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  • 56001.
    Zhadan, Anastasiia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Artificial Intelligence Adaptation in Video Games2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important features of a (computer) game that makes it memorable is an ability to bring a sense of engagement. This can be achieved in numerous ways, but the most major part is a challenge, often provided by in-game enemies and their ability to adapt towards the human player. However, adaptability is not very common in games. Throughout this thesis work, aspects of the game control systems that can be improved in order to be adaptable were studied. Based on the results gained from the study of the literature related to artificial intelligence in games, a classification of games was developed for grouping the games by the complexity of the control systems and their ability to adapt different aspects of enemies behavior including individual and group behavior. It appeared that only 33% of the games can not be considered adaptable. This classification was then used to analyze the popularity of games regarding their challenge complexity. Analysis revealed that simple, familiar behavior is more welcomed by players. However, highly adaptable games have got competitively high scores and excellent reviews from game critics and reviewers, proving that adaptability in games deserves further research.

  • 56002. Zhang, Chaosheng
    et al.
    Selinus, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Hursthouse, Andrew S.
    Xia, Xinghui
    Ding, Shiming
    Preface: selected papers from SESEH 2012 Sino-European Symposium on Environment and Health2013Ingår i: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 551-552Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 56003.
    Zhang, Chenyanqiu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för design (DE).
    Better Passing Waste: First Step to Cultivate Pro-environmental Behaviour for Chinese Individuals2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the economy developing in China, there is an intense struggle between industrial development and environmental sustainability where improving the individuals’ performance upon waste disposal is one of the crucial aspirations. The main concern for the Chinese government to address the phenomenon is to cultivate the individuals’ habits to classify domestic waste. Although this is a complicated field involved in long-term behaviour change, the author believes that small attempts can gradually affect the people and finally make a big difference. For a stronger impact in society, the Chinese Post-90sgenerationwas selected to be the pilots for this project outcome. To seek for the potential opportunities, the research was conducted to understanding how they view the phenomenon and what are their perceptions and expectations. Social-demographic factors, external factors, and internal factors of recycling and pro-environmental behaviour were all evaluated by the respondents for determining the most influencing factors for waste classification. Moreover, their response towards purchasing factors and preferred ideas helped target the top three among the six concept proposals generated from mind mapping. The opinions and feedback from the individuals and two recycling companies in China and Sweden instructed the concept selection. The final concept was outlined in a plan which is named “Restart” for further implementation. The “Restart” means to restart the waste’s life and restart people’s lifestyles, which will bring life into a new journey. The “Restart” Plan visualized how the social actors are involved and supervised by each other for the effort put into practice. This enables the surrounding actors to facilitate the individuals’journey for dispose of the waste, which in return connects the individuals more close to other actors for further development. Since the concept developed is a universal service, it can be adapted for all the generations.

  • 56004.
    Zhang, Fang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Planerade fysiska aktiviteter i förskolan: En studie om planerade fysiska aktiviteter samt hur förskollärare arbetar med det2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att beskriva hur planerade fysiska aktivitet kan se ut i förskolan för att öka mängd på barnens rörelse. Detta för att skapa en förståelse för hur förskollärare kan engagera sig i fysiska aktiviteter som är avgörande för barnens livslånga hälsa och välbefinnande. Enligt forskning kan ett beteende fyllt av fysisk aktivitet och som är etablerad i tidig barndom uppmuntra till fysisk aktivitet också senare i livet.

    Undersökningen genomfördes med kvalitativ datainsamling med hjälp av tre semi-strukturerade intervjuer av tre förskollärare, som är inriktade på motorik.

    Resultatet visar på lämpligheten att hänga upp planeringen på en modell. Viktiga punkter i modellen är att utgå ifrån övergripande mål och att vara flexibel utifrån didaktiska förutsättningar. Vid utförande är korta, intensiva, enkla och roliga pass lämpligt sätt att genomföra planerade fysiska aktiviteter på. Rörelse till musik är också ett inbjudande sätt. Resultatet visar att förskollärarens roll är att vara en förebild, vara deltagande och vara engagerad. Engagemanget kan man få genom att välja aktiviteter utifrån individuella intressen, egna och barnens. Det är också viktigt med ihärdighet genom att upprepa aktiviteten.

  • 56005.
    Zhang, Hao
    et al.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yoshizawa, Susumu
    Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Sun, Ying
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.
    Huang, Yongjie
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.
    Chu, Xiao
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.
    Gonzalez, Jose M.
    Univ La Laguna, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Luo, Haiwei
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.
    Repeated evolutionary transitions of flavobacteria from marine to non-marine habitats2019Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 648-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxonomy of marine and non-marine organisms rarely overlap, but the mechanisms underlying this distinction are often unknown. Here, we predicted three major ocean-to-land transitions in the evolutionary history of Flavobacteriaceae, a family known for polysaccharide and peptide degradation. These unidirectional transitions were associated with repeated losses of marine signature genes and repeated gains of non-marine adaptive genes. This included various Na+-dependent transporters, osmolyte transporters and glycoside hydrolases (GH) for sulfated polysaccharide utilization in marine descendants, and in non-marine descendants genes for utilizing the land plant material pectin and genes facilitating terrestrial host interactions. The K+ scavenging ATPase was repeatedly gained whereas the corresponding low-affinity transporter repeatedly lost upon transitions, reflecting K+ ions are less available to non-marine bacteria. Strikingly, the central metabolism Na+-translocating NADH: quinone dehydrogenase gene was repeatedly gained in marine descendants, whereas the H+-translocating counterpart was repeatedly gained in non-marine lineages. Furthermore, GH genes were depleted in isolates colonizing animal hosts but abundant in bacteria inhabiting other non-marine niches; thus relative abundances of GH versus peptidase genes among Flavobacteriaceae lineages were inconsistent with the marine versus non-marine dichotomy. We suggest that phylogenomic analyses can cast novel light on mechanisms explaining the distribution and ecology of key microbiome components.

  • 56006.
    Zhang, Huiyi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Economic Development and Women Empowerment in China: Is There a Regional Pattern?2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid economic development in China has successfully drawn a worldwide attention and benefit its population, with a average 8 percentage GDP growth rate every year and 500 million people out of poverty. While a large number of people are seeking for the reason why economic achievement in China has been so dramatic and unprecedented, less people show solicitude for Chinese women`s condition and empowerment. 

     

    Women as a worldwide vulnerable group, their well-being need to be taken into consideration during the process of developing economy. In China, female population accounts for 48.47 percentage (633.2 million) of entire population. Under the big picture of economic prosperity, the author found that Chinese people`s living condition has advanced largely, the popularization of basic education and medical service has benefit the vast majority people, meanwhile, people can be more involved in political process to express their opinions. However, women are benefited disproportionately but still less empowered than men are. Moreover, since China is a geographically large country, the economic development has shown some regional characteristic, that means, in southeastern China, due to the convenient traffic condition, such as harbors, economic development process is faster than in northwestern China, where traffic and natural conditions are both weak. Would that cause a unequal empowered situation between women from different economic developed regions?

     

    Women has been paid less attention through the history of China, let alone different conditions of women in different regions. In this thesis, the author will describe women`s different empowered situation in rural and urban regions of China, via a capability approach viewpoint, and discussion of whether there is a regional pattern will be based on (Dis) Empowerment model.

  • 56007.
    Zhang, Jiaxin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Factors affecting Chinese consumers buying luxury goods overseas2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the improved people’s living standard, luxury buying has increasingly spread in popularity, especially in developing countries. Conspicuous consumption has resulted in this luxury buying among consumers. This mentality leads to consumers to achieve their own goal through luxury goods, such as reflecting their status, showing the uniqueness and so on. In order to buy their favorite luxury goods, consumers try different channels and overseas buying is the main channel for them. Under this situation, China as the second-biggest luxury market, the demand for overseas luxury among Chinese consumer has credit raised. It is therefore important for conducting consumer behavior research to analyze this phenomenon and identify corresponding factors that lead consumers buying luxury abroad. The purpose of the research is to understand the phenomenon of the consumers buying luxury goods overseas and to identify the corresponding factor for the luxury shop or the company which could conduct managerial implication to encourage consumers buying domestically. Since the improved people’s living standard, luxury buying has increasingly spread in popularity, especially in developing countries. Conspicuous consumption has resulted in this luxury buying among consumers. This mentality leads to consumers to achieve their own goal through luxury goods, such as reflecting their status, showing the uniqueness and so on. In order to buy their favorite luxury goods, consumers try different channels and overseas buying is the main channel for them. Under this situation, China as the second-biggest luxury market, the demand for overseas luxury among Chinese consumer has credit raised. It is therefore important for conducting consumer behavior research to analyze this phenomenon and identify corresponding factors that lead consumers buying luxury abroad. The purpose of the research is to understand the phenomenon of the consumers buying luxury goods overseas and to identify the corresponding factor for the luxury shop or the company which could conduct managerial implication to encourage consumers buying domestically.

  • 56008.
    Zhang, Jiayu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Benefits, Strategies and Barriers of E-procurement Adoption for Swedish Food Wholesalers: Case studies with three Swedish food wholesale companies2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Procurement as a main part in supply chain management is supported through information technology traditionally. With the usage of Internet and e-commerce technologies, procurement is experiencing a revolution from a conventional paper-based process to e-procurement. E-procurement is increasingly becoming recognized due to its abilities to improve the management of business operation, which in supply chain allows organizations to take use of Internet source to procure indirect and direct materials, and handle value-added service such as quality validation. However, although e-procurement solutions are adopted by many industries currently, no previous study is about e-procurement adoption in Swedish food companies.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study the adoption of e-procurement from the perspective of Swedish food wholesalers. Through exploring the e-procurement adoptions with the aspects of benefits, strategies and barriers in three food wholesale companies, similarities and differences in these three aspects are analyzed to find the current situations in e-procurement adoption settings in Swedish food wholesale companies.

    Method: This thesis was conducted by using qualitative semi-structured interviews, and a deductive approach. Both primary and secondary data are collected. Three sampling examples are involved in for a multiple and holistic case study.

    Conclusion: Through the study of this thesis, the most important benefits with e-procurement adoption that Swedish food wholesalers can perceive include planning control, time savings and cost savings. With e-procurement solutions, accurate data information can better forecast demands of customers. However, cost savings could only be achieved obviously after adopting e-procurement more than three years. Almost all food wholesale companies use both direct and indirect purchases with e-procurement adoption. Also, independent portal or online trading communities are not the mainstream for food wholesalers. Swedish food wholesalers play the role in both buy-side and sell-side, and webshops are owned by all of them. As for e-procurement approach, wait and see approach with e-procurement adoption are more attractive for Swedish food wholesalers from a strategic perspective. Aggressive approach could be used for the food wholesale companies that are in development stage. After researching, the most serious barriers for Swedish food wholesalers could be low assurances with problems such as suppliers standards, services or delivery capabilities, two or more systems with overlapped functions, and unstable e-procurement systems.

  • 56009.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Yu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhou, Jing
    China Construct Engn Design Grp Corp Ltd, Peoples Republic of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republic of China.
    Tourism water footprint: an empirical analysis of Mount Huangshan2017Ingår i: Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, ISSN 1094-1665, E-ISSN 1741-6507, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 1083-1098Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an important factor for the sustainable development of tourism. We constructed a comprehensive model of the tourism water footprint (TWF), including tourism sewage and water for management, and used the world heritage Mount Huangshan as an example. The results showed that the total TWF, which included green, blue and grey water of Mount Huangshan in 2012, was about 10.19 million m(3)/year, approximately per tourist 3.39m(3)/day or 3387L/day. Tourism sewage and food were the main factors of water consumption. The spatial transfer of TWF led the spillover of tourism environmental impact, not only affecting Mount Huangshan but the Huangshan City and even nationwide. Tourist flow and temperature had a highly significant positive correlation with the TWF. Quantifying the TWF can reflect the pressure of tourists on water resources, and provide an effective decision-making basis for rational use of water resources.

  • 56010.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Preechawipat, Chanat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Supplier Information Integration for Mitigating Supply Risk in Chinese and Thai Manufacturing Industries2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Supply risk becomes a crucial risk that manufacturing companies are facing while supplier information integration is one of the most important parts of supply chain management and supplier integration. The research based on the relationship between them is rarely found.

    Purpose: To find, describe, and compare the significant relationship of supplier information integration and supply risk and identify whether supplier information integration can help to mitigate supply risk in Chinese and Thai manufacturing industries.

    Methods: In order to answer the research questions, the search of the relevant literatures were carried out. The theoretical frame was made of basic concepts, approaches of supplier information integration, and sources of supply risk. The questionnaire was designed based on the theoretical framework and sent out among Chinese and Thai listed manufacturing companies. The correlation analysis was carried out as the main approach to check the significant relationships while the   descriptive statistics were used to described, compared, and analyzed in order to indentify the level of SII and perception of supply risk.

    Conclusion: The level of supplier information integration and the perception of supply risk showed differences in Chinese and Thai manufacturers. Chinese manufacturing industry was at medium level of IT and share tactical and strategic information with suppliers with a concern on suppliers’ suppliers while the Thai manufacturing industry was at low level of IT and shared only tactical information with suppliers with very less concern on suppliers’ suppliers. Chinese manufacturers showed an obvious lower perception of getting affected by terrorist incidents and natural disasters while Thai manufacturers showed the same perception of all sources of supply risk. The results indicated that most of relationships between the sub items of supplier information integration and supply risk were not significant with some special cases that showed small and medium relationships. The contribution and suggestion were concluded at the end. 

  • 56011.
    Zhang, Liang
    et al.
    Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Khan, Gulab
    Aga Khan Education Service, Pakistan.
    Tahirsylaj, Armend
    Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Student Performance, School Differentiation, and World Cultures: Evidence from PISA 20092015Ingår i: International Journal of Educational Development, ISSN 0738-0593, E-ISSN 1873-4871, Vol. 42, nr May, s. 43-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PISA 2009 data were used to identify patterns of differences and similarities among PISA participating countries/economies. The concept of cultural clusters was used to show patterns of differences and similarities within and across country clusters in two indicators – average student performance and school differentiations (measured by proportion of variance in student test scores explained by schools). Results revealed striking similarities among countries within many cultural clusters, while significant dispersion was found in others, especially among Eastern Europe countries. Regression analyses indicated that cultural clusters explain the majority of variance in average student performance and school differentiations across countries, suggesting that culture is an important factor when comparing and contrasting different school systems.

  • 56012. Zhang, Min
    et al.
    Ge, Li
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing of the Verbal and Social Interaction Questionnaire: A cross-sectional study among nursing students in China2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, nr 11-12, s. 2181-2196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To develop and validate the Chinese version of Verbal and Social Interaction Questionnaire for Nursing Students. Background: The development of caring interaction skills is particularly important for achieving better nursing student–patient interactions. Nursing students in China, as in most countries, have often failed to establish a caring interaction with their patients. There is a lack of instruments to explore the difficulties and problems in nursing student–patient interactions in China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out. Methods: Data for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing purposes were collected between May 10, 2017 and November 11, 2017. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed; pilot testing, content validity and reliability were assessed for the translated questionnaire. EQUATOR guidelines for observational studies (strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) were applied. Results: 716 nursing students from four universities in China completed the questionnaire. A pilot testing (n = 32) was conducted at a university hospital. The internal consistency reliability and the intra-class correlation coefficients were satisfactory. The overall content validity index was 0.95. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution, explaining 61.26% of the variance, and the items had factor loadings ranging from 0.46–0.82. The final model's fit indexes were relatively acceptable. Overall, this instrument demonstrated sound psychometric properties. Conclusion: The Chinese version of Verbal and Social Interaction Questionnaire for Nursing Students has a high level of reliability and acceptable content validity. However, some values in the construct validity assessment were lower than was hypothesised, suggesting a need for further model modification. Relevance to clinical practice: This easy-to-use instrument may help nursing educators, clinicians and managers in the assessment and development of students’ interactional skills during their training or student–nurse transition period. Using the questionnaire could both provide the students with a greater understanding of caring interactions and help the nursing educators gain a better comprehension of the students’ verbal, social and interactional skills. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 56013.
    Zhang, Shengrui
    et al.
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Xu, Qinghai
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Cao, Xianyong
    Hebei Normal University, China ; Research Unit Potsdam, Germany ; University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Li, Jianyong
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Liyan
    Shijiazhuang University of Economics, China.
    Li, Yuecong
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Tian, Fang
    Research Unit Potsdam, Germany ; University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Zhou, Liping
    Peking University, China.
    Lin, Fengyou
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Yang, Xiaolan
    Hebei Institute of Geography Science, China.
    Characteristic pollen source area and vertical pollen dispersal and deposition in a mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved woodland in the Changbai mountains, northeast China.2016Ingår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 29-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen influx (number of pollen grains cm−2 year−1) can objectively reflect the dispersal and deposition features of pollen within a certain time and space, and is often used as a basis for the quantitative reconstruction of palaeovegetation; however, little is known about the features and mechanisms of vertical dispersal of pollen. Here we present the results from a 5 year (2006–2010) monitoring program using pollen traps placed at different heights from ground level up to 60 m and surface soil samples in a mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved woodland in the Changbai mountains, northeastern China. The pollen percentages and pollen influx from the traps have very similar characteristics to the highest values for Betula,FraxinusQuercus and Pinus, among the tree taxa and Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Asteraceae among the herb taxa. Pollen influx values vary significantly with height and show major differences between three distinct layers, above-canopy (≥32 m), within the trunk layer (8 ≤ 32 m) and on the ground (0 m). These differences in pollen influx are explained by differences in (i) the air flows in each of these layers and (ii) the fall speed of pollen of the various taxa. We found that the pollen recorded on the ground surface is a good representation of the major part of the pollen transported in the trunk space of the woodland. Comparison of the pollen influx values with the theoretical, calculated “characteristic pollen source area” (CPSA) of 12 selected taxa indicates that the pollen deposited on the ground surface of the woodland is a fair representation with 85–90 % of the total pollen deposited at a wind speed of 2.4 m s−1 coming from within ca. 1–5 km for Pinus and Quercus, ca. 5–10 km for UlmusTilia, Oleaceae and Betula, ca. 20–40 km for Fraxinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Populus andSalix, and ca. 30–60 km for Artemisia; it is also a good representation with 90–98 % of the total pollen deposited coming from within 60 km at a wind speed of 2.4 m s−1, or 100 km at a wind speed: 6 m s−1, for the 12 selected taxa used in the CPSA calculation. Furthermore, comparison with the vegetation map of the area around the sampling site shows that the pollen deposited on the ground represents all plant communities which grow in the study area within 70 km radius of the sampling site. In this study, the pollen percentages obtained from the soil surface samples are significantly biased towards pollen taxa with good preservation due to thick and robust pollen walls. Therefore, if mosses are available instead, soil samples should be avoided for pollen studies, in particular for the study of pollen-vegetation relationships, the estimation of pollen productivities and quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation. The results also indicate that the existing model of pollen dispersal and deposition, Prentice’s model, provides a fair description of the actual pollen dispersal and deposition in this kind of woodland, which suggests that the application of the landscape reconstruction algorithm would be relevant for reconstruction of this type of woodland in the past.

  • 56014.
    Zhang, Sicai
    et al.
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Masuyer, Geoffrey
    Stockholm University.
    Zhang, Jie
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Shen, Yi
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Stockholm University.
    Henriksson, Linda
    Stockholm University.
    Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Martinez-Carranza, Markel
    Stockholm University.
    Dong, Min
    Harvard Med Sch, USA.
    Stenmark, Pål
    Stockholm University.
    Identification and characterization of a novel botulinum neurotoxin2017Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, artikel-id 14130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Botulinum neurotoxins are known to have seven serotypes (BoNT/A-G). Here we report a new BoNT serotype, tentatively named BoNT/X, which has the lowest sequence identity with other BoNTs and is not recognized by antisera against known BoNTs. Similar to BoNT/B/D/F/G, BoNT/X cleaves vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMP) 1, 2 and 3, but at a novel site (Arg66-Ala67 in VAMP2). Remarkably, BoNT/X is the only toxin that also cleaves non-canonical substrates VAMP4, VAMP5 and Ykt6. To validate its activity, a small amount of full-length BoNT/X was assembled by linking two non-toxic fragments using a transpeptidase (sortase). Assembled BoNT/X cleaves VAMP2 and VAMP4 in cultured neurons and causes flaccid paralysis in mice. Thus, BoNT/X is a novel BoNT with a unique substrate profile. Its discovery posts a challenge to develop effective countermeasures, provides a novel tool for studying intracellular membrane trafficking, and presents a new potential therapeutic toxin for modulating secretions in cells.

  • 56015.
    Zhang, Xiang
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Efficiency in Emergency medical service system: An analysis on information flow2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In an information system which includes plenty of information services, we are always seeking a solution to enhance efficiency and reusability. Emergency medical service system is a classic information system using application integration in which the requirement of information flow transmissions is extremely necessary. We should always ensure this system is running in best condition with highest efficiency and reusability since the efficiency in the system directly affects human life.

    The aim of this thesis is to analysis emergency medical system in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Another aim of this thesis is to suggest a method to judge the information flow through the analysis for the system efficiency and the correlations between information flow traffic and system applications.

    The result is that system is a main platform integrated five information services. Each of them provides different unattached functions while they are all based on unified information resources. The system efficiency can be judged by a method called Performance Evaluation, the correlation can be judged by multi-factorial analysis of variance method.

  • 56016.
    Zhang, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Song, Zhaoliang
    Tianjin University, China.
    Hao, Qian
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Liu, Hongyan
    Peking University, China.
    Chen, Chunmei
    Tianjin University, China.
    Müller, Karin
    Ruakura Research Centre, New Zealand.
    Wang, Hailong
    Foshan University, China;Zhejiang A & F University, China.
    Storage of soil phytoliths and phytolith-occluded carbon along aprecipitation gradient in grasslands of northern China2020Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 364, s. 1-9, artikel-id 114200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic factors including mean annual precipitation (MAP) significantly influence the carbon (C) cycle interrestrial ecosystems and Earth overall. Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is an important C sequestrationmechanism and as such plays a vital role in global long-term C sequestration. Understanding the spatialvariability in the storage of soil phytoliths and PhytOC and its relationship with climate is critical for evaluatingthe impact of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystem functions. However, little is known about theresponses of soil phytoliths and PhytOC to MAP in grassland ecosystems. This study sampled soil from 24natural, semi-arid steppe sites along a 2,500 km transect with a precipitation gradient of 243–481 mm yr−1 innorthern China. We investigated the influence of precipitation on the spatial distributions of soil phytoliths andPhytOC storage. Storage of soil phytoliths in bulk soil (0–100 cm depth) ranged from 21.3 ± 0.4 to88.4 ± 20.3 t ha−1 along the precipitation gradient. Amounts of soil phytoliths and PhytOC storage weresignificantly and positively correlated with MAP. Multiple regression analysis revealed that phytolith storage inbulk soil was best predicted by MAP (R = 0.5) and soil organic carbon (SOC, R = 0.4), with these two variablesaccounting for about 58% of the total variation observed. Considering the forecasted increase in MAP in theInner Mongolian steppe due to climate change, and the strong influence of MAP on the annual net primaryproductivity (ANPP) and related soil PhytOC input from litter decomposition in this region, we expect thatecosystem primary productivity will increase from deserts to meadow steppe and thereby promote soil PhytOCstorage. These findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of soil phytoliths, andpredicting the impacts of global climate change on ecosystem functions and management practices in the EastAsian steppe ecosystems.

  • 56017.
    Zhang, Xiaofang
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Fares, Kajin
    Customers’ attitude towards certified food service: The influence of green attributes, green skepticism and the comparison of LOHAS2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Consumers have become more eco-friendly conscious than before, and therefore the demand for organic and environmentally-friendly products has increased during the past decade. Companies are committing to various green practices to improve company's image. Meanwhile, consumers usually have a positive attitude towards the companies who are practicing green concepts into their business operation.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify which factors are influential towards customers’ attitude towards the certified food service and the moderating role of green skepticism influences the relationship between green attributes and consumers’ attitude. In this study, it is also considered to research if LOHAS and non-LOHAS consumers’ attitudes towards certified food service differently influence their willingness to dine and willingness to pay the premium.

    Method: The data was collected with a structured and web-based survey. The valid study sample was 275. In order to answer the research questions and reach research purpose. The research model with 11 hypotheses was tested through hierarchy regression, linear regression, moderation regression and ANOVA analysis. The confirmatory analysis has been applied for testing construct validity. Besides, the descriptive statistics and construct variables correlation were demonstrated.

    Findings: In total, four hypotheses were rejected, and seven were supported. The result of data from the study showed that consumers’ attitudes towards certified food service were influenced by organic menu attribute, CSR attribute but not manifested on eco-friendly attributes. The study proved the positive relationship between consumers’ attitude and their willingness to dine and willingness to pay premium at certified food service. The study revealed that the LOHAS customer segment differs from the non-LOHAS consumer segment in the following ways: the attitude of LOHAS towards certified food service is more positive than the non-LOHAS and their willingness to dine and willingness to pay the premium is also much greater than the non-LOHAS. Whereas, there existed no significant relationship shifts between customer attitude and the green attributes regarding the certified food service when green skepticism was the moderator.  

    Implications: This paper assists researchers and practitioners by shedding light on the positive relationship between attitude and behavior intentions, the differences between LOHAS and non-LOHAS in regard to their more positive attitude and higher willingness to dine and willingness to pay premium in certified food service setting.

    Keywords: certified food service, LOHAS, consumers’ attitude, green skepticism, administrative CSR, green practices, organic menu

  • 56018.
    Zhang, Xin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Patent development, R&D intensity and human capital: a study based on a panel data model2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, my purpose is to test whether the government education policy and R&D expenditure policy can lead to development of patents or not. I use an idea-based growth model as the framework while treating patents as outputs to analyze patent development. I use the data of R&D intensity, patent and human capital of 30 countries in OECD from 1997 to 2006 based on panel data model to analyze their relationships. Research shows that R&D intensity and human capital produce some effects on patent development. Finally, I give some advice for government policy about improving patents.

  • 56019.
    Zhang, Yan
    et al.
    Jiangnan Univ, China.
    Barboiu, Mihail
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Chen, Jinghua
    Jiangnan Univ, China.
    Surface-Directed Selection of Dynamic Constitutional Frameworks as an Optimized Microenvironment for Controlled Enzyme Activation2020Ingår i: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 1423-1427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks composed of cross-linked networks of imine-exchanging components have been generated and applied to the establishment of optimal microenvironments for carbonic anhydrase (CA) in aqueous solution., In response to the dynamic recomposition process, the enzyme showed distinct differential preferences for interchanging and incorporation of the amine functionalities, which were furthermore in good correlation with their inverse activation effects of CA. The results demonstrated surface-directed selection of the enzyme environment, where amines with lower enzyme-directed incorporation ratio possess higher activation effects, leading to a strategy of self-optimization of the enzyme microenvironment for better catalytic performances.

  • 56020.
    Zhang, Yan
    et al.
    Jiangnan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Yang
    Hunan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Dynamic covalent kinetic resolution2019Ingår i: Catalysis reviews. Science and engineering, ISSN 0161-4940, E-ISSN 1520-5703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Implemented with the highly efficient concept of Dynamic Kinetic Resolution (DKR), dynamic covalent chemistry can be a useful strategy for the synthesis of enantioenriched compounds. This gives rise to dynamic covalent kinetic resolution (DCKR), a subset of DKR that over the last decades has emerged as increasingly fruitful, with many applications in asymmetric synthesis and catalysis. All DKR protocols are composed of two important parts: substrate racemization and asymmetric transformation, which can lead to yields of >50% with good enantiomeric excesses (ee) of the products. In DCKR systems, by utilizing reversible covalent reactions as the racemization strategy, the substrate enantiomers can be easily interconverted without the presence of any racemase or transition metal catalyst. Enzymes or other chiral catalysts can then be adopted for the resolution step, leading to products with high enantiopurities. This tutorial review focuses on the development of DCKR systems, based on different reversible reactions, and their applications in asymmetric synthesis.

  • 56021.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Xie, Sheng
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Enzyme- and ruthenium-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution involving cascade alkoxycarbonylations for asymmetric synthesis of 5-Substituted N-Aryloxazolidinones2019Ingår i: Molecular Catalysis, ISSN 2468-8274, Vol. 470, s. 138-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetric synthesis of N-aryloxazolidinones via dynamic kinetic resolution was developed. A ruthenium-based catalyst was used in the racemization of β-anilino alcohols, while Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) was applied for two selective alkoxycarbonylations operating in cascade. Various N-aryloxazolidinone derivatives were obtained in high yields and good enantiopurities. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • 56022.
    Zhang, Yaru
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Tian, Li
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Risk management in using VMI system: Comparative and explorative study of Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Authors: Zhang Yaru & Tian Li

    Tutor: Petra Andersson

    Title: Risk management in using VMI system ----- Researching between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies

    Background & problem discussion: Due to potential of supply chain management is enormous to improve productivity, customer service and cost reduction, Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is one of the supply chain management strategies, by improving the effectively of supply chain to get the competitive advantage for companies. In the Swedish and Chinese household appliance companies have a common agreement about using VMI system in order to reduce operating costs. Some articles believe VMI system has strong potential to be extended to the upstream nodes of the supply chain. However, in using VMI process, there are some risks such as capacity shortages, quality problems, breakdowns, ect. This thesis will be identified the risk of using VMI system in upstream of household appliance company and mitigate their risk problems.

    Research question: What are the differences of risk managing in using VMI system between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies?

    RQ1: Which are the risk factors in Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies when using VMI system?

    RQ2: How do Swedish and Chinese household appliance companies manage the risk in using VMI?

    Purpose: The goal of this paper is to find out the risks of using VMI system and analyze the risk managing approaches that are utilized in Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies. By illustrating theoretical data about VMI system and supply chain risk management and empirical data of three Chinese and one Swedish household appliance companies, author would like to develop an analysis model from four dimensions of VMI system and basically supply chain risk management model to identify risk factors in using VMI system and figure out the difference of risk managing method between Chinese and Swedish household appliance companies when they use VMI system.

    Method: This thesis adopted the positivism perspective and the qualitative research. The survey was used in this thesis and focused on based on empirical data such as interviews to answer an open-ended “How” issues. In addition, the analysis is based on primary data from interview Swedish company as well as secondary data from books, articles and internet such as the Chinese company's website.

    Conclusions: The results of the study show that risk management in using VMI system in three Chinese household appliance companies (Haier Logistics Co., Ltd, Hisense Electric Co. and Midea Air-conditioning) and one Swedish household appliance company (Electrolux Laundry System Sweden AB) as well as based on theoretical and empirical data to create an analysis model, which is the integration between four dimensions of VMI system and the basic supply chain risk management model, to assist the analysis of research questions. Through analysis, authors identify seven risk factors: 1. Uncertain production lead time; 2. Long delivery lead time; 3. Confidence crisis; 4. Forecasting level is not high; 5. Less control the decision making; 6. Low information technology system and cooperation; 7. Lack of safety stock. Authors also illustrate the method of managing risk in using VMI system from four dimensions in Chinese and Swedish household appliance case companies.

  • 56023.
    Zhang, Yu
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE). Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Jin-He
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Tian, Qing
    Tongren Polytech Coll, Peoples Republi of China.
    Liu, Ze-Hua
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Zhang, Hong-Lei
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples Republi of China.
    Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 622, s. 988-996Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 56024.
    ZHANG, YUNYE
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    CHENG, HANKE
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    DITA Education2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 60 poäng / 90 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Now, it is the world that high and new technology industries dominate. With the expansion of different industry chains and the trend of economic globalization, thousands of innovative solutions enter into the life of people. However, with the appearance of these ideas, initiators always face the challenge of presenting them. An intuitive and absorbing presentation plays the most important role of making the ideas accepted. As the saying goes, “No matter how good a movie is, it is boring without voice”. No matter how superior the products are, they will not be understood without perfect technical documents. This thesis presents the latest information typing architecture – DITA (Darwin Information Typing Architecture) which gives you an overview of technical presentations.

    As a newly developing XML-based (Extensible Markup Language) standard, DITA is not as popular as it ought to be. Seldom people even technical writers know about DITA and its characteristics. So far, the lack of practical materials leads to the difficulty for beginners to study DITA.

    The aim of this thesis is mainly to introduce DITA and make a technical tutorial. In order to strengthen the comprehension about DITA, the thesis makes a comparison with DocBook, another popular XML-based standard for technical writing and the most competitive standard of DITA.

    In the thesis, we collect a large number of materials of DITA and DocBook, and refine them for their comparison. For the practical tutorial, we make some simple examples in a DITA project and implement them on Serna Free, an XML editor. As a result, the thesis presents the detailed comparison between DITA and Docbook, and the tutorial includes the basic and vital part of DITA features.

     

    Key words: DITA map, topic, Syntext Serna Free, tutorial

  • 56025.
    Zhang, Zhe
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kabral, Raimo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Börje
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Revisiting the cremer impedance2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2017, nr 1, artikel-id 040009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a classical paper (Acustica 3, 1953) Cremer demonstrated that in a rectangular duct, with locally reacting walls, there exits an impedance (”the Cremer impedance”) that maximizes the propagational damping for the lowest mode. Later (JSV 28, 1973) Tester extended the analysis to include a plug flow and ducts of both circular and rectangular cross-section. One limitation in the work of Tester is that it simplified the analysis of the effect of flow only considering high frequencies or well cut-on modes. This approximation is reasonable for large duct applications, e.g., aero-engines, but not for many other cases of interest. Kabral et al. (Acta Acustica united with Acustica 102, 2016) removed this limitation and investigated the’exact’ Cremer impedance for circular ducts including flow effects. As demonstrated in that paper the exact solution exhibits some special properties at low frequencies, e.g., a negative real part of the wall impedance. In this paper the exact Cremer impedance is further analyzed and discussed. Also, the exact solution for rectangular ducts is presented. © 2017 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 56026.
    Zhao, Bowen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för design (DE).
    TESTED: Service design for HIV testing in Sweden with a focus on immigrants2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a social stigma in many different cultures. In Sweden because of the advanced treatment for HIV (Smittskyddsinstitutet, 2012) and people's attitude towards it (Danziger, 1999), it is less stigmatized when compared to other societies. Since 2003 the annual number of people who immigrate to Sweden is increasing drastically. A significant amount of people come to Sweden from different cultures with different backgrounds. In today’s Swedish society, immigrants make up a portion of the population that cannot be neglected. The Swedish healthcare system is not ready for this demographic change. The social stigma of HIV along with other things, like anxiety and fear of positive test result, create barriers of not taking an HIV test. Looking into deficiencies of current HIV testing services by field research that helps to understand reasons behind the dilemma. Research methods also include literature review, statistics analysis, interview, and workshop.

    The purpose of this project is to create a more inclusive healthcare system for immigrants in Sweden. What the design outcome of this project is a service design proposal for HIV testing providers in Sweden with a focus on immigrants.

  • 56027.
    Zhao, Die
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Graphics Editor2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The human enters into the information age in 21st century; the computer science and technology are developed at full speed, and already infiltrate into various field extensively. Resultantly manual drawing gradually is phased out, for those designers who have no prior experience in the computer operation are concerned, they need to have a kind of two-dimensional graphical tool. Graphics editor system arose to the request for designing planar figures for people who have little knowledge in computer.

    This paper describes the development process of this system what is studied for the foundation, utilize object-oriented method to analyze, design with computer figure, and adopt Visual C ++ 6.0 as the developing platform. All these have been finished after 1 month or so. It designs to be two-dimensional graphical software with diverse function which operates simply, easy to study, mutual interface friendly graphics editor system and has satisfied some figure users at present with the new demand as well.

    The following main functions have been realized in this application: It can draw various figures, such as dot, line, circle, arc, parabola and curve, modify them and comprehensive editing. Figure editor includes translation, mirroring, rotating and some similar operations. Comprehensive drawing includes drawing polygon (sealed and arbitrary polygon), round tangent line, round circle contact, line circle contact, some circle contacts and so forth. Meanwhile obtain the point of intersect between the arbitrary crossing, and draw different figures basically according to the points of intersect. By the way, it is capable to cancel and redraw the editing.

  • 56028.
    Zhao, Die
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Workflow Management System Analysis and Construction Design Framework for Large-scale Enterprise2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of Information technology, workflow management technology has undoubtedly become the basic component of enterprise information system construction, the research and application level regarding workflow management technology directly determine the level of enterprise information system. By virtue of using workflow management system within enterprises, could advance the operating efficiency of business processes and enhance enterprise competition ability.

    This paper describes the origin and status of workflow management, analyses on the base of the workflow reference model of Workflow Management Coalition; discusses the overall requirements of workflow management system, especially for large-scale enterprises, which includes workflow engines, process design tools, administration and monitoring tools, and client tools thesis four essential components; as well as studies on the workflow modeling techniques and adopts the method based on UML activity diagram to achieve modeling. Along with proposes a design and realization method concerning how to construct a workflow management structure, which utilizes J2EE lightweight workflow engine to meet changeful business processes and diverse deployment environments.

  • 56029.
    Zhao, Fan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Deng, Yu
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Qin, Xuan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Relationship and Network in Online B2B Business2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays a new businesses form, online business occurred, which helps companies to improve their working efficiency in managing risks and allocating resources. Relationship and network are essential for understanding online business, which can help firms to reduce costs by outsourcing, and to increase efficiency by sharing information with cooperators. That leads to the purpose of this study, is to investigate how do the relationship and network between firms influence the cooperation of product developing and server operating companies within online business. In order to study this topic, the concepts from IMP group of characteristics of relationship, relationship development stages and the model of managing in networks are applied. Furthermore qualitative research method was employed for interviewing five companies in two types: 1) product developing companies 2) server operating companies.  

     

    The relationship and network are perceived by interviewed companies are dynamic, fast changing and high technology focused. To cope with this phenomenon, most of companies choose to put their efforts on developing products and advancing technology rather than communicating with partners. In conclusion, the cooperation between firms in online business is influenced by fast changing and short-term relationships, high competition and the risk of plagiarism, which leads to competition focus in their business.

  • 56030.
    Zhao, Fei
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Afonso, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Lindner, Susanne
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Hartmann, Andrea
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Loeschmann, Ina
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). Linneaus Ctr Bomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Weber, Lutz T.
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Habbig, Sandra
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Schalk, Gesa
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Kirschfink, Michael
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Zipfel, Peter F.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany;Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Skerka, Christine
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    C3-Glomerulopathy Autoantibodies Mediate Distinct Effects on Complement C3-and C5-Convertases2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, s. 1-14, artikel-id 1030Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a severe kidney disease, which is caused by defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Disease pathogenesis is heterogeneous and is caused by both autoimmune and genetic factors. Here we characterized IgG autoantibodies derived from 33 patients with autoimmune C3 glomerulopathy. Serum antibodies from all 33 patients as well as purified IgGs bound to the in vitro assembled C3-convertase. Noteworthy, two groups of antibodies were identified: group 1 with strong (12 patients) and group 2 with weak binding C3-convertase autoantibodies (22 patients). C3Nef, as evaluated in a standard C3Nef assay, was identified in serum from 19 patients, which included patients from group 1 as well as group 2. The C3-convertase binding profile was independent of C3Nef. Group 1 antibodies, but not the group 2 antibodies stabilized the C3-convertase, and protected the enzyme from dissociation by Factor H. Also, only group 1 antibodies induced C3a release. However, both group 1 and group 2 autoantibodies bound to the C5-convertase and induced C5a generation, which was inhibited by monoclonal anti-C5 antibody Eculizumab in vitro. In summary, group 1 antibodies are composed of C3Nef and C5Nef antibodies and likely over-activate the complement system, as seen in hemolytic assays. Group 2 antibodies show predominantly C5Nef like activities and stabilize the C5 but not the C3-convertase. Altogether, these different profiles not only reveal a heterogeneity of the autoimmune forms of C3G (MPGN), they also show that in diagnosis of C3G not all autoimmune forms are identified and thus more vigorous autoantibody testing should be performed.

  • 56031.
    Zhao, Jichen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The Effects of the Internet Firewall on the Development of Chinese Democracy2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As a special censorship system, China’s Internet firewall plays an important role in Chinese society.The Internet firewall is a controversial social action in China’s democratic development.The Internet firewall efficiently protects China’s economic environment. Similarly,Because of its rigorous censorship and guidance of information, it makes controversy about its role in the development of democracy in China. The Internet firewalls in China largely limit Chinese media freedom, information freedom and public opinion freedom, that through a regulatory and directional approach. At the same time, with the continuous emergence of new media, to some extent, new media also impacts the review of Internet firewalls.This study has studied the function of Internet firewalls that through the analysis of literatures, and hopes to draw the conclusion that the effects of the Internet firewall on the development of Chinese democracy. This study first analyzes the literature through discourse analysis and structured focused comparison analysis, and then analyzes the function of Internet firewall through function analysis theory. The results show that China's Internet firewall is closely related to China's special political and economic structure.It may lead China to a deliberative democracy, but under a special political and economic structure, it is accompanied by great uncertainty.According to this study, a means of deliberative democracy is being established by the Internet firewall, but because of its continued existence, the special political environment in China may persist for a long period.

  • 56032.
    Zhao, Liting
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Policy suggestions to the rural migration in China: According to the Todaro model and current situation of China2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the rural-urban migration in China. The cause of the analysis was the increasing number of rural-urban migrants caused by the fast industrialization. It could lead some serious problems in urban areas, such as the shortage of urban resources like house, food, etc., the increasing of unemployment probabilities and so on. China is the most populous country in the world. And the rural population in China has been exceeded half of the total. Due to the special current situation of China is different from other developing countries, the factors impact the rural migration in China and how to perfect the policy institutions are what I want to research in the paper.

  • 56033.
    Zhao, Shangqing
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Coumarin-based molecular probes: exploring the spectroscopic properties of complex mixtures and applications in colloid chemistry2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is a well-known anticoagulant drug that is used to prevent cardiovascular disease and blood coagulation such as thrombosis. In this study, the main aim was to investigate the photo physical characteristics of warfarin in the different molecular environments provided by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by using ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopic techniques. Warfarin and a structural analogue not existing in solution as a cyclic hemiketal, phenprocoumon, were mixed with different concentrations of SDS and spectral changes for these warfarin and phenprocoumon were recorded. Interestingly, results demonstrated, based on an evident increase in the absorption intensity at 273 nm and an evident blue shift in the fluorescence emission spectrum after the addition of an increasing concentration of SDS, that primarily the cyclic hemiketal isomer of warfarin was found to be solvated by SDS micelles at an apparent recorded critical micelle concentration of ~8mM.  Altogether these observations suggest that warfarin may be used as a molecular probe to explore the polarities of complex colloidal mixtures. Moreover, the possibility of using micelles for controlling the isomeric state of warfarin is interesting and can potentially be used for better controlling dosage of warfarin thereby reducing side effects.

  • 56034.
    Zhao, Tao
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ganji, Suresh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Bohman, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB). University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Weinstein, Philip
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Krokene, Paal
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Convergent evolution of semiochemicals across Kingdoms: bark beetles and their fungal symbionts2019Ingår i: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 1535-1545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Convergent evolution of semiochemical use in organisms from different Kingdoms is a rarely described phenomenon. Treekilling bark beetles vector numerous symbiotic blue-stain fungi that help the beetles colonize healthy trees. Here we show for the first time that some of these fungi are able to biosynthesize bicyclic ketals that are pheromones and other semiochemicals of bark beetles. Volatile emissions of five common bark beetle symbionts were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When grown on fresh Norway spruce bark the fungi emitted three well-known bark beetle aggregation pheromones and semiochemicals (exo-brevicomin, endo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin) and two structurally related semiochemical candidates (exo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and endo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane) that elicited electroantennogram responses in the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. When grown on malt agar with 13C D-Glucose, the fungus Grosmannia europhioides incorporated 13C into exo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin. The enantiomeric compositions of the fungus-produced ketals closely matched those previously reported from bark beetles. The production of structurally complex bark beetle pheromones by symbiotic fungi indicates cross-kingdom convergent evolution of signal use in this system. This signaling is susceptible to disruption, providing potential new targets for pest control in conifer forests and plantations.

  • 56035.
    Zhao, Tao
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany.
    Krokene, Paal
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Chen, Jingyuan
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany.
    Hammerbacher, Almuth
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Fungal associates of the tree-killing bark beetle, Ips typographus, vary in virulence, ability to degree conifer phenolics and influence bark beetle behavior2019Ingår i: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 38, s. 71-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bark beetle Ips typographus carries numerous fungi that could be assisting the beetle in colonizing live Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. Phenolic defenses in spruce phloem are degraded by the beetle’s major tree-killing fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, but it is unknown if other beetle associates can also catabolize tree defenses. We compared the ability of five fungi commonly associated with I. typographus to degrade phenolic compounds in Norway spruce phloem. In addition to E. polonica, Grosmannia penicillata and G. europhioides were also able to degrade stilbenes and flavonoids and grow on minimal growth medium with spruce bark constituents as the only nutrients. Although beetles avoided medium amended with phenolics, they preferred medium colonized by E. polonica and O. bicolor with intermediate phenolic degradation ability, over medium colonized by the Grosmannia species, which had the highest degradation ability of the tested species, underlining the complexity of beetle-fungus interactions.

  • 56036.
    Zhao, Yan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Tang, Yu
    Lanzhou Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yu, Zicheng
    Lehigh Univ, USA.
    Li, Huan
    Lanzhou Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yang, Bao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhao, Wenwei
    Lanzhou Univ, Peoples Republic of China;Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Li, Furong
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM). Lanzhou Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Li, Quan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples Republic of China.
    Holocene peatland initiation, lateral expansion, and carbon dynamics in the Zoige Basin of the eastern Tibetan Plateau2014Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 1137-1145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zoige Basin on the eastern Tibetan Plateau has the largest area of highland peatlands in China. However, the development history of these peatlands is still poorly understood. Understanding how these carbon-rich ecosystems responded to change in the Asian summer monsoons during the Holocene will provide insight into the peatland carbon accumulation processes under different climate boundary conditions. Here, we document the timing of initiation and expansion histories of these peatlands using 59 new basal peat ages across the Zoige Basin, with 29 ages for initiation analysis and 30 additional ages for lateral expansion analysis. Also, we synthesized basal ages from 26 sites and carbon accumulation records at four sites from previous studies in this region. The results show that the peatland initiation is widespread at 11.5-10 and 7-6 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal. yr BP) and the minimum initiation periods occurred after 5 kyr. Our multiple basal ages along eight transects show that slopes are a dominant control on peatland lateral expansion rates, with very slow and less variable rates at slopes >0.4 degrees. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between peatland basal ages and peat depths from 85 sites, suggesting relatively uniform peat properties. Carbon accumulation rates from detailed downcore analysis at four sites and on the basis of peat depth-basal age relationship show similar patterns with a peak carbon accumulation at 10-8 kyr. On the basis of estimated mean values of bulk density and carbon content from the region, the Holocene average C accumulation for the Zoige Basin is 31.1 g C/m(2)/yr. The widespread peatland initiation and rapid accumulation in the early Holocene were likely in response to higher temperature and stronger summer monsoon intensity, while the slowdown of peatland development during the late Holocene might have been caused by climate cooling and drying.

  • 56037.
    Zhao, Yibei
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Zhou, Yang
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Leaves identification by content-based image retrieval2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 56038.
    Zheng, Hennisa
    et al.
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Risa, Novia
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Juliany,
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Kelvin, Shawn
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Kalati, Tyas Delilla
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Lukitaningsih, Raden Rara Endang
    Univ Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Sembur Karo: Karo's Traditional Medicine as Burns Injury Alternative Treatment with Rattus norvegicus as Model2017Ingår i: 4th International Conference on Biological Science (2015) / [ed] Nuringtyas, TR Setyobudi, RH Burlakovs, J Mel, M Adinurani, PG VincevicaGaile, Z, 2017, s. 111-117Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Burns injury can be caused by flame, heat, chemical and electricity and it remains as one of the most serious problems in the medical world. Burns injury can be treated with traditional medicine. One of them is Sembur Karo. The objective of this research was to investigate the Sembur Karo potency for burns injury treatment. Sembur Karo obtained from North Sumatera was identified its plant composition and analyzed for bioactive compounds; flavonoid, steroid, and tannin. Twenty five rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used. The rats were divided into five groups of five. The first group used as a control without treatment, the second group are sprayed with Sembur Karo, while the third and the fourth groups were applied with Sembur Karo added with water and human saliva respectively. The last group were treated with Bioplacentone. All treatments were done once a day for 3 wk. Each week, one rat from all group were sacrificed with skins were taken for histology specimen. From this research, it was concluded that bioactive compounds in Sembur Karo were isoquersetin, sterol, and condensed tannin. The skin histology showed that the group which sprayed with Sembur Karo had the most effective effect among all groups.

  • 56039.
    Zheng, Ning
    et al.
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Svenson, Johan
    Nicholls, Ian Alan
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    A molecularly imprinted polymer based synthetic transaminase2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 56040.
    Zheng, Qing-Xiang
    et al.
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Ge, Li
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Wang, Carol Chunfeng
    Edith Cowan University, Australia.
    Ma, Qi-Shou
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Liao, Yan-Tan
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Huang, Ping-Ping
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Wang, Guan-Dong
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Xie, Qiu-Lin
    Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peoples Republic of China.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Robot-assisted therapy for balance function rehabilitation after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis2019Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 95, s. 7-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify the rehabilitative effects of robot-assisted therapy on balance function among stroke patients. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Data sources: Thirteen electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to March 2018: Web of Science, PubMed, EMBase, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, AMED, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, SPORTDiscus, WanFang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Scientific Journal Database. Review methods: Randomized controlled trials were retrieved for identifying the effects of robot-assisted therapy on balance function among stroke patients. Two authors independently searched databases, screened studies, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality and risk bias of each included study. A standardized protocol and data-collection form were used to extract information. Effect size was evaluated by mean difference with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Methodological quality and risk bias evaluation for each included study followed the quality appraisal criteria for randomized controlled trials that were recommended by Cochrane Handbook. Meta-analysis was conducted by utilizing Review Manager 5.3, a Cochrane Collaboration tool. Data was synthesized with descriptive analysis instead of meta-analysis where comparisons were not possible to be conducted with a meta-analysis. Results: Thirty-one randomized controlled trials with a total of 1249 participants were included. The majority of the included studies contained some methodological flaws. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that robot-assisted therapy produced positive effects on balance function, as shown by an increase in the Berg balance scale score [random effects model, mean difference = 4.64, 95%CI = 3.22–6.06, P<0.01], as well as Fugl-Meyer balance scale scores [fixed effects model, mean difference = 3.57, 95%CI = 2.81–4.34, P<0.01]. After subgroup and sensitivity analyses, the positive effects were not influenced by different types of robotic devices, by whether robot-assisted therapy was combined with another intervention or not, or by differences in duration and intensity of intervention. Conclusion: Evidence in the present systematic review indicates that robot-assisted therapy may produce significantly positive improvements on balance function among stroke patients compared with those not using this method. More multi-center, high-quality and large-scale randomized controlled trials following the guidelines of CONSORT are necessary to generate high-quality evidence in further research. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 56041.
    Zheng, Rongpeng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    An FPGA Based MPPT and Monitoring System: suitable for a photovoltaic based microgrid2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Microgrids containing photovoltaic (PV) cells and wind power gain more and more interest. These microgrids may work in stand-alone mode ("islanding") or be conncted to the main grid. In both modes of operation, power quality must be monitored and controlled.

    This report focuses on microgrids and aims to implement a monitoring system based on FPGA. In the monitoring system, two applications can be achieved, firstly a PAS-MPPT algorithm in a DC-DC boost converter to improve the maximun power point tracking of a PV unit, and secondly a detection and switching system of the grid mode - stand-alone or connected to the main grid. Simulation results prove the Verilog programs in FPGA are suitable to be used in microgrids.

  • 56042.
    Zherdev, Vera
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för film och litteratur (IFL).
    19912015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En självbiografisk text om sommaren 1991 då jag åkte till Moskva. 

  • 56043.
    Zherdev, Vera
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för film och litteratur (IFL).
    Skavsår2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 56044.
    Zhiyu, Chang
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Nguyen, Paul
    Manestam, Erik
    Product Placement In Games: A quantitative study of how product placement in games affect on consumers' attitude towardthe brand.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research paper was to explain how product placement in games influences the consumer’s attitude towards the brand. The aims during this work with the purpose in mind were to utilize quantitative methods in the pursuit of fulfilling the objective of answering how certain placement strategies can affect individual consumer’s attitudes. As said, quantitative methods are used in combination with deductive reasoning, hence meaning that researchers of this paper make use of such programs like google docs questionnaire (for collecting data and creating surveys), SPSS statistics (for measuring the given data and assembling patterns/relationships). Since these kinds of methods were used, it means that both primary and secondary sources were made use of by the authors. Findings concerning the research put forward in this paper indicates that the most significant kind of placement strategy which is motivated why its significance value, is Plot and narrative placement. research presented in this work is represented by three hypotheses. H1-screen placement, H2 -script placement and H3 plot placement. All hypothesis except the third one was accepted through 2 produced positive results (H2, H3) while one produced negative results (H1). As a wrap-up summary of this, consumers who play games seem to have a more positive attitude towards brands utilizing screen and plot placement rather than script placement. Hence having a better attitude when it comes to product placement in games compared from the previous studies. Researchers suggest using qualitative research to cover for more factors concerning product placement in games which may affect consumers'' attitude toward brands. This together with a further focus on random sampling may produce an interesting result.

  • 56045.
    Zhiyuan, Xie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Control of biogas reactor by Labview2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor thesis we focus on how to controlling different machines that would be used in the Bio-gas production processes. By useing the Labview program, we can do controlling, detecting, data storing and other jobs all together.

    The whole project is just a blueprint for the following work, as for there are too many components and units that we haven't seen yet. What we have done is to design a program that could be used in reality base on the principle of the whole bio-gas producing processes. Actually we did a quite good job on designing the limited machines that we have in hand, like the Pt-100 unit and the circulation pump are working as well as we had imagined.

    Hopefully, this thesis and the program I designed can give a direction for the following work on the project, and the most important part--temperature checking and controlling can work well in reality as we expected.

  • 56046.
    Zhong, Siqi
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Frequency Oriented Scheduling onParallel Processors2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 56047.
    Zhong, Siqi
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för matematik/naturvetenskap/teknik, Matematiska och systemtekniska institutionen.
    Frequency Oriented Scheduling onParallel Processors2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 56048.
    Zhou, Chuanhui
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    Yu, Anqi
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap (OE).
    The World Heritage on Öland: An investigation into the Motivations of Chinese Travelers toTravel abroad2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to explore how Öland could attract Chinese tourists to sustain its development. This study is conducted on the basis of group interviews among 20 respondents selected from Chinese tourists. This research reveals that learning and experiencing, building a social relationship and enjoying natural landscape are the major reason for Chinese tourists traveling abroad, among which, the main motivations for Chinese tourists visiting Öland is the attractive spot. The research finds that not many Chinese tourists have been to Öland before. However, among those who have been, they said that Borgholm Castle was the most attractive tourist spot. The major approaches for Chinese tourists accessing information of Öland are travel agencies, travel apps, TV shows, movies and the internet , whereas little marketing strategies such as advertising (in Chinese) and cooperating with local travel agencies has been utilized by the government. An analysis of the key motivations of Chinese tourist reveals one challenge in attracting Chinese tourists facing the government: Öland is not well recognized as a World Heritage among Chinese tourists compared to other popular travel destinations. The strength and weakness of Öland tourism indicates that Öland need to take more active marketing strategies to brand their tourism targeting Chinese tourists.

  • 56049.
    Zhou, Sa
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora.
    Die Darstellung des Lifestyles der „Generation Golf„ von Florian Illies2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
  • 56050.
    Zhou, Xiao
    Växjö universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ekonomihögskolan, EHV.
    An analysis of immigration in the United States2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The United States of American has often been called “a nation of immigrants” due to its long immigration history. In fact, it absorbed large numbers of immigrants during the different epochs from all over the world. The economics issues of immigration are play a very important role which becoming increasingly considering. Therefore, the aim of this paper is analyze the trends of immigration to America and the determinants behind the migration decision in the United States. An analysis of the data shows that the migrants flow into America has increased substantially, and the trend of American immigration is upwards after the mid 1960s. From the literature review it appears that the impact of immigration on natives’ earnings and employment, is weak. However factors like wage differential between the origin and host countries, educational attainment and investment in human capital, language proficiency are important determinants of the extent of immigrants integration and assimilation in the new country.

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