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  • 55201.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Läroplaner2018Ingår i: Att bli lärare / [ed] Eva Insulander & Staffan Selander, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, s. 195--199Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel diskuterar jag på vilka sätt läroplanens innehåll kan uppfattas som grundläggande för lärare i deras undervisning. Jag kommer också att utreda frågan om på vilket sätt den svenska läroplanen kan sägas utgöra en del av en internationell utbildningspolicy

  • 55202.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Läroplansteori och didaktik2016 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteori och didaktik är två delar av det vetenskapliga ämnet pedagogik. Läroplansteorins grundläggande fråga är ”Vad räknas som kunskap?”. Det är en fråga som ständigt är utsatt för omprövning och debatt. En fråga som ofta väcker känslor och som aldrig kommer att få ett slutgiltigt svar. Lika omdebatterad är didaktikens grundläggande fråga om hur kunskaper, värden och erfarenheter ska organiseras i konkreta undervisnings- och lärandesituationer.

    I den här boken belyser författaren dessa två breda frågeställningar ur ett flertal olika aspekter. Som en röd tråd löper insikten att det vi håller för sant i frågor om utbildning och lärande förändras historiskt över tid och varierar geografiskt, beroende på historiska, sociala och kulturella traditioner.

    I bokens andra upplaga har tillkommit ett kapitel om hur förskolans läroplan har växt fram som del av en transnationell utbildningspolicy. Med start i 1970-talets barnstugeutredning redogörs för vilka tankar och begrepp som har format måldokumenten från Pedagogiskt program för förskolan till förskolans två första läroplaner.

    Boken avslutas med ett avsnitt som visar på hur varje läroplan mer eller mindre medvetet grundas på antaganden om ett visst medborgarideal. I en bilaga ges praktiska exempel på hur man som lärare själv kan genomföra en didaktisk läroplansanalys.

  • 55203.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Läroplansteori och didaktik2015 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteori och didaktik utgör en klassisk indelning av pedagogik som vetenskap. Läroplansteorins grundläggande fråga är ”Vad räknas som kunskap?” medan didaktikens fråga är ”Hur organiseras kunskaper, värden och erfarenheter i konkreta undervisnings-och lärandesituationer?”

    I boken belyser författaren dessa två breda frågeställningar ur ett flertal olika aspekter. Som en röd tråd genom boken löper insikten att det vi håller för sant i frågor om utbildning och lärande förändras historiskt över tid och varierar geografiskt, beroende på varje lands egna historiska, sociala och kulturella traditioner.

    Boken har tre inledande kapitel som ger en grundläggande presentation av läroplansteori ur ett historiskt, kunskapsfilosofiskt respektive utbildningspolitiskt perspektiv. I ett fjärde kapitel behandlas läroplaner utifrån en analytisk dimension av olika läroplansmodeller. Detta kapitel är författat av Daniel Sundberg.

    Didaktiken har en given roll i det som i boken kallas konkreta läroplanshändelser, det vill säga när läroplanens innehåll transformeras till förskolans och skolans dagliga innehåll och verksamhet. Skolans bedömningspraktik har en nära koppling till såväl läroplansteori som didaktik och tas därför också upp.

    Boken avslutas med ett avsnitt som visar på hur varje läroplan mer eller mindre medvetet grundas på antaganden om ett visst medborgarideal. I en bilaga ges praktiska exempel på hur man själv som lärare kan genomföra en didaktisk läroplansanalys.    

     

  • 55204.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Mellan leverans och utbildning: om lärande i en mål- och resultatstyrd skola2009 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Mellan leverans och utbildning undersöker Ninni Wahlström olika uppfattningar om utbildning och deras konsekvenser för utformning av läroplaner och för didaktiska frågeställningar. Hon ger en översikt över det läroplansteortiska fältets utveckling samt över hur den nuvarande styrningen av skolan har vuxit fram inom svensk offentlig förvaltning. Mot denna bakgrund studeras så hur begreppet lärande uppfattas och praktiseras på den lokala skolarenan inom ett allmänt skolväsende som präglas av mål- och resultatstyrning. Enligt Wahlström har vi att göra med ett spänningsförhållande mellan två uppfattningar om lärande: å ena sidan en resultatfokuserad (lärande som leverans), å den andra en relationell och kommunikativ som betonar elevernas utveckling av självförståelse och till medborgare (lärande som utbildning)

  • 55205.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    National and transnational conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If one accepts Ulrich Beck’s (2006) argument that modern societies are characterized by a state of ’cosmopolitanization’, the nation as a unit for research cannot be taken as a given. Transactional interactions, whose boundaries are not clearly defined, do not replace – but incorporate – the nation-state in transnational systems of regulation, not least in education policy; and an important task is to examine national education documents, like curriculum, embedded within transnational policy forces (‘methodological cosmopolitanism’, c.f. Beck & Grande 2010). In the paper, I take this transnational ‘reality’ in consideration and analyze the curricula, specifically Swedish and Civics, in curriculum 2011 in relation to these subjects in curricula from 2000, as well as to the PISA 2009 Reading Framework and national and transnational policy texts.       

     

    In this case, the nations-state is an adequate unit of analysis; however, the analysis also needs to go beyond this unit to provide a full picture (Lawn & Grek 2012). Methodologically, I draw on critical discourse analysis based in the following features; distinguishing relations between discourse and other elements of the social process, analyzing texts in a systematic way, observing recontextualisation of discourses and recognizing the normative elements by discussing different consequences for social transformation  (Fairclough 2010). I also discuss my analytical results in relation to two main pedagogic models: competence models and performance models, in relation to discourse, space, evaluation, control and pedagogic text (Bernstein 2000). These models are in turn pointing at different orientations of curricula (Ross 2000).   

     

    A broad and preliminary conclusion is that the curricula for the subjects in the version of 2000 and the Pisa framework is mostly emphasizing the competence model, while the curriculum 2011 are mostly emphasizing the performance model (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). Through the analysis it is possible to nuance and distinguish the characteristics within these broader models in problematizing the tensions between traditional and essential curricula. Exploring different (transnational) methodological approaches to curriculum studies is highly relevant to the Nordic countries considering their respectively relation to EU.  

     

  • 55206.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    När utbildningspolicy når klassrummet2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Globaliseringen har lett till en förändrad roll för staten, från att utöva en statlig formell reglering till att bedriva en mjuk diskursiv styrning där utbildningspolicyn utformas i nära samarbete med internationella organisationer som OECD och EU (Rizvi and Lingard 2010, Wahlström 2014). I enlighet med Sassen (2013) undersöks det globala från redan väl kända kunskapsområden, som i det här fallet ett läroplansinnehåll. Den ”inomnationella globaliseringen” kommer här till uttryck i form av ansvarsutkrävande, standardsbaserade läroplaner och internationellt drivna ansträngningar att öka kunskapsresultaten, dvs. en mjuk styrning som ofta sammanfattas med begreppet ”neoliberal policy” (Phillips 2004, Takayama 2009). Studien grundas i ett läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Deng & Luke 2008, Sundberg & Wahlström 2012) och fokuserar på klassrumsdiskursens form och  innehåll, dock inte i första hand från ett språkligt eller sociokulturellt perspektiv utan från en förståelse av undervisning i termer av läroplanshändelser.

     Med utgångspunkt i läroplanen som en sammanhållen ram för “händelser” som äger rum över en längre tidsperiod, i form av teman och arbetsområden, undersöks hur klassrumsdiskurser och undervisningsrepertoarer möjliggörs respektive begränsas. Didaktik förstås här som en sammanvävning av läroplanstext och den diskursiva praktik som tar form när ett läroplansinnehåll transformeras till att bli föremål för undervisning. Ett arbetsområde (”task”) kan relatera till såväl en generell som en mer specifik nivå: i) det innehåll i läroplanen som arbetsområdet anknyter till och ii) och de specifika delar av läroplansinnehållet som läraren väljer att fokusera på (Alexander 2001). Tidigare forskning har visat att ett kommunikationsmönster av IRF (Initiation-Response-Follow-up) är dominerande i klassrummet (Alexander 2001). Samtidigt argumenterar forskare, som t ex Molinari et al. (2013), för att det finns ett behov av att fånga upp den komplexitet som klassrumsdiskurser representerar för att på så sätt kunna överskrida ett ensidigt fokus på IRF-mönster. Föreliggande klassrumsstudie visar att aktuell utbildningspolicy, genom den utformning den ges i läroplanen, påverkar undervisningsrepertoarer och klassrumsdiskurser. Såväl elevers enskilda arbete som par-och grupparbeten styrs av tydligt avgränsade uppgifter som hör nära samman med läroplanens kunskapskrav och angivna innehåll.

     

     

  • 55207.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Om kommunikation som grunden för mening och kunskap - i en värld som vi delar med andra2012Ingår i: Vad räknas som kunskap?: Läroplansteoretiska utsikter och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola / [ed] Tomas Englund, Eva Forsberg, Daniel Sundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, s. 162-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet är ett bidrag till hur kunskapsfrågan kan förstås utifrån en kommunikativ utgångspunkt. I kapitlet diskuteras vilka villkor för förvärvandet av kunskap som en sådan utgångspunkt ställer. Kapitlet ger svar, utifrån Dewey och Davidson, på hur man kan förstå meningsskapande och kunskap som läroplansteoretiska begrepp utifrån en kommunikativ och relationell kunskapssyn. 

  • 55208.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Om rätten till undervisning: diskursiva omförhandlingar inom tre arenor i svensk utbildningspolitik2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller… ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 143-167Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I spänningsfältet mellan föräldrars rätt och barns rätt, mellan utbildning som social rättighet för barn och ungdomar och som civil rättighet för vuxna, går det att analytiskt urskilja tre delvis parallella arenor för diskursiva omförhandlingar inom svensk utbildningspolitik. En arena är den politisk-juridiska diskursiva arenan; en andra diskursiva arena utgörs av den politiska kampen om fristående skolor och en tredje diskursiv arena exemplifieras av en mera avgränsad studie av ett enskilt politiskt partis argumentering för fristående konfessionella skolor.

  • 55209.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Pedagogik, policy och skolans uppdrag2018Ingår i: Pedagogik som vetenskap: en inbjudan / [ed] Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, 1, s. 113-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vad som räknas som viktig kunskap för samhället i dag och i morgon blir relevant när skolans läro- och kursplaner ska fyllas med innehåll. Kunskapsfrågan inbegriper en rad olika aspekter. För det första kan vad-frågan ställas, vilket innehåll är lämpligt för att lära ut denna kunskap? För det andra handlar det om vem som behöver en viss kunskap och vems kunskap som representeras med hjälp av ett sådant urval. För det tredje ställs frågan om varför just denna kunskap behövs för just denna grupp elever? För det fjärde, slutligen, kommer hur-frågan. När och på vilket sätt ska skolans elever ta del av dessa kunskaper? Dessa och liknande aspekter av kunskapsfrågan skapar en – uttalad eller outtalad – grund för diskussioner på den så kallade policyarenan. Inom pedagogisk forskning utgör skolans kunskapsfråga ett grundläggande studieobjekt inom den inriktning som kallas läroplansteori och didaktik. Utbildningspolitiska idéer behöver förhålla sig till både skolans demokratiska uppdrag och skolans kunskapsuppdrag, men här uppstår samtidigt ett spänningsfält eftersom olika typer av policy lägger olika vikt vid skolan som institution för demokrati respektive för kunskap

  • 55210.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Recontextualization processes of policy into national curriculum from a perspective of equity and citizenship education – a Swedish perspective2015Ingår i: Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research. ECER 2015, European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest, September 7-11, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade there has been considerable focus on transnational policy discourse, especially within the European Union (EU), on how major national curriculum reforms can change the conditions of learning and knowledge in school. A main theme in the European policy discourse is the need for efficiency in instruction linked with the rights of all students to learn and to achieve the goals set up by school, but the ways in which the actual reforms are shaped differ between the different European countries.  In this paper the aim is to explore the following two questions in relation to the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden (Lgr 11): How can the question of curriculum knowledge be understood from a perspective of equity? Who is the 'good citizen' as it emerges from the curriculum content?

    From a background of understanding curriculum as imbedded in wider transnational policy movements, the first question is examined by suggesting a framework for exploring the trajectories between equity policy and different types of curricula with implications for what counts as knowledge, drawing on the capabilities approach developed by Amartya Sen (1999) and Martha Nussbaum (2000). The other question is analysed by using two typologies for social studies and educating for democracy (Wahlström 2014). Drawing on the two analyses, supplemented with a questionnaire addressed to teachers concerning their view of the current curriculum, the preliminary results point at a predominantly instrumental view of knowledge also within humanities, a citizenship ideal in terms of 'the reasoning citizen', and less space for teachers' and students' to influence teaching content in the subject of social studies.

    References

    Biesta, Gert (2013): Responsible citizens: citizenship education between social inclusion and democratic politics. In Mark Priestley & Gert Biesta (Eds.):  Reinventing the Curriculum. New Trends in Curriculum Policy and Practice, pp. 99-116. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

    Nussbaum, Martha C. (2000) Women and Human Development. The Capabilities Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Sen, Amartya (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Unterhalter, Elaine & Brighouse, Harry (2007) Distribution of what for social justice in education? The case of education for all by 2015. In M. Walker & E. Unterhalter (Eds)

    Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach and Social Justice in Education, pp. 67-86. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Wahlström, Ninni (2014): The changing role of the state in a denationalized educational policy context. In Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg (Eds.): Transnational Policy Flows in European Education: the Making and Governing of knowledge in the Education Policy Field, pp.159-182. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, vol 42, no 1. Oxford: Symposium Books.

    Wahlström, Ninni (2014): Equity – policy rhetoric or a matter of meaning of knowledge? Towards a framework for tracing the ‘efficiency-equity’ doctrine in curriculum documents. European Educational Research Journal 13(6), 731-743.

  • 55211.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Rätten till undervisning: Europakonventionens svåra fråga2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller... ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 33-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån vilka grunder motiveras rätten till undervisning i Europakonventionen? Hur kan detta rättfärdigande förstås i termer av barns rätt, som en social rättighet, och föräldrars rätt, som en civil rättighet? I kapitlet undersöks kampen för att formulera en artikel om rätt till undervisning i Europakonventionen. Debatten i fråga äger rum mellan åren 1949 och 1952, under det förberedande arbetet med konventionstexten.

  • 55212.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Some comments on the relation between curriculum content and assessment from a perspective of literacy2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I use the term “curriculum”, drawing on McCutcheon (1982) and Cherryholmes (1988), as what students have an opportunity to learn, which refers to “the substance” of the opportunities, and to the “rules and procedures by which those opportunities are provided” (Cherryholmes 1988, p. 133). The link I draw between curriculum theory and evaluation research is between this definition of curriculum from Cherryholmes and James Paul Gee’s (2003) understanding of assessment which has what the students have an "opportunity to learn" as its key notion. Thus, the aim with the paper is to examine the relations between curriculum content in a time of globalization on the one hand and evaluation and assessment on the other. In the paper I introduce the concept of literacy as a way to relate to globalization and diversity across curriculum subjects and curriculum content. With reference to Kalantzis & Cope (2000), different forms of education are defined by the way they handle diversity and their argument emanate from four basic forms of modern education: exclusion; assimilation; multiculturalism and pluralism. If assessment in literacy shall be considered as democratic in a way that ties it with equity and social justice, it is not enough to think of assessment as including a broad range of representations of texts, even if this is an important part. From the notion of “opportunity to learn”, assessment is discussed in relation to Gee:s six principles which he argues is developed to apply to assessment of all content areas.

     

     

  • 55213.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Standards-based curriculum: implications for teaching content and classroom discourses2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how international educational policy embedded in the structure and content of curriculum transforms into certain patterns in classroom teaching. The following two research questions are formulated: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of international education policy codified through national and classroom curriculum? How does international policy of standards-based curriculum influence teaching repertoires? The version of teaching that emerges in this study, interpreted in a broader context of an international standards movement, can best be defined as directed exploration based on the teacher’s role as an explorer of what the students know, think and understand in relation to the acquisition of knowledge prescribed in the curriculum’s knowledge requirements.

  • 55214.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Teachers’ curriculum work from a ‘capability approach’2013Ingår i: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network: 03. Curriculum Innovation, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to contrast a transnational perspective on teacher education from a mainly economic perspective, and a perspective on teacher education from a 'capabilities approach', developed by Amartya Sen (1999, 2009) and Martha Nussbaum (2000, 2007), to examine how ‘new’ and creative questions can generate new discourses concerning teacher competences that include, but is not dominated by, economical conditions. The research question is: How can the ‘capabilities approach’ contribute to develop a deepened understanding of teacher education policy as an important factor in the European struggle for reducing inequalities in curricula and learning?

     

    Theoretical framework

     

    From the perspective of education as a basic need and a key to all the human capabilities (Nussbaum 2007), teacher education concerns all nations, and we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities' does a specific teacher education discourse promote? As Sen (1999) notes, a capability is based on the freedom and power to do something and this power also can make room for demands of duty. Hence, the analytical question can be formulated as: what professional duties can be distinguished in transnational policy texts on teacher education?  Both Nussbaum and Sen try to create a space for understanding quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be. While Nussbaum (2000) relates the capabilities approach to rights for each person and emphasizes human dignity, Sen stresses the notion of “public reasoning”, i.e. a person’s capacity to read, communicate, participate, argue, being listened to, being able to make informed choices and decisions and to participate in democratic deliberations (Sen 1999). The link that can be drawn between the capabilities approach and cosmopolitanism is that the scope of the capability approach (as a philosophical work) applies “to all human beings independently of their country of birth or residence, and not only to social institutions but also to the social ethos and to social practices” (Robeyns 2011, p. 18).  Thus, I place the capabilities approach in the strand of cosmopolitanism that primarily understands cosmopolitanism as a moral claim of justice (Scheffler 2001).

     

    Methodology

    The questions are answered by analyses of international policy texts on teacher education, read through the lens of four key concepts developed from an analysis of the capabilities approach: 1) having a capacity to consider oneself as a citizen both in a nation and in the world; 2) having a capacity for critical examination of one’s own life as well as of others'; 3) having a capacity to develop an imaginative understanding for other people’s lives (Nussbaum 2006; 2007, p. 323); and 4) having a capacity to act as a member of a public, influencing the rest of the world (Sen 1999, p. 18). The analysis of the policy documents draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach by which I examine how policy texts on teacher education are legitimized by the use of concepts and arguments understood as specific social practices. A special focus in the analysis is the comparative strategy of identifying shifts and discontinuities in the vocabularies between different policy documents for teacher education, and in the naming and framing of teacher quality (c.f. Fairclough 2010 Bernstein 2000). Key documents are: Teachers Matter (OECD 2005); Improving the Quality of Teacher Education (EU 2007); The McKinsey Report (2007).

     

     

    Expected outcomes

    The scholarly significance of this paper is the application of the cosmopolitan perspective as a critical notion in terms of the capabilities approach.  Thus, the cosmopolitan perspective is displaced from a philosophical arena to a critical perspective used in empirical policy research on teacher education and its implication for local curricula.  Preliminary results show that teacher education in international policy documents is mainly discussed in terms of a ‘human capital’- discourse, based on economical concepts of promoting basic learning, teaching efficiency, resources for teaching. By examining the policy documents through a perspective of ‘capabilities’, it also becomes possible to make an alternative approach to the teachers’ curriculum work visible. In sum, in the first of the two discourses, the teacher’s task in relation to inequality is understood in terms of being an effective instructor working with the curriculum in accordance with ‘best practice’ in a top-down perspective; and in the second discourse, where inequality is related to a more inclusive idea of capability deprivation, the teacher's task is understood in terms of a local curriculum development based on deliberative conversations and self-reflection, an awareness of power relations, creative pedagogy  and a cosmopolitan orientation in a bottom-up perspective.

     

     

     

  • 55215.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The changing Role of the State in a Denationalised Educational Policy Context2014Ingår i: Transnational Policy Flows in European Education: the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field / [ed] Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014, s. 159-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter the focus is on the changing role of the state and of citizenship education in a transnational landscape of educational policy. Drawing on Sassen and Schmidt it is argued that a denationalized conception of education means a transformed role of the state, rather than an elimination of its influence. The analysis from the Swedish example suggests that the role of the Swedish state has been transformed from an ‘enabling’ state to an ‘influencing-liberal’ state within a field of education policy. Even when the policy discourse is shaped in international cooperation with intergovernmental organisations it is recontextualised into national curricula in specific and selective ways. In the Swedish case this means that citizenship education in the most recent curriculum can be characterised as “social studies taught as social science”, based on human rights. In sum, the result shows that education in the Swedish context in the beginning of the 2000s can be conceptualised as a denationalised- instrumental conception of education.   

     

  • 55216.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The child in the public sphere: early literacy education in the intersection between the generalized and the concrete other2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of the paper I give some brief background to the newly introduced “required knowledge” in reading literacy for grade 3 in the Swedish compulsory school. After that I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion concerning the child/student in the public sphere, that is, in the school with its possibilities and its obligations; in this case the obligation is to take part in a national reading and writing test in grade 3 and to reach the required knowledge. In the third part of the paper I examine the basic political assumptions about literacy in general and on early reading literacy, in particular. This examination consists of studies of policy documents from both the international and national education policy arena, based on the hypothesis that the term “literacy” is primarily rooted in the OECD’s policy strategy.  In the fourth and final section, I discuss the implications of the right of the child to reach certain targets and the problems which might arise with taking part in national tests which might just show failures.  

  • 55217.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro University.
    The curriculum for secondary school viewed through the lens of transnationalism and equality: the Humanities and the subject of Swedish2013Ingår i: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ambiguous relation between the three concepts of globalization, knowledge and curriculum (Yates & Young 2010). A ‘knowledge economy’, through transnational institutions like the OECD and the EU, emphasizes standards, innovation and creativity; thus the contest on what counts as knowledge in national curricula implies a tension between the 'traditional' and 'essential' curriculum. This analysis is focused on the subject of Swedish in the Swedish secondary school, and its displacement through the last two curriculum reforms (1994 and 2011). First, the curriculum, with a focus on the subject of Swedish, is analyzed in relation to transnational and national policy concepts, as knowledge, creativity and innovation. Drawing on Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis, global and macro-regional discourses are recontextualized through dialectical processes of external ‘colonisation’ and internal ‘appropriation’. Second, the analysis is in particular focused on equity, analyzed and discussed in terms of the ‘capability approach’ (Unterhalter & Brighouse 2007), since there is evidence of reduced equivalence in the Swedish school system during the last decade. The analysis results are discussed from three ‘value’ perspectives: the instrumental, the positional, and the intrinsic value of education.

  • 55218.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The role of public education2011Ingår i: ECER 2011, Urban Education: Network: 13. Philosophy of Education - Standard submissions, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I suggest that vocabulary adapted to a public pluralism education, could be thought of as communicative literacies; with literacy understood in its significance of orientation towards the ‘outward’, based in communicative meaning making. If the purpose with public education is understood as pluralism education, we cannot use a vocabulary of (lonely) individuals looking for suitable knowledge and competences on a learning market or merely looking ‘inward’ towards single subject matters. Communicative literacy, associated with Dewey’s concepts of transaction and continuity, emphasizes a reflective, participative and critical attention.  Literacy, in its communicative sense, recognizing the continuity between students’ different literacies and their active ‘transactional’ involvement with their environment, makes it possible to understand public education as developing an informed, critical citizenry (c.f. Damico & Rosaen, 2009). The didactic question will be:  What sort of literacy do I invite my students to be members of? Is it possible for the students to ‘carry over’ some of their earlier experiences from other literacies into this literacy? As Alan Luke (2004, p. 1429) suggests, what if the vision of teaching is that teaching is a cosmopolitan work and profession, in a critical and contingent relation to cultural and economic globalization? If we, in line with Luke, think of teachers and students as world citizens, world thinkers and world critics – will communicative literacies, across subjects and time/space divisions, contribute to a notion of democratic public education, with emphasis on its purpose? 

  • 55219.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The Struggle for the Right to Education in the European Convention on Human Rights2009Ingår i: Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1475-4835, E-ISSN 1475-4843, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 150-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses two central questions, namely on what grounds the right to education is justified in the European Convention on Human Rights, and in what terms we can understand the tensions between the right of a child, as a social right, and the right of a parent, as a civil right. I argue that two main reasons served as grounds for a universal right to education; one being the social right of children to free education and the other being to secure an education that was not indoctrinating. In the preparatory work of the article on the right to education the main contests were about who was to protect the child from indoctrination, the state or the parents. I suggest that the contest wae not really about education but about the relation between the state and religion, or where to draw the line between the public and the private.

  • 55220.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    The travelling reform agenda: the Swedish case through the lens of the OECD2018Ingår i: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, s. 15-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the central theme is the consequences of an individual country turning to an intergovernmental organisation, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), to have its school systems assessed by an authoritative educational policy actor. This analysis adheres to current comparative research policy borrowing and lending, where national policy-makers project their policy agendas into ‘international standards’ and international judgements to justify their own educational policy reform agenda. The assumption is that national policy-makers with lengthy conflicts in a policy field such as education are likely to turn their attention to another country’s educational system to legitimise their national policy; that is, they use another country as a ‘projection’ for their internal debates (Steiner-Khamsi, 2012; Takayama et al., 2013 ). In this case, the OECD instead uses its transnational policy as a ‘projection’ for a good and ‘evidence-based’ policy that is applied to a long-debated national school system. However, when a transnational reform agenda works as the lens through which an individual country’s school system is to be judged, it might be quite difficult to catch sight of the local/national school system. Instead, the transnational perspective tends to dominate and obscure the character of the national school system that is under the magnifying glass. In the present analysis, two different approaches are brought together in a common framework: curriculum theory (CT) and discursive institutionalism (DI).

  • 55221.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Toward a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Cosmopolitanism on the Ground2014Ingår i: Curriculum inquiry, ISSN 0362-6784, E-ISSN 1467-873X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 113-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a continuum of resistance and receptivity constitutes a framework forunderstanding a cosmopolitan orientation “on the ground.” Such a continuum isbased on an understanding of the effects of globalization, when it comes to individualpeople, as both containing a potential for an active interest in other ways oflife, and a resistance toward others’ values and ways of living triggered by a feelingof being forced into situations without one’s own voluntarily choice. The notion ofcontinuum implies that each individual occupies a different position depending onthe situation and context, and that these positions can shift. In the conceptual useof cosmopolitanism in empirical studies, there is need for more developed andspecified terms to be used as analytical tools for discerning if and when somethingmay be considered as a possible cosmopolitan orientation. For this purpose, thefour capacities for self-reflexivity, hospitality, intercultural dialogue and transactionsof perspectives, are developed out of Delanty’s understanding of criticalcosmopolitanism. To be able to distinguish between institutionalized routineconversations and conversations that seem to engage the students in a more activecosmopolitan meaning making, the continuum of efferent and aesthetic-reflectiveexperiences, taken from Rosenblatt’s studies of reading, has been suggested. A preliminary analysis of data from an empirical research study focused on classroomconversations, and contextualized by an analysis of a curriculum concerning fundamentalvalues, indicates that it is possible to discern different discursive actionsof self-reflexivity and hospitality in classroom conversations, as well as a potential for intercultural dialogue.

  • 55222.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Transnational policy discourses on teacher education: A cosmopolitan perspective2014Ingår i: Abstracts. NERA 42nd Congress, Education for Sustainable Development, N 5. The Curriculum Research Network, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy (e.g. Grek et al. 2009; Grek & Ozga 2010; Dale & Robertson 2009). A ‘global education policy’, circulating, transformed and ‘borrowed’ between international education policy arenas and nations (c.f. Steiner-Khamsi 2012), has emphasised concepts such as ‘effective teaching’ and ‘teacher quality’ which has had the effect that teacher training has become a focal point for policy interest.

    The aim with this paper is instead to understand transnational policy texts from a cosmopolitan perspective. The purpose is two-fold: to analyze the characteristics of teacher education and the role of the teacher in transnational authoritative texts from a cosmopolitan perspective; and to analyze the field of tension between an economic cosmopolitan approach and a moral cosmopolitan approach.  

    Drawing on the perspective that education is a basic need and a fundamental right for all (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999), and “the key to all the human capabilities” (Nussbaum 2007), we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities'  a specific conception of teacher education promote.  The capabilities approach focus on human agencies and on the removal of substantial unfreedoms through education (Garnett 2009), by including the possibilities of agency in relation to material and social resources as well as issues of identity (Walker & Unterhalter 2007). Both Nussbaum and Sen are seeking to create a space for understanding a sustainable quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be; their actual capabilities.

    The text analysis is based on three main documents, and a number of follow up documents linked to each of these key documents from the OECD, the EU and McKinsey&Company.

    The result shows the centrality of the concept of reflection: as ‘best practice’ in a top-down perspective or as ‘reflexivity’ as a cosmopolitan orientation from a bottom-up perspective. The latter includes recognizing the relation between the well-known and the foreign, and a historical understanding of the teaching situation, the teachers find themselves in.

  • 55223.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Transnational policy discourses on teacher education: A cosmopolitan perspective2015Ingår i: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 801-816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I analyse some of the transnational ‘authoritative’ policy documents on teacher education and teacher development from a cosmopolitan perspective. The purpose is to explore the possibilities for analysing the characteristics of teacher education and the role of the teacher in transnational texts from a cosmopolitan perspective in order to explore the field of tension between an economic cosmopolitan approach and a moral cosmopolitan approach to justice. Mainly drawing on Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, I argue that it is possible to go beyond a limited economic perspective in order to make an alternative approach to teacher education visible, where the possibility to revitalize and reconstruct local school activities is in focus. One conclusion is that teacher education in transnational policy texts can be understood both within a ‘reification discourse’ and within a ‘reflexivity discourse’. An important distinction between the two discourses is the understanding of critical reflections as related to evidence-based standards or to an understanding of an individual’s positionality, relationality and historicity.

  • 55224.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Understanding the universal right to education as jurisgenerative politics and democratic iterations2009Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 520-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT This article examines how the universal human right to education can be understood in terms of what Seyla Benhabib considers ‘democratic iterations’. Further, by referring to the concept of jurisgenerative politics, Benhabib argues that a democratic people reinterpret guiding norms and principles which they find themselves bound to, through iterative acts, so that they are not only the subjects but also the authors of laws. By examining the use of the Article of the universal right to education in the European Convention on Human Rights, not as an Article with an unambiguous meaning, but as an Article which from its very start was the subject of different interpretations and desires, the author argues for an understanding of the process of transforming universal rights into national law and norms as democratic iterations. This way of conceiving democratic iterations is examined empirically, with Sweden as an example, by analyses of three different discursive arenas: a political/legal arena; an arena concerning political contests over independent schools; and a more limited arena for advocating denominational schools. The conclusion is that two different disjunctions – between universal norms and national self-determination and between law as power and law as meaning – are productive interspaces for renegotiating and rearticulating universal law into local/national norms

  • 55225.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Utbildningens villkor: globalisering och lokal mångfald2011Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 29-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions of education - globalization and local plurality. Taking some of my previous research as a point of departure, in this inaugural lecture I want to formulate a conception of education that reflects some principles that are specific for the period starting with the Educational Reform 1991. With gradual displacements this reform is still going on. Through an analysis of three different arenas within a framework of curriculum theory; the society arena, the governing- and curricula arena, and the arena of the local school and classroom, it is possible to characterize these arenas in terms of internationalization, management by demand and control, and individual choice. It may be argued that this is a new conception of education; a denationalized – instrumental conception. The national education arena becomes denationalized in two ways: globally there is an increasing influence by transnational organizations (and corporations); and locally, the privatization of schools has been extensive. The conception is instrumental in its basic assumption that there is a fairly simple connection between clearly expressed demands and the productivity of school.  

  • 55226.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Utbildningens villkor II - en denationaliserad utbildningskonception2014Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 77-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In my inaugural lecture at the Linnaeus University in May 2014, I explored the policy discourse of a denationalized-instrumental understanding of school and education as I introduced in a corresponding lecture at Örebro University 2011(Wahlström 2011) and which since then has been the recurring focus of my research interest. The theme concerns the relationship between social change and perceptions of social needs on the one hand and the implications for what counts as knowledge and good education on the other hand. The article discusses globalization and the changing role of the state, with Europeanization as one of the consequences of globalization. In recent years, the EU has broadened its influence by also including the Member States' compulsory schools and their curricula in its policy. In the article, results from analyzes of the Swedish curriculum for compulsory school, Lgr 11, from the perspectives of curriculum typology, citizenship education and equity are presented.  

  • 55227.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Vad krävs av en demokratisk skola? John Deweys Demokrati och utbildning i ett läroplansteoretiskt nutidsperspektiv2016Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 51-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is required of a democratic school? John Dewey's Democracy and Education in a contemporary curriculum theory perspective

    The purpose of this article is to explore a topical issue raised by John Dewey in his book Democracy and Education: How shall we secure the diversity of interests, without paying the price of isolation? To problematize the tension between individuals’ beliefs, desires and needs and a society’s need for cohesion, I read Dewey’s book through a lens of curriculum theory to elucidate the role of the school as deeply imbedded in the society's interpretation of the concept of democracy. By analyzing the society arena, the programmatic arena and the classroom arena in Democracy and Education, it becomes clear that the fundamental principles for democracy in society also have implications for the curriculum and the teaching in classroom. By recognizing the democratic needs of a lively dialogue between different social groups, and to base the school on such a principle, we can reduce the risk that pluralism is manifested in the form of isolated communities and enclaves.   

  • 55228.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    When policy reaches classrooms2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In educational research, educational policy is often discussed in terms of events, time and space connected to international and national arenas (e.g. Lawn & Grek 2012, Meyer & Benavot 2013, Rizvi & Lingard 2010). In this paper, the contextualization of policy is instead the local arena. The paper examines local responses of transnational/national policy at a classroom level. The study can be viewed as a response to two of the questions posed at the website of NW 23: “How do we conceptualise and understand the procedures and constraints of policy making at the local level?” and “How is policy received, perceived and used by different social actors?” [e.g. the teachers]. The paper is part of the project ‘Understanding curriculum reforms: a theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11’, financed by the Swedish Research Council. The purpose of the paper is to explore how education policy, both enabled and constrained by transnational policy flows as well as national policy built up by social, cultural and historical traditions, is enacted through curriculum on the classroom level, in terms of ‘curriculum events’ (Doyle 1992). More specifically, the aim is to explore how policy rationality embedded in the structure and content of curriculum transforms into a specific rationality of classroom teaching. The research questions are: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of education policy codified through curriculum? What different rationalities, linked to education policy as enacted in curriculum, may underlie certain patterns of teaching repertoires?

  • 55229.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    When transnational curriculum policy reaches classrooms - teaching as directed exploration2018Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 654-668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore how education policy that is both enabled and constrained by transnational policy flows and national policy built up by social, cultural and historical traditions are enacted through curriculum at the classroom level. The focus is on how policy rationality embedded in the structure and content of curriculum is transformed into certain rationalities in classroom teaching. By understanding lessons as curriculum events', the study reveals a dominant classroom discourse of recitation and similar triadic communication patterns, which is in accordance with other classroom studies. However, in the article it is argued that the version of teaching that emerges in this study, interpreted in a broader context of an international standards movement, can be understood in terms of directed exploration based on the teacher's role as an explorer of what the students know, think and understand in relation to the acquisition of knowledge prescribed in the curriculum's knowledge requirements. Even though the form of recitation is well known, the reason for choosing this teaching repertoire is somewhat new and can be related to the teacher authoring a basic oral text in accordance with assessment standards.

  • 55230.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Where is ‘the political’ in curriculum research?2018Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 711-723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an overview in connection with the 50th anniversary of the Journal ofCurriculum Studies (JCS), this article begins with John Dewey’s notion thatall educational actions carry philosophical implications. The tensionbetween different education-research philosophies, between non-socialand social education philosophies in Dewey’s terms, becomes visible inan overview of articles published during the past 50 years of the JCS.Therefore, the purpose here is to explore in what different forms and inwhat different spaces the political takes shape in curriculum research.Policies on education always address fundamental political questions inthe sense that debates on education inevitably include alternative viewsof good education and good society. Instead of looking for the political,it seems to be more fruitful to look for different ways of expressing thepolitical. This, in turn, might contribute to a more nuanced debate onwhich political perspectives will be most productive in developing thecurriculum research field. Three views on ‘the political’ are identified. Thefirst is a personal, ‘over-socialized’ view based on personal experiences,the second is a ‘social’ view that focuses on social interactions andsocietal implications, and the third is an impersonal, ‘under-socialized’view based on ‘science’.

  • 55231.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Who is the 'dreamteacher'?: teacher education policy from a critical cosmopolitan perspective2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Phelan & Sumsion (2008) raised the question about what is, and what is not, perceived in teacher education, from the premise that until we can address what is absent, it will be difficult to catch sight of an alternative teacher education. In this paper I examine policy texts on teacher education, as authoritative and discursive influential texts, through a cosmopolitan lens. The purpose of the study is to contrast a (perceived) internationalized perspective on teacher education with economical overtones, and a (not perceived) perspective on teacher education from a 'capabilities approach', developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, to examine how ‘new’ questions can generate new discourses concerning teacher competences. The question posed here is: How can the ‘capabilities approach’ contribute to develop a deepened understanding of teacher education policy as an important factor in the struggle for reducing inequalities and poverty?  

    Introduction

    From the perspective of education as a basic need and a fundamental right for all (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999); and with Nussbaum’s words “the key to all the human capabilities” (Nussbaum 2007, p. 322), teacher education concerns all nations, and we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities' does a specific teacher education promote? For example, does this specific teacher education pay attention to a range of perspectives, global as well as national and local, or does it narrow the scope of educational questions to themes of skills and basic knowledge?  As Sen (1999, p. 19) notes, a capability is based on the freedom and power to do something and this power also can make room for demands of duty. Hence, the analytical question can be formulated as: what professional duties are emphasized in transnational policy texts on teacher education?  

     

    Background

    There is an increasing income inequality in OECD countries. It first started in the United Kingdom and the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but from the late 1980s the increase in income inequality became more widespread. In the beginning of the 2000s, there is a widening gap between the rich and the poor, both in high-inequality countries and in traditionally low-inequality countries. Examples of the latter are Germany, Denmark and Sweden, where inequality grew more than in other OECD countries in the 2000s (OECD 2011a). When it comes to inequality patterns for the seven largest emerging economies, they all have levels of income inequality significantly higher than the OECD average (OECD 2011b). The concept of poverty in these findings is perceived as a relative measure: as the difference between the group who have the lowest income and the group who have the highest income (OECD 2011a). The European Union Member States, who also are Member States in the OECD, have as one of their targets for “Europe 2020” to reduce the number of Europeans living below the national poverty lines with 25 % (or 20 million people). So poverty, or inequality, is a current problem also in ‘rich’ countries. As part of the efforts to tackle poverty, EU has formulated another, interrelated, target: to reduce early school leavers from 15% to 10 % in 2020 (European Commission 2010). On the African continent the conditions are different, and poverty is here measured in more absolute terms. According to the African Union Commission (2009, p. 14), a third of the people in much of the Continent are underfed and more than 40 per cent live in conditions of poverty. The conclusion that can be drawn from policy documents and reports from these three international policy organizations are that though the underlying forces of inequality are different between the OECD countries, the emerging economy nations and the countries on the African continent, education are on the list of proposed policy solutions for all three organizations. The policy recommendations claims that access to basic education and higher educational attainment are important; however, to serve as effective tools against poverty these opportunities also must be spread more widely between different social groups (OECD 2011a,b, European Commission 2010, African Union Commission 2009). As shown above, there is no absolute definition of poverty. In the paper I use the poverty definition formulated by the OECD: “An income level that is considered minimally sufficient to sustain a family in terms of food, housing, clothing, medical needs and so on” (OECD glossary), and contrast it with Sen’s (1999, p. 75) definition of capability as “the freedom to achieve alternative functioning combinations.”

     

    Theoretical framework

    The new global knowledge economy is based in an understanding of the economic importance of education. Michael Peters distinguishes between a view of a knowledge economy which posits the economy as subordinate to the state and as providing grounds for ‘education as a welfare right and the recognition of knowledge rights as a basis for social inclusion and informed citizenship’, and a view that sees the knowledge economy only in the service of trade and industry (Peters 2001, p. 13). In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy (e.g. Grek et al. 2009; Grek & Ozga 2010; Dale & Robertson 2009). A ‘global education policy’, circulating, transformed and ‘borrowed’ between international education policy arenas and nations, has emphasised concepts such as ‘quality assurance’ and ‘teacher quality’ which has had the effect that teacher training has become a focal point for policy interest. In research on international educational policy, exemplified by the references above, the research results are centered around concepts as ‘globalization’ and ‘marketization’. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) have also marked an increased interest in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerning education during the last two decades, and the collaboration between the two forms of organizations has been intensified, exemplified by the Education for All movement (EFA ) and the Global Campaign for Education (GCE); where in the latter, Oxfam International has played a leading role (Munday & Murphy 2001). In the paper, I complement the current research on international policy of education with a cosmopolitan perspective; and more specifically, with the perspective of ‘capablities approach’. According to Amartya Sen (1999), there is a strong case for seeing poverty as deprivation of basic capabilities and not only, which is the most commonly used in international comparisons, as lack of income and wealth. “The shift in perspective is important in giving us a different – and more directly relevant – view on poverty not only in the developing countries, but also in the more affluent societies” (Sen 1999, p. 20).     

    The relation between cosmopolitanism and the 'capabilities approach', with Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum as its proponents, is ambiguous. Hansen (2011) understands the capabilities approach as part of an economic cosmopolitanism, influenced by values from political and moral cosmopolitanism, in its arguing for a bottom-up perspective on human capabilities, while acknowledging the need for institutional support. There are both similarities and differences in Nussbaum’s and Sen’s concepts of capabilities. Both agree on Sen’s attempt to create a space for understanding quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be. Nussbaum, however, more explicitly relates the capabilities approach to rights for each person (Nussbaum 2000, p. 13). Further, while Nussbaum emphasizes the notion of “human dignity”, Sen stresses the notion of “public reasoning”, i.e. a person’s capacity to read, communicate, participate, argue, being listened to, being able to make informed choices and decisions and to participate in democratic deliberations (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999). The link that can be drawn between the capabilities approach and cosmopolitanism is that the scope of the capability approach (as a philosophical work) applies “to all human beings independently of their country of birth or residence, and not only to social institutions but also to the social ethos and to social practices” (Robeyns 2011, p. 18).  Thus, I place the capabilities approach in the strand of cosmopolitanism that primarily understands cosmopolitanism as a principle of justice; in contrast to the other main strand that understands cosmopolitanism as culture (Scheffler 2001). An additional clarification can be made by contrasting institutional and moral cosmopolitanism, and thereby placing cosmopolitan global justice as premised on moral cosmopolitanism. The moral cosmopolitan view is based on the assumption that individuals are entitled to equal concern regardless of their nationality; but the focus is not on global institution building (Tan 2002). In sum, I view the capabilities approach as a moral claim on justice in a moderate version; that is, recognizing the distinction between social justice within a society, and norms of global justice as an addition to, but not as a replacement of, national principles of justice (c.f. Scheffler 2001). As Robeyns (2011) notes, the capability approach can serve, not only as analysis of inequality in developing countries, but also as a framework for policy evaluations in economically developed communities (c.f. Sen above).

    Method

    The questions raised in this proposal will be answered by analyses of international policy texts on teacher education, read through the lens of four key concepts developed from an analysis of the capabilities approach: 1) having a capacity to consider oneself as a citizen both in a nation and in the world; 2) having a capacity for critical examination of one’s own life as well as of others'; 3) having a capacity to develop an imaginative understanding for other people’s lives (Nussbaum 2006; 2007, p. 323); and 4) having a capacity to act as a member of a public, influencing the rest of the world (Sen 1999, p. 18). The analysis of the policy documents draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach by which I examine how policy texts on teacher education are legitimized by the use of concepts and arguments understood as specific social practices. A special focus in the analysis is the comparative strategy of identifying shifts and discontinuities in the vocabularies between different policy documents for teacher education, and in the naming and framing of teacher quality (c.f. Fairclough 2010 Bernstein 2000).

    Data sources, evidence, objects or materials

    In order to grasp the role of the teacher and its implications for teacher education expressed in different international policy documents, the discourse analysis is based on three main documents, and a number of follow up documents linked to each of these key documents. The key documents are: Teachers Matter. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD 2005); Improving the Quality of Teacher Education (European Commission 2007) and Second Decade of Education for Africa 2006-2015 (African Union 2006).

     

    Results

    The preliminary results show that teacher education in international policy documents is mainly discussed in terms of a ‘human capital’- discourse, based on economical concepts of promoting basic learning, teaching efficiency, resources for teaching; and, specifically concerning OECD, the acknowledgement of diversity. At the same time, each of the three organizations' key texts has its own specific emphasis. By examining the policy of teacher education through a perspective of ‘capabilities’, it also becomes possible to make an alternative approach to teacher education and programs for anti-poverty visible. The key factor in this latter perspective is the individual freedom as a two-way relationship - to be able to act and to be able to bring about change. In sum, in the first of the two discourses, the teacher’s task in relation to inequality is understood in terms of being an effective instructor; and in the second discourse, where poverty is related to a more inclusive idea of capability deprivation, the teacher's task is understood in terms of communication and self-reflection, emphasizing an awareness of power relations, reflectivity, deliberations and a cosmopolitan orientation.

     

  • 55232.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Will democratic iterations always end up 'right'?2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper problematizes the concepts of democratic iterations and jurisgenerative politics. One problem concerns the process and the ‘result’ of democratic iterations: does the democratic iterations of the European Convention also result in a democratic pluralist school? Another problem that is addressed is that a state, in a striving for its jurisgenerative character, at the same time also must protect insular educational alternatives. What does this mean for a pluralist education?   

  • 55233.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Forskningsbasering av lärarutbildningen: Delrapport från SKOLFORSK-projektet2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Forskningsbasering av lärarutbildningen” har som övergripande uppdrag att genomföra en inventering och analys avseende forskningsbasering av lärarutbildningen med hjälp av dokumentstudier och kontakter med lärare och studenter. Studien ska visa på faktorer som har betydelse för lärarutbildningens vetenskapliga grund samt för kunskap om vetenskapligt väl underbyggda metoder och arbetssätt för att öka måluppfyllelsen och förbättra kunskapsresultaten inom utbildningsväsendet i Sverige. Mer specifikt syftar studien till att dels kartlägga och analysera forskningsbaseringen vid ett antal lärarutbildningar i landet, dels ge en översikt över forskningens syn på vilka faktorer som tillmäts betydelse för att lärarutbildningen kan anses vara forskningsbaserad.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan studiens slutsatser formuleras som att de studerande i första hand möter ett forskningsbaserat innehåll i form av texter om forskning för lärarutbildning. I dessa texter dominerar forskningsgenren ”tolkande forskning”. I lärarutbildningens praktik utgörs forskningsbaseringen i första hand av att innehållet är forskningsbaserat och att kurslitteraturens innehåll och diskussioner i anslutning till innehållet leder till att de studerande omprövar sina tidigare uppfattningar om skola och undervisning vid ett flertal tillfällen under sin utbildning.

  • 55234.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Schmidt, Catarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Coding scheme for analysing classroom discourse and conceptualisations of knowledge2019Ingår i: Classroom research: Methodology, categories and coding / [ed] Wahlström, Ninni, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2019, , s. 44s. 39-43Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55235.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Alvunger, DanielLinnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).Sundberg, DanielLinnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Teachers matter - but how?2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this special issue, we start from a general policy assumption about teachers and teaching particularly clearly summarised in the 2005 report Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). The report states that teacher policy is high on national agendas and that teachers are ‘the most significant resource in schools’ for improving efficiency and equity in school.

    However, we regard the policy field mainly as the background, from which we retain the fundamental claim that ‘teachers matter’. In contrast to policy documents, the intention in this special issue is to explore in what different ways, at what different times and in what different spaces teachers truly matter, without having any answers in advance – that is, outside the area of policy highroads but still against a backdrop of a policy of accountability and standards.

    Conceptions of school and teaching influence the way teachers think about teaching and how they actually conduct their work in the classroom. With reference to Hansen (2001), teaching has its own integrity. Teaching here is viewed as a moral and intellectual practice developed from within the person, rather than getting one’s norms imposed from outside. Through our subjectivity, we can begin to know ourselves and the world we inhabit, imprinted by culture and history. Genuine learning and growth, for teachers and their students, cannot be hastened; it is a process with its own dimension of time. Teachers’ professional identities, who they are and the meanings teachers attribute to their work and the meanings that are attributed to them by others, are shaped not only by organisational and subject-related aspects but also by their relationships to colleagues, students and parents and a life outside of school (Day & Gu 2010).

  • 55236.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Wermke, Wieland
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Living in an era of comparisons: comparative research on policy, curriculum and teaching2018Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 587-594Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The articles in this special issue include different perspectives on comparativepolicy studies with an aim to understand transnational educationpolicies in relation to the logic of national educational systems andto grasp the ongoing reframing of teacher identity and teaching as aresult of the policy activities of ‘new’ and coordinated internationalactors. This special issue aims to contribute to a continued qualifiedinvestigation in curriculum issues at the various levels within the publiceducation system, as well as in the international policy movements,affecting public education differently in different nations. A ‘comparativecurriculum research’ inspired by theories and methods from comparativeeducation might be helpful in this endeavour.

  • 55237.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro University ; Uppsala University.
    Teacher agency from a perspective of transactional realism2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we contribute to the conversation on what possibilities a realist perspective can bring to curriculum theory. We do that by exploring the realism aspect of pragmatism. Second, we explore the scope and character of teacher agency as they are perceived by the teachers in their role as translators of the prescribed curriculum into an enacted practice. We do that by analysing ten interviews with teachers on the theme of curriculum reform, taking into account a three-dimensional analyses model comprising aspects of influences from the past, the present and the future. Thus, the questions can be formulated as: How can a pragmatic understanding of realism contribute to a reconceptualization of the concept of agency? How can a temporal understanding of agency analytically contribute to a relational understanding of teacher agency? 

  • 55238.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Exploring European Education Policy Through the Lens of Dewey's Democracy and Education2016Ingår i: Public Scholarship to Educate Diverse Democracies, AERA 2016, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington D.C., April 8-12, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use the basic concepts of Dewey’s pedagogical philosophy on democracy and education as analytical tools for exploring the democratic potential of a transnational education policy within the contemporary European risk discourse. A Deweyan reading of main policy documents, starting with the 2000 Lisbon Strategy, allows for critical discussion of some of the basic assumptions and consequences of the EU-advocated transnational education policy. The data sources include 28 EU policy documents from 2000 to 2014. The analysis shows that in addition to a prevailing “human capital” discourse, there is potential for a communicative “democratic discourse” that promotes social cohesion. The democratic discourse underlines the full and free communication between different groups as the only way to promote and ensure the conditions for social cohesion. In this crisis of nearby wars, terror attacks and refugees in Europe, economy and competition are not viable concepts for seeking solutions. We argue that a shift to a language adapted to the real crisis and the fear of future crises in Europe is needed. We argue that a language that understands social efficiency, communication and a moral interest in the way Dewey outlined the concepts in Democracy and Education corresponds to the strong need to maintain and strengthen a democratic education and a democratic way of living for all.

  • 55239.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Nordin, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik och lärande (PEL).
    Hallbäck, Marie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik och lärande (PEL).
    Externalisation as standardisation?: Examining the use of references in the Swedish school commission2018Ingår i: NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, s. 101-102Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 55240.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro universitet.
    I mellanrummet mellan universell rätt och nationell lag: en teoretisk inramning2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller… ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 129-141Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    På vilket sätt kan transnationella överenskommelser och rättsligt bindande konventioner förenas med ett lands självbestämmande? Den frågan diskuteras utifrån Seyla Benhabibs analys av spänningen mellan det universella och det partikulära. Benhabib förstår denna relation i termer av diskursiva omförhandlingar, "democratic iterations". Diskursiva omförhandlingar av universella rättigheter förutsätter ett jurisgenerativt förhållningssätt. Jurisgenerativ politik betecknar därför ett specifikt sätt att uppfatta funktionen av juridisk lagtext

  • 55241.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    Oslo University.
    Comparing School Leadership: A Discursive Approach to School Leadership and Curriculum Policy2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we take our point of departure from a discursive understanding of both curriculum and educational leadership. Among researchers as well as policy makers, a distributive perspective on leadership in schools has aroused intense interest. In the most basic terms, a distributive view of leadership recognizes that school leadership can involve multiple individuals in addition to the school principal, ‘the leader-plus aspect,’ and that leading a school is fundamentally about interactions, rather than about the actions of individual leaders (Spillane & Healey, 2010). Although we find the institutional approach in empirical studies on distributed leadership contributing to a renewed understanding of leadership in schools, we argue that the approach risks being both too general, i.e., that there is no distinction between the management of the school and other social practices (see Young, 2008), and too restricted, i.e., that each school / district is considered as its own independent unit. We therefore suggest the extension of theories and models of educational leadership research, in which transnational educational policy formations, national governing systems, and local school management practices are taken into account.

     

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize educational leadership by taking two turns: first to curriculum theory (Doyle, 1992; Deng & Luke, 2008) and second to discursive institutionalism (Schmidt, 2010). There are three primary reasons for these turns. First, the meaning of educational leadership is embedded in a larger context of transnational policy where actors show a central interest in leadership in school through networks (e.g., European Policy on School Leadership) and reports (e.g., EU, 2009, 2013; OECD, 2008a, 2008b, 2014; McKinsey, 2010). Second, the meaning of educational leadership is deeply intertwined with ideological discourses on education at large, and it cannot be distinguished from important matters related to teaching and learning. Third, to fully understand the complexity of educational leadership, there is a need for a conceptual framework that takes into account ideology, structure, and actors.

     

    Taking our starting point from the first two levels of classical curriculum theory — the institutional and the programmatic levels (Doyle, 1992) — we examine the relationships between the transnational policy on educational leadership and national meanings and the displacements in two European countries, Sweden and Norway, within a framework of discursive institutionalism (DI). The different discursive levels in the study are related to each other through the concept of recontextualization (Bernstein, 2000). DI involves both the substantive content of educational ideas and interactive processes of change and power relations in institutional contexts through coordinative discourses of policy construction and communicative discourses of political communication (Schmidt, 2010). The primary research method is the textual analysis of transnational and national policy documents, including national curricula in the two countries, but we also illustrate the relations between the global and local school leadership levels by referring to results from the EU (2013) and OECD (2014). 

     

  • 55242.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Skoog, Marianne
    Örebro universitet.
    A 'pluralistic literacy' - is there a need for such a didactic concept?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the concept of pluralistic literacy, we base the term literacy as a critical notion in an education characterized by pluralism (c.f. Kalantzis & Cope 2000), and transaction (c.f. Dewey 1949/1991). Pluralistic literacy is critical because it starts from the assumption that literacy is about “social power” and that a critical literacy education needs to go beyond literacy as a skill, “to engage students in the analysis and reconstruction of social fields” (Luke 2000, p. 451). Luke starts from the presupposition that reading and writing are about social power (ibid.). The critical aspect opens a reflective gap for the students to what is well-known as well as to what has earlier been unknown; a gap in which students reach a necessary distance to understand others, and others point of view (c.f. Haas Dyson 1997). Besides “which offer of meaning”, or “which story” the teacher choose to teach from, the didactic questions will be:  What sort of literacy do I invite my students to be (new) members of?  Is it possible for my students to ‘carry over’ some of their earlier experiences from other literacies into this literacy?  How to analyze the didactic questions of the what and the how is discussed in relation to an ethnographic two-years study of “written language learning” (and teaching), from preschool class through the first school year (Skoog 2012).

  • 55243.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Att förstå klassrumsdiskurser - ett läroplansteoretiskt och didaktiskt pesrpektiv2015Ingår i: Curriculum and national identity - Nordic divergences? 6:e Nordiska läroplanskonferensen, Örebro universitet, 21-22 oktober, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Teoretiskt/metodologiskt ramverk (200 ord)

    I detta paper diskuteras läroplansfrågorna i relation till undervisning och lärarande i en klassrumskontext. Läroplansforskningen har, trots en rik historia av teoretisk och empirisk undervisningsforskning, i många stycken tappat sin starka koppling till didaktiken och klassrumsforskningen. Det finns dock tydliga tecken på att flera olika tendenser i samtiden verkar för att överkomma historiskt etablerade murar. I texten tar vi utgångspunkt i den klassiska läroplansteorin och dess empiriska undersökningar (t.ex. Bellack et al. 1966; Gustafsson 1977, Hansen 1995, Jackson 1990, Lundgren 1981) för att diskutera olika sätt att teoretiskt och metodologiskt länka läroplaner till empiriska klassrumsstudier.

    Presentationen tar upp några olika teoretiska positioner och ansatser som etablerats historiskt och diskuterar deras bidrag, framför allt i relation till en samtida diskursiv och kommunikativ förståelse av kommunikation i klassrummet. Några problem som behandlas är bl.a. om hur innehållsfrågan hanteras, om elever som med-konstruktörer av läroplanens innehåll, om kontextens betydelse, om normativitet och frågan om resultatens generaliserbarhet.  I texten anförs argument för att inta ett läroplansteoretiskt och didaktiskt perspektiv på läroplanshändelser i klassrummet (Doyle 1992)

    Forskningsfrågor (100 ord)

    1. Hur har den empiriska klassrumsforskningen begreppsliggjorts inom den internationella svenska läroplansforskningen? Vilka nyckelbegrepp framträder vid en läsning av klassiska klassrumsstudier inom fältet?

    2. Vilka forskningsansatser och vilka analytiska ramverk inom den internationella klassrumsforskningen skulle, mot bakgrund av svaret på fråga 1, kunna utgöra viktiga resurser för att empiriskt studera och analysera läroplaner och undervisningens kommunikation?

    Empiriskt material (100 ord)

    Frågeställningarna besvaras genom litteraturstudier av ett urval av centrala forskningsöversikter inom den internationella och svenska läroplans- och undervisningsforskningen. I urvalet ingår bl.a. Research in teaching and learning: a project of the American Educational Research Association. Vol. 1, Paradigms and program (Shulman, AERA 1990), ”The International Handbook of Teachers and Teaching” (Biddle, Good & Goodson, 1997), ”International handbook of research on teachers and teaching” (Saha & Dworkin, 2009), The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction (Phillion et al 2008), The handbook of classroom discourse and interaction (Markee, 2015) och Alexanders översikt och modell för komparativ klassrumsforskning (2010 respektive 2001).

    Preliminära resultat (200 ord) 

    Genomgången av olika läroplansrelaterade klassrumsforskningsansatser visar på en bred mångfald. Process-produktmodellen som också kommit att kallas undervisningseffektivitetsansatsen var under flera decennier den mest vitala och produktiva modellen/programmet för forskning om undervisning, enligt Shulman (1990). Ur denna växte också en rad empiriska resultat kring I-R-E mönster och två-tredjedels-regeln kring fördelning av undervisningstid i klassrummet (t.ex. Bellack et al. 1966). I linje med denna ansats kom en överföringsmetafor att prägla synen på klassrumskommunikationen. Uppfattningen kom dock att utmanas på bred front av konstruktivismens lärandeteori och dess idé om eleven som med-konstruktör av innehållet i undervisningen. Det sociokulturella perspektivet har i sin tur kritiserat konstruktivistiska teorier för att i alltför hög grad anknyta till en teknokratisk och individualistisk uppfattning om undervisning och samhällelig ordning (t.ex. Säljö 2005). De senaste decennierna har klassrumsforskning som bedrivits utifrån ett diskursanalytiskt perspektiv, klargjort att språket inte är det transparenta eller neutrala medium genom vilket förutbestämd kunskap överförs från läraren till elevernas medvetande. Här har olika analytiska ramverk utvecklats med bidrag från sociolingvistik, pragmatik och diskursanalys som på olika sätt möjliggör att empiriskt studera klassrumskommunikationen som läroplanshändelser. I textens avslutande del presenteras några sådana analytiska begrepp och en diskussion förs om hur de skulle kunna bidra till att närma läroplansforskningen och didaktiken/klassrumsforskningen. 

    Referenser

    Alexander, Robin J. (2001). Culture and pedagogy: international comparisons in primary education . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

    Alexander, Robin J. (red.) (2010). Children, their world, their education: the final report and recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review. New York: Routledge.

    Biddle, Bruce J., Good, Thomas L. & Goodson, Ivor F. (red.) (1997).

    International handbook of teachers and teaching.  Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    Bellack; A.A. ; Kliebard, H.M. ;Hyman, R.T. & Smith, F.L. (1966): The Language of the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Presss.

    Doyle, Walter (1992). Curriculum and Pedagogy. In Philip W. Jackson: Handbook of Research on Curriculum, pp. 486-516. New York: Macmillan.

    Gage, Nathanael L. (1963). Paradigms for research on teaching. I: Nathanael Gage (red.) (1963), Handbook of research on teaching: a project of the American Educational Research Association, a department of the National Education Association.  Chicago: Rand McNally.

    Gustafsson, Christina (1977). Classroom Interaction. A study of pedagogical roles in the teaching process. Stockholm: Gotab.

    Hansen, David T. (1995). The Call to Teach. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Jackson, Philip W. (1990). Life in Classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.

    Lundgren, Ulf P. (1981): Model analysis of Pedagogical Processes. Lund: Liber/Gleerup.

    Markee, Numa (2015). The handbook of classroom discourse and interaction. n.p.: Chichester : Wiley Blackwell.

    Phillion, JoAnn, Ming Fang He, and F. Michael Connelly (2008). The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc.

    Saha, Lawrence J. & Dworkin, A. Gary (red.) (2009). International handbook of research on teachers and teaching.  P. 1. New York: Springer.

    Shulman, Lee (red.) (1990). Research in teaching and learning: a project of the American Educational Research Association. Vol. 1, Paradigms and programs . New York: Macmillan.

    Säljö, Roger (2005). Lärande och kulturella redskap. Om lärprocesser och det kollektiva minnet. Stockholm: Nordstedts.

     

     

  • 55244.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Discursive institutionalism: towards a framework for analysing the relation between policy and curriculum2018Ingår i: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 163-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Discourse approaches in education policy analysis have gained prominence in the last decade. However, though the literature on policy discourses is growing, different conceptions of the ‘discursive’ dimension and its potential for empirical analysis related to the field of curriculum policy have not yet been fully researched. To address this gap in education policy research, this article explores the framework of discursive institutionalism. Using background and foreground ideas and coordinative and communicative discourses on three analytically distinct levels, this article proposes and discusses a framework for empirically analysing, explaining and understanding education reforms on the transnational and local levels. The introduced conceptual framework represents an integration of discursive institutionalism (DI) and curriculum theory (CT) to provide a more multifaceted set of concepts to explore the lending and borrowing of transnational education policies and their application at both national and local levels. These concepts have been applied as analytical tools in a research study on the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden, and they may serve as an example of how different ideas, discourses and levels can be distinguished in research studies to maintain the complexity of education reforms.

  • 55245.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    En teoribaserad utvärdering av läroplanen Lgr 112015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna teoribaserade utvärdering presenterar en undersökning av den senaste läroplansreformen för grundskolan i Sverige, Läroplan för grundskolan, för­skoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011 (Lgr 11).  Syftet med utvärderingen är att bidra med ny kunskap om läroplansreformer genom att samtidigt beakta in­flytandet från transnationella utbildningspolitiska policyrörelser, betydelsen av tidigare svenska läroplansreformer samt den påverkan som reformen får för lärare vad gäller deras sätt att organisera undervisningen och att bedöma ele­vers kunskapsutveckling. Utvärderingen visar på en grundläggande förskjut­ning i läroplanens konstruktion som kan hänföras till ett transnationellt in­flytande i termer av standardsbaserade läroplaner som utmärks av en tydlig sammanlänkning mellan mål, innehåll och resultat. Enligt informanterna i undersökningen påverkar läroplanen hur lärare uppfattar sitt professionella uppdrag samt hur de väljer ut innehåll och ställer krav på kunskapsnivåer. Sam­mantaget visar utvärderingen att läroplanen påverkar såväl lärares val av under­visningsformer som deras arbete med bedömning och betygssättning.

  • 55246.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Exploring Mixed Methods Designs in Theory-Based Evaluations of Educational Reforms2016Ingår i: Presented at: AERA 2016 Annual Meeting, Washington, April 8-12, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in mixed-methods research have paved the way for new methodological designs for educational evaluation. Over the last few years, the long-established paradigms of product- and control-oriented evaluation (deeply embedded in education policy-making) and formative evaluation (as an implicit premise for local quality assessment) have been questioned as foundations for evaluating educational reforms. In this paper, a meta-study of a theory-based evaluation, as a third alternative, is conducted. Based on a case study of the recent Swedish national curriculum reform (Lgr 11), the strengths and shortcomings of mixed-methods evaluation designs are examined against the pragmatist criteria of transactional realism and the seven levels of mixed-methods designs proposed by Biesta (2010).

  • 55247.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Kommuner som aktörer i utbildningsreformer: implementeringen av läroplansreformen Lgr 112017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommuner viktiga aktörer i skolreformer

    Kommuner är viktiga aktörer i genomförandet av skolreformer, ett faktum som ofta glöms bort i forskning om implementering av utbilningsreformer. I en ny IFAU-rapport konstateras att kommunerna generellt sett har varit mycket lyhörda för signaler från nationell nivå när det gällt att införa den senaste läroplanen för grundskolan, Lgr 11.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att Skolverket har varit mycket aktiva i implementeringsfasen av läroplansreformen Lgr 11 och tydligt kommunicerat ut till kommuner och skolor hur de ska förstå reformens olika delar. På så sätt har kommunerna huvudsakligen fått rollen som genomförare av reformen. Det innebär att kommunens kommunikation om reformen främst har varit samordnande, med inriktning på att genomföra reformen på ”rätt sätt”.  Det gäller särskilt för reformområden som att skapa enhetlighet i arbetet med att bedöma elevers kunskaper och sätta betyg, att fokusera på ämneskunskaper och att genomföra ett systematiskt kvalitetsarbete. Även frågor som lärares behörighet och skolans digitalisering har lyfts fram av kommunerna som viktiga delar av reformen.  En svagare koppling mellan nationell och kommunal nivå kan i stället märkas när det gäller reformens pedagogiska innehåll och kommunernas resursfördelning till de egna skolorna. Fem år efter att Lgr 11 har börjat gälla uppger cirka en tredjedel av informanterna att deras kommun arbetar fullt ut i enlighet med Lgr 11.

    Bakgrund och metod

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka kommunernas roll som aktörer i utbildningsreformer. Reformen som studerats är läroplansreformen för grundskolan, Lgr 11. Studien består av en enkätundersökning för samtliga kommuner samt en uppföljande intervjuundersökning med 36 deltagare från 19 kommuner. Både enkäten och intervjuerna vänder sig till följande tre kategorier: ordföranden för kommunens skolnämnd, förvaltningschefer för skolan samt pedagogiska utvecklingsledare.

  • 55248.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Local authorities – independent policy players in education reforms?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    In the last decade, there has been considerable focus on transnational policy discourse on how major national curriculum reforms can change the conditions of learning and knowledge in schools. As Yates (2013) notes, curriculum documents at the policy level do not determine pedagogy, but they set up directions and constraints that are interpreted in different ways by the local authorities and schools. In Sweden, the new curriculum for the compulsory school 2011 (Lgr 11) has moved away from an earlier version of curriculum emphasising the professional freedom and pedagogical competence of teachers towards a more prescriptive curriculum, where teachers are made accountable for the achieved knowledge results (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). From a curriculum theory perspective (Lundgren 1989), this ‘upper local level’ of education is often overlooked.

    Aim

    The aim of this evaluation study is to explore if, and if so, how local authorities as mandators of the provision of schooling, contribute to form discourses on the role of objectives in teaching and assessment. The research questions is: What versions of the curriculum interpretation, teachers’ professional agency and assessment practices, related to the Lgr 11 curriculum, are expressed by various municipal representatives?

     

    Theoretical framework

    Theory-oriented evaluation is characterised by an explicit theory basis for the understanding of the reform that takes account of the normative values embedded in the reform, its socio-political and historical context, the processes and results of the reform and critical analyses of the social forces served by the reform (Schwandt 2003). Theory-based evaluation has provided an important basis for curriculum evaluation, both in Scandinavia and internationally (Haug & Schwandt 2003; Franke-Wikberg 1992). The idea is that each evaluation should be based on a theoretically informed assumption about the phenomenon to be evaluated with a view to explaining the findings of the evaluation rather than merely reporting results. The theory-based evaluation has been developed by Wahlström and Sundberg (2015) by integrating a transnational aspect of curriculum discourse formation to the intended curriculum level, establishing the theoretical concept of recontextualisation (Bernstein 2000) to understand the flow of curriculum ideas between different arenas, and, finally, introducing the theory of discursive institutionalism (Schmidt 2012) in order to conceptualise the agency and processes of institutional enactment.

     

    Methodologically, the design follows an explanatory three-step sequential procedure (Teddlie & Tashakkori (2009)  i) formulation of four hypotheses on the curriculum reform Lgr 11 ii) a survey including all the 290 municipalities in Sweden and c) qualitative interviews with 36 local municipal representatives in 25 municipalities.

    Expected conclusions

    The results will be analysed in terms of the degree of congruence, magnitude and intensity of change, impact and perceived volunteerism. The results will highlight regulative aspects of the curriculum reform (’rule setting’, ’monitoring’, ’sanctioning’) as well as perceived normative pressures on expectations on how the schools should work according to the new curriculum. Conclusions of the results will be drawn in terms of different versions of curriculum enactment in the interface between local policy actors the professional actors in school.

     

  • 55249.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Local authorities: Independent policy players in education reforms?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 55250.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The last frontier of standards-based curriculum reforms: A study of Swedish teachers in transnational performance pressure - a case study2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents and describes an evaluation project on the most recent Swedish curriculum reform, Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre, Lgr 11. The purpose of the evaluation project is to generate new knowledge about the influence of international educational reform movements, national curriculum reforms and the implications for local teacher assessment practices. In this study we: i) build on the framework of classical, explanatory curriculum theory by relating to the societal, the programmatic and the classroom curriculum level, ii) add a transnational perspective to the societal/ideological arena, iii) link educational policies in the various arenas and levels by using the concept of recontextualization, iv) approach the question of what counts as knowledge in the struggle between basic curriculum ideals, and v) introduce discursive institutionalism to curriculum theory as a way of including agency and change in educational institutions. The evaluation uses a mixed-method design made up of a discourse analysis of key curriculum documents, a quantitative teacher survey (n= 1887) and a teacher interview study.

    The results show that the Lgr 11 curriculum reform involves fundamental changes in curriculum philosophies, which can partly be explained by a dominant transnational curriculum policy discourse. Further, Lgr 11 is in line with the standards-based reform model, which presumes a unidirectional and linear application of reform intentions. The results indicate an increased instrumentality in the education due to prescribed knowledge requirements and increased performance pressure. Finally, the evaluation shows that there are substantiated reasons to assume that the curriculum reform of 2011 will emphasize summative evaluation in Swedish schools, despite a strong discourse advocating formative assessment.

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