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  • 8751.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Low-temperature formation and degradation of chlorinated benzenes, PCDD and PCDF in dust from steel production.2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 382, no 1, p. 153-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust from thermal processes may catalytically enhance the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds under oxygen-rich conditions. The activities of two dust samples from electric arc furnaces and one from iron ore-based steelmaking (oxygen converter) were investigated in a laboratory experiment. The dust samples were heated at 300 degrees C for 2 h in an air atmosphere. The concentrations of chlorinated benzenes did not change greatly upon heating, while the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased. The addition of copper in parallel runs resulted in a substantial increase in the concentration of chlorinated benzenes, thus indicating that the experimental setup was suitable for the evaluation of low-temperature catalysis. The outcome of the experiment seems to suggest that results cannot easily be extrapolated between different thermal and metallurgical processes. Some measures to reduce emissions, such as inhibition of catalytic activity and rapid cooling, could possibly be counterproductive when applied to off-gases from the steelmaking processes investigated here.

  • 8752.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Luftutsläpp av organiska miljögifter från ljusbågsugnar: Förekomst och möjliga åtgärder för att minska miljöpåverkan2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har mätningar av organiska miljögifter i rökgaser från ljusbågsugnar utförts sedan mitten av 1980-talet. 1992-1993 genomfördes även en litteraturstudie och en serie smältförsök vid MEFOS. Föreliggande rapport är dels en sammanfattning av mätningar och utredningar fram till början av 1990-talet, dels en uppdatering med tillkommande resultat från svenska mätningar och internationell forskning. Litteraturförteckningen upptar 167 referenser.

    Utvärderingen är till övervägande del fokuserad till de grupper av ämnen som går under beteckningen "dioxiner". Olika schema har använts under tidsperioden för att beräkna mängd toxiska ekvivalenter (TEQ), men i praktiken betyder valet av redovisningsprincip mindre än förändringar i provtagningsförfaranden och de naturliga processvariationerna. Utsläppen av dioxiner från skrotsmältning i de svenska ljusbågsugnarna har minskat med ca 70% sedan 1980-talets slut och är nu nere på nivån 3 g per år. De produktionsökningar som förutses till 2010 kommer inte att leda till ett totalt sett ökat utsläpp då produktionen vid stålverket i Degerfors upphör under 2003.

    Den utsläppsminskning som har uppnåtts beror dels på processteknisk utveckling och förbättrad stoftavskiljning, dels på strukturella förändringar i branschen. En ökad andel av produktionen sker nu vid anläggningar med låga specifika utsläpp. Halterna i rökgaserna är likväl högre än de utsläppsgränser som tillämpas i flera andra europeiska länder. I det korta tidsperspektivet är det svårt att förbättra det inkommande skrotets renhet. Ytterligare processutveckling är möjlig, men investeringskostnaderna för att införa helt nya processkoncept torde vara betydande.

    I många europeiska länder doseras nu adsorbenter, främst aktivt kol, för att förbättra avskiljningen av "dioxiner" och andra föroreningar i slangfiltren. Adsorbentdosering sker också rutinmässigt vid de svenska avfallsvärmeverken.

    De svenska stålverken har under lång tid och i samverkan byggt upp en kunskapsbas när det gäller att hantera frågeställningar kring åtgärder mot utsläpp av föroreningar och oönskad miljöpåverkan. Tidigare branschgemensamma projekt har varit framgångsrika, bl.a. genom en systematisk planering och likartat utförande av mätningar och försök. Rapporten utmynnar i en rekommendation att fortsätta med denna stegvisa strategi, som bygger vidare på tidigare erhållna resultat.

  • 8753.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Miljöriskanalys2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöriskanalys omfattar, riskbedömning, riskkommunikation och riskhantering.

    I boken introduceras den teori och de metoder som är grundläggande för att hantera risk- och beslutsproblem inom miljöområdet. Olika nyckelbegrepp förklaras ingående och terminologin har anpassats till de senaste harmoniseringsförslagen. Bokens fokus är på praktisk problemlösning och dess struktur följer innehållet i riskanalysprocessen. I separata kapitel avhandlas faroidentifiering, farokarakterisering, exponeringsbedömning och riskkarakterisering. I denna del ingår även ett kapitel om sannolikhet och statistik samt ett kapitel som introducerar de senaste sannolikhetsbaserade metoderna för att beskriva osäkerheter och naturlig variation. Kapitlen därefter behandlar riskkommunikation och riskhantering av miljöproblem. Samtliga av bokens nio ämneskapitel innehåller olika tillämpningsexempel liksom instuderingsfrågor och problem att lösa själv.

    Bokens syfte är att förmedla och utveckla kunskaper om riskanalytiska metoder och dessas tillämpning inom miljöområdet, med en tyngdpunkt på kvantitativ miljöriskbedömning.

    Boken vänder sig både till universitetsstuderande, med en naturvetenskaplig eller teknisk inriktning, och till yrkesverksamma inom områdena miljö och hälsa.

  • 8754.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Modeling vapor pressure.2011In: Presentation vid ECO Summer School, Leiden University, 26 september, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8755.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Non-testing methods in the safety assessment of chemicals.: Naturvetenskapligt seminarium, Kalmar, 25 november, 2011.2011Other (Other academic)
  • 8756.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Optimering är inget att vara rädd för1998In: Tidningen Automation, ISSN 0345-1011, no 8, p. 33-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8757.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Optimisation of an industrial afterburner2003In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 5-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8758.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Environment: A Chemometric Approach to the Study of Halogenated Aromatics2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concern is growing about the environmental and health effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), many of which are halogenated aromatic compunds. The research reported in this thesis focuses on factors determining their behaviour and release into the environment. The aims have been to relate molecular features with physical and chemical properties and to interpret casual relationships, with the common methodological approach of chemometrics.

    Quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) were investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). QSPR models were developed from computationally derived descriptors using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results show that it is possible to model and predict properties such as vapour pressure almost to the limit of the experimental error. The models obtained could be applied both to validate available experimental data and extend the current database of experimental determinations.

    The distribution and levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sewage sludge were investigated using exploratory data analysis (EDA), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and biphenyls (PBB) agreed well with another investigation reported recently, but for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) there was a divergence, possible due to the analytical methodology. The variation among wastewater treatment plants was statistically significant, and three distinct types of technical products were shown to contribute.

    The formation and release of chlorinated aromatics was investigated in an industrial afterburner with a series of statistically design experiments. Th effect of temperature was studied with some detail and the results indicate different decomposition pathways for hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatics. Additional factors were studied in a multifactor experiment, with a full factorial design in two blocks. Catalytic lowtemperature formation and chlorine input were both statistically highly significant factors. Polychlorinated dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) showed a statistically significant correlation to chlorinated benzenes, and the results could thus be described and interpreted within a simple conceptual model. The efficiency of the final oxidation, the chlorine input and the presence of a catalyst (e.g. copper) control the thermal formation of the different groups of chlorinated aromatics.

    The reported investigations show that empirical 'soft' models can provide insight and understanding of complex chemical properties and reactions. Latent variable models and Taylor polynomials were able to approximate the behaviour of these systems within the investigated boundaries. The chemometric models and methods are thus likely to find use also in other areas of environmental science where theoretical understanding is still limited.

  • 8759.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prediction of gas chromatographic separation for PBDE congeners from molecular descriptors2004In: The ESS Bulletin, ISSN 1651-5382, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been identified as environmental contaminants with a widespread distribution. The separation properties of PBDEs in high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) are important both for environmental analysis and for determining physical properties such as the vapour pressures. This study reports a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), established between relative retention times on capillary HRGC and two constitutional structure descriptors that can perform equally well as more elaborate approaches. The simplified approach is recommended for explanatory models, while a more in-depth multivariate characterisation is suggested to assure similarity in applying prediction models.

  • 8760.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prediction of physical properties for PCB congeners from molecular descriptors2001In: Internet Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 4, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8761.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Prediction of vapour pressures for halogenated diphenyl ether congeners from molecular descriptors2002In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8762.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Probabilistisk riskbedömning fas 1.: Sannolikhetsbaserad uppskattning av miljö- och hälsorisker i förorenade markområden – en litteraturöversikt.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated sites and land result in adverse health effects and environmental risks. This literature review show how the present methodology for quantitative risk assessment can be supported by a probabilistic approach. The probabilistic method involves a characterisation of variability (natural variation) and uncertainty(lack of knowledge). This information can be used to support better decisions andalso provide better insight on how to refine the assessment. The probabilistic methodologyhas become widely used in the United States and is gaining popularity in several European countries.

    Probabilistic risk assessments are generally based on simulations of possible outcomes from a large number of possible settings for input variables and model parameters. The calculations can now be performed on an ordinary PC, but some basic skills are required to fully comprehend both the possibilities and the limitations of the methodology.

    Contaminated land is together with the nuclear industry the most important environmental application for probabilistic risk assessment, and a substantial number of studies have been published for sites in North America, Europe and Asia. Thesestudies include pollution by lead, arsenic, chromium, uranium, PCB, PAH, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, dioxins and chlorinated solvents. The probabilistic risk assessments cover different types of exposure in a diverse set of operations, including metallurgical industry (melting and mining operations), manufacturing industry, gas plants, wood impregnation, infrastructure, and waste landfills.

    An increase use of probabilistic risk assessment will require quality assurance procedures and the U. S. EPA has issued a rather detailed guideline document, which also reflects the current scientific consensus. Similar guidelines are needed in Europe.

    The need to characterise variability, uncertainty and sensitivity in risk assessment models in Sweden is not different than the need in North America. In addition, the margins of safety must be clearly defined. Probabilistic methods can easily be incorporated into the present Swedish risk assessment models and the report presents an example calculation for benzo[a]pyrene.

    Probabilistic risk assessments have often been used to establish site-specific remediation goals and this is projected to an important future application in Sweden. The report suggests that there is a need to establish a framework to simplify the evaluation and interpretation, and recommends that a guidance document be compiled. Training and education is also needed. Courses are already part of the curricula at some universities, but there is also a need for further training and education of working professionals, both by distance education and shorter problem based courses.

  • 8763.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Production of halogenated aromatics from waste incineration – indicator parameters and operational control1987In: Proceedings från Swedish Flame Days, Studsvik, 8-9 september, 1987, 1987Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8764.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Read-across and QSARs in the risk assessment of food and feed2010In: Presentation vid Experts Workshop on "Dealing with Uncertainty of Non-Test Methods under REACH" i Helsingfors, 23-24 september, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8765.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Replacement of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene): the Swedish experience1996In: Alternatives to persistent organic pollutants: the Swedish input to the IFCS expert meeting on persistent organic pollutants in Manila, the Philippines, 17-19 June 1996, Solna: Kemikalieinspektionen , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The total import to Sweden of PCB between 1957-1980 has been estimated to 8,000-10,000 metric tonnes. A substantial part of the import, probably more than 50% was re-exported in goods. The use of PCB in Sweden has been restricted since 1972, and in 1978 it was decided that no new permits to use PCB in new products should be issued. Remaining part in the power sector of the industry has also been removed. Transformers or capacitors containing PCB and with a higher rating than two kilovoltamperes (reactive) may not be used after the 31st of December 1994.

    PCB containing transformers were never manufactured in Sweden. The problem with PCB filled transformers and contaminated transformer oils has therefore been less severe, compared to many other industrialized countries. The main chemical alternative to PCB in transformers is mineral oil with different additives.

    PCB was used in the manufacture of capacitors in Sweden before 1978. The use for this purpose accounted for about 80% of the import of PCB. Chemical alternatives for PCB as capacitor fluid include a multitude of chemical compounds. The capacitor fluid most frequently used today in Sweden is a mixture of methyl(phenylmethyl)benzene and methylbis(phenylmethyl)benzene.

    PCB was used in different building materials as a plasticiser. Chemical alternatives include chlorinated paraffins and phthalates. Chlorinated paraffins are however replaced due to environ-mental concerns, and it has also been decided to phase out the phthalates. Substantial amounts of PCB, an estimated 190-650 metric tonnes, still remain in buildings. It is obvious that measures to deal with these problems may cost many times more than the replacement already accomplished.

    Destruction capability and capacity are keys to a successful and final solution to the PCB problem. The destruction cost is also the major cost factor in the replacement. 17,667 metric tonnes of PCB containing waste was received by SAKAB, the Swedish hazardous waste treatment plant, between 1987-1995. This gives an idea of how much PCB wastes that have to be handled.

    Minor amounts of HCB (hexachlorobenzene) has been used in some parts of the Swedish industry. HCB has not been manufactured in Sweden and previous use has been replaced. Estimates of the international production are contradictory. It therefore seems premature to neglect HCB as an organic micro-pollutant of environmental concern.

  • 8766.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Socio-economic analysis in the REACH regulation: Impact assessment to support risk management2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8767.
    Öberg, Tomas
    European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), Helsinki, Finland.
    Substitution of chemicals based on assessment of hazard, risk and impact2014In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 565-568Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8768.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The role of EFSA in integrated food-environment risk assessments2010In: Presentation vid ILSI Europe 2010 Annual Symposium i Bryssel, 25-26 mars, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8769.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Under strecket: Gruvinspektören som uppfann naturen2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, Kulturdelen, no 18 oktober, p. 24-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8770.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Validering av prediktionsmodeller för NOx-mätning1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Indirekt bestämning NOx-utsläpp med hjälp av prediktionsmodeller kan godtas för bestämning av miljöavgift. Kraven på tillförlitlighet förutsätts bli likartade som för mätutrustningar. Rapporten redovisar hur prediktionsmodeller bör utformas för att motsvara dessa krav.

    Ett stort antal anläggningar i USA använder redan nu prediktionsmodeller för att bestämma utsläppet av kväveoxider. De förslag till valideringskrav som har föreslagits är likartade som för mätutrustningar. Modellen skall upprättas utifrån mätdata från jämförande mätningar där olika driftsinställningar provas. Verifieringen genomförs likartat, med ett specificerat prestandakrav för precision och riktighet.

    I Sverige är detaljerade kvalitetskrav för prediktionsmodeller ännu inte fastställda. Följande punkter måste dock beaktas:

    - Ingångsdata för modelluppbyggnad.

    - Modellverifiering - rekalibrering.

    - Prestanda och definition av kalibreringsområde.

    - Kontroll av giltighet och signalvalidering.

    En genomgång av resultat från två genomförda projekt visar att indirekt bestämning av kväveoxider är tekniskt möjlig.

    Rapporten avslutas med ett förslag till "översättning" av Naturvårdsverkets nuvarande prestandakrav för mätinstrument. Det viktigaste prestandakraven för prediktionsmodellerna vid jämförande mätningar är att den systematiska skillnaden liksom standardavvikelsen högst får uppgå till 10% av kalibreringsområdet och högst 10 ppm tg.

  • 8771.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Varför så tyst om riskerna med nano?2005In: Ny Teknik, Vol. Nr. 20, den 18 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8772.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Virtual screening for environmental pollutants: structure-activity relationships applied to a database of industrial chemicals2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1178-1183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current risk paradigm calls for individual consideration and evaluation of each separate environmental pollutant, but this does not reflect accurately the cumulative impact of anthropogenic chemicals. In the present study, previously validated structure-activity relationships were used to estimate simultaneously the baseline toxicity and atmospheric persistence of approximately 50,000 compounds. The results from this virtual screening indicate fairly stable statistical distributions among small anthropogenic compounds. The baseline toxicity was not changed much by halogen substitution, but a distinct increase seemed to occur in the environmental persistence with increased halogenation. The ratio of the atmospheric half-lives to the median lethal concentrations provides a continuous scale with which to rank and summarize the incremental environmental impacts in a mixture-exposure situation. Halogenated compounds as a group obtained a high ranking in this data set, with well-known pollutants at the very top: DDT metabolites and derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenyl ethers and dibenzofurans, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated benzenes and derivatives, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and dichlorononylphenol. Environmentally friendly chemicals that obtained the lowest rank are nearly all hydroxylated and water-soluble. Virtual screening can assist with "green chemistry" in designing safe and degradable products and enable assessment of the efficiency in chemicals risk management.

  • 8773.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Studsvik AB, Nyköping 61182, Sverige.
    Aittola, Jussi-Pekka
    Bergström, Jan
    Chlorinated aromatics from the combustion of hazardous waste1985In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and emission of chlorinated aromatics from a hazardous waste incinerator were shown to be influenced by the operating conditions. The emissions of chlorinated benzenes, PCDD and PCDF show statistically significant correlations to the chlorine input. Different substance groups also correlate, and the results presented correspond well with a general formation mechanism of chlorophenols via chlorobenzenes as indicated by others.

  • 8774.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Allhammar, Göran
    Chlorinated aromatics from metallurgical industries: Process factors influencing production and emissions1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 711-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission and production of chlorinated aromatics from metallurgical industries, e g scrap-metal re-melting, show substantial variations due to a number of process factors. The data evaluated indicates clearly that the production of chlorinated aromatics is combustion controlled.

  • 8775.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A review of probabilistic risk assessment of contaminated land2005In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 213-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, Aims and Scope. The management and decisions concerning restoration of contaminated land often require in-depth risk analyses. An environmental risk assessment is generally described as proceeding in four separate steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The risk assessment should acknowledge and quantify the uncertainty in risk predictions. This can be achieved by applying probabilistic methods which, although they have been available for many years, are still not generally used. Risk assessment of contaminated land is an area where probabilistic methods have proved particularly useful. Many reports have appeared in the literature, mostly by North American researchers. The aim of this review is to summarize the experience gained so far, provide a number of useful examples, and suggest what may be done to promote probabilistic methods in Europe and the rest of the world. Methods. The available literature has been explored through searches in the major scientific and technical databases, WWW resources, textbooks and direct contacts with active researchers. A calculation example was created using standard simulation software. Results and Discussion. Uncertainty and variability are part of every risk assessment. Much work on risks from contaminated soil has focussed on exposure, and choice and structure of the exposure model is then a basic uncertainty factor. Other factors, e.g. parameter uncertainty, are easier to characterize. Variability can be separated into inter-individual, spatial and temporal components. Both uncertainty and variability in the exposure variables can be investigated using Monte Carlo simulation methods. These simulations enable not only the estimation of the probability for a given risk or exposure, but also add information on the sensitivity of the various input variables. This will assist the assessor in further refining the risk analysis. The large number of applications published encompasses soil contamination by lead, arsenic, chromium, uranium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and chlorinated solvents. Probabilistic risk assessments have been used in widely different settings, such as the metallurgical industry (mining and smelting operations), manufacturing, gas plants, wood impregnation, infrastructure, and waste landfills. Site-specific remediation goals can be specified using probabilistic methods, and a guideline document has been issued within the US Superfund programme. The usability of probabilistic risk assessment is illustrated by a calculation example. The current Swedish generic guideline value for benzo[a]pyrene in contaminated soil, with ingestion of vegetables as the major route of exposure, is compared with a probabilistic estimate. The toxicological reference value corresponds well with the upper 95th percentile of the estimated variability in intake, but does not account for uncertainty in the partition coefficients. Conclusions and Outlook. The probabilistic approach to risk assessment has proved its value in characterizing variability and uncertainty, and thereby contributing to a more informed and transparent decision-making process. The management of contaminated land is a major environmental application for probabilistic risk assessments. A substantial number of studies have been published and the method is now well established in the scientific community. This development has progressed further in the United States than elsewhere, but similar applications are now being reported from Europe and Asia. Probabilistic risk assessment is used to derive soil guideline values in the United Kingdom, and other countries may be anticipated to follow. However, efficient use of probabilistic methods for risk assessment of contaminated land requires certain components. There is a requirement for quality assurance and transparency that can be met by guidelines specifying data requirements and which items to report on. Both federal and state governments in the United States have issued such guidelines, and we see a similar need from a European perspective. A second component, necessary for a successful implementation of probabilistic methods, is education. We have ourselves developed undergraduate curricula, but we also see a need for continuous education of risk assessors and decision makers. The third component required is case studies, showing how probabilistic risk assessment can be implemented successfully in the cleanup of contaminated land. Most published studies originate from the United States, so here too there is a need for the rest of the world to catch up. In addition to the three components mentioned, there is an obvious need to develop and improve methods and practice of risk communication.

  • 8776.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Probabilistisk riskbedömning. Sannolikhetsbaserad uppskattning av miljö- och hälsorisker i förorenade markområden – en litteraturöversikt2005Report (Other academic)
  • 8777.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Catalytic effects by metal oxides on the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in fly ash.2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 1135-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated benzenes, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), and dibenzofurans (PCDF) may be formed below the combustion temperature in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI). Copper catalyzes this formation, possibly by the Deacon reaction. Many other elements are also Deacon catalysts or promoters, and here we report results from a statistically designed experiment with 15 metal oxides added to fly ash and heated at 300 degrees C for 2h in an air atmosphere. A resolution IV fractional factorial design with four replicates was completed in 36 runs with the oxides of magnesium, yttrium, titanium, vanadium, niobium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin. All samples were analyzed for chlorinated benzenes and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance. The addition of copper significantly increased the amounts of the chlorinated benzenes, while cobalt, chromium and vanadium decreased the net formation. The oxides of zinc and iron seemed to have a slightly positive and negative effect respectively. The findings in this study seem to corroborate our previously reported results regarding the different catalytic effects of copper and chromium, and lack of a significant effect by nickel. Besides chromium, it also identifies cobalt and vanadium as potent catalysts for oxidative degradation of the chlorinated aromatic compounds found in MSWI fly ash.

  • 8778.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Erik
    Different catalytic effects by copper and chromium on the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in fly ash.2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 3741-3746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration may catalytically enhance the formation and degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds. The activities of three Deacon catalysts in this process were investigated in a statistically designed experiment. Chlorides of copper, chromium, and nickel were added to fly ash samples and the resulting samples heated at 300 degrees C for 2 h in an air atmosphere. The addition of copper increases the formation of all chlorinated aromatic compounds except the low chlorinated congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. The addition of chromium decreased the formation of most chlorinated aromatic compounds except the highest chlorinated species, where it was without effect. The addition of nickel did not show any significant effect. The outcome of the experiment can be interpreted as two competing processes: the chlorination of aromatic rings and the oxidation of carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds. The delicate balance between chlorination and oxidation could probably be further exploited to minimize both the emissions and the net production of chlorinated aromatic compounds from combustion.

  • 8779.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Combustion test data from a Swedish hazardous waste incinerator1986In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 15, no 9-12, p. 2045-2048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present results from our tests with PCB-incineration at the SAKAB hazardous waste incinerator in Norrtorp, Sweden. Combustion tests were made with PCB both as a fluid (Arochlor 1242) and as a contaminant of solid waste (Arochlor 1016 in capacitors). A general conclusion was that the incineration of considerable amounts of PCB did not effect the production of PCDD and PCDF in this combustion plant.

  • 8780.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    STUDSVIK AB, S-61182 NYKOPING, SWEDEN .
    Bergström, Jan
    Dioxins from Scandinavian waste combustion plants1986In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 15, no 9-12, p. 2041-2044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large quantity of emission data for PCDD and PCDF have been reported to date. Less information is available concerning the controlling parameters for the production of chlorinated aromatics from waste combustion. Here we report results and conclusions from investigations carried out in the Scandinavian countries to date.

  • 8781.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Emission and chlorination pattern of PCDD/PCDF predicted from indicator parameters1987In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1221-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission and chlorination pattern of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans from waste combustion shows a close covariation with that of chlorinated benzenes and phenols. This covariation can be utilized to predict the emission levels of specific isomers as well as the pattern of congeners.

  • 8782.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Halogenated aromatics from waste incineration – indicator parameters1987In: American Flame Research Committee, 1987Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8783.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Hexachlorobenzene as an indicator of dioxin production from combustion1985In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 1081-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans shows a strong correlation with the production of hexachlorobenzene. Hexachlorobenzene can be used as an indicator for the production of chlorinated aromatics.

  • 8784.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Indicator Parameters for PCDD/PCDF1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between different chlorinated aromatics have been evaluated in 66 samples from various industrial activities. For municipal waste combustion partial least squares modelling with latent variables (PLS) can explain 86 % of the variance in PCDD/PCDF from the isomerspecific analytical data for chlorinated benzenes and phenols.

  • 8785.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Indicator parameters for PCDD/PCDF: plant specific models1992In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 8, p. 197-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously presented results have shown that the emissions of PCDD/PCDF can be modelled and predicted from less costly and more precise isomerspecific analyses of different chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The new results we report here comes from a study aimed to further utilize these possibilities and develop specific models for each plant to accomplish maximum precision and accuracy in the calibration process. Plant specific models have been developed for two municipal waste combustion (MWC) facilities and one metallurgic industry.

  • 8786.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergström, Jan
    Organiska mikroföroreningar från stålverk1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljökonsulterna har på uppdrag av Jernkontoret värderat mätningarna av organiska mikroföroreningar från nio svenska stålverk utförda under tiden 1985 till och med 1987.

    Mätningarna utgör enbart kortvariga stickprov. Så finns t ex utsläppet till luft av polycykliska aromatiska kolväten, PAH, endast dokumenterade med 13 analyserade prov. För TCDD-ekvivalenter är antalet redovisade prov 18 stycken. Intervallet mellan de högsta och lägsta uppmätta utsläppen är för PAH 8 till 920 mg/ton stål och för TCDD-ekivalenter <0.3 till 9 µg/ton. Det är därför inte möjligt att ur mätresultaten beräkna ett realistiskt värde för normalutsläpp från stålverken idag.

    Det föreligger en tydlig samvariation av mängden PAH och klorerade aromater i utsläppet från de olika stålverken. Det är därför rimligt att utgå från att bildning och destruktion av föroreningarna är i huvudsak förbränningsstyrda förlopp. Mätresultaten styrker därmed att utsläppen kan minimeras genom relativt enkla insatser för att höja oxidationsnivån genom efterförbränning av processgaserna.

  • 8787.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Darnerud, Per-Ola
    Hajslova, Jana
    Miljögifter i fisk 2001/2002: Vänern och Vättern.2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vätternvårdsförbundet och Vänerns vattenvårdsförbund har genomfört en undersökning av miljögifter i fisk som omfattar 38 kemiska ämnen och ämnesgrupper samt "dioxiner" (PCDD/PCDF) och PCB (polyklorerade bifenyler). I undersökningen ingår dels ämnen från den normala livsmedelskontrollen, dels de ämnen som anges i EUs vattendirektiv. Analyserna av "EU-ämnena" har genomförts med stöd från Naturvårdsverket som är delfinansiär av projektet. De fiskarter som har undersökts är lax (Vänern), öring, röding (Vättern) och lake. Undersökningen ger därmed en relativt heltäckande bild av föroreningssituationen vad gäller fisk i Sveriges två största insjöar.

    Analyserna av samlingsprov har utförts av Livsmedelsverket, Umeå universitet och ALcontrol AB. De flesta av de analyserade föroreningarna saknades helt i fiskproven. När det gäller allmänna miljöföroreningar så är det främst mjukgörare, ytaktiva ämnen och några enkla lösningsmedel som har detekterats. Däremot saknas spår av de flesta avvecklade och nu godkända icke-klorerade bekämpningsmedel, dock med tennorganiska föreningar som ett viktigt undantag.. Samma iakttagelse är även giltig för icke-klorerade polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAH). Av redovisning framgår att det främst är långlivade klororganiska föreningar som kan påvisas hos de flesta fiskarterna.

    En tydlig minskning av klororganiska föreningarna skedde under 1970- och början av 1980-talet. Sedan dess har nivåerna legat relativt stabila. Kvicksilver, PCDD/PCDF och dioxinlika PCB är de ämnesgrupper som ligger högst i relation till de nivåer som har angetts som tolerabla från ett folkhälsoperspektiv. Det finns därför skäl att koncentrera undersökningsinsatserna till dessa grupper av miljöföroreningar. Klart är dock att medelhalten av PCDD/PCDF i fet fisk från Vänern och Vättern ligger under EUs nuvarande gränsvärde på 4 pg/g färskvikt.

    Långlivade klorerade miljögifter fortsätter alltså att vara ett bekymmer, men när de gäller bekämpningsmedel så är det inte längre ett nationellt problem. Den statistiska utvärderingen av föroreningsmönstret tyder på att både klorerade bekämpningsmedelsrester och PCB kan härröra från långväga transport eller från någon typ av "depåer" (ifrån tidigare utsläpp och användning). Däremot samvarierar PCDD, PCDF och hexaklorbensen inbördes, men endast i begränsad utsträckning med de övriga miljöföroreningarna. Då alla tre substansgrupperna kan bildas i högtemperaturprocesser så är det inte en orimlig hypotes att dessa föroreningar främst har sitt ursprung i närområdet.

  • 8788.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Deming, Stanley. N.
    Find optimum operating conditions fast2000In: Chemical engineering progress, ISSN 0360-7275, E-ISSN 1945-0710, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's world of intense financial competition, chemical processes must be optimized quickly if they are to become successful. These successful processes must continue to be operated optimally if they are to retain their competitive edge. In this article, we discuss statistically-based optimization strategies that can be used to achieve these two goals of achieving and maintaining optimized processes.

  • 8789.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, no 8, p. 975-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (> 195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (> 5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals.

  • 8790.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Iqbal, Muhammad Sarfraz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The REACH space of organic chemistry and hazard properties.2011In: Presentation vid 6th International Symposium on Computational Methods in Toxicology and Pharmacology Integrating Internet Resources (CMTPI-2011) i Maribor, 3-7 september, 2011., 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8791.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Liu, Tao
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Extension of a prediction model to estimate vapor pressures of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)2011In: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, ISSN 0169-7439, E-ISSN 1873-3239, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent and have been found globally as environmental contaminants. Release into the environment can occur from manufacturing, industrial and consumer uses. The vapor pressure is an important physical property influencing both the release and the environmental partitioning, but few reliable experimental determinations are available. Here we update a previous PLS regression model to cover also this compound class, using only a few calibration compounds. The recalibration is accomplished by applying a leverage-based weighting scheme that is generally applicable in updating structure–property relationships. The predictive performance is validated with an external validation set and is considerably better than for other standard estimation software, both with regard to accuracy and precision. The model can be given a chemical interpretation and the prediction error for the liquid vapor pressure is within 0.2 log units of Pa. Finally, the model is applied and vapor pressure estimates are reported for more than 200 PFCs where no reliable experimental data are available.

  • 8792.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Liu, Tao
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Global and local PLS regression models to predict vapor pressure2008In: QSAR & combinatorial science (Print), ISSN 1611-020X, E-ISSN 1611-0218, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vapor pressure is a key property in determining the distribution and fate of environmentally relevant compounds, but experimental determinations are only available for alimited number of the chemicals in current commercial use. Despite experimental efforts there is a need for estimation methods. The liquid or subcooled liquid vapor pressures at 298.15 K were collected from the literature for a diverse set of 1340 organic compounds. Theoretical molecular descriptors were derived after optimization to low-energy conformations and used to investigate the performance of global and local Quantitative Structure – Property Relationships (QSPR). A global PLSR model with ten latent variables was found to be optimal. The predictive performance of this model, within the domain of applicability, was estimated at n=420, Q2Ext0.980, and RMSEP=0.410 (log Pa). This model can be used in conjunction with other estimation models to assess the potential for a long range atmospheric transport.

     

  • 8793.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Liu, Tao
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Updating existing QSAR models: selection and weighting of new data2010In: Journal of Cheminformatics, ISSN 1758-2946, E-ISSN 1758-2946, Vol. 2, no Suppl 1, p. P19-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational chemistry and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are foreseen to be extensively used in the implementation of the new REACH regulation for chemicals in Europe. However, for some compound groups the data are too few in number to permit both calibration and testing of a new model. Usage and previously developed or updated models are then viable alternatives.Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fluoroteleomer alcohols (FTOHs) are two groups of environmentally relevant compounds, with unique physical and chemical properties. The subcooled liquid vapour pressure (pL) is one such property, where experimental determinations are limited and far from consistent [1]. Updating is, however, challenging when the new compounds are far outside of the original calibration domain space. But by carefully selecting and weighting only three new compounds, we have been able to update a previously developed general QSAR model [2], to cover the new domain while maintaining predictive performance for the earlier calibration and test data. The optimal weighting scheme was determined from the sample leverages and residuals in the calibration phase [3].The performance of this re-calibrated model greatly surpassed previous modelling attempts [4], when applied to an external test set of two PFCAs and four FTOHs with pL in the range 0.2-200 Pa; with Q2Ext = 0.994 and RMSEP = 0.190 units of log Pa. The domain coverage also increased from 1% to 51%, for 426 perfluoroalkylated compounds selected from the REACH registration list, the PhysProp database, and the OECD 2006 survey [5]. Selection and weighting of new calibration data can thus facilitate the extension and use of existing QSAR models. This investigation was supported by the EU FP7 project CADASTER (grant agreement no. 212668).

  • 8794.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Neuer-Etscheidt, Katja
    Nordsieck, Hermann
    Zimmermann, Ralf
    Dioxin surrogates: a comparison of approaches2002In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 59, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8795.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Deposition of persistent organic pollutants under a high voltage power line2009In: Posterpresentation vid NOSA Aerosol Symposium i Lund, 12-13 november, 2009., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8796.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high voltage power line2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 39, p. 6168-6174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations

  • 8797.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    ENVIRONM CONSULTANTS STUDSVIK, S-61182 NYKOPING, SWEDEN .
    Warman, Kristofer
    Bergström, Jan
    Brominated aromatics from combustion1987In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 16, no 10-12, p. 2451-2465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of brominated aromatics from combustion was shown to be influenced by the operating conditions. Brominated aromatics also showed high yields compared to their chlorinated analogues.

  • 8798.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Warman, Kristofer
    Bergström, Jan
    Bromine and waste incineration: an environmental risk?1990In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 2, p. 339-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process factors influencing the production of brominated aromatics in waste incinerators are bromine load and combustion quality. Emission measurements do not indicate unacceptable environmental risks from controlled combustion and advanced flue gas cleaning.

  • 8799.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Warman, Kristofer
    Bergström, Jan
    Distribution of toxic coplanar PCBs and PCDD/PCDF in pine needles from the Swedish environment: evaluation of data and source identification1990In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 1, p. 449-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental samples from different areas of Sweden indicate a widespread contamination of toxic coplanar PCBs. Uncontrolled combustion (e.g. fires) is a likely source.

  • 8800.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Warman, Kristofer
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Bergström, Jan
    Miljökonsulterna i Studsvik AB (Environmental Consultants).
    Production of chlorinated aromatics in the post-combustion zone and boiler1989In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 19, no 1-6, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of halogenated aromatics has been investigated in the SAKAB hazardous waste incinerator, Norrtorp, Sweden. The measurement results show that there is a substantial net production of chlorinated aromatics in the boiler.

173174175176177 8751 - 8800 of 8825
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