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• 1.
Lund University.
A model of contextual factors and inter-organizational integration: A Ground Theory study of two supply chains2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding of the effect of organizational context on supply chain integration. One result is a context- based model that can provide support for practitioners regarding what level of integration to establish with suppliers and customers.

Given the notion that most organizations are dependent on other organizations, it leads to a need for not only cross-functional integration but also for integration across organizational boundaries. However, in many organizations the level of integration with suppliers and customers is often inappropriate, inefficient and limited mainly to dyadic integration of order processing and operational scheduling. The existing literature provides only a limited insight concerning the essential circumstances for the integration and the slow growth of the implementation of inter-organizational integration has been attributed primarily to lack of guidelines for creating business relationships with supply chain partners. In the literature, “the more integration the better performance” solutions have often been presented without consideration of very complex internal and external organizational environments of involved companies.

During recent years, questions have been raised regarding the nature of integration with suppliers and customers and the extent to which it can be accomplished. Instead of all-encompassing integration, selectivity has been suggested in terms of what level of integration should be applied to each link of the supply chain. The problem for an organization is not to find “one best way”; rather it is to search for solutions that advance integration and differentiation simultaneously. Preferable level of integration depends on many contextual factors associated with e.g. focal company, industry, competitive environment, and nature and type of products. However, in the previous research the focus has primarily been on studying single or limited sets of contextual factors and their impact on integration. These results are often fragmented, leading to multiple frameworks and models. A unifying model providing recommendations in terms of what level of integration to establish with suppliers and customers considering organization’s specific circumstances is desirable. In this study, a large number of contextual factors of integration with suppliers and customers were identified and structured. Additionally, the relationship between these factors and level of the integration was clarified.

The study is based on the Grounded Theory methodology. To understand the effect of context on level of integration, two supply chains (triads) from two different industries - medical devices and fast moving consumer goods - have been selected as core samples. Findings are based on in-depth analysis of qualitative data obtained from fourteen interviews with practitioners such as CEOs, SC managers, sales managers, purchasing managers, and logisticians. Following the Grounded Theory methodology, the analysis of the collected data was conducted in three major rounds divided into six steps. The results were compared with a theoretical frame of reference.

The main result of this study is a model that describes the relationship between contextual factors and integration activities with suppliers and customers. The findings suggest that the assumption of a fit between context and integration of the Structural Contingency Theory is applicable also from an inter-organizational perspective. The model can be applied to contextual factors both external and internal to an organization. It is supplemented by structured lists of identified contextual factors and integration activities.

Recalling the notion of fit between value of contextual factors and level of integration with suppliers and customers, it can be stated that even low levels of integration can be appropriate as long as they are consistent with the values of certain factors representing organizational context. Furthermore, the model adds to existing models and frameworks as it can be used as a diagnostic tool. Applying this model, an organization can evaluate if current levels of integration fit with the corresponding values of contextual factors. Furthermore, the model support identification of misfits between values of contextual factors and present level of integration and it provides an opportunity to adjust or reevaluate the current levels of integration. The model, in combination with the lists of contextual factors and integration activities, can then be used to develop corrective actions in order to regain the desired fit.

Intention of this study was to identify and analyze integration of triads in the studied supply chains, commonly known as Supply chain integration. However, this scope of integration has not been found, which is in line with previous research indicating that triadic integration is rare. To reflect the actual situation in more accurate way it is suggested to use the term Inter-organizational integration, implying dyadic scope of integration, rather than Supply chain integration.

• 2.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
Broadening Horizons: The FMECA-NETEP model, offshore wind farms and the permit application process2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Abstract

The permit application process for offshore wind farms (OWF) in Sweden conceivably requires a comprehensive and transparent complement within risk management. The NETEP framework (covering risks concerning navigation, economics, technology, environment and politics), based on a futures planning mechanism (STEEP) has consequently been brought forward as a structure for the application of FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis) methodology to the permit application process of the Swedish offshore wind farm sector. FMECA, originating from the aeronautical and automobile industries, presents a systematic method for the prediction of future failure in a product, part or process, to evaluate the consequences of that failure and to suggest possible measures for its mitigation or eradication. Its application to attitude and acceptance, safety and environmental effect remains, however, limited which creates the research gap for this thesis. Three Swedish offshore wind farm (OWF) projects in the Baltic Sea area (Lillgrund, Taggen and Trolleboda) were put forward as case studies for use in the evaluation of the proposed FMECA-NETEP methodology, which was approached in two stages. The first evaluation stage results showed that the model accommodates the precautionary principle, the consideration of stakeholder viewpoints, the mitigation of negative effects, the analysis of alternative sites, the observation of relevant legislation and the utilisation of contemporary research. In the subsequent stage of evaluation, the factor for incorporation into the adapted model was intra- and inter-sector cumulative impact. Results showed that positive cumulative impact cannot be illustrated by the model whereas neutral and negative cumulative impact can.  The model’s added value is that it facilitates decision making by providing a rigorous, transparent and structured methodology, the holistic approach of which provides a sound basis for the incorporation of contemporary research.

• 3.
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
Essays on Ethnic Segregation and Economic Outcomes2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Essay 1: This paper studies tipping behaviour in the residential mobility of the native population inSweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that thegrowth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once aneighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the dropcan be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and to thedecreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance) while native flight appears to be drivingthe segregation pattern between the years 2000 and 2007. Further, we find native migrationfrom neighbourhoods that have tipped is selective, in the sense that natives with a high levelof educational attainment are the most likely to move from such neighbourhood. We concludethat the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation but it alsoappears to have increased socio-economic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

Essay 2: This paper focuses on second-generation immigrants and analyses the short- and long-termeffects of immigrant and ethnic group concentration in childhood neighbourhood on earnings,unemployment, reliance on income support and educational attainment. The results show thata high immigrant concentration in a childhood neighbourhood is negatively associated witheconomic outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and natives. Ethnic groupconcentration seems to work in the opposite direction, improving economic outcomes forsecond-generation immigrants. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of includingtime dynamics in any analysis of the effect of childhood neighbourhood ethnic compositionon economic outcomes.

• 4.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
Functional Hodrick-Prescott Filter2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The study of functional data analysis is motivated by their applications in various fields of statistical estimation and statistical inverse problems.

In this thesis we propose a functional Hodrick-Prescott filter. This filter is applied to functional data which take values in an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space.  The filter depends on a smoothing parameter. In this study we characterize the associated optimal smoothing parameter when the underlying distribution of the data is Gaussian. Furthermore we extend this characterization to the case when the underlying distribution of the data is white noise.

• 5.
Chalmers.
Nonlinear Structural Identification Using a Multi-Harmonic  Frequency Response Functions2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

In industrial structural dynamics problems, linear FE-models commonly serve to represent the global structural behavior. However, when test data are available they often show evidence of nonlinear dynamic characteristics. In that case, an initial linear model may be judged insufficient in representing the dynamics of the structure. The causes of the non-linear characteristics may be local in nature whereas the major part of the structure is satisfactorily represented by linear descriptions. Although the initial model can serve as a good foundation, all physical properties required for representing the real structure with high fidelity are most likely not included in the initial model. Therefore, a set of parameterized candidate properties controlling the nonlinear effects have to be added. The selection of the candidates is a delicate task which must be based on insight into the physical processes that control the structure at hand. The focus of this thesis is on the selection of uncertain model parameters together with the forming of the objective function to be used for calibration. To give precise estimation of parameters in the presence of measurement noise, the objective function data have to be informative with respect to the selected parameters. Also, to get useful test data for calibration, the system stimuli need to be properly designed. A multi-harmonic stationary sinusoidal excitation is here considered since the corresponding steady-state responses at the different harmonic orders are shown to contain valuable information for the calibration process.

• 6.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
Novel Use of Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Everyday Teaching and Learning Practices: A Complex Picture2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)

As of autumn 2011, all schools in Sweden have adopted and applied the latest curriculum for the compulsory school system. The following is written in concern to technology:

"The school is responsible for ensuring that each pupil on completing compulsory school: [...] can use modern technology as a tool in the search for knowledge, communication, creativity and learning." (Skolverket, 2011, pp.13-14)

With this said, there are no guidelines or manuals on how this is to be conducted. In a report from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate it was concluded that the investment in technology is not being used for school education. The education systems keep investing in technology in the belief that schools and teachers will sooner or later adopt and benefit from the use of mobile and ubiquitous technologies.

The aim of this study is to “create an understanding of the aspects that have an impact on adopting novel use of mobile and ubiquitous technologies in everyday teaching and learning practices in compulsory schools.”

The empirical foundation will be based upon three projects: Geometry Mobile (GeM); Learning Ecology with Technologies from Science for Global Outcomes (LETS GO); and Collaborative Learning Using Digital Pens and Interactive Whiteboards (Collboard). All were conducted at local compulsory schools in Växjö municipality, Sweden, in collaboration with teachers, students and fellow researchers from the CeLeKT research group at Linnaeus University.

Two Thematic Analyses have been conducted: the first, an inductive analysis exploring the Students’ and Teachers’ Experience of using Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in their learning and teaching environment. The second analysis is deductive and uses themes from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology models with the aim of understanding the Perception and Acceptance of Teachers’ use of Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies. In the results from the two analyses there are clear indicators on the added value that mobile and ubiquitous technology brings to the classrooms: students are able to actively participate, collaborate and discuss in different learning settings, which enhances their understanding of the subject at hand. The challenges are mainly to be found in the lack of training and education in use of the technology as a supporting tool for teaching and learning. Further factors influencing the teachers and the students are ease of use and reliability of the technology and societal changes.

The results of the analysis and the theoretical base of Technology Enhanced Learning have been illustrated with Soft Systems Methodologies Rich Picture, providing a holistic view of the problematic situation and making it possible to discuss the various parts as well as the situation as a whole. This study indicates that there are several factors influencing the adoption of the novel use of mobile and ubiquitous technologies in everyday teaching and learning within a complex situation on different levels.

• 7.
On the asymptotic spectral distribution of random matrices: closed form solutions using free independence2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)

The spectral distribution function of random matrices is an information-carrying object widely studied within Random matrix theory. In this thesis we combine the results of the theory together with the idea of free independence introduced by Voiculescu (1985).

Important theoretical part of the thesis consists of the introduction to Free probability theory, which justifies use of asymptotic freeness with respect to particular matrices as well as the use of Stieltjes and R-transform. Both transforms are presented together with their properties.

The aim of thesis is to point out characterizations of those classes of the matrices, which have closed form expressions for the asymptotic spectral distribution function. We consider all matrices which can be decomposed to the sum of asymptotically free independent summands.

In particular, explicit calculations are performed in order to illustrate the use of asymptotic free independence to obtain the asymptotic spectral distribution for a matrix Q and generalize Marcenko and Pastur (1967) theorem. The matrix Q is defined as

$Q = \frac{1}n X_1X^\prime_1 + \cdot\cdot\cdot + \frac{1}n X_kX^\prime_k,$

where Xi is p × n matrix following a matrix normal distribution, Xi ~ Np,n(0, \sigma^2I, I).

Finally, theorems pointing out classes of matrices Q which lead to closed formula for the asymptotic spectral distribution will be presented. Particularly, results for matrices with inverse Stieltjes transform, with respect to the composition, given by a ratio of polynomials of 1st and 2nd degree, are given.

• 8.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
Shape stability of laminated veneer products2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis is about the shape stability of laminated veneer products.

Laminated veneer products consist of veneers bonded together with adhesive into a predetermined shape. Such products are used in several contexts but especially in furniture manufacture. Deviation from the intended shape is a problem for both manufacturers and customers of the final products. The shape stability of laminated veneer products depends on a variety of material and process parameters, and this thesis identifies several important factors that influence shape stability. The purpose of this thesis is to find ways to decrease distortion and improve shape stability so that product quality can be improved.

Different ways of measuring shape stability, both in an industrial environment and in a more research-based context, are presented in this thesis. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the influence of different material and process parameters on shape stability. The parameters studied were species (beech and birch), adhesive system (bio-based adhesives, adhesive systems based on urea formaldehyde), adhesive distribution on the veneer, climate, moisture content and fibre orientations of the veneers, as well as orientation of the individual veneers in an assembly.

The results clearly show that the fibre orientation of the veneer strongly influences the shape stability of a laminated veneer product. This means that products can show considerable distortion (particularly twist) if the fibre orientation of the veneer is orientated in an unsuitable way in the assembly before moulding. The effect of fibre orientation on shape stability can be very small directly after moulding, but it increases considerably when the moulded product is subjected to a change in moisture content. In general, a change in moisture content leads to distortion. Moisture change alone, however, results in a controlled distortion.

An asymmetrical construction coupled with different moisture contents of the veneers in an assembly before moulding will result in poor shape stability of the product. Other studied parameters had a low impact on shape stability, although beech resulted in more distortion and poorer shape stability than birch.

In order to produce shape-stable laminated veneer products, the veneers should be conditioned to a uniform moisture content and sorted with regard to fibre orientation before bonding. The orientation of the veneers is highly important regarding both fibre orientation and the loose or tight side of the veneer. If shape stability is the main target, the loose sides of peeled and sliced veneers should be oriented in the same manner.

• 9.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Tusen fiender: en studie om de svenska gatugängen och dess ledare2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Gäng i dess olika former, vare sig det är lokala ambulerande gatugäng eller sofistikerade, internationella kriminella gäng, är ett allt större problem i vårt samhälle. Gäng skapar enorma kriminella vinster från grov brottslig verksamhet och undergräver allvarligt allmänhetens förtroende för samhällets institutioner såsom polisen och socialtjänsten. Att förebygga gäng och gängkriminalitet, är därför ett prioriterat område såväl på nationell som på internationell nivå. Tusen fiender - behandlar de svenska gatugängen och dess ledare, med syftet att öka vår kunskap och förståelse om vilka sociala processer och faktorer som bidrar till att gäng bildas i Sverige. Studierna som Tusen fiender bygger på ,utgår ifrån 239 gängmedlemmar, tagna ur sju självmarkerande svenska gatugäng med tydlig gäng- och lagbrytande identitet, samt intervjuer med 24 gängmedlemmar varav tolv gängledare.

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