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  • 5801. Zohari, Siamak
    et al.
    Gyarmati, P.
    Ejdersund, A.
    Berglöf, U.
    Thorén, P.
    Ehrenberg, M.
    Czifra, G.
    Belak, S.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Björn
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Berg, M.
    Phylogenetic analysis of the non-structural (NS) gene of influenza A viruses isolated from mallards in Northern Europe in 20052008In: Virology Journal, ISSN 1743-422X, E-ISSN 1743-422X, Vol. 5, no Article ID: 147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although the important role of the non-structural 1 (NS) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established, our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses in their natural reservoirs in Europe is incomplete. In this study we determined the subtypes and prevalence of influenza A viruses present in mallards in Northern Europe and further analysed the NS gene of these isolates in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of influenza A virus in their natural hosts. Results: A total number of 45 influenza A viruses of different subtypes were studied. Eleven haemagglutinin-and nine neuraminidase subtypes in twelve combinations were found among the isolated viruses. Each NS gene reported here consisted of 890 nucleotides; there were no deletions or insertions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present at the same time in the same geographic location in the mallard populations in Northern Europe. A comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolated viruses revealed a substantial number of silent mutations, which results in high degree of homology in amino acid sequences. The degree of variation within the alleles is very low. In our study allele A viruses displays a maximum of 5% amino acid divergence while allele B viruses display only 2% amino acid divergence. All the viruses isolated from mallards in Northern Europe possessed the typical avian ESEV amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end of the NSI protein. Conclusion: Our finding indicates the existence of a large reservoir of different influenza A viruses in mallards population in Northern Europe. Although our phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that two distinct gene pools, corresponding to both NS allele A and B, were present in the mallards populations in Northern Europe, allele B viruses appear to be less common in natural host species than allele A, comprising only about 13% of the isolates sequenced in this study.

  • 5802. Zopf, David
    et al.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dakour, J
    Wang, W T
    Lundblad, Arne
    Analysis and Purification of Oligosaccharides by High Performance Liquid Affinity Chromatography1989In: Methods in Enzymology, ISSN 0076-6879, E-ISSN 1557-7988, Vol. 179, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5803.
    Zuko, Irfan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Zetterbjörk, Martin
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Integration genom Idrott och hälsa: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av hur elever med utomeuropeisk etnicitet upplever ämnet Idrott och hälsa som en integrationsarena2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsämnet som en möjlig väg till integration har under de senaste tre decennierna fått allt mer uppmärksamhet i forskarvärlden. Forskare har hävdat att integrering, både in i skolans och samhällets struktur, har stora möjligheter att ske genom användandet av idrott som ett internationellt och kulturöverskridande språk. Emellertid har dessa slutsatser till stor del dragits utan att fråga skolelever med en utomeuropeisk etnicitet om vad deras upplevelser kring skolidrotten som en integrationsarena är. Syftet med vår undersökning är att undersöka vilka upplevelser elever med utomeuropeisk etnicitet har av idrottsämnet som integrationsarena. Genom att ta reda på deras åsikter och upplevelser hoppas vi kunna få en bättre uppfattning om idrottsämnet har eller inte har en integrerande roll och i så fall på vilket sätt. Vi har gjort en kvalitativ undersökning med öppna riktade intervjuer. Respondenterna utgörs av sex elever med utomeuropeisk etnicitet, som alla går i gymnasieskolan. Samtliga elever har vistats i Sverige i högst sju år vilket gör att de kan antas genomgå en integrationsprocess. Undersökningen visar att elever upplever idrottsämnet som en möjlig integrationsarena, dock skiljer sig deras åsikter åt i många avseenden. De upplever i olika grad idrottsämnet som en plats där de kommer i kontakt med den svenska kulturen, där de får en större förståelse för olika platser i samhället samt där de har en möjlighet att skapa vänner som de umgås med i skolan och på fritiden. Undersökningen visar också att möjligheterna till integration påverkar elevernas förutsättningar för innanförskap. Bland annat dessa aspekter gör att idrottsämnet kan ses som en arena som skapar förutsättningar för integration in i den svenska skolan men även in i det svenska samhället.

  • 5804. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Allard, P
    Panaretakis, T
    Pattison-Granberg, J
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Proton- and Sodium-Coupled Phosphate transport Systems and Energy Status of Yarrowia lipolytica Cells Grown in Acidic and Alkaline Conditions2001In: Journal of membrane biology, Vol. 183, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5805. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Allard, P
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Two systems for phosphate uptake in Yarrowia lipolytica cells grown at acidic conditions2000In: IUBMB Life, Vol. 49, p. 143-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5806. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Andreishcheva, E
    Soares, M I M
    Khozin, I
    Berhe, A
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Leaf-Inhabiting Osmo-, Salt-, and Alkali-Tolerant Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast Strain2001In: Journal of basic microbiology, Vol. 41, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5807. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Lundh, Fredrik
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Samyn, Dieter R.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granberg, Johanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Mouillon, Jean-Marie
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Popova, Yulia
    Thevelein, Johan
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Characterization of the Pho89 phosphate transporter by functional hyperexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.2008In: FEMS yeast research (Print), ISSN 1567-1356, E-ISSN 1567-1364, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 685-696Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5808. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Parchamenko, O A
    Gordeeva, A V
    Deryabina, Y I
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bioenergetics of Yarrowia lipolytica cells grown at alkaline conditions2004In: Bioscience reports, Vol. 24, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5809. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Parchomenko, O
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Phosphate uptake systems in Yarrowia lipolytica cells grown under alkaline conditions2000In: IUBMB Life, Vol. 50, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5810. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A novel alkali-tolerant Yarrowia lipolytica strain for dissecting Na+-coupled phosphate transport systems in yeasts2005In: Cell biology international, Vol. 29 (1), p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5811. Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt L.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dual regulation of Proton- and Sodium-coupled Phosphate Transport Systems in the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by Phosphate and Extracellular pH2003In: IUBMB Life, Vol. 55, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5812.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Factors controlling accumulation of labile dissolved organic carbon in the Gulf of Riga1999In: Estuarine costal and Shelf Science, Vol. 48, p. 357-370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5813.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marin syntes. Underlag för formulering av nya forskningsprogram2007Report (Other academic)
  • 5814.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Blackburn, N.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Cycling of marine dissolved organic matter: I. An experimental system.1996In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 11, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5815.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Total counts of marine bacteria include a large fraction of non-DNA containing ghosts.1995In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 61, p. 2180-2185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5816.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Norrman, B.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Consumption of dissolved organic carbon by marine bacteria and demand for inorganic nutrients.1993In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 101, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5817.
    Zweifel, Ulla Li
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wikner, J.
    Hagström, Åke
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lundberg, E.
    Norrman, B.
    Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon in a Coastal Ecosystem.1995In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 40, p. 299-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5818. Zygmunt, P K
    et al.
    Persson, Katarina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Alm, P
    Larsson, B
    Andersson, K-E
    The L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the rabbit urethral lamina propria1993In: Acta physiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 148, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5819.
    Ämtvall, Therese
    et al.
    University of Kalmar. University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Ingvarsson, Jessica
    University of Kalmar. University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Akuta hjälp- och stödinsatser inom psykiatrin: Vad är det som påverkar psykiatrins selektering och bedömning av de individer som söker akuta hjälp- och stödinsatser?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the authors are focusing on people that work in psychiatric acute care. How do they identify the individual that is in most need of acute care? How do they judge in this kind of cases?

       The foundation in this study is in the qualitative method. The material to this study has been collected by doing qualitative interviews with six people in different professions and positions in psychiatric acute care.

       The material that we collected from these six qualitative interviews has been analysed with help from Sherif’s and Hovland’s (1961) Social judgement theory. The theory describes people’s judgement based on certain criterions and how it affects them. 

       It has been noticed that the individuals who asses first acute care are usually the ones that has a suicidal behavior. The resources are decreasing while the need for psychiatric acute care is increasing. The personell have to make decisions about which individual that are in most need of acute care. Their judgments are very important for the indiviuals in need of immediate care. This judgement can be depending on which individual who is doing the judgemet. This paper has given us comprehension for the immortance of good individual properties for doing judgements, and that they are made in several positions.

  • 5820.
    Åberg, Lars
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ask, Andreas
    University of Kalmar, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Stormhamnar: En jämförelse av tre rundvirkeshanterande svenska hamnar2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har i detta examensarbete undersökt och jämfört hur olika hamnar har påverkats av och hanterat det stora flödet av rundvirke efter stormarna Gudrun och Per. Vi har även försökt få en bild av vilka strategier hamnarna har tillämpat för att hantera situationen som uppstår när det stormfällda virket tar slut.

    Vi kan se att hamnarnas verksamhet har påverkats ganska stort under en kortare period, då extra personal har anställts, utrustning har köpts in och transportflöden ändrat riktning. Vi kan också se att hamnarna är väl förberedda på den situation som uppstår, då förändring är en del av hamnarnas normaltillstånd och något som alltid måste göras. Beroende på hamnarnas initiala förutsättningar skiljer sig också strategierna för förändringsarbetet åt.

  • 5821. Åberg, R
    et al.
    Cigéhn, G
    Drugge, Ulf
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Johansson, M
    Jonsson, K
    Moquist, I
    Perlinski, M
    Tåhlin, M
    Social förändring i Sverige - Katrineholmsprojektet1988Report (Other academic)
  • 5822.
    Åkesson, Hanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Behandling av psoriasisartrit med biologiska läkemedel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psoriasisartrit (PsA) är en inflammatorisk ledsjukdom som förekommer hos patienter med hudsjukdomen psoriasis. Sjukdomen kan se väldigt olika ut hos olika patienter, allt från några få till väldigt många leder kan vara drabbade. Det är ofta de distala lederna i fingrar och tår som drabbas men även större leder kan ge symtom. Daktylit (korvliknande svullnader av fingrar och tår) och entesit (smärtsamma inflammationer vid seninfästen) är sjukdomsspecifika kännetecken. Vid PsA angriper immunförsvaret kroppens egna vävnader och den inflammatoriska reaktion som uppstår hålls igång och blir kronisk. Man har hittat höga nivåer av TNF-α i ledvätskan och i vävnaden hos patienter med PsA. TNF-α är ett cytokin som på flera olika sätt stimulerar inflammationen. Också höga nivåer av T-lymfocyter kan ses i angripen vävnad vid PsA. PsA kan behandlas med biologiska läkemedel. TNF-α-hämmarna adalimumab, etanercept och infliximab verkar genom att hämma funktionen hos TNF-α medan alefacept och efalizumab angriper T-cellerna genom att på olika sätt blockera den andra signalen i T-cellsaktiveringen. Syftet med den här litteraturstudien var att utreda den kliniska effekten och effekten på strukturella skador som dessa biologiska läkemedel har vid psoriasisartrit. Litteratursökningen gjordes i PubMed. Resultatet visade att alefacept, adalimumab, infliximab och etanercept har klinisk effekt vid PsA. De tre TNF-α-hämmarna inhiberade dessutom de strukturella skador som orsakas av sjukdomen. Det fanns ingen studie med alefacept som utredde effekten på strukturella skador, vilket skulle vara intressant att se i framtiden. Behandling med efalizumab visade sig däremot inte ha någon klinisk effekt vid PsA.

  • 5823.
    Åkesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Nilsson, Gunilla
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Health care consumers' experiences of information communication technology: A summary of litterature2007In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, Vol. 76, no 9, p. 633-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an increasing interest in reaching consumers directly through the Internet and different telecommunication systems. The most important contacts in health care will always be the face-to-face meetings, but the tools of health informatics can be seen as a means to an end, which is to provide the best possible health care. A variety of applications have been described in different references. To our knowledge there has been no review of a research-based state of the art in the field of consumers’ experiences in using different applications in health informatics. According to the benefits in using information communication technology (ICT) as being cost-effective and timesaving it is of great importance to focus on and examine consumers’ experiences. It is important that it is user friendly and regarded as valuable and useful.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe consumers’ subjective experiences of using electronic resources with reference to health and illness.

    Design and/or method: A systematic literature search was performed in databases CINAHL, Medline and Cochrane, as well as a manual search. Retrieved references (n = 14) were appraised according to their scientific structure and quality. A broad search was performed in order to find as many different applications as possible. Our primary intention was to identify existing references describing consumers’ experiences with ICT.

    Results: In spite of this broad search few references were found. Twelve references remained and three themes were identified: support and help, education and information, and telecommunication instead of on-site visiting. Consumers felt more confident and empowered, their knowledge increased and their health status improved due to the ICT resources. Lack of face-to-face meetings or privacy did not appear to be a problem.

    Conclusion: ICT can improve the nurse–patient relationship and augment well-being for consumers. More research is needed to measure consumers’ experiences and factors that influence it.

  • 5824.
    Åkesson, Peter
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Bandesign för Multiplayerspel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport är en undersökning om hur man gör en bana i ett FPS-spel så att banan blirintressant och rolig så att så många spelare som möjligt vill spela den. För att komma framtill det har jag skapat en bana i Hammer till spelet Team Fortress 2 för att göra vissa testerpå den för att därigenom komma fram till mitt resultat.

    Slutligen kom jag fram till att det viktigaste när man skapar en bana är variation och att hamed något som passar alla. Dessutom kan det ha en viss vikt hur banan ser ut annarskommer folk inte ens testa banan.

  • 5825.
    Åkesson-Nilsson, Gunilla
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Isolation of chlorinated fatty acid methyl estsers derived from cell-culture medium and from fish lipids by using an aminopropyl solid-phase extraction column.2003In: J. Chrom. A, Vol. 996(2003)173-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5826.
    Åkesson-Nilsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Olle
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Wesén, Claes
    New halogen-specific detector applied to the analysis of chlorinated fatty acids2001In: J Chrom. A, Vol. 912 (2001)99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5827.
    Åkesson-Nilsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Wesén, Claes
    Structural characterisation of 5,6-dichlorotetradecanoic acid, an isolated metabolite of 9,10-dichlorooctadecanoic acid, by studying picolinyl esters, pyrrolidides and methyl esters with electron ionisation mass spectrometry.2004In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 39 (2004) 1313-1320.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5828.
    Ålund, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, School of Communication and Design.
    Gravvård för nya tider: Utvecklingsprocessen av en gravvård för glasbruket Mats Jonasson Målerås2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om framtagandet av en gravvård för glasbruket Mats Jonasson Målerås och behandlar gravvårdens historiska utveckling i Sverige -med fokus på kyrkogårdarna i Kalmar-, analyserar dagens gravvårdsmarknad, kyrkogårdens och gravskickens framtida utveckling, Mats Jonasson Målerås historia och nuläge samt därefter den fortsatta designprocessen från skiss till produktionsklar artefakt.

    Gravvårdsmarknaden är en marknad som är i behov av förnyelse och förändring. 1990 lättades reglerna kring gravvårdars utseende upp markant och vid millenieskiftet skildes kyrka och stat, vilket tillsammans med den ökade kulturella mångfalden i samhället ökat intresset för en kyrkogård som också speglar detta.

    En stor förändring har skett i användandet av symbolik och dekor på gravvårdarna som också fått ett enligt mig alltför slumpmässigt uttryck. Detta kanske till följd av att död och åldrande är mer eller mindre tabu i samhället vi lever och därigenom har denna marknad blivit en som få designers gett sig in på och som i Sverige fått litet medialt utrymme.

    Jag har i detta projekt skapat en gravvård som är ett försök till att göra gravvårdsmarknaden mer varierad och kyrkogården en mer spännande plats att besöka. Vården kan även vara ett bidrag till att etablera en på denna marknad ny aktör; Mats Jonasson Målerås och deras varumärke Målerås Spirit.

    Resultatet är en gravvård skapt efter brukets tillverkningsmöjligheter och processer, i gjuten kristall och gjutet järn. Material som andas tradition medan det i formen finns ett nytänk. Gravvården är skapt för att kunna ses runt om. Något som bidrar till ett intressantare formspråk när även djupet kommer med i bilden och som också möjliggör friare placeringsmöjligheter än de rader som är vanliga på kyrkogårdar idag. Vidare så bygger både materialet kristall och formen på en lätthet som kan locka till ett mer samtida, ljusare och lättare allmänt andligt uttryck och förhållningssätt.

     

  • 5829.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    The impact of chronic heart failure on daily life in an elderly population: Validation of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5830.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Validation of a Swedish Version of Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in an Elderly Population2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5831.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Validation of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire in a group of elderly persons with chronic heart failure2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5832.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Health related quality of life in elderly persons with chronic heart failure2007In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 6, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5833.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Blomqvist, Kerstin
    Social support and its relationship to health related quality of life among people 65 years and older with chronic heart failure.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5834.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Broström, Anders
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Forsum, Elisabeth
    Löf, Mari
    Svanborg, Eva
    Perk, Joep
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Design and methodology of the NutriHeart study: a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach to investigate nutrition and cardiac cachexia in patients with chronic heart failure2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5835. Åslund, O
    et al.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Do When and Where Matter?: Initial Labor Market Conditions and Immigrant Earnings2007In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 117, no 518, p. 422-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the long-term effects on immigrant earnings and employment of labour market conditions encountered upon arrival. We find that early earnings assimilation depends crucially on a favourable national labour market. Exposure to high local unemployment rates also affects individuals for at least ten years. To handle the issue of selective migration, we compare refugees entering Sweden during a severe and unexpected recession to refugees arriving during a preceding economic boom. The analysis of effects at the local level exploits a governmental refugee settlement policy to get exogenous variation in local labour market conditions.

  • 5836. Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Shifting attitudes and the labor market of minorities - Swedish experiences after 9-112004In: European Society for Population Economics, Bergen, Norway, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5837. Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Shifting attitudes and the labor market of minorities: Swedish experiences after 9-112004Report (Refereed)
  • 5838.
    Åslund, Olof
    et al.
    IFAU (Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Shifts in attitudes and labor market discrimination: Swedish experiences after 9-112005In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 603-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present longitudinal survey data suggesting that the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11, 2001, changed attitudes toward certain minorities in Sweden. This finding is consistent with results in previous studies. To investigate whether this change in attitudes also affected the labor market situation of these minorities, we study unemployment exit around 9-11 using detailed data on the entire Swedish working-age population. Contrary to what may be expected from many theories of labor market discrimination, the time pattern of exits and entries for different ethnic groups, as well as difference-in-differences analyses, shows no sign of increased discrimination toward these minorities. A possible explanation for this result is that employers act rationally in their hiring decisions and do not respond to changes in attitudes toward immigrants as a group.

  • 5839.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Avoiding drug-drug interactions.2009In: Chemotherapy, ISSN 1421-9794, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 215-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Drugs may be prescribed in combinations causing drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR), resulting in hospital care.

    METHODS

    To provide prescribers of drug therapy with a better knowledge of individuals' current drug therapy, governments have started to collect prescribing data.

    RESULTS

    The data on individuals' dispensed drugs is available for prescribers, pharmacists, and the registered individuals in Sweden and Denmark. The information has not yet come to an extensive use in healthcare. Pilot projects have been reported positively, but accessibility has to be improved.

    CONCLUSIONS

    To avoid DDIs, reliable information on all drugs used by each single individual needs to be available at the point of care. Knowledge databases about clinically relevant DDIs must be updated and accurate. To tailor the magic bullet for the individual, new genomic- and proteomic-based knowledge about the individual has to be considered in the future.

  • 5840.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    ePrescribing: Studies in Pharmacoinformatics2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aimed to study the developments, in the area of pharmacoinformatics, of the electronic prescribing and dispensing processes of drugs - in medical praxis, follow-up, and research.

    For hundreds of years, the written prescription has been the method of choice for physicians to communicate decisions on drug therapy and for pharmacists to dispense medication. Successively the prescription has also become a source of information for the patient about how to use the medication to maximize its benefit. Currently, the medical prescription is at a transitional stage between paper and web, and to adapt a traditional process to the new electronic era offers both opportunities and challenges

    The studies in the thesis have shown that the exposure of prescribed drugs in the general population has increased considerably over three decades. The risk of receiving potentially interacting drugs was also strongly correlated to the concomitant use of multiple drugs, polypharmacy. The pronounced increase in polypharmacy over time constitutes a growing reason for prescribers and pharmacists to be aware of drug interactions. Still, there were relatively few severe potential drug interactions.

    Recently established national prescription registers should be evaluated for drug interaction vigilance, both clinically and epidemiologically. The Swedish National Pharmacy Register provides prescription dispensing information for the majority of the population. The medication history in the register may be accessed online to improve drug utilization, by registered individuals, prescribers, and pharmacists in a safe and secure way. Lack of widespread secure digital signatures in healthcare may delay general availability. With a relatively high prevalence of dispensed drugs in the population, the National Pharmacy Register seems justified in evaluating individual medication history.

    With a majority of prescriptions transferred as ePrescriptions, the detected increased risk for prescription errors warrants quality improvement, if the full potential of ePrescriptions is to be fulfilled.

    The main conclusion of the studies was that ePrescribing with communication of prescribed drug information, storing and retrieving dispensed drug information, offers new opportunities for clinical and scientific

  • 5841.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hovstadius, Bo
    Antonov, Karolina
    Petersson, Göran
    University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    The Swedish National Pharmacy Register2007In: MEDINFO 2007: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics – Building Sustainable Health Systems, 2007, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 345-349Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5842.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Montelius, Emelie
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Assessment of ePrescription quality: an observational study at three mail-order pharmacies2009In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 9, no 1, p. Article number: 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The introduction of electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP) or ePrescriptions in ambulatory health care has been suggested to have a positive impact on the prescribing and dispensing processes. Thereby, implying that ePrescribing can improve safety, quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. In December 2007, 68% of all new prescriptions were transferred electronically in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of ePrescriptions by comparing the proportions of ePrescriptions and non-electronic prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact (correction, completion or change) with the prescriber at the time of dispensing.

    Methods: A direct observational study was performed at three Swedish mail-order pharmacies which were known to dispense a large proportion of ePrescriptions (38–75%). Data were gathered on all ePrescriptions dispensed at these pharmacies over a three week period in February 2006. All clarification contacts with prescribers were included in the study and were classified and assessed in comparison with all drug prescriptions dispensed at the same pharmacies over the specified period.

    Results: Of the 31225 prescriptions dispensed during the study period, clarification contacts were made for 2.0% (147/7532) of new ePrescriptions and 1.2% (79/6833) of new non-electronic prescriptions. This represented a relative risk (RR) of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3–2.2) for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions. The increased RR was mainly due to 'Dosage and directions for use', which had an RR of 7.6 (95% CI 2.8–20.4) when compared to other clarification contacts. In all, 89.5% of the suggested pharmacist interventions were accepted by the prescriber, 77.7% (192/247) as suggested and an additional 11.7% (29/247) after a modification during contact with the prescriber.

    Conclusion: The increased proportion of prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions indicates the need for an increased focus on quality aspects in ePrescribing deployment. ETP technology should be developed towards a two-way communication between the prescriber and the pharmacist with automated checks of missing, inaccurate, or ambiguous information. This would enhance safety and quality for the patient and also improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness within the health care system.

  • 5843.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet.
    Antonov, Karolina
    Apoteket AB, Stockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Detection of potential drug interactions: a model for a national pharmacy register2006In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  The widespread use of pharmaceuticals prescribed by different physicians has caused the Swedish government to propose a new legislation with registration of all prescriptions dispensed at the Swedish pharmacies. In the present study, we wanted to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of potential drug interactions.Methods  The prescriptions from all individuals (n=8,214) with two or more prescriptions during October 2003 to December 2004 were collected from the ongoing Jämtland cohort study of a total of about 11,000 individuals. Potential drug–drug interactions were detected with a computerized interaction detection system and classified according to clinical relevance (types A–D).Results  On average each individual filled 14.6 (men 14.3, women 14.8) prescriptions during the study period. 3.6% of the individuals used more than 15 different drugs. The number of detected potential drug interactions type A–D was 4,941 (men 1,949, women 2,992). The risk of receiving a potential interaction type A–D was estimated as the cumulative incidence 0.26 (2,116/8,214) overall, 0.22 (748/3,467) for men and 0.29 (1,368/4,747) for women during the 15-month study period. The age adjusted risk, RRadj, for women was estimated as 1.30. Excluding sex hormones and modulators of the genital system, the RRadj was 0.96, with no elevated risk for women. For potential interactions type D, that might have serious clinical consequences, 167 (cumulative incidence 0.0203) individuals (72 men, cumulative incidence 0.0208, 95 women cumulative incidence 0.0200) were detected. The risk of receiving a combination of potentially interacting drugs was positively correlated to age and polypharmacy. The cumulative incidence for elderly was estimated as 0.36 (65–84 years) and 0.39 (85 years and above). The relative risk for individuals with 15 drugs or more was estimated as 3.67 (95% CI 3.46–3.90).Conclusion  In a general population there were relatively few severe potential drug interactions. The new Swedish national pharmacy register will provide health care professionals with a powerful tool to systematically review all prescriptions. An alert system should focus on the more potential drug interactions, type C–D, with close monitoring of elderly and patients with polypharmacy.

  • 5844.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Antonov, Karolina
    The Association of Pharmaceutical Industry, Stockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Erratum: Potential drug interactions during a three-decade study2007In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 63, no 11, p. 1095-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5845.
    Åstrand, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences. Apoteket AB.
    Antonov, Karolina
    The Association of Pharmaceutical IndustryStockholm.
    Petersson, Göran
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences. University of Kalmar, eHealth Institute, School of Human Sciences, University of Kalmar,.
    Potential drug interactions during a three-decade study period: a cross-sectional study of a prescription register2007In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 851-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives  The increased risk of adverse events in patients receiving potentially interacting drugs has long been recognized. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the change in the risk of receiving potentially interacting drugs during a period covering three decades and to examine the relative risk of actual drug combinations. Methods  The prescriptions from all individuals (about 8,000) with two or more prescriptions during three periods of 15 months, October to December 1983–1984, 1993–1994 and 2003–2004, were collected from an ongoing cohort study in the county of Jämtland, Sweden. The potential interactions were detected by a computerized system. Results  The relative risk (RR) of receiving potentially interacting drugs increased for type C interactions [RR: 1.177, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104–1.256] and decreased for type D interactions (RR: 0.714, 95% CI: 0.587–0.868) from the period 1983–1984 to 2003–2004. Polypharmacy for the participants increased by 61%, from 9.05 filled prescriptions per subject in 1983–1984 to 10.6 in 1993–1994 and 14.6 in 2003–2004. The RR was positively correlated to the pronounced increase in polypharmacy; in addition, an exponential relationship was found for the more severe type D interactions. Few interacting drug combinations were responsible for a large proportion of the risk. Conclusion  We conclude that the risk of receiving potentially interacting drugs was strongly correlated to the concomitant use of multiple drugs. The pronounced increase in polypharmacy over time implies a growing reason for prescribers and pharmacists to be aware of drug interactions. Recently established national prescription registers should be evaluated for drug interaction vigilance, both clinically and epidemiologically.

  • 5846.
    Åström, Eva
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Detection of weakly interacting anti-carbohydrate scFv phages using surface plasmon resonance2006In: Journal of molecular recognition, Vol. 19 (4), p. 282-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5847.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Abundance and fractionation patterns of rare earth elements in streams affected by acid sulphate soils2001In: Chemical Geology, Vol. 175, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5848.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Effect of widespread severely acidic soils on spatial features and abundance of trace elements in streams2001In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 73, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5849.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Environmental Science - Characteristics, environmental loading and remedial measures of boreal acid sulphate soils – Preface2005In: Agricultural and food science, Vol. 14 (1), p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5850.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hydrological and soil geochemical controls of the abundance and fractionation patterns of rare earth elements in a periodically acidic Boreal stream2001In: Geochemistry – exploration, environment, analysis, Vol. 1, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
114115116117118119120 5801 - 5850 of 5988
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