisera de inkommande samtalen från de olika flygplatserna i realtid. Detta för att undvika ett scenario där flygledaren missar ett samtal. Ett system har utvecklats för just detta ändamål vars huvuduppgift är att visualisera de samtal som VCS producerar. Systemet kan hantera tre flygplatser samtidigt, och varje samtal kan spelas upp genom att klicka på de inkommande samtalen.

  • 53398.
    Wuerfel, Tyll
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Weiler, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Influences on the Adaptation and Standardization Level of Swedish MNCs in the German Market2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe how the factors influence the level of adaptation and standardization of a marketing strategy and subsequently analyze how the factors influence the level of adaptation and standardization of Swedish MNCs’ in the German market. The relevant factors for the decision towards standardization and adaptation are found out using a framework composed by Viswanathan & Dickson (2007). The factors chosen are homogeneity of customer response to the marketing-mix, transferability of competitive advantage, homogeneity of economic freedom and decision variables.

     

    This thesis does so in a deductive and qualitative approach using Swedish retailer Clas Ohlson as a case study. Underlying this is a contextualized and interpretivist point of view. Data was collected through focus group interviews with German and Swedish students and complemented through data mining.

     

    An analysis of the empirical data shows a high homogeneity of customer response to the marketing-mix, the possibility of transferring the competitive advantage and a high homogeneity of economic freedom was discovered. When applying the frame of reference on the empirical data, Swedish MNCs, especially Swedish retailers, are recommended to choose a high degree of standardization for their IMS in the German market. It was discovered that the used framework does to some extent not cover a wish proposed by the German participants calling for a partial adaptation of the international marketing strategy. This disproves the assumption underlying the frame of reference as the majority of factors suggest standardization, yet from a consumer perspective, there is the wish to partially adapt. In the conclusion managerial implications, limitations and research implications are mentioned as well.

  • 53399.
    Wuertele, Ramona
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    THE INFLUENCE OF THE QUEEN BEE SYNDROME ON THE ATTITUDES, BEHAVIORS, AND EMERGING LEADERSHIP STYLES OF THE MILLENNIALS 2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past couple of decades, women have conquered most obstacles in their effort to scale the mountains of leadership and management, seemingly only to fall at the last hurdle by purposefully derailing and mistreating each other.

    As a large percentage of the workforce in the Western hemisphere is composed of women, the likelihood of experiencing a female superior throughout their career is very high for both men and women, giving rise to the threat of dealing with the Queen Bee Syndrome.

    The antecedent aim of this master thesis paper is to explore the reasons that give rise to and legitimize the so-called Queen Bee phenomenon, which describes a usually senior female holding a higher leadership-position, who actively opposes the rise of other females in male-dominated organizations, in connection to the Millennial Generation.

    For this purpose, the methodology approach of Grounded Theory was chosen, first and foremost establishing a theoretical framework comprising literature gathered from academic journals, professional and specific print and sources, as well as relevant writings from contemporary and topical media channels, such as the New York Times newspaper, or the Harvard Business Review.

    Second, a qualitative empirical study was conducted, for which several women from both the Millennial and its predecessor generation were interviewed, in order to explore opinions on perceived biases against female leaders and managers which, among other things may lead to typical Queen Bee behavior, its provenances, and their implications for business women and organizations. The gained insights are culminating in the emergence of a new theory, according to which female Millennials’ inherent narcissistic tendencies may not hinder them to pursue much-needed mentoring relationships with other females and even suggest the possibility of a diminishment of the dreaded female bully-boss paradigm.

  • 53400. Wulff, F
    et al.
    Rahm, L
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    A system analysis of the Baltic Sea2001Book (Other academic)
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