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  • 851.
    Wang, Hongzhen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Han, Junli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kanagarajan, Selvaraju
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Trichome-specific expression of the amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase (cyp71av1) gene, encoding a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, as reported by a promoter-GUS fusion2013In: Plant Molecular Biology, ISSN 0167-4412, E-ISSN 1573-5028, Vol. 81, no 1-2, p. 119-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artemisinin derivatives are effective anti-malarial drugs. In order to design transgenic plants of Artemisia annua with enhanced biosynthesis of artemisinin, we are studying the promoters of genes encoding enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. A 1,151 bp promoter region of the cyp71av1 gene, encoding amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase, was cloned. Alignment of the cloned promoter and other cyp71av1 promoter sequences indicated that the cyp71av1 promoter may be different in different A. annua varieties. Comparison to the promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene showed a number of putative cis-acting regulatory elements in common, suggesting a co-regulation of the two genes. The cyp71av1 promoter sequence was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and two varieties of A. annua and Nicotiana tabacum were transformed. In A. annua, GUS expression was exclusively localized to glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) of leaf primordia and top expanded leaves. In older leaves, there is a shift of expression to T-shaped trichomes (TSTs). Only TSTs showed GUS staining in lower leaves and there is no GUS staining in old leaves. GUS expression in flower buds was specifically localized to GSTs. The recombinant promoter carries the cis-acting regulatory elements required for GST-specific expression. The cyp71av1 promoter shows activity in young tissues. The recombinant promoter was up to 200 times more active than the wild type promoter. GUS expression in transgenic N. tabacum was localized to glandular heads. Transcript levels were up-regulated by MeJA. Wound responsiveness experiment showed that the cyp71av1 promoter does not appear to play any role in the response of A. annua to mechanical stress.

  • 852.
    Wang, Hongzhen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kanagarajan, Selvaraju
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Han, Junli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hao, Menhshu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Yang, Yiyi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua2014In: Journal of plant physiology (Print), ISSN 0176-1617, E-ISSN 1618-1328, Vol. 171, no 2, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to β-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652 bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most likely have little or no effect on artemisinin production.

  • 853.
    Welander, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Strålningseffekter på thymidinkinas: I.  Thymidinkinas 1 och 2 i normala och maligna cellerII. Betydelsen av dTTP för inhibition av  thymidinkinas 1-aktiviteten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande arbete har studier gjorts på effekten av strålning på enzymet thymidinkinas, TK.

    I arbete I, TK1 and 2 in normal and malignant cells visades att TK-aktiviteten i musmjälte ökade vid 0,1 Grey (Gy) men minskade upp till 1Gy. I musthymus däremot, ökade TK aktiviteten vid 0,1Gy. Aktiviteten av defosforylerat TK1 (TK1a) minskade med 50 % efter strålning med 0,5-1 Gy i både mjälte och thymus.  Efter strålning minskade graden av defosforylering (förhållandet TK1b/TK1) i mjälte men inte i thymus. TK2-aktiviteten i muslever ökade ungefär 60 % tre timmar efter strålning med 5 Gy. TK-aktiviteten i tumörceller i musascites, strålad med 1-5 Gy, visade en icke dosberoende oscillerande TK1-aktivitet upp till 24 timmar, speciellt för TK1a ochTK1b. Halten TK1 var oförändrad de första 12 timmarna men minskade 24 timmar efter behandling. Detta tyder på att skillnaderna i graden av fosforylering av TK1 efter bestrålning av mjälte, thymus och ascitestumör understryker komplexiteten i responsen av TK1-aktivitet efter bestrålning. Den stora förändringen i aktiviteten av TK1a och TK1b kan tyda på att de är mer strålningskänsliga än TK-h, som är en variant med en blandning av TK1:s och TK2:s egenskaper.

    I arbete II, The significance of deoxythymidine triphosphate for inhibition of TK1 activity, var syftet  att undersöka mekanismen bakom tymidinkinas 1:s (TK1) höga känslighet för röntgenstrålning. Deoxytymidintrifosfat(dTTP)poolen i musascitestumörceller studerades under 1-24 timmar efter bestrålning med 5 Gy. Bestrålningen ändrade Michaelis-Menten- kinetiken från linjär till bifasisk med en negativ kooperativitet. Förändringarna korrelerade till ändringarna i dTTP-poolen. Genom att tillsätta dTTP till cellextrakt från obestrålade celler eller tymidin (dTdR) till cellmediumet uppvisades en förändring i kinetiken liknande den för bestrålade celler. Tillsatt 5´-amino-5´-deoxythymidin, en tymidinanalog (AdTdR) som eliminerade dTTPs hämmande effekt på TK1, avlägsnade helt den strålningsinducerade hämningen av TK1-aktiviteten. En minskning av TK1- aktiviteten beror sannolikt på en ökning av den intracellulära koncentrationen av dTTP.

  • 854.
    Westerblad, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur Effektivt är Behandling med Entecavir jämfört med Lamivudin mot Kronisk Hepatit B Infektion?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hepatit B är en virusinfektion som orsaks av Hepatit B virus (HBV). Hos de flesta människor orsakar detta virus inte några större problem men hos cirka 5-10% av de drabbade utvecklas en kronisk form som kan vara allvarlig. Detta beror på att vid den kroniska formen finns det en risk att levercirrhos och hepatocellulärt carcinom utvecklas. Idag finns det effektiv men ej botande behandling mot kronisk hepatit B. Målen vid behandlingen av kronisk hepatit B är att minimera risken för utveckling av cirrhos, leversvikt och hepatocellulärt carcinom, vilket görs genom inhibering av HBV virusreplikation. Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka effektiviteten av entecavir jämfört med lamivudin vid behandling av kronisk hepatit B. Undersökningen genomfördes genom utvärdering av fem randomiserade och kontrollerade studier, vilka hämtades från databasen PubMed. Studierna visade att entecavir var mer potent än lamivudin i att minimera virusreplikation vilket resulterade i omätbara nivåer av HBV DNA i proverna. Dessutom normaliserade entecavir koncentrationerna av leverenzymet alaninaminotransferas, ALAT, och resulterade i serokonversion mot HBV och förlust av cirkulerande HBeAg i större utsträckning än lamivudin. Ingen resistens mot entecavir upptäcktes i någon av studierna. Slutsatsen är att entecavir är mera effektivt än lamivudin i att inhibera HBV virusreplikationen och att reducera inflammationen i kronisk hepatit B. Däremot behövs det flera och längre studier som undersöker huruvida effekten av kombinationsbehandling av kronisk hepatit där entecavir är ett av de antivirala medlen som används.

  • 855.
    Whitcombe, Michael J.
    et al.
    Univ Leicester, UK.
    Kirsch, Nicole
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Molecular imprinting science and technology: a survey of the literature for the years 2004-20112014In: Journal of Molecular Recognition, ISSN 0952-3499, E-ISSN 1099-1352, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 297-401Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we present a survey of the literature covering the development of molecular imprinting science and technology over the years 2004-2011. In total, 3779 references to the original papers, reviews, edited volumes and monographs from this period are included, along with recently identified uncited materials from prior to 2004, which were omitted in the first instalment of this series covering the years 1930-2003. In the presentation of the assembled references, a section presenting reviews and monographs covering the area is followed by sections describing fundamental aspects of molecular imprinting including the development of novel polymer formats. Thereafter, literature describing efforts to apply these polymeric materials to a range of application areas is presented. Current trends and areas of rapid development are discussed. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 856.
    Wibroe, Peter Popp
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Anselmo, Aaron C
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Nilsson, Per H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Oslo, Norway ;Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, NorwayRikshospitalet.
    Sarode, Apoorva
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Gupta, Vivek
    St Johns Univ, USA.
    Urbanics, Rudolf
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungary.
    Szebeni, Janos
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungary.
    Hunter, Alan Christy
    Montfort Univ, UK.
    Mitragotri, Samir
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Mollnes, Tom Eirik
    University of Oslo, Norway ;Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, NorwayRikshospitalet ; Nordland Hosp, Norway ; Univ Tromso, Norway ; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Moghimi, Seyed Moein
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark ; Univ Durham, UK.
    Bypassing adverse injection reactions to nanoparticles through shape modification and attachment to erythrocytes.2017In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 589-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravenously injected nanopharmaceuticals, including PEGylated nanoparticles, induce adverse cardiopulmonary reactions in sensitive human subjects, and these reactions are highly reproducible in pigs. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, roles for both the complement system and reactive macrophages have been implicated. Here, we show the dominance and importance of robust pulmonary intravascular macrophage clearance of nanoparticles in mediating adverse cardiopulmonary distress in pigs irrespective of complement activation. Specifically, we show that delaying particle recognition by macrophages within the first few minutes of injection overcomes adverse reactions in pigs using two independent approaches. First, we changed the particle geometry from a spherical shape (which triggers cardiopulmonary distress) to either rod- or disk-shape morphology. Second, we physically adhered spheres to the surface of erythrocytes. These strategies, which are distinct from commonly leveraged stealth engineering approaches such as nanoparticle surface functionalization with poly(ethylene glycol) and/or immunological modulators, prevent robust macrophage recognition, resulting in the reduction or mitigation of adverse cardiopulmonary distress associated with nanopharmaceutical administration.

  • 857.
    Wilhelmsson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av svenska baljväxter som råmaterial vid växtbaserad glasstillverkning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The solution to current climate changes and lifestyle related diseases can partly be targeted by changing our diet into a more plant based. With the same consumption level and production methods, animal products are very resource demanding. More options are needed to encourage consumers into eating a more sustainable diet. Ice cream is traditionally made from animal products but there are plant based alternatives, of which the majority is imported. Swedish leguminous are easily cultivated in temperate climates and have been traditionally grown in Sweden for many years. Some of the Swedish leguminous are mostly cultivated for feed, but it is possible to use them for human food as well. The aim of this study was to investigate if Swedish leguminous can be utilized as raw material for plant based ice cream. Germination and choice of vegetable fat was evaluated. The parameters that were analyzed were protein content by Kjeldahl with modification and HPLC, total solid content by oven drying methods, buffer capacity by titration, pH by pH-meter, viscosity by capillary methods and melting rate by melting-time analysis. The results indicate that Swedish leguminous can be used as raw material for plant based ice cream. The fat type or germination did not seem to affect the properties of the ice cream. Finally, fermentation of the Swedish leguminous based ice cream was evaluated. The result indicates that more fermentation attempts are needed, perhaps with other types of lactic acid bacteria. Further studies is needed to determine a reliable result.

  • 858.
    Winglycke, Wendela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ultraprocessad mat: Sambandet mellan konsumtion av ultraprocessad mat, övervikt och fetma2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Ultra-processed food includes industrially produced food that often has a poor nutrition value but is high in energy density, e.g. soft drinks, candy, sweets, chips and pre-cooked food. Production, availability and marketing of processed foods and drinks has increased, which several researchers believe is the main reason for the obesity epidemic in the world. Previous research has shown an association between ultra-processed food and both overweight and obesity, metabolic diseases, cancer, depression and anxiety. Objective. The objective was to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food, overweight and obesity, and how the remaining diet is composed at an increased consumption of ultra-processed food. Method. The assignment is a literature review based on articles from the databases OneSearch and PubMed. Results. The results indicate an association between ultra-processed food, overweight and obesity. An increased consumption of ultra-processed food also results in an increased total energy intake, a decreased intake of protein, fibre and potassium and an increased intake of total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, total sugar and sodium. The consumption of ultra-processed food is higher among white/native, younger people, smokers, physically inactive and those with a lower degree of education. Discussion. The main reason of the result is believed to depend on the fact that a diet rich in ultra-processed food also is a diet rich in fat and sugar, which results in an increased total energy intake that results in weight gain.

  • 859.
    Wistman, Jonna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effekter av kakao på blodtrycket2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultat från epidemiologiska studier har antytt att flavonolrik kakao sänker blodtrycket. Detta sker troligen genom att flavonoider i kakao leder till aktivering av eNOS som sedan katalyserar NO-syntesen i kärlendotel vilket leder till vasodilation och sänkt blodtryck. En nyare studie har funnit att kakao dessutom inhiberar enzymet ACE. Mycket tyder även på att NO-koncentrationen är kopplad till ACE-aktiviteten då dessa faktorer visat sig följa varandra inverst vid varierande doser. Det finns också ett samband mellan ACE-genotyp och serumnivåer av ACE. Någon dosberoende effekt av kakao på blodtrycket har inte påvisats, men ihållande dosering med kakao över en längre period visar på en progressiv sänkning av blodtrycket. Inga biverkningar har rapporterats, men fett och socker i kakao kan leda till diabetes och hjärt-kärlsjukdomar. Syftet med blodtrycksbehandling är prevention av nyss nämnda sjukdomar och adekvat blodtryckssänkning krävs därmed för att en behandling ska kunna övervägas. Än så länge ses endast en signifikant men inte en tillräcklig blodtryckssänkande effekt av kakao. Dessutom saknas studier som visar att kakao förebygger kardiovaskulära händelser, exempelvis hjärtinfarkter. Vidare studier krävs innan kakao kan rekommenderas som behandling.

  • 860.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hefni, Mohammed E.
    Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Folic acid and Folates: Physiology and Health Effects2016In: The Encyclopedia of Food and Health / [ed] Caballero, B., Finglas, P., and Toldrá, F., Elsevier, 2016, 1, p. 724-730Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews briefly information regarding important food sources for folate, effects from storage and processing on folate content, and bioprocessing techniques that could provide foods with increased folate content. Thereafter, folate intake, absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability are also discussed. Finally, health effects associated with folate are presented briefly.

  • 861.
    Woksepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ryberg, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Billström, Hanna
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Anita
    Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University.
    Marklund, Britt-Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping university.
    Evaluation of High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR, a Rapid Method for Epidemiological Typing of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter Species) Pathogens2014In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 4339-4342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single-tube method, ligation-mediated real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis (LMqPCR HRMA), was modified for the rapid typing of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens. A 97% agreement (60/62 isolates) was achieved in comparison to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, which indicates that LMqPCR HRMA is a rapid and accurate screening tool for monitoring nosocomial outbreaks.

  • 862.
    Woldu Haddish, Eden
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Autophagy-related protein expression in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscles2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 863.
    Woldu Haddish, Haben
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Analys av C3a och sC5b-9 med sandwich-ELISA för att mäta komplementaktivering vid subklinisk borrelios2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by spirocheter of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. There are different types of borrelia species and some differ in their ability to survive in the presence of the complement system. B. afzelii is complementresistant while B. garinii is complementsensitive. This is based on the ability to recruit immune regulators, such as factor H to the bacterial surface and prevent activation of the complement system. Some individuals may show anti-Borrelia antibodies without having developed clinical symptoms. This may indicate a more effective immune response against spirochetes. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in complement activation by measuring C3a and sC5b-9 with sandwich ELISA between two previously Borrelia-exposed groups; individuals with previous subclinical Lyme borreliosis (SB) and patients previously diagnosed with neuroborreliosis (NB), and a control group without signs of LB exposure. Samples analyzed in this study consisted of controls (Ctrl, n = 8st), SB (n = 60st) and NB (n = 22st). Plasma from the groups were activated with ACA1 and Lu59. To compare the relative increase between the groups, complement factor C3a and the soluble terminal complement complex, sC5b-9, were analyzed using sandwich-ELISA.The analysis of C3a and sC5b-9 showed higher activation with Lu59 than ACA1, which is consistent with previous studies. According to C3a-analysis, no significant differences were observed between the groups for neither ACA1 nor Lu59. According to sC5b-9-analysis, a significant difference between SB and Ctrl (p= 0,0081) for Lu59 was observed. Conclusion of the studie was that further studies are required to interpret how this complement activation affects LB from a clinical prespective.

  • 864.
    Wrywood, Zsuzsanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan vitamin-D tillskott användas som ett förebyggande behandlingsalternativ av vinterdepression samt lägre sinnesstämning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Man har länge vetat att vitamin D har grundläggande funktioner för vår kropps välbefinnande. Det finns två källor för att ta till oss D-vitamin, via endogen produktion och via födointag. Till en större del får vi vårt D-vitamin-behov genom den endogena processen, men på grund av färre UV-B strålar under vissa säsonger eller geografiska platser så kan denna process bli otillräcklig. Vilket gör oss tvungna att konsumera specifik mat eller kosttillskott för att ej få D-vitaminbrist. Detta har blivit ett stort problem för länder uppe i norr, på grund av att perioden utan tillräckliga mängder UV-B strålning är lång. Vissa länder till exempel Sverige försöker motverka detta genom att berika vissa livsmedel, bland annat mjölk, ost och smör, med D-vitamintillskott. Dock verkar detta mestadels inte vara tillräckligt. Då flera studier har visat ett mönster mellan D-vitaminbrist och lägre sinnesstämning, så har studier angående D-vitamin-påverkan på både kroppens mentala och fysiska tillstånd blivit allt viktigare.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att granska D-vitamins gynnsamma effekt och om den kan klassificeras som läkemedel vid behandling av vinterdepression.

    Metod: Fem litteraturstudier med fokus på D-vitaminforskning och dess motverkande effekt av seasonal affective disorder (SAD) eller negativ sinnesstämning har granskats. Dessa studier valdes från databaserna; PubMed, Sciencedirect och OneSearch.

    Resultat: Studierna visade en svag koppling mellan D-vitamin och sinnesstämning. Dock kunde inga konkreta svar uppnås om hur D-vitamin påverkar oss mentalt. På grund av detta kan D-vitamintillskott inte ses eller rekommenderas som medicin för olika former av negativ sinnesstämning eller depression.

    Diskussion: För få studier har hittills gjorts för att kunna svara på hur D-vitamin påverkar oss mentalt och vilka följder en låg eller förhöjd 25-OH D koncentration har på en persons sinnesstämning.

    Fler studier behöver göras med både noggrannare och mer varierande metoder och kontroller för att kunna finna ett konkret svar på hur vår D-vitaminhalt är kopplad till vår sinnesstämning. Samt om en höjd nivå kan leda till förebyggandet av SAD, negativ sinnesstämning eller mild depression.

  • 865.
    Wööras, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Är behandling med doxycyklin motiverat vid borreliainfektion?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year approximately 5 000-10 000 persons in Sweden are diagnosed for Lyme disease. In Europe the incidence is about 65 000 persons per year. Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis, the causative agents – Borrelia burgdorferi-genospecies - are transmitted by Ixodes-ticks (in Sweden primary I.ricinus). Lyme disease is treated with antibiotic-therapy. Though, in 5-15 percent of the cases, post-treatment symptoms can appear and persist for six months, or longer. Today we don´t know the origin of the phenomena. Some patients seek help outside the Swedish borders, and turn to so called Lyme disease-clinics – which, in some cases, institutes long-term antibiotic-treatment. The pharmacist may encounter this particular matter, while carrying out EES-antibiotic-prescriptions, prescribed non-analogous to Swedish guidelines.

     Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of doxycycline, with respect to short-, middle-, and long-term Lyme disease-treatment. The intention was also to investigate the pharmacist role in executing EES-antibiotic-prescriptions.

     Methods: The study was divided into two parts. The first part was investigating doxycycline, and was based on five scientific articles collected from PubMed. The second part was a review of the pharmacist role in processing EES-antibiotic-prescriptions; information was collected by email correspondence with pharmacy chain stores, authorities and federation of labor unions.

     Results: Awareness and protective measures regarding ticks and Lyme disease seems dire. Improved diagnostic methods, uniform interpretation of outcome, standardized laboratory-analysis is of paramount importance. The pharmacist concerns with EES-antibiotic-prescriptions is carrying out the medical prescription and giving medical advice. Doxycycline in 10-14 days Lyme disease-treatment was seen as an alternative, supported by Swedish guidelines. The post-exposure prophylaxis was not a recommended alternative. Regarding doxycycline and long-term Lyme-disease-treatment, it was postulated that additional scientific studies was needed.

    Conclusions: The tick, vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, will be favoured of recent and upcoming climate changes. In the future to come, we can expect an expansion of the tick-habitats and with it follows the probability of more frequent encounters with the human race. This will most likely contribute to a higher incidence of Lyme disease. Prevention and subject-enlightenment is of need. The pharmacist will in the professional role be exposed to daily moral dilemmas; one of these dilemmas can be the execution of EES-antibiotic-prescriptions, not prescribed accordingly to Swedish guidelines, with respect to Lyme disease. As things stand today, the primary commitment will be medical advice and carrying out the prescription. The post-exposure prophylaxis regarding doxycycline and Lyme disease is not recommended. The 10-14 days doxycycline-cure, regarding some Lyme disease-manifestations, is mostly a preferable alternative today. Prolonged antibiotic-treatment with doxycycline, in respect to post-treatment symptoms, needs to be further evaluated with better diagnostic methods, scientific studies, standardized analysis and more uniform interpretation of results.

  • 866.
    Xie, Sheng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Hunan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Manuguri, Sesha
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Impact of Hydrogen Bonding on the Fluorescence of N-Amidinated Fluoroquinolones2019In: Chemistry - An Asian Journal, ISSN 1861-4728, E-ISSN 1861-471X, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 910-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluorescence properties of AIE-active N-amidinated fluoroquinolones, efficiently obtained by a perfluoroaryl azide-aldehyde-amine reaction, have been studied. The fluorophores were discovered to elicit a highly sensitive fluorescence quenching response towards guest molecules with hydrogen-bond-donating ability. This effect was evaluated in a range of protic/aprotic solvents with different H-bonding capabilities, and also in aqueous media. The influence of acid/base was furthermore addressed. The hydrogen-bonding interactions were studied by IR, NMR, UV/Vis and time-resolved fluorescence decay, revealing their roles in quenching of the fluorescence emission. Due to the pronounced quenching property of water, the N-amidinated fluoroquinolones could be utilized as fluorescent probes for quantifying trace amount of water in organic solvents.

  • 867.
    Xie, Sheng
    et al.
    Hunan Univ, China;KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Proietti, Giampiero
    KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal instute of technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Yan, Mingdi
    Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Photoactivatable Fluorogens by Intramolecular C-H Insertion of Perfluoroaryl Azide2019In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 84, no 22, p. 14520-14528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecules, capable of fluorescence turn-on by light, are highly sought-after in spatio-temporal labeling, surface patterning, monitoring cellular and molecular events, and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. In this work, we report a fluorescence turn-on system based on photoinitiated intramolecular C-H insertion of azide into the neighboring aromatic ring. The azide-masked fluorogens were efficiently synthesized via a cascade nucleophilic aromatic substitution of perfluoroaryl azides with carbazoles. The scaffold also allows for derivatization with biological ligands, as exemplified with D-mannose in this study. This photoinitiated intramolecular transformation led to high yields, high photo-conversion efficiency, and well-separated wavelengths for photoactivation and fluorescence excitation. The mannose-derivatized structure enabled spatio-temporal activation and showed high contrast and signal amplification. Live cell imaging suggested that the mannose-tagged fluorogen was transported to the lysosomes.

  • 868.
    Xie, Sheng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology;Hunan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhou, Juan
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology;Jiangnan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Chen, Xuan
    Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Kong, Na
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Fan, Yanmiao
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology.
    Hammer, Gerry
    Univ Washington, USA.
    Castner, David G.
    Univ Washington, USA.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    A versatile catalyst-free perfluoroaryl azide-aldehyde-amine conjugation reaction2019In: Materials Chemistry Frontiers, E-ISSN 2052-1537, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a tri-component reaction, an electrophilically-activated perfluoroaryl azide, an enolizable aldehyde and an amine react readily at room temperature without any catalysts in solvents including aqueous conditions to yield a stable amidine conjugate. The versatility of this reaction is demonstrated in the conjugation of an amino acid without prior protection of the carboxyl group, and in the synthesis of antibiotic-nanoparticle conjugates.

  • 869.
    Yang, Ke
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rashidi Monfared, Sajad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
    Wang, Hongzhen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, China.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Brodelius, Peter E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes of Artemisia annua L.2015In: Plant Molecular Biology, ISSN 0167-4412, E-ISSN 1573-5028, Vol. 88, no 4-5, p. 325-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase (DBR2) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in Artemisia annua. Artemisinic aldehyde is reduced into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde by DBR2. Artemisinic aldehyde can also be oxidized by amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 to artemisinic acid, a precursor of arteannuin B. In order to better understand the effects of DBR2 expression on the flow of artemisinic aldehyde into either artemisinin or arteannuin B, we determined the content of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, artemisinin, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B content of A. annua varieties sorted into two chemotypes. The high artemisinin producers (HAPs), which includes the ‘2/39’, ‘Chongqing’ and ‘Anamed’ varieties, produce more artemisinin than arteannuin B; the low artemisinin producers (LAPs), which include the ‘Meise’, ‘Iran#8’, ‘Iran#14’, ‘Iran#24’ and ‘Iran#47’ varieties, produce more arteannuin B than artemisinin. Quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression of DBR2 was significantly higher in the HAP varieties. We cloned and sequenced the promoter of the DBR2 gene from varieties of both the LAP and the HAP groups. There were deletions/insertions in the region just upstream of the ATG start codon in the LAP varities, which might be the reason for the different promoter activities of the HAP and LAP varieties. The relevance of promoter variation, DBR2 expression levels and artemisinin biosynthesis capabilities are discussed and a selection method for HAP varieties with a DNA marker is suggested. Furthermore, putative cis-acting regulatory elements differ between the HAP and LAP varieties. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 870.
    Yang, Lin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Role of butyrate in counteracting the influence of oxidative stress on amino acid transport implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 871.
    Yassir, Tartil Jasmine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metformin som alternativ förstahandsbehandling vid infertilitet vid Polycystiskt ovarialsyndrom2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Polycystisktovarialsyndrom (PCOS) förekommer hos 5-10% av alla kvinnor och är den vanligaste orsaken till anovulatorisk infertilitet. Andra delar av syndromet är hyperandrogena och metabola symtom. Infertilitet behandlas med klomifencitrat. Akne och hirsutism behandlas i första hand med kombinerade p-piller med östrogenprofil. Förhöjda blodsockernivåer, hypertoni, dyslipidemi och övriga komplikationer till syndromet behandlas farmakologiskt vid behov. Hyperandrogenism och insulinresistens tycks spela en huvudroll i uppkomsten av sjukdomen. Då metformin förbättrar insulinkänsligheten, och tros kunna påverka patofysiologin, har det föreslagits som en alternativ förstahandsbehandling.

    Denna litteraturstudie syftade till att undersöka vilket vetenskapligt underlag som finns för att ändra behandlingsrekommendationerna vid PCOS. De studier som jämfört resultatet av metformin och klomifencitrat vid anovulatorisk infertilitet visar att klomifencitrat mer effektivt framkallar ovulation och graviditet hos kvinnor med PCOS och övervikt, men att metformin är lika effektivt hos normalviktiga kvinnor. Medan metforminbehandling är en välbeprövad och säker behandling med få biverkningar har klomifencitrat allvarliga biverkningar i form av risk för flerbörd och ovarialthyperstimuleringssyndrom. De få studier som undersökt metformins påverkan på fostret finner inga belägg för teratogena effekter. Metformin har positiva effekter på hyperandrogena symtom vid PCOS, och man har inte kunnat se någon signifikant skillnad i effekt mellan metformin och p-piller då det gäller att minska akne och hirsutism. Dessutom finns det belägg för att metformin kan ha en positiv påverkan på BMI och blodtryck, förbättra lipidprofilen genom att sänka nivåerna av LDL kolesterol, samt minskar risken hos denna patientgrupp att utveckla typ 2 diabetes. Sammantaget kan dock sägas att det vetenskapliga underlaget ännu är för svagt för att man ska ändra den rådande behandlingsrekommendationen. Det finns behov av större, blindade studier där man jämför metforminbehandling med klomifencitrat och tittar på en kombination av faktorer och utfall kopplade till symtombilden vid PCOS. 

  • 872.
    Youssef, Dima
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hur effektiv och säker är rekombinant och renad plasma faktor VIII-behandling för hemofili A patienter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Haemophilia is an inherited disease which causes increased bleeding due to defect clotting factors VIII and/or IX. There are two forms of haemophilia, A and B, which both are X-linked and due to mutations of the genes of factor VIII and factor IX respectively. This study focuses on Haemophilia A and thereby factor VIII.

    The drugs that are available on the Swedish market today for patients with haemophilia A include Factor VIII(FVIII), which has been purified from human plasma and recombinant factor VIII(rFVIII). The main goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of the effects of treatment of haemophilia A with either purified plasma factor VIII or recombinant factor VIII on reducing or preventing bleeding and on side effects.  

    The study was designed as a literature review and searches were carried out in PubMed at the Linnaeus University library.  The criteria for selection of articles were: patients with haemophilia, treatment with plasma derived and/or recombinant factor VIII as well as clinical studies. The minimum number of patients was set at 20. The searches led to the review of six studies, where three used recombinant factor treatment and the other three referred to plasma-derived treatment.

    Efficacy and safety were evaluated in most cases by the hemostasis effect, reduced pain, reduced swelling, number of infusions, and number of reported adverse events. The incidence of inhibitor formation during treatment often resulted in the patient discontinuing the treatment. An increased development of neutralizing antibodies in the patient was evident in recombinant factor treatment, while there was an increased risk for transmission of hepatitis B or C in treatment with plasma derived from humans.

    In Sweden, one can choose to be treated on-demand, which reduces the risks tremendously for the haemophilia patient. However, this can increase the risk of inhibitor formation that can lead to ineffective treatment. The risk of bleeding in haemophilia patients can vary and is connected to the parent’s genes. Caution and self-awareness about the limitations decreases the risks of severe cases of bleeding.

  • 873.
    Zabriskie, Matthew S.
    et al.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Eide, Christopher A.
    Oregon Health & Science University, USA;Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA.
    Tantravahi, Srinivas K.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Vellore, Nadeem A.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Estrada, Johanna
    University of Utah, USA.
    Nicolini, Franck E.
    Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, France.
    Khoury, Hanna J.
    Emory University, USA.
    Larson, Richard A.
    University of Chicago, USA.
    Konopleva, Marina
    University of Texas, USA.
    Cortes, Jorge E.
    University of Texas, USA.
    Kantarjian, Hagop
    University of Texas, USA.
    Jabbour, Elias J.
    University of Texas, USA.
    Kornblau, Steven M.
    University of Texas, USA.
    Lipton, Jeffrey H.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Rea, Delphine
    Hospital Saint-Louis, France.
    Stenke, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Barbany, Gisela
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lange, Thoralf
    University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Hernandez-Boluda, Juan-Carlos
    Hospital Clı´nico Universitario, Spain.
    Ossenkoppele, Gert J.
    VU University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Press, Richard D.
    Oregon Health & Science University, USA.
    Chuah, Charles
    Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
    Goldberg, Stuart L.
    John Theurer Cancer Center at Hackensack University Medical Center, USA.
    Wetzler, Meir
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USA.
    Mahon, Francois-Xavier
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, France.
    Etienne, Gabriel
    Institut Bergonie, France.
    Baccarani, Michele
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Soverini, Simona
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Rosti, Gianantonio
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Rousselot, Philippe
    Université de Versailles, France.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Deininger, Marie
    University of Utah, USA.
    Reynolds, Kimberly R.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Heaton, William L.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Eiring, Anna M.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Pomicter, Anthony D.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Khorashad, Jamshid S.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Kelley, Todd W.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Baron, Riccardo
    University of Utah, USA.
    Druker, Brian J.
    Oregon Health & Science University Knight Cancer Institute, USA;Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA.
    Deininger, Michael W.
    University of Utah, USA.
    O'Hare, Thomas
    University of Utah, USA.
    BCR-ABL1 Compound Mutations Combining Key Kinase Domain Positions Confer Clinical Resistance to Ponatinib in Ph Chromosome-Positive Leukemia2014In: Cancer Cell, ISSN 1535-6108, E-ISSN 1878-3686, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 428-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponatinib is the only currently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that suppresses all BCR-ABL1 single mutants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia, including the recalcitrant BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. However, emergence of compound mutations in a BCR-ABL1 allele may confer ponatinib resistance. We found that clinically reported BCR-ABL1 compound mutants center on 12 key positions and confer varying resistance to imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, ponatinib, rebastinib, and bosutinib. T315I-inclusive compound mutants confer high-level resistance to TKIs, including ponatinib. In vitro resistance profiling was predictive of treatment outcomes in Ph+ leukemia patients. Structural explanations for compound mutation-based resistance were obtained through molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 compound mutants confer different levels of TKI resistance, necessitating rational treatment selection to optimize clinical outcome.

  • 874.
    Zander, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nuvarande forskningsläge för potentiella läkemedelskandidater vid behandling av kärnsymtom vid autism2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterised by the core symptoms stereotypic, repetitive behaviors and impaired ability to handle social relationships. Diagnostics, however, is complicated by the fact that no biomarkers are available yet, i.e. one cannot take a blood test to decide if the individual can be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research, however, is ongoing in this field hopefully also leading to markers that can be used when evaluating degree of severity during clinical research where potential pharmaceuticals are evaluated in humans.

    Research is ongoing to clarify pathophysiological mechanisms. Identified clusters of defective genes suggest increased difficulties of nerve cells to regulate signals as needed. For example, excitation or inhibition of nerve cells can be enhanced.

    Treatment aimed at the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder is not available, but research is ongoing to find suitable drugs. The purpose of this work was to compile the latest research in this area through a search for doubleblinded randomized controlled studies to evaluate whether any drug will be available on the market in the near future.

    Studies with vitamin D, bumetanide (diuretic), suramin (antipurinergic), memantine “extended release” formulation (Alzheimer’s disease drug), methylated vitamin B12 and celecoxib (anti-inflammatory) as adjuvant to risperidone (neuroleptic) were evaluated for the effect on core symptoms in autism spectrum disorder. Bumetanide, which is a loop-diuretic, is the drug that has come further than the rest. If the continued development of this drug also gives positive results, there is the possibility that this drug can be released on the European market in a few years, for treatment of core symtoms. The other substances evaluated were at a very early stage of development. Some of these, however, can be of extra interest. For example D‑vitamin which can have some potential effect. Also it gives minimal side effects.

  • 875.
    Zell, R.
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Delwart, E.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, USA.
    Gorbalenya, A. E.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Hovi, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Finland.
    King, A. M. Q.
    Pirbright Inst, UK.
    Knowles, N. J.
    Pirbright Inst, UK.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Pallansch, M. A.
    CDC, USA.
    Palmenberg, A. C.
    Inst Mol Virol, USA.
    Reuter, G.
    Univ Pecs, Hungary.
    Simmonds, P.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Skern, T.
    Med Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Stanway, G.
    Univ Essex, UK.
    Yamashita, T.
    Shubun Univ, Japan.
    ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae2017In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 98, no 10, p. 2421-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains > 30 genera and > 75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www. ictv. global/report/picornaviridae.

  • 876.
    Zhang, Yan
    et al.
    Jiangnan Univ, China.
    Barboiu, Mihail
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Chen, Jinghua
    Jiangnan Univ, China.
    Surface-Directed Selection of Dynamic Constitutional Frameworks as an Optimized Microenvironment for Controlled Enzyme Activation2020In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 1423-1427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks composed of cross-linked networks of imine-exchanging components have been generated and applied to the establishment of optimal microenvironments for carbonic anhydrase (CA) in aqueous solution., In response to the dynamic recomposition process, the enzyme showed distinct differential preferences for interchanging and incorporation of the amine functionalities, which were furthermore in good correlation with their inverse activation effects of CA. The results demonstrated surface-directed selection of the enzyme environment, where amines with lower enzyme-directed incorporation ratio possess higher activation effects, leading to a strategy of self-optimization of the enzyme microenvironment for better catalytic performances.

  • 877.
    Zhang, Yan
    et al.
    Jiangnan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Zhang, Yang
    Hunan Univ, Peoples Republic of China.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    Dynamic covalent kinetic resolution2019In: Catalysis reviews. Science and engineering, ISSN 0161-4940, E-ISSN 1520-5703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implemented with the highly efficient concept of Dynamic Kinetic Resolution (DKR), dynamic covalent chemistry can be a useful strategy for the synthesis of enantioenriched compounds. This gives rise to dynamic covalent kinetic resolution (DCKR), a subset of DKR that over the last decades has emerged as increasingly fruitful, with many applications in asymmetric synthesis and catalysis. All DKR protocols are composed of two important parts: substrate racemization and asymmetric transformation, which can lead to yields of >50% with good enantiomeric excesses (ee) of the products. In DCKR systems, by utilizing reversible covalent reactions as the racemization strategy, the substrate enantiomers can be easily interconverted without the presence of any racemase or transition metal catalyst. Enzymes or other chiral catalysts can then be adopted for the resolution step, leading to products with high enantiopurities. This tutorial review focuses on the development of DCKR systems, based on different reversible reactions, and their applications in asymmetric synthesis.

  • 878.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Xie, Sheng
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Enzyme- and ruthenium-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution involving cascade alkoxycarbonylations for asymmetric synthesis of 5-Substituted N-Aryloxazolidinones2019In: Molecular Catalysis, ISSN 2468-8274, Vol. 470, p. 138-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetric synthesis of N-aryloxazolidinones via dynamic kinetic resolution was developed. A ruthenium-based catalyst was used in the racemization of β-anilino alcohols, while Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) was applied for two selective alkoxycarbonylations operating in cascade. Various N-aryloxazolidinone derivatives were obtained in high yields and good enantiopurities. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • 879.
    Zhao, Fei
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Afonso, Sara
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Lindner, Susanne
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Hartmann, Andrea
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Loeschmann, Ina
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linneaus Ctr Bomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Weber, Lutz T.
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Habbig, Sandra
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Schalk, Gesa
    Univ Hosp Cologne, Germany.
    Kirschfink, Michael
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Zipfel, Peter F.
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany;Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Skerka, Christine
    Leibniz Inst Nat Prod Res & Infect Biol, Germany.
    C3-Glomerulopathy Autoantibodies Mediate Distinct Effects on Complement C3-and C5-Convertases2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, p. 1-14, article id 1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a severe kidney disease, which is caused by defective regulation of the alternative complement pathway. Disease pathogenesis is heterogeneous and is caused by both autoimmune and genetic factors. Here we characterized IgG autoantibodies derived from 33 patients with autoimmune C3 glomerulopathy. Serum antibodies from all 33 patients as well as purified IgGs bound to the in vitro assembled C3-convertase. Noteworthy, two groups of antibodies were identified: group 1 with strong (12 patients) and group 2 with weak binding C3-convertase autoantibodies (22 patients). C3Nef, as evaluated in a standard C3Nef assay, was identified in serum from 19 patients, which included patients from group 1 as well as group 2. The C3-convertase binding profile was independent of C3Nef. Group 1 antibodies, but not the group 2 antibodies stabilized the C3-convertase, and protected the enzyme from dissociation by Factor H. Also, only group 1 antibodies induced C3a release. However, both group 1 and group 2 autoantibodies bound to the C5-convertase and induced C5a generation, which was inhibited by monoclonal anti-C5 antibody Eculizumab in vitro. In summary, group 1 antibodies are composed of C3Nef and C5Nef antibodies and likely over-activate the complement system, as seen in hemolytic assays. Group 2 antibodies show predominantly C5Nef like activities and stabilize the C5 but not the C3-convertase. Altogether, these different profiles not only reveal a heterogeneity of the autoimmune forms of C3G (MPGN), they also show that in diagnosis of C3G not all autoimmune forms are identified and thus more vigorous autoantibody testing should be performed.

  • 880.
    Zhao, Shangqing
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Coumarin-based molecular probes: exploring the spectroscopic properties of complex mixtures and applications in colloid chemistry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Warfarin is a well-known anticoagulant drug that is used to prevent cardiovascular disease and blood coagulation such as thrombosis. In this study, the main aim was to investigate the photo physical characteristics of warfarin in the different molecular environments provided by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by using ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopic techniques. Warfarin and a structural analogue not existing in solution as a cyclic hemiketal, phenprocoumon, were mixed with different concentrations of SDS and spectral changes for these warfarin and phenprocoumon were recorded. Interestingly, results demonstrated, based on an evident increase in the absorption intensity at 273 nm and an evident blue shift in the fluorescence emission spectrum after the addition of an increasing concentration of SDS, that primarily the cyclic hemiketal isomer of warfarin was found to be solvated by SDS micelles at an apparent recorded critical micelle concentration of ~8mM.  Altogether these observations suggest that warfarin may be used as a molecular probe to explore the polarities of complex colloidal mixtures. Moreover, the possibility of using micelles for controlling the isomeric state of warfarin is interesting and can potentially be used for better controlling dosage of warfarin thereby reducing side effects.

  • 881.
    Zhao, Tao
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ganji, Suresh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bohman, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Weinstein, Philip
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Krokene, Paal
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Unelius, C. Rikard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Convergent evolution of semiochemicals across Kingdoms: bark beetles and their fungal symbionts2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1535-1545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convergent evolution of semiochemical use in organisms from different Kingdoms is a rarely described phenomenon. Treekilling bark beetles vector numerous symbiotic blue-stain fungi that help the beetles colonize healthy trees. Here we show for the first time that some of these fungi are able to biosynthesize bicyclic ketals that are pheromones and other semiochemicals of bark beetles. Volatile emissions of five common bark beetle symbionts were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When grown on fresh Norway spruce bark the fungi emitted three well-known bark beetle aggregation pheromones and semiochemicals (exo-brevicomin, endo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin) and two structurally related semiochemical candidates (exo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane and endo-1,3-dimethyl-2,9-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane) that elicited electroantennogram responses in the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. When grown on malt agar with 13C D-Glucose, the fungus Grosmannia europhioides incorporated 13C into exo-brevicomin and trans-conophthorin. The enantiomeric compositions of the fungus-produced ketals closely matched those previously reported from bark beetles. The production of structurally complex bark beetle pheromones by symbiotic fungi indicates cross-kingdom convergent evolution of signal use in this system. This signaling is susceptible to disruption, providing potential new targets for pest control in conifer forests and plantations.

  • 882.
    Zhu, Ling
    et al.
    University of Oxford, UK ; The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Wang, Xiangxi
    Chinese Academy of Science, China.
    Ren, Jingshan
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Porta, Claudine
    University of Oxford, UK ; The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Wenham, Hannah
    The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Ekström, Jens-Ola
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Panjwani, Anusha
    The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Knowles, Nick J.
    The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Kotecha, Abhay
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Siebert, C. Alistair
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fry, Elizabeth E.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Rao, Zihe
    Chinese Academy of Science, China ; Tsinghua University, China.
    Tuthill, Tobias J.
    The Pirbright Institute, UK.
    Stuart, David I.
    University of Oxford, UK ; Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, UK.
    Structure of Ljungan virus provides insight into genome packaging of this picornavirus2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, article id 8316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picornaviruses are responsible for a range of human and animal diseases, but how their RNA genome is packaged remains poorly understood. A particularly poorly studied group within this family are those that lack the internal coat protein, VP4. Here we report the atomic structure of one such virus, Ljungan virus, the type member of the genus Parechovirus B, which has been linked to diabetes and myocarditis in humans. The 3.78-angstrom resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure shows remarkable features, including an extended VP1 C terminus, forming a major protuberance on the outer surface of the virus, and a basic motif at the N terminus of VP3, binding to which orders some 12% of the viral genome. This apparently charge-driven RNA attachment suggests that this branch of the picornaviruses uses a different mechanism of genome encapsidation, perhaps explored early in the evolution of picornaviruses.

  • 883.
    Zulj, Jelena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Verifiering av metod för analys av tumörmarkörerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9 på Roche Cobas e4112014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tumörmarkörer är substanser som frisätts i kroppsvätskor från cancerceller. Markörerna används inom sjukvården för att upptäcka och följa upp maligna sjukdomar med analyser av markörerna i serum/plasma. Tre av dessa är cancerantigenerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9. Syftet med studien var att verifiera analysmetoden för tumörmarkörerna CA 125, CA 15-3 och CA 19-9 på två Roche Cobas e411 instrument (instrument 1 och 2) inför införandet av dessa vid avdelningen för klinisk kemi och transfusionsmedicin, Lnadstinget Kalmar län. De av företaget rekommenderade cut-off värdena på Roche Cobas e411 (Roche Diagnostics) är för CA 125 <35 kU/l, för CA 15-3 ≤25 kU/l och för CA 19-9 <27 kU/l. Precisionen beräknades med hjälp av statistiska metoder genom analys av den mellanliggande precisionen (mätning av två kontrollnivåer under 5 dagar) och repeterbarheten (analys av två kontrollnivåer i en serie). En korrelationsstudie gjordes med patientprover som erhölls från Aleris Medilab (Abbot Architect i System). Den mellanliggande precisionenn resulterade i högre variationskoefficientvärden (CV %) för samtliga tre markörer i förhållande till ett åsatt CV från Roche Diagnostics. CV värdet skilde även mellan de två Roche Cobas e411 instrumenten. Repeterbarheten bedömdes vara acceptabel för samtliga tre markörer. Korrelationsstudien visade en skillnad i de uppmätta värdena mellan Roche Cobas e411 och Abbot Architect för samtliga tre markörer. Då Roche Cobas e411 tenderade att ge högre uppmätta värden (kU/l) (54 av 85 gånger). Samstämmigheten mellan metoderna var bra då det endast var två prover vid analys av CA 15-3 och två prover vid analys av CA 19-9 som var på skilda sidor om cut-off värdet. Sammanfattningsvis visade studien att den mellanliggande precisisonen (CV-värdet) för alla tre markörerna var högre än Roche Diagnostics angivna CV värde. Olika CV värden erhölls med Roche Cobas e411 jämfört med Abbot Architect. Olika CV värden erhölls också med instrument 1 jämfört med instrument 2. Precisionen anses vara tillräckligt god för införandet av metoderna i rutinbruk.

  • 884.
    Åberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Det värsta som kan hända: en studie om lex Maria-anmälda felexpedieringar på svenska apotek2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har gjorts forskning kring felexpedieringar på apotek, om deras typer, bakomliggande orsaker och potentiella åtgärder mot dem. En svensk författning, kallad lex Maria, säger att alla händelser som orsakat eller hade kunnat orsaka allvarliga vårdskador skall utredas av vårdgivaren och anmälas till Inspektionen för vård och omsorg (IVO). IVO tar ett beslut i ärendet, som tillsammans med händelsen sammanfattas i ett särskilt beslutsdokument.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka vilka kategorier av felexpedieringar av läkemedel och andra produkter på apotek som kan leda till allvarliga vårdskador, och att ta reda på vilka av dessa kategorier som är vanligast förekommande. Detta gjordes genom att läsa samtliga lex Maria-beslut som tagits av IVO under 2016 gällande händelser på apotek. Felen som beskrevs i besluten kategoriserades utifrån ett antal kategorier som bestämts utifrån tidigare forskning kring felexpedieringar.

    Sammanlagt lästes 39 beslut. I dessa förekom följande kategorier av felexpedieringar, ordnade med den vanligaste först: fel läkemedel, fel dos, missat att upptäcka och korrigera förskrivarfel, fel styrka, fel patient, obehörig patient, uteblivet läkemedel, etikett på fel läkemedel, skrivit fel i datorn, fel kvantitet, fel läkemedelsform, fel iordningställning, fel tid, fel på verbal information, inte expedierat författningsmässigt. Flera av besluten sattes i mer än en av kategorierna. De fyra första kategorierna utgjorde tillsammans 60 % av de identifierade felen.

    Examensarbetets resultat, som till stor del stämmer överens med resultat från tidigare forskning, indikerar att lex Maria-anmälningar från apotek kan vara representativa för felexpedieringar överlag, och inte bara de som kan leda till allvarliga vårdskador. Informationen om felexpedieringar som kom fram i studien kan vara av nytta för farmaceuter och annan apotekspersonal för att de ska undvika fel vid arbete på apotek. Examensarbetets upplägg och resultat ger många uppslag till framtida forskning om felexpedieringar, inklusive deras konsekvenser, bakomliggande orsaker, och potentiella åtgärder. Dessa studier skulle vara lättare att göra om det fanns mer centralt sammanställd och allmänt tillgänglig statistik och information om felexpedieringar i Sverige, inte bara om de som kan leda till allvarliga vårdskador.

  • 885.
    Åberg, Louise
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Magnesium och depression: Minskar depressionssymptomen när magnesiumhalten ökar?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is one of the most common diseases in the world. The need for effective treatment is urgent. Clinical studies have suggested a role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the glutamic system to have an important role in the mood regulate system. Magnesium is involved in the regulation of the glutamic system.

    Method: This dissertation is a literature study that has methodologically examined eight articles on the association between magnesium and depression. The differing results were compared. Key word: Magnesium, depression, affective disorder, dietary magnesium intake depression.

    Result: The articles results were divergent. The majority showed a positive correlation between high magnesium levels and decreasing depression symptoms.

    Conclusion: A majority of the articles showed that magnesium has positive impact on depression status. Additional research is required.

  • 886.
    Åhman, Niclas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    In-service science teacher professional development2015In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore teachers’ professional development when using the tool Content Representations (CoRe) to plan a learning study in chemistry, which they also implemented and analysed. The work of six experienced science teachers, all teaching at the 6th to 9th year (age 13 to 16 years), was followed at eight group meetings during one year. The teachers’ discussions during the group meetings were audio and/or video recorded. Recordings were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed. The results show that two main approaches to teaching emerged in the teachers’ discussions, a pragmatic and a reflective approach, respectively. During the investigation period, the focus of the teachers’ discussions changed, from a predominantly pragmatic approach to a predominantly reflective approach. The results indicate that the work with CoRe and learning study stimulated the teachers to express and discuss their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards teaching, i.e. promoted their professional development.

  • 887.
    Åhman, Niclas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gunnarsson, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Edfors, Inger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    In-service science teachers’ professional development2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 888.
    Åkerblom, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Authenticity and the relevance of discourse and figured worlds in secondary students' discussions of socioscientific issues2017In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 65, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how authenticity influences students' discussions of socio-scientific issues (SSI). The students were found to bridge school knowledge and everyday knowledge, i.e. enter a "third space", in their explorative discussions. When the SSI task changed into a decision-making discussion for communication with an authentic stakeholder, the students excluded many perspectives. In the process, authenticity caused a loss of relevance for one discourse and several figured worlds, including the students' emotional reasoning. While losing emotional aspects, students' reasoning became more precise when grounded in rational reasoning, supporting well-informed decisions.

  • 889.
    Åkerblom, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Solving the Relevance Problem with Socioscientific Issues and Students' Perceived Authenticity2016In: Science and Technology Education for a Peaceful and Equitable World, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 890.
    Ölje, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Metodjämförelse mellan DiffMaster Octavia och CellaVision DM1200 avseende differentialräkning av leukocyter: en viktig analys inom vården2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leukocytes, white blood cells, are cells of the immune system. They are produced and derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Leukocytes can be divided into neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. To determine the numbers of leukocytes in blood the leukocyte particle concentration (B-LPK) can be analyzed by cell counters. When B-LPK is elevated or lowered a differential count of leukocytes (B-Diff) is performed to see in which cell systems the change exists. The manual analysis involves peripheral blood smears stained with a cytochemical color, May-Grünwald Giemsa. The smear examined in an automatic microscopically system that counts, photographs and pre-classify leukocytes by its appearance. DiffMaster Octavia and CellaVision DM1200 are two variants of such instruments from the same manufacturer (CellaVision AB, Lund, Sweden). The aim of the study was to do a comparison between these instruments by analyzing 60 samples consisting venous blood in EDTA-tubes. The samples were collected randomly from patients (32 men and 28 women) between 19-95 years old. The results from two-sided paired t-test showed no significant difference between the differential count of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. The correlation was 0,95, 0,91 and 0,68. However, there was a significant difference between the instruments differential count of eosinophils and basophils, the correlation was 0,91 and 0,20. When counting only 200 cells a profit of 2 % distinguish up to 1-5 %. Abnormalities in leukocytes which represents only a few percent in blood can therefore be very large. Method comparison showed that both instruments give the same results and are considered equivalent in analysis of manual B-Diff.

  • 891.
    Östberg, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kognitionens påverkan på smärtupplevelsen - en systematisk litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Smärta är något som vi alla berörs av i olika grad vid olika tillfällen i livet. Smärtupplevelsen är komplex och består av mer än den nociceptiva signaleringen. Förutom den fysiologiska delen består smärta även av affektiva, kognitiva, beteendemässiga och sociala faktorer och det är numer allmänt känt att smärta måste ses ur ett multidimensionellt perspektiv. Trots detta lever en attityd kring smärta som enbart fysiologisk kvar hos många och kan göra att människor med smärta möts med bristande förståelse både från sjukvård och i sociala sammanhang. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att sammanställa evidens för kognitionens påverkan på smärtupplevelsen samt undersöka om denna stöds av fMRI-mätningar. Metod: För att besvara syftet användes systematisk litteraturstudie som metod där 7 stycken artiklar inkluderades.  Resultat: Resultatet visade att den subjektiva upplevelsen av smärta påverkades av flera olika kognitiva faktorer såsom distraktion/attention, deprimerat sinnestillstånd. Tänkt rörelse hos ryggmärgsskadade patienter visade på hur smärta kan induceras kognitivt. Förväntan inför smärtsamt stimulus ledde till neuronala förändringar i smärtmatrix men vissa begränsningar i studien gör att man inte kan säga något om huruvida upplevelsen av smärta påverkades som en följd av dessa neuronala förändringar. Känslan av kontroll påverkade inte smärtupplevelsen alls. Slutsats: Det finns evidens för att kognitionen påverkar smärtupplevelsen och detta stöds också av fMRI-mätningar. Dock påverkar inte alla kognitiva faktorer smärtupplevelsen och inte i samma grad. Smärtupplevelsen är fortfarande ett komplext ämne med många olika variabler. 

  • 892.
    Östman, Johnny R.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Müllner, Elisabeth
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kristinsson, Hjalti
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bergsten, Peter
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Moazzami, Ali A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Glucose Appearance Rate Rather than the Blood Glucose Concentrations Explains Differences in Postprandial Insulin Responses between Wholemeal Rye and Refined Wheat Breads—Results from A Cross-Over Meal Study2019In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 1-9, article id 1800959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scope: Ingestion of rye bread leads to lower postprandial plasma insulin concentrations than wheat bread ingestion, but most often not too different glucose profiles. The mechanism behind this discrepancy is still largely unknown. This study investigates whether glucose kinetics may explain the observed discrepancy. Methods and results: Nine healthy men participated in a crossover study, eating 50 g of available carbohydrates as either refined wheat (WB) or traditional wholemeal rye bread (WMR) during d-[6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose infusion. Labeled glucose enrichment is measured by an HPLC-TOF-MS method. The calculated rate of glucose appearance (RaE) is significantly lower after ingestion of WMR during the initial 15 min postprandial period. Additionally, the 0‒90 min RaE area under the curve (AUC) is significantly lower after ingestion of WMR, as is plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) at 60 and 90 min. Postprandial glycemic responses do not differ between the breads. Postprandial insulin is lower after ingestion of WMR at 45 and 60 min, as is the 0‒90 min AUC. Conclusion: Ingestion of WMR elicits a lower rate of glucose appearance into the bloodstream compared with WB. This may explain the lower insulin response observed after rye bread ingestion, commonly known as the rye factor. © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

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