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  • 8151.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås.
    Vilken livskvalitet har patienter efter hjärtstopp?2013In: XV Svenska Kardiovaskulära Vårmötet: Svenska Hjärtförbundet. Göteborg 2013-04-17, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8152.
    Bremer, Anders
    Svenska läkaresällskapet.
    Vårdpersonal i ’dokusåpor’: är det etiskt försvarbart?2014In: Medicinska Riksstämman, Stockholm, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Att som vårdpersonal medverka i s.k. dokusåpor är förknippat med en rad etiska problem. Kan dessa problem lösas på ett etiskt försvarbart sätt, dvs. så att patienters och närståendes rätt till värdighet, integritet och autonomi säkerställs? Slutsatsen är att detta inte är möjligt. Risken att tillfoga skada är större än den potentiella nyttan.

  • 8153.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Axelsson, Åsa B.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Vårdvetenskaplig analys: erfarenheter vid prehospitala hjärtstopp2016In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud, Lars Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 2, p. 345-349Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8154.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås.
    Vårdvetenskaplig analys2016In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud, Lars Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 2, p. 318-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8155.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Creutz, Tobias
    Region of Västra Götaland.
    Pettersson Georgii, Johan
    Region of Västra Götaland.
    Family members’ experiences of care provided by ambulance staff in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest situations2015In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 14, no 1 suppl, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Approximately 10 000 people in Sweden suffer from sudden cardiac arrest outside the hospital each year. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is started in about half of the cases. Treatment of patients with cardiac arrest in a pre-hospital context is complex and focus is placed first and foremost on the patient because of the acute and life-threatening condition. For relatives, it is a traumatic and upsetting experience to be present when a family member suffers from cardiac arrest. The purpose of this study was therefore to describe family members experiences of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) situation and how the ambulance staff cared for them.

    Methods: This pilot study had a qualitative design, based on six individual interviews with family members who were present when the patient suffered OHCA. The interviews were conducted with an initial open-ended question and follow-up questions based on the responses. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The analysis generated subcategories, which were clustered into seven main categories.

    Results: The result describes the informants’ situation management, responsibility handover and their hope and hopelessness in the situation. The result also describes the staff’s care of family members by the categories closeness and distance, confirmation and exclusion, caring relationship and answered and unanswered questions. Family members described the OHCA situation as traumatic with feelings of panic, uncertainty, unreality, but also calm and rationality. Contentedness and gratitude for the ambulance staffs caring approach emerged. However, family members sometimes were not allowed to decide if they wanted to witness the resuscitation attempts or not, and a lack of information led to unnecessary frustration.

    Conclusions: Family members often have a need to talk to someone about their experiences of the OHCA situation, express their views on the care that was provided and receive feedback afterwards. Further research on family members’ situation at OHCAs is of great importance for the development of ambulance staff’s skills in caring approaches.

  • 8156.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap.
    Dahlberg, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sandman, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Balancing Between Closeness and Distance: Emergency medical services personnel’s experiences of caring for families at out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and deaths2012In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a lethal health problem thataffects between 236,000 and 325,000 people in the United States each year. As resuscitationattempts are unsuccessful in 70-98% of OHCA cases, Emergency Medical Services(EMS) personnel often face the needs of bereaved family members.Problem: Decisions to continue or terminate resuscitation at OHCA are influenced byfactors other than patient clinical characteristics, such as EMS personnel’s knowledge,attitudes, and beliefs regarding family emotional preparedness. However, there is littleresearch exploring how EMS personnel care for bereaved family members, or how theyare affected by family dynamics and the emotional contexts. The aim of this study is toanalyze EMS personnel’s experiences of caring for families when patients suffer cardiacarrest and sudden death.Methods: The study is based on a hermeneutic lifeworld approach. Qualitative interviewswere conducted with 10 EMS personnel from an EMS agency in southern Sweden.Results: The EMS personnel interviewed felt responsible for both patient care and familycare, and sometimes failed to prioritize these responsibilities as a result of their ownperceptions, feelings and reactions. Moving from patient care to family care implied amovement from well-structured guidance to a situational response, where the personnelwere forced to balance between interpretive reasoning and a more direct emotionalresponse, at their own discretion. With such affective responses in decision-making, thepersonnel risked erroneous conclusions and care relationships with elements of dishonesty,misguided benevolence and false hopes. The ability to recognize and respond to people’sexistential questions and needs was essential. It was dependent on the EMS personnel’sbalance between closeness and distance, and on their courage in facing the emotionalexpressions of the families, as well as the personnel’s own vulnerability. The presence offamily members placed great demands on mobility (moving from patient care to familycare) in the decision-making process, invoking a need for ethical competence.Conclusion: Ethical caring competence is needed in the care of bereaved family membersto avoid additional suffering. Opportunities to reflect on these situations within a frameworkof care ethics, continuous moral education, and clinical ethics training are needed.Support in dealing with personal discomfort and clear guidelines on family support couldbenefit EMS personnel.Bremer A, Dahlberg K, Sandman

  • 8157.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work. University of Borås.
    Dahlberg, Karin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås.
    Experiencing Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Significant Others’ Lifeworld Perspective2009In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 1407-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When patients suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA), significant others find themselves with no choice about being there. Afterwards they are often left with unanswered questions about the life-threatening circumstances, or the patient’s death, the emergency treatment and future needs. When it is unclear how the care, and the event itself will affect significant others’ well being, prehospital emergency personnel face ethical decisions. This study describes the experiences of significant others present at OHCA, focusing on ethical aspects and values. Using a lifeworld phenomenological approach, seven significant others were interviewed. The essence of the phenomenon of OHCA can be stated as: Unreality in the reality; Overwhelming responsibility; Inadequacy and limitation; Hope and hopelessness; Ethical considerations; Insecurity about the future; Trembling of life. These study findings show how significant others’ sense of unreality, inadequacy, and overwhelming responsibility at OHCA can threaten values deemed important for a good life.

     

  • 8158.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work. University of Borås.
    Dahlberg, Karin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Sandman, Lars
    Borås University.
    To Survive Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Search for Meaning and Coherence2009In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 323-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary responsibility of prehospital emergency personnel at out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) is to provide lifesaving care. Ethical considerations, decisions, and actions should be based in the patient’s beliefs about health and well-being. In this article, we describe patients’ experiences of surviving OHCA. By using a phenomenological approach, we focus on how OHCA influences patients’ well-being over time. Nine survivors were interviewed. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is described as a sudden and elusive threat, an awakening in perplexity, and the memory gap as a loss of coherence. Survival means a search for coherence with distressing and joyful understanding, as well as existential insecurity exposed by feelings of vulnerability. Well-being is found through a sense of coherence and meaning in life. The study findings show survivors’ emotional needs and a potential for prehospital emergency personnel to support them as they try to make sense of what has happened to them.

     

  • 8159.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council.
    Dahné, Tova
    Linköping University.
    Stureson, Lovisa
    Linköping University.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Lived experiences of surviving in-hospital cardiac arrest2018In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 130, no s1, p. e122-e122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8160.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Dahné, Tova
    Uppsala University, Sweden;Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stureson, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lived experiences of surviving in‐hospital cardiac arrest2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 156-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest survivors suffer from psychological distress and cognitive impairments. They experience existential insecurity and vulnerability and are striving to return to a life in which well‐being and the meaning of life have partly changed. However, research highlighting the experiences of in‐hospital cardiac arrest survivors is lacking. This means that evidence for postresuscitation care has largely been extrapolated from studies on out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest survivors, without considering potential group differences. Studies investigating survivors’ experiences of an in‐hospital cardiac arrest are therefore needed.

    Aim

    To illuminate meanings of people's lived experiences of surviving an in‐hospital cardiac arrest.

    Design

    An explorative, phenomenological hermeneutic method to illuminate meanings of lived experiences.

    Method

    Participants were identified through the Swedish national register of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and recruited from two hospitals. A purposive sample of eight participants, 53–99 years old, who survived an in‐hospital cardiac arrest 1–3 years earlier, was interviewed.

    Findings

    The survivors were striving to live in everyday life and striving for security. The struggle to reach a new identity meant an existence between restlessness and a peace of mind, searching for emotional well‐being and bodily abilities. The search for existential wholeness meant a quest for understanding and explanation of the fragmented cardiac arrest event and its existential consequences. The transition from hospital to home meant a transition from care and protection to uncertainty and vulnerability with feelings of abandonment, which called for a search for security and belonging, away from isolation and loneliness.

    Conclusion

    Surviving an in‐hospital cardiac arrest can be further understood by means of the concept of hospital‐to‐home transition. Following hospital discharge, patients felt vulnerable and abandoned when pending between denial and acceptance of the ‘new’ life. Hence, the healthcare system should play a significant role when it comes to facilitate cardiac arrest survivors’ security during hospital‐to‐home transition.

  • 8161.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Jimenéz-Herrera, Maria
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås.
    Burjalés Martí, D
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås.
    Casali, Luca
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Ethical values in emergency medical services: A pilot study2015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 928-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ambulance professionals often address conflicts between ethical values. As individuals’values represent basic convictions of what is right or good and motivate behaviour, research is neededto understand their value profiles.

    Objectives: To translate and adapt the Managerial Values Profile to Spanish and Swedish, and measure thepresence of utilitarianism, moral rights and/or social justice in ambulance professionals’ value profiles inSpain and Sweden.

    Methods: The instrument was translated and culturally adapted. A content validity index was calculated.Pilot tests were carried out with 46 participants.

    Ethical considerations: This study conforms to the ethical principles for research involving humansubjects and adheres to national laws and regulations concerning informed consent and confidentiality.

    Findings: Spanish professionals favoured justice and Swedish professionals’ rights in their ambulanceorganizations. Both countries favoured utilitarianism least. Gender differences across countries showedthat males favoured rights. Spanish female professionals favoured justice most strongly of all.

    Discussion: Swedes favour rights while Spaniards favour justice. Both contexts scored low onutilitarianism focusing on total population effect, preferring the opposite, individualized approach of therights and justice perspectives. Organizational investment in a utilitarian perspective might jeopardizeambulance professionals’ moral right to make individual assessments based on the needs of the patientat hand. Utilitarianism and a caring ethos appear as stark opposites. However, a caring ethos in its turn might well involve unreasonable demands on the individual carer’s professional role. Since both the justiceand rights perspectives portrayed in the survey mainly concern relationship to the organization and peerswithin the organization, this relationship might at worst be given priority over the equal treatment andmoral rights of the patient.

    Conclusion: A balanced view on ethical perspectives is needed to make professionals observant and readyto act optimally – especially if these perspectives are used in patient care. Research is needed to clarify howjustice and rights are prioritized by ambulance services and whether or not these organization-related valuesare also implemented in patient care.

  • 8162.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    University of Borås.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköping University ; University of Borås.
    Chefers etiska värderingar2016In: Ledarskap i äldreomsorgen: Att leda integrerat värdeskapande i en röra av värden och förutsättningar / [ed] Lotta Dellve, Maria Wolmesjö, Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2016, p. 43-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva chefers etiska värderingar, dilemman och organisatoriska förutsättningar för att bedriva ett värdebaserat ledarskap i såväl kommunal som privat äldreomsorg.

    Det empiriska materialet består av en omfattande enkätstudie till nästan 500 studerande inom ramen för den nationella ledarutbildningen för chefer inom äldreomsorgen vid Högskolan i Borås under perioden 2013 till 2015. Utbildningen gavs på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen och omfattade 30 högskolepoäng med två års studier på kvartsfart. Samtliga studerande var yrkesverksamma som chefer och ledare inom kommunal eller privat äldreomsorg i södra Sverige. Metoder som använts i bearbetning och analys av materialet är deskriptiva, jämförande och analytiska med regressionsmodeller och SEM-analys.

    Resultatet visar på att cheferna – oavsett utbildningsbakgrund, värderade följande etiska värden högst: att inte skada, respekt för individen och rätten till konfidentialitet. Värdedilemman i chefsarbetet är dock vanligt och sammanlänkat med andra utmaningar i arbetet, särskilt med utmaningar som rör hantering över organisationsnivåer (buffertproblem och containerproblem) och av olika ansvarsområden (logikkonflikter). Inom privat verksamhet skattade de medverkande cheferna värdekonflikter och andra utmaningar i lägre grad än chefer inom kommunal verksamhet.

    De flesta chefer var nöjda med hur de kunde fullfölja sitt ansvar för utveckling av verksamheten avseende värdegrund, kvalitet, processer, dagligt arbete, brukarmedverkan, brukarsäkerhet och arbetsmiljö. De flesta skattade också att de arbetade i mycket hög grad med strukturering och utveckling av dessa frågor.

    Stödresurser minskade upplevelsen av värdekonflikter, men det fanns skillnad i betydelsen relaterat till chefers grundprofession. Det organisatoriska stödet var också tydligare för chefer inom privat verksamhet. Organiserade stödresurser hade stor betydelse för hållbart integrerat och värdeskapande ledarskap samt för aktiva ledningsstrategier. Även sambandet mellan hållbart ledarskap och aktiva ledarstrategier modererades av grundprofession, där sambandet var moderat negativt för chefer med social grundutbildning. Det tycks således finnas ett utbildningsbehov bland äldreomsorgens chefer och behov av ett utvecklat stöd från arbetsgivaren då det varierar avseende omfattning, inriktning och nivå mellan kommunal och privat verksamhet.

    Sammanfattningsvis har chefer i äldreomsorgen många olika värden, på olika nivåer och utifrån olika perspektiv att förhålla sig till i sitt ledarskap. Att hantera och utveckla förståelse för dessa är utmanande i chefskapet och värdedilemman är vanliga. Majoriteten av cheferna i denna studie beskriver dock generellt en aktiv och god hantering och organisering av dessa. Konstateras att en integrerad förståelse och hantering, samt goda organisatoriska stödresurser tycks bidra till mer hållbart och värdeskapande ledarskap.

  • 8163.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    University of Borås.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås.
    Ethical values among managers in elderly care2015In: The Dilemmas for Human Services 2015: Organizing, Designing and Managing. 18th International Research Conference in Växjö, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8164.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital ; University of Borås.
    Kowalczyk, Emma
    Helsingborg County Hospital.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås.
    Emergency Medical Services physicians’ perceptions of ambulance nurses’ responsibility for referring patients to primary care and self-care - a Swedish national survey2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no Suppl 1, p. A6-A6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Based on guidelines developed by EMS physicians, registered nurses in the Swedish ambulance services sometimes by-pass the emergency department and refer non-urgent patients to primary care and self-care. However, these referrals are associated with problems that may jeopardize patient safety and patient participation.

    Aim: To identify the EMS physicians’ perceptions of ambulance nurses’ responsibilities and prerequisites to refer patients to primary care and self-care.

    Methods: A national survey of all EMS physicians (n=51) using study specific questions with close-ended and open response options, analysed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.

    Results: The response rate was 78% (n=40). The majority of the physicians (95%) perceived that nurses should be able to refer patients to primary care and self-care. One fourth (25%) perceived specialist nurses in ambulance care as the most appropriate professionals. The majority of the physicians (65%) perceived that referral to primary care maintain patient safety, whereas fewer (50%) assessed the referral as safe for the patient. All perceived that feedback should be given to nurses when the referral was incorrect. The majority perceived it important to extend the nurses’ authority to refer to primary care (63%) and self-care (55%).

    Conclusion: There is no consensus among the EMS physicians regarding responsibilities and conditions for nurses’ referral of patients. Registered nurses with basic education are expected to be able to refer, while there is varying opinion regarding requirements of specialist trained ambulance nurses to refer patients. Professional experience as a nurse is perceived more important than formal education.

  • 8165.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Sandboge, Samuel
    Rosengren, Ewa
    Etiska ”knäckfrågor” inom HLR2016In: HLR2016 : Ett hjärtsäkert Sverige: Göteborg 11-12 oktober, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8166.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås.
    Etiska aspekter på HLR2011In: HLR 2011, HLR rådet , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hälso- och sjukvårdens övergripande mål kan uttryckas som främjande av optimal livslängd med god livskvalitet och ett gott liv. Målet kan betraktas som etiskt. Vid en patients hjärtstopp är målet med den medicinska behandlingen (hjärtlungräddning, HLR) att personen överlever med åtminstone acceptabel livskvalitet. I det akuta, prehospitala skedet är det dock svårt att bedöma utfallet avseende framtida livskvalitet förutom i vissa få och relativt välbestämda fall. Det är dessutom svårt att få vetskap om patientens eventuella önskemål om sin vård. Som regel påbörjas därför HLR. Etiska riktlinjer kan ge viss vägledning i beslut om att avbryta HLR när det finns skäl att tro att målet inte kan uppnås. Ramarna för sådana riktlinjer bygger på respekt för patientens autonomi och integritet, rättvisa samt rimlighet i vårdarens yrkesroll. Detta innebära exempelvis respekt för patientens eventuella önskemål avseende HLR, undvikande av att patienten exponeras samt ansvar för att resurserna används så rättvist som möjligt. Det sistnämnda kan ibland innebära att ambulanspersonal avviker från en HLR-plats efter att HLR avbrutits för något som är viktigare än vården av närstående. Vård av närstående bör dock betraktas som en rimlig uppgift i ambulanspersonalens yrkesroll där ansvaret handlar om att tillvarata närståendes kunskap och erfarenhet, visa dem omtanke och respekt samt ge stöd, vägledning och information. Närståendes delaktighet ska främjas och kommunikationen med dem ske respektfullt, lyhört och empatiskt. Närståendes initiala roll vid en patients hjärtstopp är viktig genom att de kan bidra med värdefull informa-tion om patienten och även återge patientens vilja i förekommande fall. I händelse av att patienten avlider är målet att lindra närståendes lidande. Forskning visar dock att ambulanspersonalens uppfattningar om närståendevården och närståendes närvaro under HLR varierar från att anses som viktig för närståendes sorgeprocess och återhämtning, till att inte ingå i vårdarrollen, negativt påverka HLR-beslut och innebära emotionell belastning för vårdarna. Närståendes närvaro vid HLR tycks för en del ambulanspersonal innebära svårigheter att ge närstående emotionellt stöd och ibland leda till att HLR fortsätter längre än vad som är medici-niskt motiverat, antingen som ett sätt att lindra närståendes lidande eller för att vårdarna inte förmår att skifta från patientvård till vårdande av närstående. Att utföra HLR för någon annan skull än för patienten och längre än medicinskt motiverat är emellertid etiskt tveksamt och flyttar dessutom fokus från närståendes behov. Närståendes känslor av överväldigande ansvar och ofrivillig ensamhet belyser istället vikten av att uppmärksamhet på närståendes verkliga behov, främjande av kontrollkänsla och försök till skuldavlastning. Ambulanspersonalens uppriktighet, medmänsklighet och närvaro framstår som centrala aspekter i en etiskt god vård av närstående i samband med en patients hjärtstopp och plötsliga död.

  • 8167.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Borås.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås.
    Futile cardiopulmonary resuscitation for the benefit of others: An ethical analysis2011In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 495-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been reported as an ethical problem within prehospital emergency care that ambulance professionals administer physiologically futile cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to patients having suffered cardiac arrest to benefit significant others. At the same time it is argued that, under certain circumstances, this is an acceptable moral practice by signalling that everything possible has been done, and enabling the grief of significant others to be properly addressed. Even more general moral reasons have been used to morally legitimize the use of futile CPR: That significant others are a type of patient with medical or care needs that should be addressed, that the interest of significant others should be weighed into what to do and given an equal standing together with patient interests, and that significant others could be benefited by care professionals unless it goes against the explicit wants of the patient. In this article we explore these arguments and argue that the support for providing physiologically futile CPR in the prehospital context fails. Instead, the strategy of ambulance professionals in the case of a sudden death should be to focus on the relevant care needs of the significant others and provide support, arrange for a peaceful environment and administer acute grief counselling at the scene, which might call for a developed competency within this field.

  • 8168.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås.
    Vårdrum: ett vårdande rum2014In: Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning / [ed] Carina Elmqvist, Sofia Almerud Österberg, Liber, 2014, p. 23-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att bidra med fördjupad förståelse av begreppet vårdrum och samtidigt presentera en vårdvetenskaplig ram. I detta kapitel beskrivs skadeplatsens oordnade miljö och skiftande villkor, kännetecken och utmaningar som finns för ambulanspersonal att planera för och upprätta vårdrum för patienter som utsatts för trauma, i samverkan med räddningstjänst och polis. Därefter beskrivs villkor för patienternas och de närståendes vårdrum på akutmottagningen. I kapitlet ges exempel på hur vårdande rum kan främjas och upprättas samt hur vårdrummet kan upplevas av de närvarande, vilket gestaltas utifrån forskning och erfarenheter som gjorts av vårdare, patienter och närstående. Kapitlet bygger främst på vårdvetenskaplig forskning.

  • 8169. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    Long-term variation of PCB in the water of a river in relation to precipitation and internal sources1997In: Environmental science and technology, Vol. 31, p. 3232-3237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8170. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment1998In: Environmental science and technology, Vol. 32, p. 3491-3495Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8171. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    PCB in Emån River ecosystem1998In: Ambio, Vol. 27, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8172. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    PCB in the air during landfilling of a contaminated lake sediment1998In: Atmospheric environment, Vol. 32, p. 1011-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8173. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    Hammar, T
    Helgee, A
    Troedsson, B
    PCB in a river system during sediment remediation1998In: Water, air, and soil pollution, Vol. 107, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8174. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Okla, L
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    PCB in water and sediment of a lake after remediation of contaminated sediment1998In: Ambio, Vol. 27, p. 398-403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8175. Bremle, G
    et al.
    Okla, L
    Larsson, Per
    Lund university.
    Uptake of PCBs in fish in a contaminated river system - Bioconcentration factors measured in the field1995In: Environmental science and technology, Vol. 29, p. 2010-2015Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8176.
    Brennander, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ernsth, Christoffer
    Kommunikationstest: Från Modbus RTU till Modbus TCP2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten presenteras hur en sammankoppling görs mellan ett elektronisktskydd till en effektbrytare och en dator. Det görs med en presentation av komponenternaföljt av en beskrivning över hur strömförsörjning och sammankoppling kan göras.Rapporten innefattar även en beskrivning av hur ett kommunikationstest mellan dehopkopplade komponenterna kan utföras.

  • 8177.
    Brenning, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Kvadrat, rektangel, cirkel och triangel - en läromedelsanalys med fokus på representationsformer, variationsmönster och kritiska aspekter 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att belysa hur geometriska objekt framställs i läroböcker för matematik och hur olika representationsformer används i detta sammanhang. Syftet är även att undersöka hur innehållet framställs utifrån variationsmönster och hur dessa kan synliggöra kritiska aspekter. Två läroböcker används och dessa är riktade mot årskurs 1. De geometriska objekten som behandlas är kvadrat, rektangel, cirkel och triangel.

    Läroböckerna analyseras genom en innehållsanalys och utgår från variationsteorin samt tidigare forskning om representationsformer och kritiska aspekter för geometriska objekt.

    Resultatet visar att läroböckerna använder olika representationsformer för att framställa geometriska objekt och att bildmodell är den representation som används i störst utsträckning. Representationsformerna används ofta separat från varandra, vilket inte överensstämmer med tidigare forskning om att en integrerad användning gynnar lärandet. Resultatet visar även att läroböckerna innehåller olika variationsmönster men att graden av variation kan skilja sig åt mellan olika böcker. Den kritiska aspekten rumsuppfattning synliggörs genom generalisering och begreppen sida, hörn och vinkel synliggörs genom kontrastering.

    Läromedelsanalysen medvetandegör hur kritiska aspekter kan synliggöras i innehållet och vad som eventuellt bör kompletteras med i undervisningen. Studien bidrar därmed till insikt om betydelsen av att verksamma lärare bör göra läromedelsgranskning. 

  • 8178.
    Bresche, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    ”Jag vill ha betyg i C sen stanna.": Fem andraspråksinlärares syn på vad som motiverar dem eller inte motiverar dem att studera vidare2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har till syfte att beskriva hur enskilda andraspråksinlärare utan tidigare skolbakgrund från hemlandet upplever sin studiesituation och vad som motiverar dem till fortsatta studier. Mina frågor handlar om hur de ser på behovet av litteracitet, vilka mål de har med sina studier och hur de ser på förutsättningarna att lyckas. För att få svar på min frågeställning har jag valt att göra kvalitativa intervjuer med fem inlärare av svenska som andraspråk som befinner sig på olika nivåer i det svenska utbildningssystemet. Jag har även tagit del av tidigare forskning och rapporter på området samt gällande kursplan. Resultatet visar att det är många faktorer som påverkar den enskilde individens motivation och förutsättningar att bli funktionellt litterat. Samtliga informanter anser att litteracitet är nödvändig för att klara sig i det svenska samhället. De har dock olika behov av litteracitet då deras mål med studierna skiftar. Två informanter har som mål att bli färdiga med kurs 2C på sfi. Den ena informantens mål är att sedan gå ut i arbete och den andres mål är att klara vardagliga situationer och sociala kontakter så som kontakten med barnens skola, tandläkarbesök etcetera. Tre av informanterna planerar att gå ett yrkesförberedande program på gymnasienivå till hösten för att sedan kunna gå ut i arbete. En av dessa har dock akademiska studier som sitt långsiktiga mål då hon planerar att läsa till sjuksköterska. Förutsättningarna att lyckas med studierna är kantade av svårigheter då informanterna upplever att flera faktorer försämrar deras möjligheter att nå framgång i studierna. Dessa faktorer rör främst tid till studier utanför undervisningstiden. En sådan faktor är svårigheten att lära sig läsa och skriva på ett språk som man ännu inte behärskar vilket är ett tidskrävande arbete. En annan faktor är bristen på barntillsyn då informanterna endast har barnomsorg när de själva är i skolan. Den tredje faktorn är trångboddheten vilken gör det svårt att hitta en ostörd plats att göra sina läxor på.

  • 8179.
    Bresche, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Läsförståelse hos svenska gymnasieelever: En undersökning av hur gymnasieelever som läst svenska B respektive svenska som andraspråk B klarar TISUS-testets läsförståelsedel2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This paper aims to examine reading comprehension among Swedish Upper Secondary School

    students who are doing their last school year. My research questions are if the students have

    sufficient reading comprehension to cope with university studies and higher education

    according to a comprehension test and if there is a difference between students who studied

    Swedish B course or Swedish as a second language B course. Furthermore it involves issues

    of differences in results depending on gender and if the second-language students were born

    in Sweden or abroad.

    To get answers to my questions, I let 112 students in my survey carry out the reading

    comprehension part of the TISUS test, observed several test sessions, and interviewed 24

    students who participated in the test. The result shows that most students have difficulties

    with the reading comprehension, and probably would find it difficult to study at universities

    or colleges. There are major differences in the results between the Swedish B-students and

    Swedish as a second language students, but also within these groupings. The students in

    theoretical programs

    managethe reading comprehension test to a greater extent than the

    students on practical programs, whether they had studied Swedish B or Swedish as a second

    language B.

    Inadequaciesin vocabulary, reading rate and comprehension strategies appear to

    be the main cause of low test results. Differences between the results of the men and women

    can also be discerned but the most surprising result is that second language students who were

    born abroad manage the reading comprehension test better than second language students

    born in Sweden.

     

  • 8180.
    Bressler, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Hermansson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Kärlek som statsangelägenhet: En kvantitativ undersökning av tidningsartiklar publicerade under det kungliga bröllopet 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2010 was the year of the wedding between Sweden’s crown princess Victoria and Daniel Westling. Although the wedding was partly financed with tax payer’s money, the newspapers did not investigate it further. The main theme of the published articles was lighter and with an entertainment value rather than finding out what the tax money really went. We read two of Sweden’s biggest newspapers, one morning paper (Dagens Nyheter) and one evening paper (Aftonbladet) and counted the articles that contained information about the wedding 1st June – 25th June. 93 percent of the 137 articles in Aftonbladet did not have any critical content at all. Dagens Nyheter published 48 articles during the same period and the percentage of non-critical content was 86 percent. We also divided the articles into different categories for example wedding dress, weather and safety. This to find out what the newspapers choose to write about.

     

  • 8181.
    Breuss, Towe
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Torpman, Cajsa
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Understanding how SME’s handle CSR activities connected to the supply chain: A qualitative study in a B2B context2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued for the past years that one of today’s main important factors for

    gaining competitive advantage is to implement CSR activities. There have been many

    studies showing the many benefits CSR have, not only to the organizations but also to

    society and the environment. However, CSR does not only concern the organization

    itself but also ensuring that the social and environmental behaviour is accomplished

    throughout the whole supply chain. Larger firms have the ability to implement and

    focus on several tasks at once, while small and medium-sized enterprises are struggling

    with limited resources and cannot afford any mistakes. This study is focusing on how

    SMEs with limited resources implement CSR within the supply chain and what

    difficulties they experience, since CSR is often seen as a complex and resource based

    issue. A case study was conducted at a SME in a B2B context and the study is based on

    a qualitative approach, with empirical data gathered from five in-depth interviews. After

    the empirical data was analysed it was concluded that by decreasing the supplier base is

    a way of gaining stronger contact and trust, also centralizing the supplier base in order

    to decrease transportation and emissions. SMEs with limited resources can outsource

    duties such as checkups and audits to external companies in order to assure quality and

    environmental criteria’s. Also, being an SME with limited resources indicates that the

    employees have to take on multiple roles in order to adapt to all customer and supplier

    demands, which was shown to be a complexity since obligations such as making a

    profitable procurement, were often prioritized before CSR. It was also found that the

    internal CSR communication was a major contributor to the lack of knowledge as well

    as interest in the subject, CSR is not seen as an obligation if not having anyone

    responsible for the CSR activities. Lastly, both CSR and digitalization were found to be

    two crucial keystones for organizational survival on the market.

  • 8182.
    Brevestedt, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur exponeras barn för ftalater i sin inomhusmiljö på förskolan?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ftalater är ett ämne som har till syfte att verka mjukgörande i plast. Ftalater finns i flera material och produkter i vår omgivning t ex i leksaker, elektronik, textilier och i inredningsmaterial. De problem som uppkommer i samband med användandet av ftalater i produkter är att ftalaterna inte är kovalent bundna till sitt material och därmed kan dessa frigöras ut i luft och damm. Flera ftalater är klassade som hormonstörande ämnen och kan påverka flera viktiga funktioner i kroppen. Barn är en extra känslig grupp då flera av deras organ ännu inte är färdigutvecklade och är beroende av ett fungerande endokrint system.

     

    Barn spenderar en stor del av sin vardag på förskolan och det ställer krav på deras inomhusmiljö. Studier visar på att koncentrationerna av ftalater är 2-4 gånger så hög i förskolans inomhusmiljö som i hemmiljön. Med tanke på att barn har flera organsystem under utveckling är det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater.

     

    Arbetets syfte är att kartlägga ftalater i inomhusmiljön på förskolor i Växjö kommun och att undersöka pedagogers medvetenhet kring ämnet. Arbetet utgår från tidigare vetenskapliga artiklar och en enkätundersökning som personal på 46 förskolor i Växjö kommun har besvarat.

     

    Studier som undersökt inomhusmiljöer visar på att det förekommer höga koncentrationer av ftalater som är begränsade enligt REACH-förordningen. Då ftalater finns i flera produkter blir det många olika exponeringskällor och det gör det viktigt att fasa ut onödiga källor för att minska koncentrationen av ftalater i luft och damm. De mest intressanta resultat som kommit fram via enkätundersökningen är att det förekommer plastgolv i de flesta lokaler, elektronik finns i de rum där barnen spenderar mest tid och att barn använder “vuxna leksaker” såsom äldre elektronik, väskor och skor. Ett resultat som visar att barn lever i en allt mer vuxen miljö med produkter som är avsedda för vuxna. Sådana produkter täcks inte in av de begränsningar som REACH-förordningen skapat och täcks inte heller av de nya leksaksdirektiven.  

    Förskolepedagogerna uppger sig vara medvetna om ämnet ftalater men ändå visar undersökningen att det finns en rad olika brister i kunskap. Det är därför viktigt att öka kunskapen och medvetenheten kring ämnet för att på så sätt fasa ut onödiga källor för exponering av ftalater. 

  • 8183.
    Breznica, Bahtije
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Hjälmberg, Annika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Omvårdnadsprogrammet sett ur ett genusperspektiv: En studie om lärares och elevers upplevelser av könssegregering på omvårdnadsprogrammet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Detta arbete handlar om könssegregeringen på Omvårdnadsprogrammet som innebär att det är fler flickor än pojkar i klasserna. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa och analysera faktorer som påverkar elevernas val till OP[1]. Elevernas och lärarnas uppfattning om könsfördelningen på OP och deras uppfattning om vad omvårdnad är samt hur omvårdnadsprogrammet i framtiden skulle kunna tilltala fler pojkar.

    Intresset för detta väcktes vid ett tidigare projektarbete under vår utbildning när vi undersökte hur vården över tid förändrats och utvecklats. I yrkeshistoriken framkom det att vårdyrket traditionellt ses som ett kvinnligt yrke. Faktum är att det fortfarande är kvinnor som till stor del vårdar och tar hand om gamla och sjuka. Har omvårdnad blivit så kvinnligt kodat så att det känns främmande för män att vårda?

    Metoden som använts är en kvalitativstudie, där vårt övergripande syfte var att få reda på hur elever och lärare upplever könsegregering på OP. Vi har genomfört djupintervjuer med nio personer från två olika skolor i två olika städer. Sammanlagt har vi intervjuat två lärare och sju elever. Vi har genomfört en omfattande litteraturstudie under hela processen.

    Resultatet visar att eleverna fortfarande väljer gymnasieprogram utifrån traditionella könsroller. Könssegregering på OP upplevs negativt av både elever och lärare. Varför det känns negativt har respondenterna svårt att beskriva men enligt Robertsson kan snäva könsrollerna vara ett hinder för personlig utveckling.[2]

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 8184.
    Brico, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Pantzar, Heidi
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The Language of a Pearl: Language Tourism in Malta2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the tourism industry for three years, and we were interested in finding a different subject to conclude our studies. Language Tourism, a fairly small but upcoming niche in tourism, and one in which we have some experience, promised to be an interesting dissertation subject. In Europe there are three countries where English is a mother tongue – the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta. The dissertation focuses on Malta.

    Malta is a small island state in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. The island state has three islands, Malta, Gozo and Comino, and together they enjoy a huge number of tourists, particularly in the summer months when the warm climate makes a good sun and sea destination. The summer season is officially June to August, so there is a problem concerning what to do when the last tourist leaves the island after their summer holiday. The tourism industry has a huge impact on the country and sustains around 30 per cent of the country´s total GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Malta has been promoted for a long time as a sea-side destination, and the Maltese Government Tourist Board traditionally promoted the island for sun, sea and sand, and popular culture.

    Back in the 1980s Malta had an established reputation. The Maltese Government now wanted to attract a different type of tourist, the ‘quality tourist’. The type of tourist they wanted to attract would also visit the island during the shoulder months. They were talking about the cultural tourist.

    The importance of good cooperation between the language schools and the Malta Tourism Authority is a high priority if the development of steady all-year-round tourism is to be a possibility. Being an island state Malta is likely to suffer more from the issue of seasonality, as islands in general tend to be affected more than inland and coastal destinations. However, Malta's climate is a major pulling factor.

    Language tourism has grown on the island since the 1960´s; today there are between 40 and 50 schools registered on the island. There are three important factors contributing to a language trip: courses, teachers and the leisure programme. Even though Malta is facing competition from nearby destinations in the Mediterranean, it is on its own in this niche market and able to offer students a warm, friendly welcome with a combination of a unique experience and learning.

  • 8185.
    Briggert, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Fibres orientation on sawn surfaces: Can fibre orientation on sawn surfaces be determined by means of high resolution scanning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European journal of wood and wood products published an article regarding a new method to predict strength in structural timber (Olsson et al 2013). By determining the fibres orientation on all four surfaces of each board in sample of timber using a high resolution scanner the authors were able to achieve a coefficient of determination, R2, as high as 0.71 between bending strength and a new indicating property (IP). For the same sample of timber Olsson et al (2013) determined the R2 by axial dynamic excitation as 0.59. However, all boards used in their investigation were planed before scanning. This study examines if a high resolution scanner could be used to determine the fibre orientation on the surfaces of sawn timber boards of Norway spruce. Both band sawn surfaces and circular sawn surfaces were examined. The procedure in this investigation is described as follows. Firstly, both the band sawn and the circular sawn boards were scanned by a WoodEye® scanner and together with dimensions, weight and the first longitudinal resonance frequency, a modulus of elasticity (MOE) profile was calculated for each board. The MOE profiles were calculated according to Olsson et al (2013) i.e. by a transformation matrix based upon the fibres orientation and a compliance matrix based on material parameters for Norway spruce. Secondly, the corresponding MOE profiles were then determined after the boards had been planed. As a result two MOE profiles were determined for each board. An indicating property (IP) was defined as the lowest value along each MOE profile. To compare the results a regression analysis was performed in which the IPs defined before planing worked as predictor variable and IPs defined after planing worked as response variable. The band sawn band boards yielded an R2 = 0.94 and the circular sawn boards an R2 = 0.93. Further the standard error of estimate was SEE = 829.1 MPa and SEE = 640.9 MPa respectively. As a last step in this investigation the SEE values achieved in this study where implemented on to the sample Olsson et al (2013) used in their investigation.

  • 8186.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hu, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Evaluation of three dimensional fibre orientation in Norway spruce using a laboratory laser scanner2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses laser scanning and utilization of the tracheid effect for determination of local fibre orientation, which is decisive for strength and stiffness of timber. A newly developed laboratory laser scanner that can be used for high resolution and high precision scanning of wood surfaces is used for in-depth assessment of a single Norway spruce specimen that contains a knot. It is assumed that the specimen has a plane of symmetry, through the knot, and by splitting the specimen in two parts it is possible to determine fibre orientation on orthogonal planes. Hence, by relying on the assumption of symmetry, the fibre orientation in 3D space can also be determined. The results are used to evaluate the possibility of utilizing the tracheid effect for determination of the out-of-plane fibre angle of an investigated surface. Furthermore, the results are used for verification of a theoretical fibre orientation model that has often been used by researchers.

  • 8187.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Hu, Min
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tracheid effect scanning and evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane fibre direction in Norway spruce using2018In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 411-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local fiber direction is decisive for both strength and stiffness in timber. In-plane fiber direction on surfaces of timber can be determined using the so-called tracheid effect which is frequently used in both research and industry applications. However, a similar established method does not exist for measuring the out-of-plane angle, also known as diving angle. The purposes of this article were to evaluate if the tracheid effect can also be used to determine, with reasonable accuracy, the out-of-plane angle in Norway spruce and to verify an existing mathematical model used to calculate the fiber direction in the vicinity of knots. A newly developed laboratory laser scanner was applied for assessment of fiber directions in a single Norway spruce specimen containing a knot. It was assumed that the specimen had a plane of symmetry through the center of the knot, and by splitting the specimen through this plane into two parts, it was possible to make measurements on orthogonal planes. The results showed that the out-of-plane angle could not be determined with very high accuracy and the difficulties related to this objective were analyzed. Regarding the mathematical model of fiber direction in the vicinity of a knot, fiber directions calculated on the basis of this model agreed well with experimentally obtained fiber directions, but successful application of the model requires that the geometry of the knot is known in detail.

  • 8188.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modelling 3D orientation of knots in timber on the basis of dot laser scanning and the tracheid effect2015In: / [ed] Josef Eberhardsteiner and Michael Kaliske, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing research concerns the possibility of determining the 3D orientation of wood fibres within the entire volume of a wooden board using surface information from laser scanning. Previous research, Olsson and Oscarsson [1], has shown that the fibre orientation of side boards can be determined on the basis of such information. The present research is extended to also comprise boards cut from the centre of the log and a first step in this work is to establish 3D models of knots in boards on the basis of information from dot laser scanning of surfaces.

    In comparison with other approaches aiming at 3D models of knots and wood fibre orientation, e.g. Guindos and Guaita[2] and Hackspiel et al. [3], the present model relies to a larger extent on the actual fibre orientation measured on each individual board, rather than on general assumption and mathematical models of typical fibre orientation alone.  

    The fact that all data needed for the model can be sampled in sawmill production speed means that developed models could be used as a basis for advanced strength grading methods, for grading with respect to shape stability and for other purposes of industrial interest.

  • 8189.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Three dimensional knot models based on surface laser scanning2015In: Proceedings 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 23-25 September, 2015. / [ed] Ross, Robert J.; Gonçalves, Raquel; Wang, Xiping,, Madison, USA: USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory , 2015, Vol. 19, p. 83-90Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most machine strength grading methods of today result in limited grading accuracy and poor yield in higher strength classes. A new and more accurate grading method utilizing laser scanning technique to determine the in-plane fibre directions on board surfaces was recently approved for the European market. In this, however, no consideration is taken to the out-of-plane direction of the fibres. A first step towards scanning-based 3D models of the fibre orientation is the establishment of 3D knot models. In this investigation laser scanning was used to identify knot surfaces on longitudinal board surfaces. By means of developed algorithms knot surfaces that belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified. All knots with surface areas larger than 100 mm2 were correctly identified and modeled in 3D. This is a promising starting point for further development of the new grading method based on laser scanning.

  • 8190.
    Briggert, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Three-dimensional modelling of knots and pith location in Norway spruce boards using tracheid-effect scanning2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 725-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knots and the orientation of fibres in timber are decisive for the stiffness and strength of boards. Due to large property variations between members, strength grading is necessary. High resolution information of the orientation of fibres, both on surfaces and within members, would enable development of more accurate grading methods than those available today. A step towards three-dimensional (3D) models of the fibre orientation of the entire board volume is the establishment of 3D knot models based on scanning. The light from a dot laser illuminating the surface of a softwood board will, due to the tracheid effect, spread more along the fibres than across resulting in the dot entering an elliptical shape. In this investigation both the shape of the ellipse and the direction of its major axis were used to estimate the 3D fibre orientation on board surfaces. Knot surfaces were identified where the angle between the estimated 3D fibre direction and an approximated direction of the board’s pith exceeded a threshold value. By means of algorithms based on polar coordinates, knot surfaces which belonged to the same physical knot visible on different sides of the board were identified and as a result the position, orientation and volume of each knot were determined. Based on this information, a more accurate position of the board’s pith along the board was calculated. The established models showed good agreement with physical boards. The models constitute a promising starting point for further development of strength grading methods based on tracheid-effect scanning.

  • 8191.
    Briggler, Christina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Pettersson, Pernilla
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Bedöma eller fördöma: en kvalitativ studie om likvärdig och rättssäker bedömning i skolår fem2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans bedömning kan ha stor betydelse för en elevs framtid och det är av största vikt att den är likvärdig och rättssäker. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur några lärare arbetar med bedömning och om lärarnas sätt att arbeta med bedömning är likvärdig och rättssäker. Vi har använt oss av den kvalitativa forskningen och genomfört 3 semi-strukturerade intervjuer i grupp.

    Studien visar att skolorna arbetar olika med bedömning. Det finns de som sätter eleven i fokus och är fullt medvetna om vad styrdokument med dess mål och kriterier har för relation till och betydelse för bedömning. De inser vikten av en likvärdig och rättssäker bedömning. Men det finns också de som anser att bedömning inte gynnar eleven och arbetar därför inte strukturerat med det. Likvärdighet ses som något som inte kan uppnås och tas därför inte på allvar. Hur klarar elever att möta lärare vars förhållningssätt till bedömning är negativt och nonchalant? Blir bedömning utvecklande eller fördömande?

  • 8192.
    Brigitta, Spirer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    AKA värdet för myoper vid alternerande mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Myoper alternerar gärna  mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser i det vardagliga livet då det tillfredsställer synkvaliten på ett väldigt bra sätt. De nackdelar som uppstår till följd av detta,  med ökat ackommodations och konvergensbehov bör däremot inte försummas. AKA värdet beskriver sambandet mellan ackommodation och ackommodations konvergens. Det beskriver även om patientens symptom kan avhjälpas med en över eller underkorrektion. Syftet med detta arbete är att jämföra AKA värdet i glasögon med kontaktlinser.

    Metod: 20 myopa personer med refraktionsfel över -1,00D deltog i studien. Samtliga var mellan 18 och 35 år och var både kontaktlins och glasögonbärande. Närforin mättes med refraktionsfelet i provbåge samt med tilläggen +1,00D och -1,00D, AKA förhållandet räknades ut och ett medelvärde togs. Likvärdigt mättes forierna med kontaktlinser där första mätningen utfördes med refraktionsfelet. Resterande två mätningar utfördes med refraktionsfelet och tilläggen +1,00D / -1,00D i kontaktlinsen. Även för dessa värden räknades AKA förhållandet ut och ett medelvärde togs.

    Resultat: Resultatet i denna studie visar att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad i ett AKA värde mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser. När det gäller den horisontella närforin i de olika korrektionerna fanns det en förändring åt det esoforiska hållet i kontaktlinser. Denna skillnad var däremot inte signifikant. Det resultat där en signifikant skillnad fanns var den horisontella närforin med +1,00D. Korrelationen mellan AKA värde och refraktionsfel samt mellan AKA värde i de olika korrektionerna uppvisade ingen signifikans.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av denna studie är att det i ett AKA värde inte uppstår någon signifikant skillnad mellan korrektionerna. 

  • 8193.
    Briland, Isabelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Malinn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ett komplext omhändertagande: - En intervjustudie om akut omhändertagande av svårt sjuka sepsispatienter och patienter med trauma2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The population is aging and requires more complex healthcare. This means that in the future, interaction with other healthcare departments is essential. Such interaction would lead to increased demand on the ability to cooperate among healthcare personnel. The intensivecare nurse and the nurse in the emergency department have a close cooperation when managing the acute severely ill patient. A multiprofessional team gives a faster diagnosis and management in the emergency department, which shortens the time to the final instance of care. The members of the team complement each other, increasing patient safety and enabling person-centered care. Increased knowledge with the nursing staff on the acute management in emergency department is essential to be able to enhance the care for the patient in the initial stage, but focus should also be at the nurse’s experience of the acute management to identify risk factors that could pose a negative influence on the patient.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experience of acute management of patients with trauma and patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.Method: The method used was a qualitative, inductive approach where 14 interviews were conducted, seven with nurses from the emergency department and seven intensive care nurses from the intensive care department. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative, manifest content analysis.Result:The analyzation process resulted in five different categories: ‘Communication is A&O’, ‘The importance of knowing one’s role’, ‘Work over the borders’, ‘Working from a clear structure’ and ‘Care on different terms’. Conclusion: There is an unclear structure in the emergency care of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, which was a result of unclear roles and inadequate communication in the care. It appears to be advantageous to introduce clear guidelines in the emergency care of the patient group with severe sepsis or septic shock, suggestively by checklists or some medical alert like a trauma alarm, and where a multi-professional team interacts around the patient.

  • 8194.
    Briland, Julian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Dissecting as a Method in Micro-Utopianism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This BA thesis is about an attempt to explore micro-utopianism through design, an investigation that seeks which driving forces come into play in a search for a better place. In comparison to conventional utopianism, I will give my insights about why micro-utopianism should instead be practiced as an alternative approach to the subject. It is more about the process, exploring, imagining and experimenting rather than constituting a perfect place. The way I chose to go about this was through participatory design, which is a discipline that involves the stakeholders throughout the whole design process and beyond. I will also talk about dissecting as a design method and how I tried this out to explore micro-utopianism. To do this, the participants and I conducted two workshops so that, together with the participants, we could have a space where our imagination could ‘gestalta’ (or ‘exterpret’) thoughts of critique and opportunities. The two workshops were targeting different age groups: in the first one mainly adults participated and the second workshop was with youth. This will give you an insight of how dissecting can be applied to stimulate the utopian impulse using the power of imagination.

  • 8195.
    Brinck, Angelica
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Pasma, Paulina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Vad händer sen?: Om Montessorielevers förutsättningar vid fortsatta studier i grundskolans senare år.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens next?

    A study about Montessori students conditions when studying at a senior level

  • 8196.
    Brincker, Rune
    et al.
    Aarhus School of Engineering, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Estimating Low-Bias Frequency Response Using Random Decrement2011In: Modal Analysis Topics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 29th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2011, Springer, 2011, Vol. 3, p. 497-502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that in order to minimize the influence of leakage bias in frequency response function (FRF) estimates, smooth windows should be applied in the FFT processing. It is also normal practice to use self windowing excitation signals whenever possible. However, in many cases FRFs have to be estimated on systems where the excitation signal cannot be altered. Since random data can be compressed in a random decrement function, and since this procedure introduces a natural window, using this technique significantly reduces the influence of leakage bias, and thus, can be used as an alternative to Welch based estimates in cases where the signals involved are random. This means that almost bias-free FRF estimates can be obtained from stationary random excitation. In the paper it is shown how the random decrement technique can be applied to process the time series, and the level of bias on the FRF is estimated and compared to normal Welch based FRF estimates.

  • 8197.
    Brincker, Rune
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    FFT Integration of Time Series Using an Overlap-add Technique2010In: Structural Dynamics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010 / [ed] Tom Proulx, Springer, 2010, Vol. 3, p. 1467-1474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many times in vibration problems it is of importance to be able to integrate signals. Well known cases are Operational Deflection Shapes and earth quake problems where the displacements often need to be estimated from acceleration time series. When digital signals are integrated some classical problems arise; one of these is numerical noise introduced by the inaccurate integration algorithms resulting in large errors in the low frequency region leading to large DC drift. These problems are normally dealt with by using high pass filters that often introduce additional implementation problems like instability and amplitude/phase distorting problems. In this paper an FFT based procedure is introduced.

  • 8198.
    Brincker, Rune
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Random Decrement Signal Processing of Modal Impact Test Data2010In: Structural Dynamics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010 / [ed] Tom Proulx, Springer, 2010, Vol. 3, p. 1453-1459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing modal impact tests on mechanical systems many practioners utilize hardware based digital signal processors to rapidly estimate average spectral properties from a set of repeated impact and response time traces. However, if the complete set of time traces is saved as is commonly done when performing impact tests on civil structures then more generalized analysis and triggering conditions can be used to process the dataset. One such more general triggering condition can be referred to as random decrement signal processing. In this paper it is explained and illustrated how random decrement signal processing can be used to accept double hit impact and overlapping responses and it is shown that in many cases, the estimated transfer function are estimated with higher accuracy then using traditional triggering/averaging techniques.

  • 8199.
    Brincker, Rune
    et al.
    Aarhus School of Engineering, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Time Synchronization by Modal Correlation2011In: 4th International Operational Modal Analysis Conference (IOMAC), Istanbul, Turkey, May 9-11, 2011, International Operational Modal Analysis Conference (IOMAC) , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often difficult to synchronize OMA sensors when the distance between sensors is large. Sometimes GPS can be used for synchronization, but not always since GPS require visibility of a certain number of satellites. Other times cables or radio signals can be used, however, in some cases a direct synchronization is difficult or impossible. The focus of this paper is on synchronizing sensors by using the modal response of the considered structure. The technique assumes that only a single mode is present in the signal, and that the phase relationship between the different measurement points is known. The background for the technique is introduced and it is illustrated on response data from the Great Belt Bridge.

  • 8200.
    Brincker, Rune
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Bolton, Bob
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Calibration and Processing of Geophone Signals for Structural Vibration Measurements2010In: Structural Dynamics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010 / [ed] Tom Proulx, Springer, 2010, Vol. 3, p. 1375-1379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geophones are highly sensitive motion transducers that have been used by seismologists and geophysicists for decades. The conventional geophone's ratio of cost to performance, including noise, linearity and dynamic range is unmatched by advanced modern accelerometers. However, the problem of this sensor is that it measures velocity, and that the linear frequency range is limited to frequencies above the natural frequency, typically at 4-12 Hz. In this paper an instrument is presented based on geophone technology. The sensor is aimed at low vibration level measurements on large civil structures, thus the problem of correcting the bad frequency response becomes essential. The instrument is based on a digitally wired system principle where time synchronization is obtained by GPS, and a good frequency response is secured by calibration and subsequent correction using inverse filtering techniques.

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