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  • 601.
    Wang, Xiaodong (Alice)
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Bror
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Wan, Hui
    Mississippi State University, USA.
    Niemz, Peter
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Shear Strength of Scots Pine Wood and Glued Joints in a Cold Climate2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 944-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) joints glued with seven commercially available adhesives was studied in this work. The cold temperatures investigated were: 20, -20, -30, -40, and -50 degrees C. Generally, within the temperature test range, the shear strength of Scots pine solid wood and wood joints were more resistant to the effect of temperature than those of Norway spruce. As the temperature decreased, only some of the joints' shear strength significantly decreased. In most cases, PUR adhesive yielded the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive yielded the weakest shear strength. MF adhesive responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of PUR and PVAc adhesives. The shear strengths of wood joints with PRF and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. For dynamic tests of shear strength, the values for 12-h and 6-day tests under temperature cycles (-20 and 0 degrees C) were compared. The values for 6-day tests were lower than those for 12-h tests. Therefore, the duration of the samples subjected to the same temperature had a significant impact on shear strength. Our results indicate that PUR adhesive is the most stable; whereas the stability of MUF and PRF adhesives decreased significantly.

  • 602.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sundqvist, Bror
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ormarsson, Sigurdur
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wan, Hui
    Mississippi State University, USA.
    Niemz, Peter
    ETH Zurich.
    Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives2015In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As wood construction increasingly uses engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives used. Bondline strength is a crucial issue for engineered wood applications, especially in cold climates. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) joints (150 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were bonded with seven commercially available adhesives: polyurethane (PUR), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), emulsion-polymer-isocyanate (EPI), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), melamine-urea-formaldehyde1 (MUF1), and melamine-urea-formaldehyde2 (MUF2). Each adhesive was tested at six temperatures: 20, −20, −30, −40, −50 and −60 °C. Generally, within the temperature test range, temperature changes significantly affected the shear strength of solid wood and wood joints. As the temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR adhesive in most cases resulted in the strongest shear strength and MUF adhesive resulted in the weakest. MF and PRF adhesives responded to temperature changes in a similar manner to that of the PUR adhesive. The shear strengths of wood joints with PVAc and EPI adhesives were more sensitive to temperature change. At low temperatures, the variability of shear strengths increased with all adhesives. Percent wood failures of joints bonded with different adhesives in most cases were not sensitive to temperature changes.

  • 603. Wikete, Christoph
    et al.
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Jäger, Andreas
    Hofstetter, Karin
    Eberhardsteiner, Josef
    Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Characteristics of Hardwood2010In: 27th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics : September 22nd - 25th, 2010, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland / [ed] Romuald Be̜dziński, Wroclaw, Poland: Wrocław University of Technology , 2010, p. 237-238Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 604.
    Wiklund, Martin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, Dick
    KTH, .
    The Concept of Value Activation - Wood Properties at Different Annual Ring Orientation in Pine (Pinus Silvestris L).1998In: Timber and Wood Composites for the Next Century / [ed] Song-Yung Wang and Min-Chyuan Yeh, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated R&D program called "Value Activation" has been carried out for the past eight years at the Royal Institute of Technology, Div. of Wood Technology and Processing (KTH-Trä). The concept of Value Activation is focused on the basic understanding of wood, and the fact that there are properties that are not fully exploited in conventional wood manufacturing systems to date. The strategy is to activate these inherent properties by a better understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wood, combined with new applied process technology and the development of the required manufacturing systems.

    The Value Activation program has so far shown that there are great possibilities of utilizing the properties of wood in a better way than our conventional wood production concept can achieve. New wood products with desirable properties can be developed. Most of these products are expected to give a greater added value to the wood. The R&D program will continue with the further development of improved products and also with the development of cost-efficient production systems for implementing the ideas from our R&D in profitable production units.

    Within the Value Activation program the following properties, which were judged to be the most important ones for future wood products were chosen:

    • Aesthetic and tactile factors
    • Controlled moisture movements
    • Accuracy in size and geometry
    • No checks and splits
    • Strength and hardness

    These properties are all strongly influenced by the annual ring orientation in the cross section of the sawn timber. This paper describes the influence of the annual ring orientation on these properties and how they can be improved by using a new sawing pattern.

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  • 605.
    Wimmer, Rupert
    et al.
    Univ Bodenkultur Wien BOKU.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Effects of Reaction Wood on the Performance of Wood and Wood-Based Products2014In: The Biology of Reaction Wood / [ed] Gardiner, B., Barnett, J., Saranpää, P., Gril, J., Springer, 2014, 1, p. 225-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression wood in softwoods and tension wood in hardwoods have properties, which adversely affect its usefulness for wood products. This chapter shows that reaction wood can be associated with many unsuitable wood properties. The results vary due to the fact that definitions about occurrence and severity of reaction wood are scarcely documented. A few properties seem to be even benefitting from the presence of reaction wood: the higher smoothness of compression wood surfaces, better shear strength of compression wood, higher toughness and impact resistance when tension wood is present, lower water uptake and swelling in fibreboards containing compression wood, and higher durability against fungi of compression wood. However, these are outweighed by disadvantages, which is the reason why reaction wood has a bad reputation in industry. The problem with reaction wood is that it is in most cases mixed with normal wood, which leads to non-uniform and more variable properties. This may lead to non-uniform swelling and shrinking, causing distortions, with additional problems of reduced strength and unfavourable surface properties. Wood-based materials such as particle boards or fibreboards are generally less prone to problems associated with reaction wood than solid wood products. With knowledge-based production methods the utilization of different wood types, including reaction wood, might be feasible.

  • 606.
    Xiao, Zefang
    et al.
    Georg-August-University of Gottingen, Germany.
    Xie, Yanjun
    Northeast Forestry University, Kina.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Georg-August-University of Gottingen, Germany.
    Mai, Carsten
    Georg-August-University of Gottingen, Germany.
    Effects of chemical modification with glutaraldehyde on the weathering performance of Scots pine sapwood2012In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 749-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine sapwood was treated with glutaraldehyde (GA) in aqueous solution using magnesium chloride as a catalyst in order to evaluate the durability towards weathering. Infrared spectroscopy suggested that GA treatment increased the photo-stability of lignin during artificial weathering of micro-veneers in a QUV over 168 h; photo-protection increased with increasing GA concentration. In comparison with the unmodified controls, GA-modified pine micro-veneer strips exhibited a lower tensile strength loss measured in a zero-span mode in the course of weathering. During 18 months of outdoor exposure, GA-modified pine wood boards exhibited a lower moisture content and water uptake than the unmodified ones. GA treatment also clearly restricted the penetration of blue stain fungi into deeper layers of wood. On the macroscopic scale, the surface of the GA-modified boards was significantly smoother due to less erosion, cracking and minor peeling of tracheids. Scanning electron microscopy further revealed that individual tracheids were detached from the cell compound and then washed away from the unmodified wood surface, whereas tracheids on surfaces of GA-modified wood remained in the tissue compound but displayed many axial and transversal cracks.

  • 607. Zander, A
    et al.
    Hidemark, O
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Trä som byggnadsmaterial: -tekniska anvisningar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 608. Ziaei Tabari, Hassan
    et al.
    Nourbakhsh, Amir
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    Danesh, Mohammad Amin
    Evaluation of mechanical and morphological behavior of polypropylene/wood fiber nanocomposite prepared by melts compounding2010In: International Conference on Nanotechnology and Biosensors, 28th to 30th December 2010, Hong Kong, Singapore, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 20-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak flexural properties of wood plastic composites(WPCs) limit their structural application. Recentlyinvestigation of nano particles looks promising to enhancebending properties of WPCs. In this study, the authors haveinvestigated the effect of different concentrations of nanoclay(modified montmorillonite) and coupling agent on themechanical and micro-structural properties of polypropylene/wood-fiber composites. We Bath internal mixer in certainprocessing conditions used for making the samples and then allsamples molded using injection molding for making samplesfor performing mechanical measurements. Samples preparedin four different concentration of nanoclay 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt%(total weight) and two different concentrations of maleicanhydride grafting (MAPP) 5 and 10 wt%. Mechanical resultsindicate that both flexural and impact strength of thecomposites increasing in sample containing 3% nano clay. Inother trend, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imagesshow better interaction of wood fibers and polymer matrixwhen the authors added 5 wt% MAPP as coupling agent.

  • 609.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Europeisk brandklassning av CLT och LVL2017In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 55-57Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den europeiska brandklassningen av träbaserade produkter har nyligen utvidgats till att gälla även de två relativt nya träprodukterna CLT och LVL. Den täcker därmed praktiskt taget alla byggtillämpningar med träbaserade produkter. Brandklasserna har fastlagts genom ett system för förenklad europeisk brandklassificering för produkter som har ”känt och stabilt beteende vid brand”. Träprodukter är ett utmärkt exempel på sådana produkter. Brandklasserna avser både det europeiska systemet med så kallade Euroklasser A1-F och klasser för brandskyddande förmåga, så kallade K-klasser, se faktaruta.

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  • 610.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fire safety in modern wooden houses: mapping of fire incidents in Sweden2017In: International fire protection, ISSN 1468-3873, no 71, p. 46-48Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-storey timber frame houses have been built in Sweden since 1994, when performance-based building regulations were introduced. The construction technology is now well established and steadily growing. Life safety protection is clearly defined in the building regulations. Now, property protection is being discussed from new perspectives.

    As a first step in better understanding, fire incidents have been mapped. The survey shows that modern apartment buildings with wooden frames have a lower rate of fire incidents than the entire stock of apartment buildings.

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10111213 601 - 610 of 610
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  • nn-NO
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