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  • 701.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Caring assessment in the Swedish ambulance services relieves suffering and enables safe decisions2011In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has a health care science approach and explores pre-hospital emergency care with emphasis on assessment. Health care science is focused on the patient with the general aim to describe care that strengthens and supports health. Assessment in the ambulance services has not been explored earlier from this perspective, despite the emphasis on ‘coming close’ to the acute suffering patient. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse assessment in caring situations. Data was collected by participant observations. The major findings point out the importance of professional carers’ recognition of the patient’s lifeworld as an essential part of assessment. The carers’ openness to the situation and to the patient’s suffering and needs vary from being of minor interest to complete focus of the assessment. It seems that assessments that focus solely on a patient’s medical condition can be an obstacle to a full understanding of the individual, and thereby the illness per se. A caring assessment based on an encounter and a dialogue between patient and carer, characterised by inviting the patient to participate, adds further dimensions to the objective data. Therefore, the inclusion of the patient perspective relieves suffering and enables more safe decisions.

  • 702.
    Ydreborg, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans vårdhandlingar: Vid återhämtning från psykisk ohälsa och missbruk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Syfte: Att beskriva psykiatrisjuksköterskans vårdhandlingar vid återhämtning från psykisk ohälsa och missbruk. Samt att belysa psykiatrisjuksköterskans roll i ett multidisciplinärt team.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie.

    Resultat: Det råder konsensus i de inkluderade artiklarna om att klienter med dubbeldiagnos behöver professionell vård given av väl utbildade psykiatrisjuksköterskor. Resultatet presenteras i fem teman, tidigt igenkännande, hantering, behandling, relation och delat ansvar. Att så tidigt som möjligt identifiera personer i denna grupp och behandla i enlighet med klientens grad av motivation skapar förutsättningar för ökad hälsa och livskvalitet. Psykiatrisjuksköterskan bör möta klienten utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv där hänsyn tas till klientens livsvärld. Att arbeta i team tillsammans med olika professioner ökar förutsättningarna för återhämtning hos den enskilde klienten.

    Slutsats: Psykiatrisjuksköterskan behöver inta en aktiv roll när det gäller att möta klientgruppens behov. Klienter med dubbeldiagnos behöver specialiserad vård. Tidigt igenkännande och lämplig intervention skapar förutsättningar för återhämtning. Att arbeta i team med olika professioner skapar förstärkning av vårdens kvalitet.   

    Keywords: Psykiatrisjuksköterska, återhämtning, dubbeldiagnos, substansmissbruk, integrerad behandling.

  • 703. Ylvén, Regina
    et al.
    Granlund, Mats
    Persson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study2012In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.Problemlösungskompetenz gilt als eine Fertigkeit, die Familien mit Kindern mit Behinderungen hilft, Alltagsprobleme zu bewältigen. Eine Problemlösungskompetenz für Familien kann deshalb ein wichtiges Ergebnis von Reha-Maßnahmen für Kinder und Jugendliche sein. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Pilotstudie war die Untersuchung des Aufbaus einer künftigen webbasierten Befragungsuntersuchung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Problemlösungsmustern bzgl. der Ressourcen in Familien mit Kindern mit Behinderungen. Die deskriptiven statistischen Analysen beruhen auf Daten von 13 Familien, und die Ergebnisse wiesen auf eine insgesamt zufriedenstellende Verteilung der Scores für drei der enthaltenen Instrumente hin, wohingegen zwei Instrumente Bodeneffekte in einem Drittel der Items aufwiesen. Die Ergebnisse wiesen auf Designprobleme bei der Datenerfassung bzgl. der Anpassung von Fragebögen an ein webbasiertes Umfrageformat sowie auf Probleme mit der zusätzlichen Stopp-Funktion hin. Die Umsetzung der Hauptstudie mit Hilfe von webbasierten Umfragen muss entsprechend der Wahl des Web-Tools und des Rekrutierungsverfahrens kritisch untersucht werden.La resolución de problemas está considerada como una habilidad que permite a las familias con niños discapacitados gestionar los problemas del día a día. Por lo tanto, la capacidad que tienen las familias de solucionar problemas puede verse como un logro importante por parte de los servicios de habilitación para niños y jóvenes. El objetivo de este estudio piloto de viabilidad fue examinar el diseño de un futuro estudio basado en un cuestionario en línea, que trata sobre los modelos de resolución de problemas en relación con los recursos de que disponen las familias con niños discapacitados. Estos análisis estadísticos descriptivos se basan en datos procedentes de 13 familias. Los hallazgos mostraron una distribución general satisfactoria de la puntuación en tres de los instrumentos utilizados, mientras que dos instrumentos mostraron valores excesivamente bajos en un tercio de los casos. Además, los hallazgos indicaron problemas de diseño en la recopilación de datos con respecto a la adaptación de los cuestionarios a un formato de cuestionario en línea, así como problemas en la función de parada. La implementación del estudio principal mediante cuestionarios en línea requiere una serie de consideraciones importantes que dependen de la elección de la herramienta de red y del proceso de reclutamiento.La capacité à résoudre les problèmes est reconnue comme une compétence qui aide les familles d'enfants handicapés à gérer les difficultés de la vie quotidienne. Les capacités de la famille à résoudre les problèmes peuvent donc être considérées comme un aspect important des services visant à encourager l'autonomie des enfants et des adolescents. Cette étude pilote de faisabilité avait pour objet d'examiner la conception d'une étude future par questionnaire via le web, focalisée sur les modèles de résolution des problèmes par rapport aux ressources disponibles dans les familles d'enfants handicapés. Les analyses statistiques descriptives s'appuient sur des données recueillies auprès de 13 familles et les résultats présentent une distribution des scores globalement satisfaisante pour trois des instruments inclus, tandis que deux instruments affichent des effets de plancher pour un tiers des items. Les résultats indiquent des problèmes de conception vis-à-vis de la collecte des données concernant l'adaptation des questionnaires à un format d'enquête via Internet avec la fonction d'arrêt qui a été ajoutée. La mise en œuvre de l'étude principale par le biais d'enquêtes via le web nécessitera un examen approfondi en ce qui concerne le choix de l'outil web et le processus de recrutement.

  • 704.
    Zarazaga, Jose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Utvärdering av föräldragrupper på mödrahälsovårdsmottagningar i Norra Kalmar Län2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING: Blivande föräldrar står inför stora utmaningar. Föräldragrupperna utformas på mödrahälsovårdsmottagningarna så att föräldrarna får stöd i föräldraskapet och skapar ett nätverk som kan främja en positiv utveckling. Norra Kalmar län vill utveckla sitt arbetssätt i syfte att säkerställa kvalitet inom föräldrastödet för att svara mot föräldrars behov. Syfte: Utvärdering av föräldragrupperna bland förstagångsföräldrar. Metod: Retrospektiv tvärsnittstudie med kvantitativt ansats. Data samlades in genom ett frågeformulär med strukturerade frågor som har utarbetats av författaren. Analys: Beskrivande statistik. Resultatet sammanställdes med hjälp av programmet Excel. Resultat: 252 (n=656) föräldrar deltog i studien. 202 föräldrar (123 mammor och 79 partner) hade deltagit i grupperna. 145 föräldrar hade deltagit i alla träffar. Resultatet visar på att föräldrarna tyckte att grupperna var meningsfulla (84,5 %) och uppfyllde deras behov (85,9 %). Föräldragrupperna anses som en bra förlossningsförberedelse (85,1 %) och kan stärka föräldrarna i föräldraskapet (75,5 %). Hälften av föräldrarna (50, 4 %) har tack vare grupperna skapat kontakter och gemenskap med andra föräldrar. Slutsats: Nästan alla föräldrar känner sig nöjda med sitt deltagande (97,8 %) och kan rekommendera andra (93,3 %) att delta i grupperna.

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  • 705.
    Zarur, Shirin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skadepanoramat hos ungdomslandslagsspelare i basket2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 706.
    Zettergren, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldres upplevelse av livstillfredsställelse i relation till självskattad hälsa, ensamhetskänsla och demografiska förhållanden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Globalt sett har personer över 65 år varit den åldersgrupp som växt snabbast och levnadsåldern bedöms att kontinuerligt stiga, vilket också ökar behovet av adekvata vård- och omsorgsinsatser. Äldres upplevelse av livstillfredsställelse minskar gradvis med stigande ålder. För att effektivt kunna stödja äldre inom detta område är det viktigt att bland vård- och omsorgspersonal öka kunskapen inom detta fenomen.

    Syfte:

    Att studera samband mellan upplevelse av livstillfredsställelse i relation till självskattad hälsa och ensamhetskänsla samt i relation till demografiska förhållanden.

    Metod:

    En tvärsnittsstudie med hjälp av frågeformulär från The Swedish National study on Aging and Care i Blekinge. I urvalet ingick 1 110 deltagare i åldern 60-96 år. Skillnad i upplevd tillfredsställelse med livet analyserades med hjälp av Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal – Wallis test, och logistisk regressionsanalys.

    Resultat:

    Äldre personers upplevelse av livstillfredsställelse har en negativ korrelation med ensamhetskänslor och låg självskattad hälsa samt har ett samband med demografiska förhållanden. Resultaten visade också att ensamhetskänslor var den mest betydelsefulla faktorn för låg livstillfredsställelse hos äldre.

    Slutsats:

    Med utgångspunkt från resultaten är det viktigt att vårdpersonal samtalar med äldre personer om dessa riskfaktorer och vid behov vägleder för att öka äldres tillfredsställelse med livet. Fortsatt forskning förespråkas i detta flerdimensionella fenomen.

    Nyckelord:

    ensamhet, hälsa, livstillfredsställelse, äldre.

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  • 707. Zingerle, R
    et al.
    Rundgren, M
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nurse-coordinated lifestyle counselling in primary care is an effective and low-cost service2012In: EuroPrevent, Dublin 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 708.
    Åberg Petersson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "Man blir snabbt van vid det onormala": Föräldrars upplevelse av att få byta neonatalvårdenhet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Becoming a parent to a child in need of Neonatal Intensive Care can be a traumatic experience. During a time when the parents may need support, guidance and a sense of control – the family might need to relocate to a hospital away from home if the child needs highly specialized medical care at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the parents’ experience of having to change neonatal care unit.

    Method: This study is carried out by a phenomenological and hermeneutic life world approach using qualitative unstructured interviews.

    Results: The two major themes “a sense of interaction” and “a sense of being a parent” emerge in this study along with eight sub themes.  In “a sense of interaction” the parents expressed a need for communication, information and professional care. In “a sense of being a parent” the parents expressed the experience of chaos, feeling of confidence in the care given and find their role as parents.

    Conclusion: The parents experience a lack of communication on many different levels, such as communication between different staff members on the unit, between the home- and regional hospital as well as the communication between staff and parents. Communication involves many different aspects, such as how we interact and respond to the parents, communicate security and competence and experience and participation. It is important that the parents receive a professional conduct and the opportunity to take part in the care of their child.  

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  • 709.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andreae, C.
    Stromberg, A.
    Initial psychometric evaluation of the council of nutrition appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) in patients with chronic heart failure2012In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 11, p. S12-S13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 710.
    Öberg, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träning hos elitaktiva kvinnor i samband med graviditet inom uthållighetsidrott2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rekommendationerna för träning under graviditet förespråkar 30 minuter per dag. Elitaktiva kvinnor kan fortsätta sin träning under graviditeten med modifiering av sina träningsrutiner. Syftet mynnades ut i frågeställningarna hur träningsdosen förändras under och efter graviditet och hur snart efter graviditet återupptas träning, samt om det fanns ett samband mellan träningsdos och barnets födelsevikt därtill förekomst av graviditetsrelaterade besvär. Metoden som valdes var en enkätundersökning och enkäterna delades ut vid ett tillfälle till de 100 bäst rankade elitaktiva kvinnor inom en uthållighetsidrott. Resultatet visade att svarsfrekvensen blev 95 %, efter externt bortfall på grund av ej graviditet så analyserades 34 enkäter. Träningsdosen av låg, medel och hög intensiv träning var i snitt nästan 7,5 timme i början på graviditeten och sjönk till i snitt 1,5 timme i slutet. Träning bedrevs till och med vecka 37 prepartum och återupptogs vecka 2 postpartum. Inget samband sågs mellan träningsdosen och barnets födelsevikt. Majoriteten av de elitaktiva hade varken smärta eller urininkontinens pre- eller postpartum. Slutsatsen av studien visar att gravida elitaktiva kvinnor kan hålla en hög träningsdos högt över de generella riktlinjer.

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  • 711.
    Öhlund, Sten-Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Sweden ; Logica Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Improving interoperability in ePrescribing2012In: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 1, no 2, article id e17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased application of eServices in health care, in general, and ePrescribing (electronic prescribing) in particular, have brought quality and interoperability to the forefront. The application of standards has been put forward as one important factor in improving interoperability. However, less focus has been placed on other factors, such as stakeholders’ involvement and the measurement of interoperability. An information system (IS) can be regarded to comprise an instrument for technology-mediated work communication. In this study, interoperability refers to the interoperation in the ePrescribing process, involving people, systems, procedures and organizations. We have focused on the quality of the ePrescription message as one component of the interoperation in the ePrescribing process.

    Objective: The objective was to analyze how combined efforts in improving interoperability with the introduction of the new national ePrescription format (NEF) have impacted interoperability in the ePrescribing process in Sweden, with the focus on the quality of the ePrescription message.

    Methods: Consecutive sampling of electronic prescriptions in Sweden before and after the introduction of NEF was undertaken in April 2008 (pre-NEF) and April 2009 (post-NEF). Interoperability problems were identified and classified based on message format specifications and prescription rules.

    Results: The introduction of NEF improved the interoperability of ePrescriptions substantially. In the pre-NEF sample, a total of 98.6% of the prescriptions had errors. In the post-NEF sample, only 0.9% of the prescriptions had errors. The mean number of errors was fewer for the erroneous prescriptions: 4.8 in pre-NEF compared to 1.0 in post-NEF.

    Conclusions: We conclude that a systematic comprehensive work on interoperability, covering technical, semantical, professional, judicial and process aspects, involving the stakeholders, resulted in an improved interoperability of ePrescriptions.

  • 712.
    Örnerfeldt, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wetterström, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Könsstympade kvinnors möte med västerländsk vård: En systematisk litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female circumcision or female genital mutilation is a tradition that is carried out mainly in Africa. The intervention refers to that part of- or all of the girl’s external genital organs are removed. 

    Aim: The study's purpose was to highlight the consequences of female circumcision in the encounter with western health care.

    Method: A systematic literature reviews was performed as a method. Twelve articles were selected for the study and these were sought in Chinal, PubMed and PsycINFO. Analysis and interpretation was done according to qualitative content analysis, inspired by Lundman and Granheim. Eriksson, Birkler, Dahlberg and Segersten’s nursing theory was used as background in the discussion.

    Results: The analysis process resulted in six categories: laws and guidelines, offence, communication, knowledge, vulnerability and nursing. The results showed that offence occur extensively against genitally mutilated women and the exposure of these women. The results also showed a strong need for knowledge, laws and guidelines.

    Conclusions: Health care professionals need to have a basic knowledge of female circumcision and clear guidelines to ensure good care. The nurse should also keep themselves updated of new research and search for knowledge to improve their care.

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  • 713.
    Örneskans, Klara Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lind, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barnmorskans erfarenheter av pappan under aktiv förlossning och de förväntningar som ställs på honom.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 714.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Pauline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johnsson, Stefan
    Lagerlund, Magnus
    Widell, Ingela
    Wilde Björling, Camilla
    Using computer tablets to empower breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundEfficient information dispersal and effective communication are key issues in increasing quality of care for patients undergoing radiation therapy. Radiation therapy consists of daily treatment sessions every weekday for 4-6 weeks. Although this means that patients are in daily contact with nursing staff, there is little time at these quick in-and-out sessions to address any substantive issues beyond the mechanics of the actual treatment procedure. Our aim is to explore the potential usefulness of computer tablets as an enabling device for making patient-staff information interchange more accessible and efficient. We are especially interested in investigating the empowerment effects that we believe will follow when making it easier for patients to influence the course of their treatment.

    MethodsFrom april to june 2012 all breast cancer patients scheduled for adjuvant radiation therapy treatment at the county hospital in Kalmar (Sweden) will be offered the opportunity to borrow a tablet computer during the course of their treatment. The tablet offers secure access to a web site containing illness-, treatment- and clinic-specific information, including a number of videos demonstrating the treatment procedure; a secure discussion forum in which patients can ask questions to staff; and a set of automatically processed surveys that provide staff with instant feedback from patients. Post-treatment interviews will be conducted with participating patients as well as with the staff on their respective experience of using the tablets. Patients will also fill out a survey and user logs from the web site will be analyzed to determine usage patterns.

    ResultsAt the time of writing we have started off the first couple of patients. Initial reactions are positive from both patients and staff. At the the time of the conference we will have evaluated the first set of patients and be able to present the results of this. We expect to see patients that are more confident and less anxious by being better prepared for their treatment both factually and emotionally. For the medical staff, we expect to see that the instant feedback provided by patients, via the questions they ask and the survey answers they submit, will allow staff to react more swiftly and more accurately to meet the patients’ needs and wants, and in so doing provide both better medical care and better emotional support.

    ConclusionsComputer tablets offer an efficient and accessible way for patients to inform themselves and to communicate with staff. The instant feedback from patients provides staff with the input they need to provide the best possible care, both medically and in providing emotional support. The sense of control, and actual control, over the course of their treatment that this will bring to patients, we believe will lead to a sense of empowerment that will help them better deal with the emotionally taxing experience it is to undergo treatment for a life-threatening condition.

  • 715.
    Östlund, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    3D visualisation as a communicative aid in pharmaceutical advice-giving over distance2011In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Medication misuse results in considerable problems for both patient and society. It is a complex problem with many contributing factors, including timely access to product information.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) visualization paired with video conferencing as a tool for pharmaceutical advice over distance in terms of accessibility and ease of use for the advice seeker.

    METHODS:

    We created a Web-based communication service called AssistancePlus that allows an advisor to demonstrate the physical handling of a complex pharmaceutical product to an advice seeker with the aid of 3D visualization and audio/video conferencing. AssistancePlus was tested in 2 separate user studies performed in a usability lab, under realistic settings and emulating a real usage situation. In the first study, 10 pharmacy students were assisted by 2 advisors from the Swedish National Co-operation of Pharmacies' call centre on the use of an asthma inhaler. The student-advisor interview sessions were filmed on video to qualitatively explore their experience of giving and receiving advice with the aid of 3D visualization. In the second study, 3 advisors from the same call centre instructed 23 participants recruited from the general public on the use of 2 products: (1) an insulin injection pen, and (2) a growth hormone injection syringe. First, participants received advice on one product in an audio-recorded telephone call and for the other product in a video-recorded AssistancePlus session (product order balanced). In conjunction with the AssistancePlus session, participants answered a questionnaire regarding accessibility, perceived expressiveness, and general usefulness of 3D visualization for advice-giving over distance compared with the telephone and were given a short interview focusing on their experience of the 3D features.

    RESULTS:

    In both studies, participants found the AssistancePlus service helpful in providing clear and exact instructions. In the second study, directly comparing AssistancePlus and the telephone, AssistancePlus was judged positively for ease of communication (P = .001), personal contact (P = .001), explanatory power (P < .001), and efficiency (P < .001). Participants in both studies said that they would welcome this type of service as an alternative to the telephone and to face-to-face interaction when a physical meeting is not possible or not convenient. However, although AssistancePlus was considered as easy to use as the telephone, they would choose AssistancePlus over the telephone only when the complexity of the question demanded the higher level of expressiveness it offers. For simpler questions, a simpler service was preferred.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    3D visualization paired with video conferencing can be useful for advice-giving over distance, specifically for issues that require a higher level of communicative expressiveness than the telephone can offer. 3D-supported advice-giving can increase the range of issues that can be handled over distance and thus improve access to product information.

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