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  • 5701.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Creative Democracy? The Task Before Us in Times of Populism.2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on John Dewey’s essay “Creative Democracy: The Task Before Us” (1939), this paper addresses the meaning of democracy and education in a globalized world that is characterized by pluralism and interdependence on the one hand and populist nationalism on the other. Dewey thought that the greatest threats to democracy come from within the democratic countries themselves. The institutions and conditions that are fundamental to democracy can also be used by social forces to destroy it (Bernstein 2000). The purpose of the study is to problematize Dewey’s view of democracy in “Creative Democracy” (1939) through a comparative study on the meaning of citizenship education in curricula in the United States and Sweden in light of the present populist tendencies in these countries. More specifically, this paper poses the questions:

    • What emphasis of citizenship education emerges in curricula for fifteen year-old students in two countries sharing a self-image of being strong democracies, when analyzed from a democratic perspective as outlined in Dewey’s “Creative Democracy”?
    • What strengths and weaknesses in relation to populism and authoritarian regimes does Dewey’s conception of democracy offer?

    The meaning of populism can be ambiguous. In this paper, populism is primarily characterized by two main features. Firstly, it relies on the wisdom of “ordinary” people, who are thought of as a homogenous whole consisting of “good” people with “decent” values. Populist parties are usually a form of democracy based directly on the voice of the majority without built-in protection for minorities. Secondly, populists prefer leadership exercised by an authoritarian charismatic individual who is believed to express the opinions of ordinary people and to govern based on what is best for this group (Inglehart & Norris 2016). Those who do not adhere to this basic philosophy of populism are excluded from the “ordinary” and in contrast, are categorized as “elite.”  

    Theoretical framework

    In the written address, Creative Democracy: The Task Before Us” (1939), John Dewey formulated democracy not only as a way of life, but as a “personal way of individual life” (p. 226). Dewey’s idea of a personally-lived democracy has two main characteristics: democracy is first and foremost a moral ideal, rather than an institutional fact, and democracy is about pluralism (Dewey 1939/1991).  According to Richard Bernstein (2000, 2010), Dewey was a “rooted cosmopolitan,” which is a term also used by Appiah (2005, p. 222) when he argues that a “tenable cosmopolitanism” needs to take seriously not only the value of human lives, but also the value of particular human lives in communities contributing to forming those lives. Cosmopolitanism, Appiah argues, grows from the county, the town, or the street rather than from the state. According to Westbrook (2006), Appiah’s book on cosmopolitanism has a close affinity to Dewey’s pragmatism, although Appiah does not himself make use of that label. According to both Dewey (1925/2008) and Appiah (2007), communication, or rather “conversation,” is the bridge between differences, cultural as well as other differences, not to come to some sort of consensus on ethical values but simply to make contact with each other, or to “get used to one another” (Appiah 2007, p. 168). Dewey (1939/1991) argues that in a democratic personal way of life, cooperation across differences is inherent “because of the belief that the expression of difference is not only a right of the other persons but is a means of enriching one’s own life-experience” (p. 228).

    In his 1916 essay “Nationalizing Education”, Dewey formulates the two counterparts inherited in the concepts of “nation” and “nationalism.” The desired side of nationalism, according to Dewey, is that nations have the ability to offer broader communities beyond a family or village. The aspect of nationalism to be avoided is a type of nationalism where “skillful politicians” know how to “play cleverly upon patriotism, and upon ignorance of other peoples” to spread a feeling of hostility to those outside their own nation (Dewey 1916/1980, p. 202). Therefore, the spirit of a nationalized education must, according to Dewey, be the promotion of the national idea which is the idea of democracy, and the idea of democracy is an idea of “amity and good will to all humanity (including those beyond our border) and equal opportunity for all within” (Dewey 1916/1980, p. 209). Dewey urges teachers to remember that it is they who need to be the mediators of this democratic idea.

    So what does the word “creative” add to our understanding of democracy? Bernstein (2000) distinguishes two elements intertwined in the term “creative democracy.” Firstly, it denotes a sense of situated creativity; an individual who is educated in a way that promotes an experimental and imaginative approach to handling social situations intelligently.  Secondly, it is concerned with the need for democracy to recreate itself. The world changes, the social circles grow larger, and creative democracy has to do with how to cope with new times of risk and uncertainty without lapsing into democracy as static procedures or self-righteous insulation. Bernstein (2000) concludes that democracy cannot be a fixed ideal; that is why it is always the task before us.

    From these theoretical assumptions, it becomes clear that the concept of democracy, including its creative version, must always be understood as an attitude with intrinsic potentials for both desirable and undesirable implications. In this paper, I argue that Dewey’s “Creative Democracy” (1939) needs to be read together with “Nationalizing Education” (1916) to clarify the democratic responsibility of the public school. Otherwise, the idea of creative democracy risks lapsing into ideals that underestimate the threats to democracy.  

    Mode of inquiry

    The mode of inquiry in this paper is based on two qualitative research methodologies: conceptual research and document studies. In the first part of the paper, Dewey’s concept of democracy is analyzed against a backdrop of current political phenomena such as populism and nationalism in order to examine the validity of Dewey’s ideas today, about a hundred years after he wrote his texts. From this reading, in the second part of the paper, three key concepts are derived that guide the analysis of citizenship education in curricula from two countries, the United States and Sweden. Two concepts, “situated creativity” and “the need for democracy to recreate itself” are drawn from Dewey’s (1916/1980) “Creative Democracy” and one concept, “cultural pluralism,” from “Nationalizing Education” (Dewey 1916/1980); the latter is interpreted in line with  Bernstein’s (2015) understanding of “where cultural differences are appreciated, respected and cultivated” (Bernstein 2015, p. 355).

    Both as countries and as democracies, Sweden and the US are very different, but both countries identify themselves as stable democracies, and both countries have encountered an unexpectedly strong wave of populism during the last few years. In the US in particular, the Republican Party has developed populist tendencies. In Sweden, the “Swedish Democrats,” with its roots in Nazism, has gained increased support and is now counted as Sweden’s second largest party according to the most recent opinion polls. From the US, the state of California has been selected for comparison with Sweden. California and Sweden are about the same geographical size, but California has about four times as many inhabitants. Both can be viewed as progressive in their view of areas like culture, music, and climate change, and both have recently signed letters of cooperation focusing on climate change. The comparison is made between curricula for students who are 15 years of age when they start the school year. This means grade 9 in Sweden and grade 10 in California. In Sweden, grade 9 is the last year of the compulsory school; in the US, grade 10 represents the second year in high school. The comparative study is conducted in the subjects of history and social science (civics).

  • 5702.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Curriculum events: Class room discourses as part of curriculum discourse and regulation2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers both a brief general presentation of the project ‘Understanding curriculum reforms: a theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11, Curriculum for the compulsory school,2011’ and an in-depth  study of classroom discourses in relation to whole-class teaching from a curriculum theory perspective (Deng & Luke 2008, Lundgren 1989). Based on background studies on transnational and national policy moves and the configuration of the Swedish curriculum reform into actual curriculum (Wahlström 2014, 2016, Sivesind & Wahlström 2016, Nordin & Sundberg 2016), a teacher survey with 1900 informants and 18 interviews with teachers regarding their experiences of the curriculum reform Lgr 11 has been conducted (Wahlström & Sundberg 2015).  Central for the project is a comparative classroom study comprising social studies (history, geography, religion and civics) in school year six in six classrooms in six municipalities, comprising 70 videotaped lessons.

    Theoretical and methodological approaches

     

    The purpose of the present paper is to explore how the curriculum is enacted on the classroom level, in terms of ‘curriculum events’ (Doyle 1992). More specifically, the aim is to explore how the rationality of the curriculum structure and content transforms into the rationality of the classroom teaching: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of curriculum? What different rationalities, linked to curriculum, may underlie teachers' choice of teaching repertoires?

    Drawing on Doyle (1992), pedagogy is not viewed as a neutral form of teaching methods, but rather as a combination of curriculum text and the discursive practice created in the classroom when a specific curriculum content is transformed to be the subject of actual teaching. The main unit of analysis is ‘tasks’, defined as a continuing theme that stretch over a sequences of lessons. A thorough framework has been worked out for the coding of the 70 lessons with reference to Alexander (2001) and Klette et al. (2005) as well as complementing with a coding of content.

    Key findings

    There are significant differences in the teaching repertoire between the start, the middle and the end of a curriculum task, despite the fact that all lessons in the data are considered as whole class teaching.  In the start and the end of a task recitation is a dominating teaching repertoire, while shorter individual work and assignment-driven work in pair or small groups are the most common teaching repertoires in the middle of a task. With reference to Skidmore (2006) and Molinari et al. (2013), I explore, why recitational approaches to teaching continue to be prevalent despite the obvious problems of this approach raised by classroom researchers. I elucidate how the IRF pattern can be understood from a Swedish standards-based curriculum perspective (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). The significance of the paper is to conceptualise classroom research from a curriculum theory perspective to gain new insights on the influence of curriculum content for teacher's choice of teaching repertoires.

     

  • 5703.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Democracy and curriculum—the task still before us2019Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how John Dewey’s concept of democracy can contribute to our understandingof what is required from education amid growing nationalism and populism, even in what are usuallyperceived as established democracies. The purpose of the study is to explore how standardsbasedcurricula for citizenship education can be problematised in relation to the broad concept ofdemocracy. The meaning of citizenship education in curricula is examined through two cases fromwestern countries (Sweden and the USA) with standards-based curricula. These social studiescurricula deal with democracy as something ‘to teach about’, rather than focusing on helpingstudents learn to understand and recreate democracy for their own generation. However, theconcept of democracy, as a moral and ethical ideal, becomes difficult to express in a curriculumlogic of standards and knowledge outcomes emphasising measurability. Now, when democracy ischallenged, also seems to be the right time to confront the logic of a standards-based curriculumand the selective traditions of subjects within the social studies, as well as to ask the questions‘why?’ and ‘what for?’ in relation to basic social values and students’ competences.

  • 5704.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Demokrati - en fråga om det genetiska eller det kosmopolitiska?: Kommentar till Jakob Klitmøller & Dion Sommer: Turboladet globalisering og den fremtidsparate skole - en vision.2016Ingår i: Nordisk tidsskrift for pedagogikk & kritikk, ISSN 2387-5739, Vol. 2, s. 26-28Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jacob Klitmøller och Dion Sommer tar sin utgångpunkt i den snabbt ökade globaliseringen när de presenterar sin vision om den ”den fremtidsparate skole”, det vill säga en skola som förbereder dagens barn för framtidens utmaningar. Argumenten i artikeln är väl grundade och den framtidsvision som tar form utgör en ”tredje väg”, mellan det som författarna uttrycker som ”den afgrundsdybe splittelse” mellan å ena sidan ”systemteoretikerne” som förespråkar en evidensbaserad mål- och resultatstyrd skola och ”danneleseteoretikerne” som förespråkar ett bredare uppdrag för skolan att främja såväl individens personliga utveckling som utveckling till samhällsmedborgare. Den tredje vägen, som argumenteras för i artikeln, utgår i stället från modern evolutionsforskning som framställer leken som oundgänglig för barns utveckling eftersom den påverkar barns epigenetiska reglering. När denna biologiska grund för en utbildning inriktad mot framtiden väl har stakats ut i artikeln så verkar den framtidsinriktade pedagogiken att ligga förhållandevis nära en bildningsinriktad utbildningstradition, om än från dess olika utgångspunkter i biologi respektive filosofi.

    I denna kommentar till artikeln kommer jag att särskilt ta upp tre punkter, i) OECD och organisationens utbildningspolicy, ii) frågan om vad som räknas som kunskap och iii) frågan om demokrati och våra (ständiga) förhoppningar på nästa generation.

  • 5705.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Den effektiva läraren: om konstruktionen av den goda läraren på en internationell utbildningsarena2012Ingår i: Föreställningar om den goda läraren / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2012, s. 247-270Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för läraren som företeelse och begrepp inom internationell utbildningspolicy grundar sig på antagandet att lärarens yrkesutövning är av avgörande betydelse för att eleverna ska nå de internationellt och nationellt formulerade målen. Flera internationella arenor pekar således ut den enskilde läraren som grundbulten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Intresset för lärarprofessionen är en följd av grundantagandet att en ökande internationalisering leder till snabba förändringar och ständigt ny teknikanvändning. Det kräver i sin tur att medborgarna har tillägnat sig en allmän kompetens som gör det möjligt för dem att hantera ständigt nya villkor, såväl inom arbetsmarknaden som i samhällslivet i övrigt. Läraren, konstrueras diskursivt som kontextoberoende, internationell och generell. Eftersom de kompetenser som eleverna ska uppnå är desamma i den industrialiserade världen, krävs det också samma kompetenser hos alla lärare vilket öppnar för standarder för lärarutbildning och kompetensprofiler för lärare som utformas gemensamt och samordnat inom organisationer som OECD och EU. Det är lärarens undervisningsförmåga som ska borga för effektiviteten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Med en sådan utgångspunkt är den effektiva lärare som beskrivs som ett ideal i de internationella policyinriktade utbildningstexter som har refererats till i detta kapitel att betrakta som en leverantör av utbildningstjänster.

  • 5706.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Dewey, Democracy and the Nation State Education: Paper presented at the symposium Postnationalism and Cosmopolitanism: Implications for Leadership and Curriculum-Making2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dewey closes one of his texts with the words “what we want and need is education pure and simple” (Dewey 1938). But even if we might agree, what does this mean for education today in a context of transnational policy reforms and national/ local diversity? Drawing on Dewey’s essay “Creative Democracy – The Task Before Us” (1939), this paper addresses the meaning of democracy and education in a globalized world, characterized by national pluralism and interdependence on the one hand and increasing nationalism on the other hand. The purpose of the study is to theorize and problematize the political, economic and cultural citizenship that is presupposed/proposed in authoritative policy texts transnationally and nationally. For this purpose, four different country reports from the transnational Organisation for Cooperation and Development (OECD) focused on the Swedish school, as well as the Swedish State’s responses to the issues raised in the OECD reports, are analyzed.

     The theoretical framework includes Dewey’s philosophical concept of "experience", understood in terms of “transactional realism” that underpins his conceptions of both democracy and education (Dewey 1916a, 1938), Dewey's interpretation of nationality (Dewey 1916b), and, finally, the concept of "rooted cosmopolitanism" (Appiah 2007, Hansen 2011, Bernstein 2000, Wahlström 2016) as a basic concept for contextualizing human interconnectedness.

  • 5707.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Didaktik - ett professionsbegrepp2019Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Didaktik handlar om undervisning och lärande. Den intresserar sig för undervisningens och lärandets såväl teoretiska som praktiska aspekter. På så sätt förenar didaktiken undervisningens och lärandets båda perspektiv, som kan uppfattas som två sidor av samma mynt. I boken avgränsas didaktik till undervisning i institutionella sammanhang, som förskola, skola och högskola. En genomgående reflektion är didaktikens internationalisering, det vill säga undervisningsfrågornas allmängiltiga och överskridande karaktär.

    I bokens första kapitel presenteras didaktik, läran om undervisning, utifrån tre kulturellt och språkligt skilda traditioner: en tysk-nordisk och en fransk didaktiktradition samt en anglosaxisk läroplanstradition. I närmast efterföljande kapitel introduceras den didaktiska analysen, didaktikens relation till läroplanen och lärandets didaktiska aspekter. Bokens inledande del om grundläggande didaktiska perspektiv avslutas med ett kapitel om hur  pragmatism och bildning utgör sammanbindande teoretiska utgångspunkter för olika didaktiska inriktningar.

    Därefter ges i två på varandra följande kapitel exempel från matematik- och svenskämnenas didaktiska forskning. Kapitlen belyser både vad som skiljer ämnesdidaktiken åt, utifrån ämnenas respektive traditioner och globaliseringens olika konsekvenser, men också vad som förenar dem i användandet av liknande teoribildningar. Ett särskilt kapitel ägnas åt klassrumsforskning som ett sätt att utforska undervisningssituationernas meningsinnehåll, kunskapssyn och kommunikationsmönster. Sist, men inte minst, behandlas frågan om vad det innebär att vara lärare – vad det innebär att uppfostra morgondagens demokratiska medborgare, att utveckla sitt yrke till artisteri och att värna om undervisningens krav på pluralism.     

    Syftet med boken är att ge dig som blivande lärare tankar och begrepp som kan bidra till dina egna val och ställningstaganden i din undervisning.

  • 5708.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Do we need to talk to each other?: How the concept of experience can contribute to an understanding of Bildung and democracy2010Ingår i: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 293-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article it is argued that the contested concept of Bildung, with its roots in the late 18th century, remains of interest in the postmodern era, even if there is also certainly a debate about it having had its day. In the specific discussion about Bildung and democracy, it is suggested that Dewey's reconstucted concept of experience has several points in common with a more recent understanding of  Bildung, at the same time as it can provide insight into how democracy can be understood within the field of Bildung. In brief, in this article it is suggested that if we wish to discuss democracy and Bildung, Dewey's notion of experience might offer a bridge between the two concepts, as well as an understanding of subjectivity, learning, and communication as a whole. Finally, communication is a nesessary part of both democracy and Bildung - not because of certain human similarities, but because of the similarities in some of the problems which we humans encounter, and which we think are worth reflecting upon.

  • 5709.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Early childhood education: Economy and pedagogy in a perfect combination?2016Ingår i: Abstract book. Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education. NERA 2016, 44th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Helsinki, 9-11 March, 2016, 2016, s. 225-226Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aim: The aim of this paper is to critically explore the discourse of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in European transnational policy documents and its potential implications for the Swedish (and Nordic) pre-school development. The point of departure for this study is one of the EU benchmarks in the Strategic Framework for Education and Training 2020 (ET 2020), with the purpose of collecting quantitative information for comparative analysis: “At least 95 % of children between the age of four and the age for starting compulsory primary education should participate in early childhood education”. The underlying assumption is that ECEC is “the essential foundation for successful lifelong learning, social integration, personal development and later employability” (European Commission 2011). In what ways do these economic and social expectations form a transnational policy discourse of ECEC? How can the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 Revised 2010 be categorised in relation to curriculum typology, and what are the convergences and divergences in relation to European transnational policy? In the paper the Curriculum for Preschool is discussed in relation to Nordic welfare societies and curricula traditions.

    Theoretical framework: Drawing on Nancy Fraser’s theory of ‘politics of need interpretation’ in Western welfare-state societies, the focus shifts from needs to discourses about needs (Fraser, 1989). According to Fraser, the politics of need interpretation ‘tend to be nested, connected to one another in ramified chains of “in-order-to” relations’ (Fraser, 1989). When the needs are enclaved and depoliticized into the official-economic arena, the result will be limitations in the chains of in-order-to relations for interpreting people’s needs. The official-economic institutions are, according to Fraser, the most important depoliticized enclaves, in which interpretations of needs must be exceeded in order to become ‘political’ in a discourse sense; that is, to become runaway needs. The Curriculum for Preschool is analysed as a field of tension between official-economic needs and Nordic preschool traditions within a framework of curriculum typology (Kelly 2009).

    Expected conclusions: In the transnational policy arena, the pattern of in-order-to chain is clear: in order to increase the share of students in tertiary education there is a need for more students with an exam from upper secondary school; for reaching that goal, there is a need to decrease the share of early school leavers; for making that to happen there is an increased need for students to meet the requirements of compulsory school; and for that purpose, there is a need for a broad participation in ECEC, which is the last link in the chain. On a national level, a language of child's needs has largely been replaced by a language of learning (Biesta 2005). The emphasis on lifelong learning rests heavily on ECEC, with a curriculum as process and development in a mix of competencies and knowledge.

  • 5710.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Educational cosmopolitanism: making meaning through reflective conversations2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the theoretical framework, I draw on Kwame Anthony Appiah’s (2005, 2007) ethical perspective on cosmopolitanism and David Hansen’s (2008a, 2008b) concept of educational cosmopolitanism. In the discussion from which point of reference communication with ‘strangers’ becomes possible, Donald Davidson’s (2001) notion of a shared world and a triangulation between one's own thoughts, others' thoughts and a common object are fruitful (Wahlström 2010). Davidson’s emphasis on a shared world is in accordance with Appiah’s (2005) claim that human beings can learn from each other’s stories only if they understand that they share a single world.  According to Appiah (2007), one of the central ways to coordinate our lives with others is through language of values. Thus, conversation means to be engaged in others and others' ideas, rather than coming to a common agreement. Hansen (2008a) examines curriculum as a ‘cosmopolitan inheritance’ and pays attention to which issues the world puts forth to students today. Rizvi (2009), on the other hand, inquires into cosmopolitan learning, with an emphasis on the identity and the connectivity with the rest of the world. I will use the concept of educational cosmopolitanism in this broader meaning of global interconnectedness and actual intercultural meetings in classrooms.

    In understanding educational cosmopolitanism as conversations on values, listening becomes the crucial point.  We must, as Garrison (1996) puts it, put our own ideas at risk in listening with openness to others. A reason to take such a risk, is, according to Garrison, that we already always are vulnerable, and at risk, since we are all already members of different cultures and groups, and are already in dialogues with others, even if we perhaps are not always fully aware of it. However, in a cosmopolitan view of education, the importance of listening needs to be emphasized, and the role of the listener needs to be recognized. 

     

     

  • 5711.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Embedded in a transnational context of curriculum formation - a turn towards a denationalized - instrumental conception of education in Sweden2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand the nation-state and its role in a transnational landscape of educational policy? I argue that one way to begin to sort out this extensive question is to understand these partial but significant mix of processes of globalization deep inside the national state as a hybrid – neither fully private or public, nor fully global or national (Sassen 2003b). I suggest that this hybridity is conceptualized in terms of denationalization. Following Sassen (2003a), a key element in denationalization is that the states do not only participate in common understandings of global agreements, but that their actions and role also are transformed through the specific type of work entailed in coming to an international consensus (modes of negotiations, preparatory work in different international networks and the like). Another aspect of denationalization is a reunderstanding of ‘the local’. The idea of ‘the local’ needs to be rethought, and be seen as parts of multi-scalar systems (e.g. the Mumbai housing movement, Appadurai 2013), rather than as specifically demarcated local places or as holding a special place in a hierarchy (c.f. Sassen 2003a).

    The purpose with this paper is to examine the Swedish conception of education in a transnational as well as national context. I will focus on two factors: a shift in the role of the state in the formation of educational policy and a shift in the concept of ' the citizen' in compulsory school's citizenship education. The examination includes the three most recent curriculum reforms from the early 1980s to the present day. In the first part of the paper, I explore the concepts of globalism and transnationalism and suggest how these concepts can be understood as related to the concept of nation-state, with a specific focus on educational policy and the concept of knowledge. Drawing on Sassen and Schmidt, I also suggest a theoretical framework that I will argue is helpful as a base for the analysis. In the second part of the paper, I turn to Sweden for my analysis of the two foci mentioned above. I use three official reports, related to the last three curricula in order to analyze shifts in state agency in the field of educational policy from 1970s and onwards. For the analysis of the concept of the 'citizen’ in curricula, I take my starting point in an analysis of educational conceptions in Englund (1986/2005). In the third part, finally, I discuss my results and suggest from what conditions a conception of education can be understood as denationalized .

     

     

  • 5712.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Equity: policy rhetoric or a matter of meaning of knowledge?: Towards a framework for tracing the 'efficiency-equity' doctrine in curriculum documents2014Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 731-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the focus is on exploring the perspective of equity in curriculum. From a background of understanding curriculum as imbedded in wider transnational policy movements, the author suggests a framework for exploring the trajectories between equity policy and different types of curricula with implications for what counts as knowledge, drawing on the capabilities approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The analysis highlights the instrumental, intrinsic and positional values in terms of actual functionings, expanding the individual’s set of capabilities and a pluralistic learning environment. The results suggest that the technical form of the curriculum can have determining effects on the meaning of knowledge acquisition and that the capabilities approach offers an important frame of analysis for understanding  how different aspects of equity are included or excluded in curriculum. 

     

  • 5713.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Ett nytt språk om skola?: Recensionsessä2010Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 113-118Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    När AERA[1] presenterar sitt konferenstema för 2011 års konferens ställer man forskning kring ”the public good” i centrum, med en ambition att väcka en ny dialog om relationen mellan pedagogisk forskning och det offentliga skolväsendet.  AERA pekar på det till synes motstridiga i att vi å ena sidan lever i en tid av exceptionellt intresse för utbildning och utbildningsfrågor som tar sig uttryck i stor reformiver, en våg av lagstiftning inom utbildningsområdet samt en policyretorik om skolans möjligheter att öppna upp för social och ekonomisk utveckling. Samtidigt har dessa ambitioner lett till att skolans dagliga liv och frågeställningar kanaliserats in i teknokratiska och marknadsinspirerade banor vilket å andra sidan leder till ökad skolsegregation, stor tro på utvärdering och tester samt en förskjutning från ett allmänt till ett privat drivet skolsystem.

    Boken ”Why School?” av Mike Rose. Som en introduktion till 2011 års konferens på temat ”Inciting the Social Imagination: Education Research for the Public Good” relaterar AERA sitt tema till boken Why School? Reclaiming Education for All of Us” av professor Mike Rose, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Boken Why School? är såväl till omfång som till innehåll en behändig och lättillgänglig skrift. Det riktigt intressanta med boken är kanske främst dess roll som en symbol för en ny diskussion om en allmän skola genom att den på detta sätt lyfts fram av AERA, med en uppfordran att gå till botten med våra föreställningar om varför allmän utbildning behövs.

    [1] American Educational Research Association

  • 5714.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Från olikhet till valfrihet2012Ingår i: Uppdrag lärare: en antologi om status, yrkesskicklighet och framtidsdrömmar / [ed] Leif Mathiasson, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets Förlag , 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5715.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    “International standards” and the implications for educational equality in national school reforms2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence-based policy movement emerged from a desire to remove ideology from the policy process in order to increase the credibility of policy proposals; an approach that was also incorporated in the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). The focus of this study is to explore international policy discourses and “international standards” underpinning school reforms, with the current school reform in Sweden used as an example. The purpose is (i) to examine what arguments and actors in the international education arena are relevant to the national reform priorities, and (ii) to explore how comparative research perspectives can contribute to unravel aspects of (in)equalities in national school reforms against a backdrop of international educational policy discourses.

  • 5716.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Internationella konventioner och debatten om fristående skolor i Sverige2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller… ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 87-127Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser på vilka sätt Sveriges undertecknande av internationella konventioner, främst då Europakonventionen, har använts i den svenska debatten om fristående skolor från mitten av 1900-talet och framåt. I kapitlet ges en historisk översikt över utredningar och propositioner som har lett fram till ändringar i skollagen, från 1958 års folkskolestadga fram till propositionen om ny skollag 2010. Det material som har undersökts består huvudsakligen av offentliga utredningar, departementsskrivelser och riksdagstryck.

  • 5717.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Introduction: Understanding classroom and knowledge discourses from a curriculum theory and didactic perspective2019Ingår i: Classroom research: Methodology, categories and coding / [ed] Wahlström, Ninni, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2019, , s. 44s. 3-8Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5718.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Learning to communicate or communicating to learn?: A conceptual discussion on communnication, meaning, and knowledge2010Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 431-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the conditions for students’ prospects of acquiring knowledge in school often are thought of as something that must be improved in the political rhetoric, it is also urgent, as Michael F. D. Young has argued, to ask what kind of knowledge should be the basis of the curriculum and to recognize the question of knowledge as central to the curricular debate. This article examines the grounds for a relational and communicative understanding of education. Drawing on John Dewey’s reconstruction of the concept of experience and Donald Davidson’s meaning theory in terms of three varieties of knowledge, the emphasis is on an intersubjective conceptualization of meaning and knowledge and its implications. Central themesin the analysis are communication as a condition for the acquisition of knowledge; a shared, but not identical, world as a point of reference; and an approach to specialized knowledge as judgement formation. As a conclusion it is argued that one condition for acquisition of knowledge, in terms of meaning, is to participate in and be influenced by conversations with a shared purpose, within and between different groups.

  • 5719.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Likvärdighet och kunskap: en diskussion utifrån två mångtydiga begrepp2008Ingår i: Vadå likvärdighet?: Studier i utbildningspolitisk språkanvändning / [ed] Tomas Englund, Ann Quennerstedt, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2008, s. 120-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5720.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Läroplaner2018Ingår i: Att bli lärare / [ed] Eva Insulander & Staffan Selander, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, s. 195--199Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel diskuterar jag på vilka sätt läroplanens innehåll kan uppfattas som grundläggande för lärare i deras undervisning. Jag kommer också att utreda frågan om på vilket sätt den svenska läroplanen kan sägas utgöra en del av en internationell utbildningspolicy

  • 5721.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Läroplansteori och didaktik2016 (uppl. 2)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteori och didaktik är två delar av det vetenskapliga ämnet pedagogik. Läroplansteorins grundläggande fråga är ”Vad räknas som kunskap?”. Det är en fråga som ständigt är utsatt för omprövning och debatt. En fråga som ofta väcker känslor och som aldrig kommer att få ett slutgiltigt svar. Lika omdebatterad är didaktikens grundläggande fråga om hur kunskaper, värden och erfarenheter ska organiseras i konkreta undervisnings- och lärandesituationer.

    I den här boken belyser författaren dessa två breda frågeställningar ur ett flertal olika aspekter. Som en röd tråd löper insikten att det vi håller för sant i frågor om utbildning och lärande förändras historiskt över tid och varierar geografiskt, beroende på historiska, sociala och kulturella traditioner.

    I bokens andra upplaga har tillkommit ett kapitel om hur förskolans läroplan har växt fram som del av en transnationell utbildningspolicy. Med start i 1970-talets barnstugeutredning redogörs för vilka tankar och begrepp som har format måldokumenten från Pedagogiskt program för förskolan till förskolans två första läroplaner.

    Boken avslutas med ett avsnitt som visar på hur varje läroplan mer eller mindre medvetet grundas på antaganden om ett visst medborgarideal. I en bilaga ges praktiska exempel på hur man som lärare själv kan genomföra en didaktisk läroplansanalys.

  • 5722.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Läroplansteori och didaktik2015 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteori och didaktik utgör en klassisk indelning av pedagogik som vetenskap. Läroplansteorins grundläggande fråga är ”Vad räknas som kunskap?” medan didaktikens fråga är ”Hur organiseras kunskaper, värden och erfarenheter i konkreta undervisnings-och lärandesituationer?”

    I boken belyser författaren dessa två breda frågeställningar ur ett flertal olika aspekter. Som en röd tråd genom boken löper insikten att det vi håller för sant i frågor om utbildning och lärande förändras historiskt över tid och varierar geografiskt, beroende på varje lands egna historiska, sociala och kulturella traditioner.

    Boken har tre inledande kapitel som ger en grundläggande presentation av läroplansteori ur ett historiskt, kunskapsfilosofiskt respektive utbildningspolitiskt perspektiv. I ett fjärde kapitel behandlas läroplaner utifrån en analytisk dimension av olika läroplansmodeller. Detta kapitel är författat av Daniel Sundberg.

    Didaktiken har en given roll i det som i boken kallas konkreta läroplanshändelser, det vill säga när läroplanens innehåll transformeras till förskolans och skolans dagliga innehåll och verksamhet. Skolans bedömningspraktik har en nära koppling till såväl läroplansteori som didaktik och tas därför också upp.

    Boken avslutas med ett avsnitt som visar på hur varje läroplan mer eller mindre medvetet grundas på antaganden om ett visst medborgarideal. I en bilaga ges praktiska exempel på hur man själv som lärare kan genomföra en didaktisk läroplansanalys.    

     

  • 5723.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Mellan leverans och utbildning: om lärande i en mål- och resultatstyrd skola2009 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Mellan leverans och utbildning undersöker Ninni Wahlström olika uppfattningar om utbildning och deras konsekvenser för utformning av läroplaner och för didaktiska frågeställningar. Hon ger en översikt över det läroplansteortiska fältets utveckling samt över hur den nuvarande styrningen av skolan har vuxit fram inom svensk offentlig förvaltning. Mot denna bakgrund studeras så hur begreppet lärande uppfattas och praktiseras på den lokala skolarenan inom ett allmänt skolväsende som präglas av mål- och resultatstyrning. Enligt Wahlström har vi att göra med ett spänningsförhållande mellan två uppfattningar om lärande: å ena sidan en resultatfokuserad (lärande som leverans), å den andra en relationell och kommunikativ som betonar elevernas utveckling av självförståelse och till medborgare (lärande som utbildning)

  • 5724.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    National and transnational conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If one accepts Ulrich Beck’s (2006) argument that modern societies are characterized by a state of ’cosmopolitanization’, the nation as a unit for research cannot be taken as a given. Transactional interactions, whose boundaries are not clearly defined, do not replace – but incorporate – the nation-state in transnational systems of regulation, not least in education policy; and an important task is to examine national education documents, like curriculum, embedded within transnational policy forces (‘methodological cosmopolitanism’, c.f. Beck & Grande 2010). In the paper, I take this transnational ‘reality’ in consideration and analyze the curricula, specifically Swedish and Civics, in curriculum 2011 in relation to these subjects in curricula from 2000, as well as to the PISA 2009 Reading Framework and national and transnational policy texts.       

     

    In this case, the nations-state is an adequate unit of analysis; however, the analysis also needs to go beyond this unit to provide a full picture (Lawn & Grek 2012). Methodologically, I draw on critical discourse analysis based in the following features; distinguishing relations between discourse and other elements of the social process, analyzing texts in a systematic way, observing recontextualisation of discourses and recognizing the normative elements by discussing different consequences for social transformation  (Fairclough 2010). I also discuss my analytical results in relation to two main pedagogic models: competence models and performance models, in relation to discourse, space, evaluation, control and pedagogic text (Bernstein 2000). These models are in turn pointing at different orientations of curricula (Ross 2000).   

     

    A broad and preliminary conclusion is that the curricula for the subjects in the version of 2000 and the Pisa framework is mostly emphasizing the competence model, while the curriculum 2011 are mostly emphasizing the performance model (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). Through the analysis it is possible to nuance and distinguish the characteristics within these broader models in problematizing the tensions between traditional and essential curricula. Exploring different (transnational) methodological approaches to curriculum studies is highly relevant to the Nordic countries considering their respectively relation to EU.  

     

  • 5725.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    När utbildningspolicy når klassrummet2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Globaliseringen har lett till en förändrad roll för staten, från att utöva en statlig formell reglering till att bedriva en mjuk diskursiv styrning där utbildningspolicyn utformas i nära samarbete med internationella organisationer som OECD och EU (Rizvi and Lingard 2010, Wahlström 2014). I enlighet med Sassen (2013) undersöks det globala från redan väl kända kunskapsområden, som i det här fallet ett läroplansinnehåll. Den ”inomnationella globaliseringen” kommer här till uttryck i form av ansvarsutkrävande, standardsbaserade läroplaner och internationellt drivna ansträngningar att öka kunskapsresultaten, dvs. en mjuk styrning som ofta sammanfattas med begreppet ”neoliberal policy” (Phillips 2004, Takayama 2009). Studien grundas i ett läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv (Deng & Luke 2008, Sundberg & Wahlström 2012) och fokuserar på klassrumsdiskursens form och  innehåll, dock inte i första hand från ett språkligt eller sociokulturellt perspektiv utan från en förståelse av undervisning i termer av läroplanshändelser.

     Med utgångspunkt i läroplanen som en sammanhållen ram för “händelser” som äger rum över en längre tidsperiod, i form av teman och arbetsområden, undersöks hur klassrumsdiskurser och undervisningsrepertoarer möjliggörs respektive begränsas. Didaktik förstås här som en sammanvävning av läroplanstext och den diskursiva praktik som tar form när ett läroplansinnehåll transformeras till att bli föremål för undervisning. Ett arbetsområde (”task”) kan relatera till såväl en generell som en mer specifik nivå: i) det innehåll i läroplanen som arbetsområdet anknyter till och ii) och de specifika delar av läroplansinnehållet som läraren väljer att fokusera på (Alexander 2001). Tidigare forskning har visat att ett kommunikationsmönster av IRF (Initiation-Response-Follow-up) är dominerande i klassrummet (Alexander 2001). Samtidigt argumenterar forskare, som t ex Molinari et al. (2013), för att det finns ett behov av att fånga upp den komplexitet som klassrumsdiskurser representerar för att på så sätt kunna överskrida ett ensidigt fokus på IRF-mönster. Föreliggande klassrumsstudie visar att aktuell utbildningspolicy, genom den utformning den ges i läroplanen, påverkar undervisningsrepertoarer och klassrumsdiskurser. Såväl elevers enskilda arbete som par-och grupparbeten styrs av tydligt avgränsade uppgifter som hör nära samman med läroplanens kunskapskrav och angivna innehåll.

     

     

  • 5726.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Om kommunikation som grunden för mening och kunskap - i en värld som vi delar med andra2012Ingår i: Vad räknas som kunskap?: Läroplansteoretiska utsikter och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola / [ed] Tomas Englund, Eva Forsberg, Daniel Sundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2012, s. 162-178Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet är ett bidrag till hur kunskapsfrågan kan förstås utifrån en kommunikativ utgångspunkt. I kapitlet diskuteras vilka villkor för förvärvandet av kunskap som en sådan utgångspunkt ställer. Kapitlet ger svar, utifrån Dewey och Davidson, på hur man kan förstå meningsskapande och kunskap som läroplansteoretiska begrepp utifrån en kommunikativ och relationell kunskapssyn. 

  • 5727.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Om rätten till undervisning: diskursiva omförhandlingar inom tre arenor i svensk utbildningspolitik2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller… ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 143-167Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I spänningsfältet mellan föräldrars rätt och barns rätt, mellan utbildning som social rättighet för barn och ungdomar och som civil rättighet för vuxna, går det att analytiskt urskilja tre delvis parallella arenor för diskursiva omförhandlingar inom svensk utbildningspolitik. En arena är den politisk-juridiska diskursiva arenan; en andra diskursiva arena utgörs av den politiska kampen om fristående skolor och en tredje diskursiv arena exemplifieras av en mera avgränsad studie av ett enskilt politiskt partis argumentering för fristående konfessionella skolor.

  • 5728.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Pedagogik, policy och skolans uppdrag2018Ingår i: Pedagogik som vetenskap: en inbjudan / [ed] Mattias Nilsson Sjöberg, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, 1, s. 113-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om vad som räknas som viktig kunskap för samhället i dag och i morgon blir relevant när skolans läro- och kursplaner ska fyllas med innehåll. Kunskapsfrågan inbegriper en rad olika aspekter. För det första kan vad-frågan ställas, vilket innehåll är lämpligt för att lära ut denna kunskap? För det andra handlar det om vem som behöver en viss kunskap och vems kunskap som representeras med hjälp av ett sådant urval. För det tredje ställs frågan om varför just denna kunskap behövs för just denna grupp elever? För det fjärde, slutligen, kommer hur-frågan. När och på vilket sätt ska skolans elever ta del av dessa kunskaper? Dessa och liknande aspekter av kunskapsfrågan skapar en – uttalad eller outtalad – grund för diskussioner på den så kallade policyarenan. Inom pedagogisk forskning utgör skolans kunskapsfråga ett grundläggande studieobjekt inom den inriktning som kallas läroplansteori och didaktik. Utbildningspolitiska idéer behöver förhålla sig till både skolans demokratiska uppdrag och skolans kunskapsuppdrag, men här uppstår samtidigt ett spänningsfält eftersom olika typer av policy lägger olika vikt vid skolan som institution för demokrati respektive för kunskap

  • 5729.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Recontextualization processes of policy into national curriculum from a perspective of equity and citizenship education – a Swedish perspective2015Ingår i: Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research. ECER 2015, European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest, September 7-11, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade there has been considerable focus on transnational policy discourse, especially within the European Union (EU), on how major national curriculum reforms can change the conditions of learning and knowledge in school. A main theme in the European policy discourse is the need for efficiency in instruction linked with the rights of all students to learn and to achieve the goals set up by school, but the ways in which the actual reforms are shaped differ between the different European countries.  In this paper the aim is to explore the following two questions in relation to the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden (Lgr 11): How can the question of curriculum knowledge be understood from a perspective of equity? Who is the 'good citizen' as it emerges from the curriculum content?

    From a background of understanding curriculum as imbedded in wider transnational policy movements, the first question is examined by suggesting a framework for exploring the trajectories between equity policy and different types of curricula with implications for what counts as knowledge, drawing on the capabilities approach developed by Amartya Sen (1999) and Martha Nussbaum (2000). The other question is analysed by using two typologies for social studies and educating for democracy (Wahlström 2014). Drawing on the two analyses, supplemented with a questionnaire addressed to teachers concerning their view of the current curriculum, the preliminary results point at a predominantly instrumental view of knowledge also within humanities, a citizenship ideal in terms of 'the reasoning citizen', and less space for teachers' and students' to influence teaching content in the subject of social studies.

    References

    Biesta, Gert (2013): Responsible citizens: citizenship education between social inclusion and democratic politics. In Mark Priestley & Gert Biesta (Eds.):  Reinventing the Curriculum. New Trends in Curriculum Policy and Practice, pp. 99-116. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

    Nussbaum, Martha C. (2000) Women and Human Development. The Capabilities Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Sen, Amartya (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Unterhalter, Elaine & Brighouse, Harry (2007) Distribution of what for social justice in education? The case of education for all by 2015. In M. Walker & E. Unterhalter (Eds)

    Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach and Social Justice in Education, pp. 67-86. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Wahlström, Ninni (2014): The changing role of the state in a denationalized educational policy context. In Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg (Eds.): Transnational Policy Flows in European Education: the Making and Governing of knowledge in the Education Policy Field, pp.159-182. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, vol 42, no 1. Oxford: Symposium Books.

    Wahlström, Ninni (2014): Equity – policy rhetoric or a matter of meaning of knowledge? Towards a framework for tracing the ‘efficiency-equity’ doctrine in curriculum documents. European Educational Research Journal 13(6), 731-743.

  • 5730.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Rätten till undervisning: Europakonventionens svåra fråga2011Ingår i: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller... ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, s. 33-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån vilka grunder motiveras rätten till undervisning i Europakonventionen? Hur kan detta rättfärdigande förstås i termer av barns rätt, som en social rättighet, och föräldrars rätt, som en civil rättighet? I kapitlet undersöks kampen för att formulera en artikel om rätt till undervisning i Europakonventionen. Debatten i fråga äger rum mellan åren 1949 och 1952, under det förberedande arbetet med konventionstexten.

  • 5731.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Some comments on the relation between curriculum content and assessment from a perspective of literacy2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I use the term “curriculum”, drawing on McCutcheon (1982) and Cherryholmes (1988), as what students have an opportunity to learn, which refers to “the substance” of the opportunities, and to the “rules and procedures by which those opportunities are provided” (Cherryholmes 1988, p. 133). The link I draw between curriculum theory and evaluation research is between this definition of curriculum from Cherryholmes and James Paul Gee’s (2003) understanding of assessment which has what the students have an "opportunity to learn" as its key notion. Thus, the aim with the paper is to examine the relations between curriculum content in a time of globalization on the one hand and evaluation and assessment on the other. In the paper I introduce the concept of literacy as a way to relate to globalization and diversity across curriculum subjects and curriculum content. With reference to Kalantzis & Cope (2000), different forms of education are defined by the way they handle diversity and their argument emanate from four basic forms of modern education: exclusion; assimilation; multiculturalism and pluralism. If assessment in literacy shall be considered as democratic in a way that ties it with equity and social justice, it is not enough to think of assessment as including a broad range of representations of texts, even if this is an important part. From the notion of “opportunity to learn”, assessment is discussed in relation to Gee:s six principles which he argues is developed to apply to assessment of all content areas.

     

     

  • 5732.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Standards-based curriculum: implications for teaching content and classroom discourses2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how international educational policy embedded in the structure and content of curriculum transforms into certain patterns in classroom teaching. The following two research questions are formulated: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of international education policy codified through national and classroom curriculum? How does international policy of standards-based curriculum influence teaching repertoires? The version of teaching that emerges in this study, interpreted in a broader context of an international standards movement, can best be defined as directed exploration based on the teacher’s role as an explorer of what the students know, think and understand in relation to the acquisition of knowledge prescribed in the curriculum’s knowledge requirements.

  • 5733.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Teachers’ curriculum work from a ‘capability approach’2013Ingår i: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network: 03. Curriculum Innovation, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to contrast a transnational perspective on teacher education from a mainly economic perspective, and a perspective on teacher education from a 'capabilities approach', developed by Amartya Sen (1999, 2009) and Martha Nussbaum (2000, 2007), to examine how ‘new’ and creative questions can generate new discourses concerning teacher competences that include, but is not dominated by, economical conditions. The research question is: How can the ‘capabilities approach’ contribute to develop a deepened understanding of teacher education policy as an important factor in the European struggle for reducing inequalities in curricula and learning?

     

    Theoretical framework

     

    From the perspective of education as a basic need and a key to all the human capabilities (Nussbaum 2007), teacher education concerns all nations, and we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities' does a specific teacher education discourse promote? As Sen (1999) notes, a capability is based on the freedom and power to do something and this power also can make room for demands of duty. Hence, the analytical question can be formulated as: what professional duties can be distinguished in transnational policy texts on teacher education?  Both Nussbaum and Sen try to create a space for understanding quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be. While Nussbaum (2000) relates the capabilities approach to rights for each person and emphasizes human dignity, Sen stresses the notion of “public reasoning”, i.e. a person’s capacity to read, communicate, participate, argue, being listened to, being able to make informed choices and decisions and to participate in democratic deliberations (Sen 1999). The link that can be drawn between the capabilities approach and cosmopolitanism is that the scope of the capability approach (as a philosophical work) applies “to all human beings independently of their country of birth or residence, and not only to social institutions but also to the social ethos and to social practices” (Robeyns 2011, p. 18).  Thus, I place the capabilities approach in the strand of cosmopolitanism that primarily understands cosmopolitanism as a moral claim of justice (Scheffler 2001).

     

    Methodology

    The questions are answered by analyses of international policy texts on teacher education, read through the lens of four key concepts developed from an analysis of the capabilities approach: 1) having a capacity to consider oneself as a citizen both in a nation and in the world; 2) having a capacity for critical examination of one’s own life as well as of others'; 3) having a capacity to develop an imaginative understanding for other people’s lives (Nussbaum 2006; 2007, p. 323); and 4) having a capacity to act as a member of a public, influencing the rest of the world (Sen 1999, p. 18). The analysis of the policy documents draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach by which I examine how policy texts on teacher education are legitimized by the use of concepts and arguments understood as specific social practices. A special focus in the analysis is the comparative strategy of identifying shifts and discontinuities in the vocabularies between different policy documents for teacher education, and in the naming and framing of teacher quality (c.f. Fairclough 2010 Bernstein 2000). Key documents are: Teachers Matter (OECD 2005); Improving the Quality of Teacher Education (EU 2007); The McKinsey Report (2007).

     

     

    Expected outcomes

    The scholarly significance of this paper is the application of the cosmopolitan perspective as a critical notion in terms of the capabilities approach.  Thus, the cosmopolitan perspective is displaced from a philosophical arena to a critical perspective used in empirical policy research on teacher education and its implication for local curricula.  Preliminary results show that teacher education in international policy documents is mainly discussed in terms of a ‘human capital’- discourse, based on economical concepts of promoting basic learning, teaching efficiency, resources for teaching. By examining the policy documents through a perspective of ‘capabilities’, it also becomes possible to make an alternative approach to the teachers’ curriculum work visible. In sum, in the first of the two discourses, the teacher’s task in relation to inequality is understood in terms of being an effective instructor working with the curriculum in accordance with ‘best practice’ in a top-down perspective; and in the second discourse, where inequality is related to a more inclusive idea of capability deprivation, the teacher's task is understood in terms of a local curriculum development based on deliberative conversations and self-reflection, an awareness of power relations, creative pedagogy  and a cosmopolitan orientation in a bottom-up perspective.

     

     

     

  • 5734.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    The changing Role of the State in a Denationalised Educational Policy Context2014Ingår i: Transnational Policy Flows in European Education: the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field / [ed] Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014, s. 159-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter the focus is on the changing role of the state and of citizenship education in a transnational landscape of educational policy. Drawing on Sassen and Schmidt it is argued that a denationalized conception of education means a transformed role of the state, rather than an elimination of its influence. The analysis from the Swedish example suggests that the role of the Swedish state has been transformed from an ‘enabling’ state to an ‘influencing-liberal’ state within a field of education policy. Even when the policy discourse is shaped in international cooperation with intergovernmental organisations it is recontextualised into national curricula in specific and selective ways. In the Swedish case this means that citizenship education in the most recent curriculum can be characterised as “social studies taught as social science”, based on human rights. In sum, the result shows that education in the Swedish context in the beginning of the 2000s can be conceptualised as a denationalised- instrumental conception of education.   

     

  • 5735.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The child in the public sphere: early literacy education in the intersection between the generalized and the concrete other2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of the paper I give some brief background to the newly introduced “required knowledge” in reading literacy for grade 3 in the Swedish compulsory school. After that I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion concerning the child/student in the public sphere, that is, in the school with its possibilities and its obligations; in this case the obligation is to take part in a national reading and writing test in grade 3 and to reach the required knowledge. In the third part of the paper I examine the basic political assumptions about literacy in general and on early reading literacy, in particular. This examination consists of studies of policy documents from both the international and national education policy arena, based on the hypothesis that the term “literacy” is primarily rooted in the OECD’s policy strategy.  In the fourth and final section, I discuss the implications of the right of the child to reach certain targets and the problems which might arise with taking part in national tests which might just show failures.  

  • 5736.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro University.
    The curriculum for secondary school viewed through the lens of transnationalism and equality: the Humanities and the subject of Swedish2013Ingår i: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ambiguous relation between the three concepts of globalization, knowledge and curriculum (Yates & Young 2010). A ‘knowledge economy’, through transnational institutions like the OECD and the EU, emphasizes standards, innovation and creativity; thus the contest on what counts as knowledge in national curricula implies a tension between the 'traditional' and 'essential' curriculum. This analysis is focused on the subject of Swedish in the Swedish secondary school, and its displacement through the last two curriculum reforms (1994 and 2011). First, the curriculum, with a focus on the subject of Swedish, is analyzed in relation to transnational and national policy concepts, as knowledge, creativity and innovation. Drawing on Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis, global and macro-regional discourses are recontextualized through dialectical processes of external ‘colonisation’ and internal ‘appropriation’. Second, the analysis is in particular focused on equity, analyzed and discussed in terms of the ‘capability approach’ (Unterhalter & Brighouse 2007), since there is evidence of reduced equivalence in the Swedish school system during the last decade. The analysis results are discussed from three ‘value’ perspectives: the instrumental, the positional, and the intrinsic value of education.

  • 5737.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The role of public education2011Ingår i: ECER 2011, Urban Education: Network: 13. Philosophy of Education - Standard submissions, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I suggest that vocabulary adapted to a public pluralism education, could be thought of as communicative literacies; with literacy understood in its significance of orientation towards the ‘outward’, based in communicative meaning making. If the purpose with public education is understood as pluralism education, we cannot use a vocabulary of (lonely) individuals looking for suitable knowledge and competences on a learning market or merely looking ‘inward’ towards single subject matters. Communicative literacy, associated with Dewey’s concepts of transaction and continuity, emphasizes a reflective, participative and critical attention.  Literacy, in its communicative sense, recognizing the continuity between students’ different literacies and their active ‘transactional’ involvement with their environment, makes it possible to understand public education as developing an informed, critical citizenry (c.f. Damico & Rosaen, 2009). The didactic question will be:  What sort of literacy do I invite my students to be members of? Is it possible for the students to ‘carry over’ some of their earlier experiences from other literacies into this literacy? As Alan Luke (2004, p. 1429) suggests, what if the vision of teaching is that teaching is a cosmopolitan work and profession, in a critical and contingent relation to cultural and economic globalization? If we, in line with Luke, think of teachers and students as world citizens, world thinkers and world critics – will communicative literacies, across subjects and time/space divisions, contribute to a notion of democratic public education, with emphasis on its purpose? 

  • 5738.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    The Struggle for the Right to Education in the European Convention on Human Rights2009Ingår i: Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1475-4835, E-ISSN 1475-4843, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 150-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses two central questions, namely on what grounds the right to education is justified in the European Convention on Human Rights, and in what terms we can understand the tensions between the right of a child, as a social right, and the right of a parent, as a civil right. I argue that two main reasons served as grounds for a universal right to education; one being the social right of children to free education and the other being to secure an education that was not indoctrinating. In the preparatory work of the article on the right to education the main contests were about who was to protect the child from indoctrination, the state or the parents. I suggest that the contest wae not really about education but about the relation between the state and religion, or where to draw the line between the public and the private.

  • 5739.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    The travelling reform agenda: the Swedish case through the lens of the OECD2018Ingår i: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, s. 15-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the central theme is the consequences of an individual country turning to an intergovernmental organisation, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), to have its school systems assessed by an authoritative educational policy actor. This analysis adheres to current comparative research policy borrowing and lending, where national policy-makers project their policy agendas into ‘international standards’ and international judgements to justify their own educational policy reform agenda. The assumption is that national policy-makers with lengthy conflicts in a policy field such as education are likely to turn their attention to another country’s educational system to legitimise their national policy; that is, they use another country as a ‘projection’ for their internal debates (Steiner-Khamsi, 2012; Takayama et al., 2013 ). In this case, the OECD instead uses its transnational policy as a ‘projection’ for a good and ‘evidence-based’ policy that is applied to a long-debated national school system. However, when a transnational reform agenda works as the lens through which an individual country’s school system is to be judged, it might be quite difficult to catch sight of the local/national school system. Instead, the transnational perspective tends to dominate and obscure the character of the national school system that is under the magnifying glass. In the present analysis, two different approaches are brought together in a common framework: curriculum theory (CT) and discursive institutionalism (DI).

  • 5740.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Toward a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Cosmopolitanism on the Ground2014Ingår i: Curriculum inquiry, ISSN 0362-6784, E-ISSN 1467-873X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 113-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a continuum of resistance and receptivity constitutes a framework forunderstanding a cosmopolitan orientation “on the ground.” Such a continuum isbased on an understanding of the effects of globalization, when it comes to individualpeople, as both containing a potential for an active interest in other ways oflife, and a resistance toward others’ values and ways of living triggered by a feelingof being forced into situations without one’s own voluntarily choice. The notion ofcontinuum implies that each individual occupies a different position depending onthe situation and context, and that these positions can shift. In the conceptual useof cosmopolitanism in empirical studies, there is need for more developed andspecified terms to be used as analytical tools for discerning if and when somethingmay be considered as a possible cosmopolitan orientation. For this purpose, thefour capacities for self-reflexivity, hospitality, intercultural dialogue and transactionsof perspectives, are developed out of Delanty’s understanding of criticalcosmopolitanism. To be able to distinguish between institutionalized routineconversations and conversations that seem to engage the students in a more activecosmopolitan meaning making, the continuum of efferent and aesthetic-reflectiveexperiences, taken from Rosenblatt’s studies of reading, has been suggested. A preliminary analysis of data from an empirical research study focused on classroomconversations, and contextualized by an analysis of a curriculum concerning fundamentalvalues, indicates that it is possible to discern different discursive actionsof self-reflexivity and hospitality in classroom conversations, as well as a potential for intercultural dialogue.

  • 5741.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Transnational policy discourses on teacher education: A cosmopolitan perspective2014Ingår i: Abstracts. NERA 42nd Congress, Education for Sustainable Development, N 5. The Curriculum Research Network, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy (e.g. Grek et al. 2009; Grek & Ozga 2010; Dale & Robertson 2009). A ‘global education policy’, circulating, transformed and ‘borrowed’ between international education policy arenas and nations (c.f. Steiner-Khamsi 2012), has emphasised concepts such as ‘effective teaching’ and ‘teacher quality’ which has had the effect that teacher training has become a focal point for policy interest.

    The aim with this paper is instead to understand transnational policy texts from a cosmopolitan perspective. The purpose is two-fold: to analyze the characteristics of teacher education and the role of the teacher in transnational authoritative texts from a cosmopolitan perspective; and to analyze the field of tension between an economic cosmopolitan approach and a moral cosmopolitan approach.  

    Drawing on the perspective that education is a basic need and a fundamental right for all (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999), and “the key to all the human capabilities” (Nussbaum 2007), we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities'  a specific conception of teacher education promote.  The capabilities approach focus on human agencies and on the removal of substantial unfreedoms through education (Garnett 2009), by including the possibilities of agency in relation to material and social resources as well as issues of identity (Walker & Unterhalter 2007). Both Nussbaum and Sen are seeking to create a space for understanding a sustainable quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be; their actual capabilities.

    The text analysis is based on three main documents, and a number of follow up documents linked to each of these key documents from the OECD, the EU and McKinsey&Company.

    The result shows the centrality of the concept of reflection: as ‘best practice’ in a top-down perspective or as ‘reflexivity’ as a cosmopolitan orientation from a bottom-up perspective. The latter includes recognizing the relation between the well-known and the foreign, and a historical understanding of the teaching situation, the teachers find themselves in.

  • 5742.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Transnational policy discourses on teacher education: A cosmopolitan perspective2015Ingår i: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 801-816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I analyse some of the transnational ‘authoritative’ policy documents on teacher education and teacher development from a cosmopolitan perspective. The purpose is to explore the possibilities for analysing the characteristics of teacher education and the role of the teacher in transnational texts from a cosmopolitan perspective in order to explore the field of tension between an economic cosmopolitan approach and a moral cosmopolitan approach to justice. Mainly drawing on Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, I argue that it is possible to go beyond a limited economic perspective in order to make an alternative approach to teacher education visible, where the possibility to revitalize and reconstruct local school activities is in focus. One conclusion is that teacher education in transnational policy texts can be understood both within a ‘reification discourse’ and within a ‘reflexivity discourse’. An important distinction between the two discourses is the understanding of critical reflections as related to evidence-based standards or to an understanding of an individual’s positionality, relationality and historicity.

  • 5743.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Understanding the universal right to education as jurisgenerative politics and democratic iterations2009Ingår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 520-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT This article examines how the universal human right to education can be understood in terms of what Seyla Benhabib considers ‘democratic iterations’. Further, by referring to the concept of jurisgenerative politics, Benhabib argues that a democratic people reinterpret guiding norms and principles which they find themselves bound to, through iterative acts, so that they are not only the subjects but also the authors of laws. By examining the use of the Article of the universal right to education in the European Convention on Human Rights, not as an Article with an unambiguous meaning, but as an Article which from its very start was the subject of different interpretations and desires, the author argues for an understanding of the process of transforming universal rights into national law and norms as democratic iterations. This way of conceiving democratic iterations is examined empirically, with Sweden as an example, by analyses of three different discursive arenas: a political/legal arena; an arena concerning political contests over independent schools; and a more limited arena for advocating denominational schools. The conclusion is that two different disjunctions – between universal norms and national self-determination and between law as power and law as meaning – are productive interspaces for renegotiating and rearticulating universal law into local/national norms

  • 5744.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Utbildningens villkor: globalisering och lokal mångfald2011Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 29-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conditions of education - globalization and local plurality. Taking some of my previous research as a point of departure, in this inaugural lecture I want to formulate a conception of education that reflects some principles that are specific for the period starting with the Educational Reform 1991. With gradual displacements this reform is still going on. Through an analysis of three different arenas within a framework of curriculum theory; the society arena, the governing- and curricula arena, and the arena of the local school and classroom, it is possible to characterize these arenas in terms of internationalization, management by demand and control, and individual choice. It may be argued that this is a new conception of education; a denationalized – instrumental conception. The national education arena becomes denationalized in two ways: globally there is an increasing influence by transnational organizations (and corporations); and locally, the privatization of schools has been extensive. The conception is instrumental in its basic assumption that there is a fairly simple connection between clearly expressed demands and the productivity of school.  

  • 5745.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Utbildningens villkor II - en denationaliserad utbildningskonception2014Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 77-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In my inaugural lecture at the Linnaeus University in May 2014, I explored the policy discourse of a denationalized-instrumental understanding of school and education as I introduced in a corresponding lecture at Örebro University 2011(Wahlström 2011) and which since then has been the recurring focus of my research interest. The theme concerns the relationship between social change and perceptions of social needs on the one hand and the implications for what counts as knowledge and good education on the other hand. The article discusses globalization and the changing role of the state, with Europeanization as one of the consequences of globalization. In recent years, the EU has broadened its influence by also including the Member States' compulsory schools and their curricula in its policy. In the article, results from analyzes of the Swedish curriculum for compulsory school, Lgr 11, from the perspectives of curriculum typology, citizenship education and equity are presented.  

  • 5746.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    Vad krävs av en demokratisk skola? John Deweys Demokrati och utbildning i ett läroplansteoretiskt nutidsperspektiv2016Ingår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 51-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What is required of a democratic school? John Dewey's Democracy and Education in a contemporary curriculum theory perspective

    The purpose of this article is to explore a topical issue raised by John Dewey in his book Democracy and Education: How shall we secure the diversity of interests, without paying the price of isolation? To problematize the tension between individuals’ beliefs, desires and needs and a society’s need for cohesion, I read Dewey’s book through a lens of curriculum theory to elucidate the role of the school as deeply imbedded in the society's interpretation of the concept of democracy. By analyzing the society arena, the programmatic arena and the classroom arena in Democracy and Education, it becomes clear that the fundamental principles for democracy in society also have implications for the curriculum and the teaching in classroom. By recognizing the democratic needs of a lively dialogue between different social groups, and to base the school on such a principle, we can reduce the risk that pluralism is manifested in the form of isolated communities and enclaves.   

  • 5747.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap (UV).
    When policy reaches classrooms2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In educational research, educational policy is often discussed in terms of events, time and space connected to international and national arenas (e.g. Lawn & Grek 2012, Meyer & Benavot 2013, Rizvi & Lingard 2010). In this paper, the contextualization of policy is instead the local arena. The paper examines local responses of transnational/national policy at a classroom level. The study can be viewed as a response to two of the questions posed at the website of NW 23: “How do we conceptualise and understand the procedures and constraints of policy making at the local level?” and “How is policy received, perceived and used by different social actors?” [e.g. the teachers]. The paper is part of the project ‘Understanding curriculum reforms: a theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11’, financed by the Swedish Research Council. The purpose of the paper is to explore how education policy, both enabled and constrained by transnational policy flows as well as national policy built up by social, cultural and historical traditions, is enacted through curriculum on the classroom level, in terms of ‘curriculum events’ (Doyle 1992). More specifically, the aim is to explore how policy rationality embedded in the structure and content of curriculum transforms into a specific rationality of classroom teaching. The research questions are: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of education policy codified through curriculum? What different rationalities, linked to education policy as enacted in curriculum, may underlie certain patterns of teaching repertoires?

  • 5748.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    When transnational curriculum policy reaches classrooms - teaching as directed exploration2018Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 654-668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore how education policy that is both enabled and constrained by transnational policy flows and national policy built up by social, cultural and historical traditions are enacted through curriculum at the classroom level. The focus is on how policy rationality embedded in the structure and content of curriculum is transformed into certain rationalities in classroom teaching. By understanding lessons as curriculum events', the study reveals a dominant classroom discourse of recitation and similar triadic communication patterns, which is in accordance with other classroom studies. However, in the article it is argued that the version of teaching that emerges in this study, interpreted in a broader context of an international standards movement, can be understood in terms of directed exploration based on the teacher's role as an explorer of what the students know, think and understand in relation to the acquisition of knowledge prescribed in the curriculum's knowledge requirements. Even though the form of recitation is well known, the reason for choosing this teaching repertoire is somewhat new and can be related to the teacher authoring a basic oral text in accordance with assessment standards.

  • 5749.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Where is ‘the political’ in curriculum research?2018Ingår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 711-723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an overview in connection with the 50th anniversary of the Journal ofCurriculum Studies (JCS), this article begins with John Dewey’s notion thatall educational actions carry philosophical implications. The tensionbetween different education-research philosophies, between non-socialand social education philosophies in Dewey’s terms, becomes visible inan overview of articles published during the past 50 years of the JCS.Therefore, the purpose here is to explore in what different forms and inwhat different spaces the political takes shape in curriculum research.Policies on education always address fundamental political questions inthe sense that debates on education inevitably include alternative viewsof good education and good society. Instead of looking for the political,it seems to be more fruitful to look for different ways of expressing thepolitical. This, in turn, might contribute to a more nuanced debate onwhich political perspectives will be most productive in developing thecurriculum research field. Three views on ‘the political’ are identified. Thefirst is a personal, ‘over-socialized’ view based on personal experiences,the second is a ‘social’ view that focuses on social interactions andsocietal implications, and the third is an impersonal, ‘under-socialized’view based on ‘science’.

  • 5750.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Who is the 'dreamteacher'?: teacher education policy from a critical cosmopolitan perspective2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Phelan & Sumsion (2008) raised the question about what is, and what is not, perceived in teacher education, from the premise that until we can address what is absent, it will be difficult to catch sight of an alternative teacher education. In this paper I examine policy texts on teacher education, as authoritative and discursive influential texts, through a cosmopolitan lens. The purpose of the study is to contrast a (perceived) internationalized perspective on teacher education with economical overtones, and a (not perceived) perspective on teacher education from a 'capabilities approach', developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, to examine how ‘new’ questions can generate new discourses concerning teacher competences. The question posed here is: How can the ‘capabilities approach’ contribute to develop a deepened understanding of teacher education policy as an important factor in the struggle for reducing inequalities and poverty?  

    Introduction

    From the perspective of education as a basic need and a fundamental right for all (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999); and with Nussbaum’s words “the key to all the human capabilities” (Nussbaum 2007, p. 322), teacher education concerns all nations, and we can ask, from a cosmopolitan perspective, which 'sets of capabilities' does a specific teacher education promote? For example, does this specific teacher education pay attention to a range of perspectives, global as well as national and local, or does it narrow the scope of educational questions to themes of skills and basic knowledge?  As Sen (1999, p. 19) notes, a capability is based on the freedom and power to do something and this power also can make room for demands of duty. Hence, the analytical question can be formulated as: what professional duties are emphasized in transnational policy texts on teacher education?  

     

    Background

    There is an increasing income inequality in OECD countries. It first started in the United Kingdom and the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but from the late 1980s the increase in income inequality became more widespread. In the beginning of the 2000s, there is a widening gap between the rich and the poor, both in high-inequality countries and in traditionally low-inequality countries. Examples of the latter are Germany, Denmark and Sweden, where inequality grew more than in other OECD countries in the 2000s (OECD 2011a). When it comes to inequality patterns for the seven largest emerging economies, they all have levels of income inequality significantly higher than the OECD average (OECD 2011b). The concept of poverty in these findings is perceived as a relative measure: as the difference between the group who have the lowest income and the group who have the highest income (OECD 2011a). The European Union Member States, who also are Member States in the OECD, have as one of their targets for “Europe 2020” to reduce the number of Europeans living below the national poverty lines with 25 % (or 20 million people). So poverty, or inequality, is a current problem also in ‘rich’ countries. As part of the efforts to tackle poverty, EU has formulated another, interrelated, target: to reduce early school leavers from 15% to 10 % in 2020 (European Commission 2010). On the African continent the conditions are different, and poverty is here measured in more absolute terms. According to the African Union Commission (2009, p. 14), a third of the people in much of the Continent are underfed and more than 40 per cent live in conditions of poverty. The conclusion that can be drawn from policy documents and reports from these three international policy organizations are that though the underlying forces of inequality are different between the OECD countries, the emerging economy nations and the countries on the African continent, education are on the list of proposed policy solutions for all three organizations. The policy recommendations claims that access to basic education and higher educational attainment are important; however, to serve as effective tools against poverty these opportunities also must be spread more widely between different social groups (OECD 2011a,b, European Commission 2010, African Union Commission 2009). As shown above, there is no absolute definition of poverty. In the paper I use the poverty definition formulated by the OECD: “An income level that is considered minimally sufficient to sustain a family in terms of food, housing, clothing, medical needs and so on” (OECD glossary), and contrast it with Sen’s (1999, p. 75) definition of capability as “the freedom to achieve alternative functioning combinations.”

     

    Theoretical framework

    The new global knowledge economy is based in an understanding of the economic importance of education. Michael Peters distinguishes between a view of a knowledge economy which posits the economy as subordinate to the state and as providing grounds for ‘education as a welfare right and the recognition of knowledge rights as a basis for social inclusion and informed citizenship’, and a view that sees the knowledge economy only in the service of trade and industry (Peters 2001, p. 13). In the international arena, organizations like the OECD and the European Union have increased their efforts in the field of educational policy (e.g. Grek et al. 2009; Grek & Ozga 2010; Dale & Robertson 2009). A ‘global education policy’, circulating, transformed and ‘borrowed’ between international education policy arenas and nations, has emphasised concepts such as ‘quality assurance’ and ‘teacher quality’ which has had the effect that teacher training has become a focal point for policy interest. In research on international educational policy, exemplified by the references above, the research results are centered around concepts as ‘globalization’ and ‘marketization’. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) have also marked an increased interest in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerning education during the last two decades, and the collaboration between the two forms of organizations has been intensified, exemplified by the Education for All movement (EFA ) and the Global Campaign for Education (GCE); where in the latter, Oxfam International has played a leading role (Munday & Murphy 2001). In the paper, I complement the current research on international policy of education with a cosmopolitan perspective; and more specifically, with the perspective of ‘capablities approach’. According to Amartya Sen (1999), there is a strong case for seeing poverty as deprivation of basic capabilities and not only, which is the most commonly used in international comparisons, as lack of income and wealth. “The shift in perspective is important in giving us a different – and more directly relevant – view on poverty not only in the developing countries, but also in the more affluent societies” (Sen 1999, p. 20).     

    The relation between cosmopolitanism and the 'capabilities approach', with Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum as its proponents, is ambiguous. Hansen (2011) understands the capabilities approach as part of an economic cosmopolitanism, influenced by values from political and moral cosmopolitanism, in its arguing for a bottom-up perspective on human capabilities, while acknowledging the need for institutional support. There are both similarities and differences in Nussbaum’s and Sen’s concepts of capabilities. Both agree on Sen’s attempt to create a space for understanding quality of life as what people are actually able to do or to be. Nussbaum, however, more explicitly relates the capabilities approach to rights for each person (Nussbaum 2000, p. 13). Further, while Nussbaum emphasizes the notion of “human dignity”, Sen stresses the notion of “public reasoning”, i.e. a person’s capacity to read, communicate, participate, argue, being listened to, being able to make informed choices and decisions and to participate in democratic deliberations (Nussbaum 2000, Sen 1999). The link that can be drawn between the capabilities approach and cosmopolitanism is that the scope of the capability approach (as a philosophical work) applies “to all human beings independently of their country of birth or residence, and not only to social institutions but also to the social ethos and to social practices” (Robeyns 2011, p. 18).  Thus, I place the capabilities approach in the strand of cosmopolitanism that primarily understands cosmopolitanism as a principle of justice; in contrast to the other main strand that understands cosmopolitanism as culture (Scheffler 2001). An additional clarification can be made by contrasting institutional and moral cosmopolitanism, and thereby placing cosmopolitan global justice as premised on moral cosmopolitanism. The moral cosmopolitan view is based on the assumption that individuals are entitled to equal concern regardless of their nationality; but the focus is not on global institution building (Tan 2002). In sum, I view the capabilities approach as a moral claim on justice in a moderate version; that is, recognizing the distinction between social justice within a society, and norms of global justice as an addition to, but not as a replacement of, national principles of justice (c.f. Scheffler 2001). As Robeyns (2011) notes, the capability approach can serve, not only as analysis of inequality in developing countries, but also as a framework for policy evaluations in economically developed communities (c.f. Sen above).

    Method

    The questions raised in this proposal will be answered by analyses of international policy texts on teacher education, read through the lens of four key concepts developed from an analysis of the capabilities approach: 1) having a capacity to consider oneself as a citizen both in a nation and in the world; 2) having a capacity for critical examination of one’s own life as well as of others'; 3) having a capacity to develop an imaginative understanding for other people’s lives (Nussbaum 2006; 2007, p. 323); and 4) having a capacity to act as a member of a public, influencing the rest of the world (Sen 1999, p. 18). The analysis of the policy documents draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach by which I examine how policy texts on teacher education are legitimized by the use of concepts and arguments understood as specific social practices. A special focus in the analysis is the comparative strategy of identifying shifts and discontinuities in the vocabularies between different policy documents for teacher education, and in the naming and framing of teacher quality (c.f. Fairclough 2010 Bernstein 2000).

    Data sources, evidence, objects or materials

    In order to grasp the role of the teacher and its implications for teacher education expressed in different international policy documents, the discourse analysis is based on three main documents, and a number of follow up documents linked to each of these key documents. The key documents are: Teachers Matter. Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers (OECD 2005); Improving the Quality of Teacher Education (European Commission 2007) and Second Decade of Education for Africa 2006-2015 (African Union 2006).

     

    Results

    The preliminary results show that teacher education in international policy documents is mainly discussed in terms of a ‘human capital’- discourse, based on economical concepts of promoting basic learning, teaching efficiency, resources for teaching; and, specifically concerning OECD, the acknowledgement of diversity. At the same time, each of the three organizations' key texts has its own specific emphasis. By examining the policy of teacher education through a perspective of ‘capabilities’, it also becomes possible to make an alternative approach to teacher education and programs for anti-poverty visible. The key factor in this latter perspective is the individual freedom as a two-way relationship - to be able to act and to be able to bring about change. In sum, in the first of the two discourses, the teacher’s task in relation to inequality is understood in terms of being an effective instructor; and in the second discourse, where poverty is related to a more inclusive idea of capability deprivation, the teacher's task is understood in terms of communication and self-reflection, emphasizing an awareness of power relations, reflectivity, deliberations and a cosmopolitan orientation.

     

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