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  • 1.
    Rosenlund, Joacim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    An Interactive Research Approach to the Triple Helix Model in Environmental Science2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased interaction between scientists and the social environment is considered to be one of the characteristics of modern science. This interaction can occur through collaboration between different sectors in society. In connection to this, the Triple Helix model claims that interaction between university, industry and public sectors, is key to modern innovation development. So far, cross-sector interaction between actors in environmental science has been scarcely studied in a scientific manner. Most studies carried out in the area have disregarded the actual practice of such collaborations and what happens in projects where these sectors interact. As this has become a common way to solve environmental problems, it is of considerable importance to gain more knowledge about this process. The objective of this research was to study and explain cross-sector collaboration. Using the interactive research method, characterised by joint learning and interaction with the participants, this was explored through two case studies. The method was well suited for studying ongoing interactions between the university, industry and public sectors. The first case was an international collaboration between representatives of the Triple Helix sectors. Here, olive-mill wastewater in Greece was the focus. The Triple Helix framework was used both on the intended analytical level and at a management level closer to the actor level of the participants. The second case was a three-year environmental research project in the Kalmar region where strong university-industry collaboration was carried out in order to find wastewater treatment solutions in the wood industry. This collaboration was extended to include more actors in the region during the process. The actual practice of these cases showed the importance of a dialogue between participants. Triple Helix can be used as an initial framework for such a dialogue through which the model is redefined by input from all sectors.

  • 2.
    Lebeda Henriksson, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Barns och ungdomars bilder av poliser: En studie i två lokala sammanhang2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children´s and young people´s images of the police

                       - a study in two local contexts

    Abstract

    This licentiate thesis focuses on children´s and young people´s images of the police. The aim is to describe and analyze these images and place them in late modernity. The starting point is taken in a notion that images are socially constructed, based on structures of power, habitus, social positions and a symbolic capital. To understand the importance of what meaning young people put into the police, the approach also is influenced by cultural sociology.

    Data were collected through a questionnaire to 1 945 children and young people, aged 10-22 years with no specific criminal experiences, in two local contexts; Karlskrona and Landskrona, two municipalities in the Southern part of Sweden. Conversational interviews were conducted in group sessions with in all 50 children and young people. The quantitative material, processed in SPSS, is used in a descriptive manner. For the interviews, a thematic analysis method was used. Regarding the participants’ images three main themes emerged; conceptions, experiences and expectations.

    Findings show that these children and young people have positive thoughts about the police as an institution but are to some extent more critical with regard to the police as an organization and far more critical when it comes to individual police officers. Almost all the participants have been in contact with police officers, mostly in school or when they have applied for a passport. Regarding expectations they want the police to focus their efforts on adults.  The children, aged 10-12, are more positive about the police while the group of 13-16 year olds are more negative. To some extent the older group, aged 17-22, are more differentiated.

    Furthermore, it appears that conceptions, experiences and expectations are closely linked. Conceptions are based on various experiences, which in turn generate various expectations in light of different circumstances in life. Some images are more generally occurring while others mainly are produced in groups of young people. Young people´s images can be interpreted as a struggle within the field where the habitus and symbolic capital constitutes a force. If we choose to look at young people as seismographs, their images can be signs of images of the police even among adults. Ultimately it turns out that there seems to be a mystique surrounding the police. For people it is exciting to see the police in action in real life while the police themselves are secretive about how they operate; which also may contribute to the images we create. And in this study it appears not to be differences worth mentioning between the two local contexts.

  • 3.
    Klope, Eva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    I skuggan av ett yrke: om gymnasieelevers identitetsskapande på hantverksprogrammet frisör2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to understand the creation of identities, especially focusing on vocational identities within the vocational education and training (VET) for hairdressers. To be trained for a vocation like hairdressing means that more has to be learnt other than to do nice haircuts or other treatments. The handicraft is one part of the vocational knowing of hairdressing, but to be a hairdresser is about something more besides handicraft. Identity in this study is understood from a sociological perspective influenced by Richard Jenkins’ (2004, 2008) theoretical model of social identities. This is used together with the Bourdieu-inspired concept of vocational habitus (Colley, James, Tedder, & Diment, 2003). The method is inspired by ethnographic research and the empirical material consists of interviews and observations. Based on this material personal portraits have been created of four students. The intention is to focus on the students’ perspective about the everyday activities in school and their experiences of being trained for a vocation in school. The analyse shows that students are trained to develop a vocational habitus, to look, move, talk and feel like a hairdresser is expected to. The students encounter these expectations differently, depending on their identities as hairdressers, students or identities established in other contexts. A main finding of the study is that student identities and vocational identities sometimes are in conflict with each other.

    The contribution of the study is an increased understanding of identity creation in vocational education. It also contributes to a better knowledge of young people in vocational education and their relationship with their vocational education and upcoming vocation.

  • 4.
    Roos, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics Education.
    Inclusion in mathematics in primary school: what can it be?2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Blomberg, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics Education.
    Informell Statistisk Inferens i modelleringssituationer: En studie om utveckling av ett ramverk för att analysera hur elever uttrycker inferenser2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to improve our knowledge about teaching and learning of informal statistical inference. A qualitative research strategy is used in the study that focuses on the testing and generation of theories inspired by grounded theory. The knowledge focus of the study is aimed at the characterisation of statistical processes and concepts where systems of concept frameworks about informal statistical inference and modelling represent an essential part of the research. In order to obtain adequate empirical data, a teaching situation was devised whereby students were involved in planning and implementing an investigation. The study was conducted in a normal classroom situation where the teaching was focused on an area in probability and statistics that included the introduction of box plots and normal distribution with related concepts. The empirical material was collected through video recordings and written reports. The material was analysed using a combined framework of informal statistical inference and modelling. The results of the analysis highlight examples of how students can be expected to express aspects of informal statistical inference within the context of statistical inquiry. A framework was also developed aimed to theoretically depict informal statistical inference in modelling situations. The study suggests that this framework has the potential to be used to analyse how informal statistical inference of students are expressed and to identify potential learning opportunities for students to develop their ability to express inferences.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Alexander
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Modeling of non-equilibrium scanning probe microscopy2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work in this thesis is basically divided into two related but separate investigations.

    The first part treats simple chemical reactions of adsorbate molecules on metallic surfaces, induced by means of a scanning tunneling probe (STM). The investigation serves as a parameter free extension to existing theories. The theoretical framework is based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). Tunneling electrons that pass the adsorbate molecule are assumed to heat up the molecule, and excite vibrations that directly correspond to the reaction coordinate. The theory is demonstrated for an OD molecule adsorbed on a bridge site on a Cu(110) surface, and critically compared to the corresponding experimental results. Both reaction rates and pathways are deduced, opening up the understanding of energy transfer between different configurational geometries, and suggests a deeper insight, and ultimately a higher control of the behaviour of adsorbate molecules on surfaces.

    The second part describes a method to calculate STM images in the low bias regime in order to overcome the limitations of localized orbital DFT in the weak coupling limit, i.e., for large vacuum gaps between a tip and the adsorbate molecule. The theory is based on Bardeen's approach to tunneling, where the orbitals computed by DFT are used together with the single-particle Green's function formalism, to accurately describe the orbitals far away from the surface/tip. In particular, the theory successfully reproduces the experimentally well-observed characteristic dip in the tunneling current for a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule adsorbed on a Cu(111) surface. Constant height/current STM images provide direct comparisons to experiments, and from the developed method further insights into elastic tunneling are gained.

  • 7.
    Sterner, Helén
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics Education.
    Problematisera "görandet": lärares lärande om kommunikation och resonemang i matematikundervisningen i en organiserad praktikgemenskap2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematics teachers’ profession and professional development is essential to develop students’ learning. The aim of this study has been to follow a processin order to understand what and how mathematics teachers learn in a community of practice. A group of mathematics teachers grade 1-6 met regularly for a period of one year. This group, called the reflection group, was tasked with developing a common core question. The reflection group’s joint enterprise was to understand more about communication and reasoning in mathematics teaching. The study is based on Goodchild’s (2008) the developmental research cycle combined with Wenger’s (1998) communities of practice to analyse how the reflection group shifts the way of talking about communication and reasoning in mathematics teaching. In the analyses and the interpretation three concepts are used as analytical tools: mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire. The results show shifts in the reflection group’s way of talking from to understand, to identify, to interpret and finally to apply mathematical reasoning in teaching. The result of the study also shows changes in the process as the conversation shifted from consensus to problematizing the common core question.

  • 8.
    Staaf, Patricia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language. Malmö högskola.
    Som man frågar får man svar: Andraspråksstudenter möter lärares krav i hemtentor2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of students who use Swedish as a second language for their studies is increasing in Swedish Higher Education. This is a consequence of the fact that more upper secondary school students come from a foreign background and of the task of the universities to work for widening participation in Higher Education.

    In spite of the increasing number of students using Swedish as a second language there is not much research on the use of L2 in Higher Education or the success of L2-students. One reason can be that the group is difficult to identify since language background is not a factor which is registered in the national statistics of students. L2-students are to be found within the wider group “students with a foreign background”. As a contribution to a better understanding of the use of language of L2-students in a Swedish context, I have looked at how students in their first year in a social science undergraduate programme meet an academic discourse and its demands on academic writing. The study is a text analysis which looks at the use of language in take-home examinations consisting of the instructions and questions of the teachers, the answers of the students and the results. The questions of the study are:

    1. What language functions and what voice roles are embedded in questions in take-home examination for first year students on a social science undergraduate programme?

    This question is answered by analysing the wording of the questions and the criteria for assessment in take-home examinations. The results of this analysis constitute the basis for my second research question:

    1. How do first-year students with Swedish as their first or second language adapt their answers to the language functions and voice roles requested?

     I analyse the answers written by students who define Swedish as their first or second language, and I discuss the similarities and the differences in their strategies to meet the requirements. In order to study how L2-students meet the requirements of adaptation to the language of the discourse, my third research question is:

    1. What voice roles do L2-students use in their examination answers?

    I answer the question by a deeper analysis of some texts written by students with Swedish as their second language.

    The theoretical framework is based on sociocultural theory, systemic functional linguistics, Academic Literacies and critical discourse analysis. The main conceptions of the study are language func­tions and voice roles. The language functions are the active verbs required in the instructions for the tasks and questions. The verbs are related to the cognitive levels of Bloom’s taxonomy.

    The analysis of which voice roles are used and required in the instructions, and used in the answers, draws upon Hood’s (2004) description of voice roles. Following Hood I study the use of the following voice roles: the Observer voice, the Investigator voice and the Critic voice. The latter two are discursive roles and construct the Researcher role.

     In the analysis I study the language functions and voice roles in the texts of the students in the light of Ivanič’s (1998) expressions of identity: autobiographical self, discursive self and self as author.

     The group consisted of 31 students, 12 L1-students and 19 L2-students and 5 of the L2-students formed a group for close analysis of their answers to two essay questions. The material was collected in the academic year of 2010/2011 and consists of the instructions and questions of four take-home examinations and the answers of the students and their results. I have also analysed documents like the programme syllabus and course syllabi as background material. Two of the four take-home examination were chosen for close analysis. The answers of students to four of the questions in these two take-home examinations formed the basis for the analysis of the language use of the students.

    The collected texts of the students consist of 96 answers in total, out of which 50 are included in the overall analysis and 10 of these are also included in the close analysis.

    The studied take-home examinations consist of general instructions for how to answer the exam and also further instructions for each question. The questions are of three different types: short questions, longer questions and essay questions. In the instructions for the take-home examination, there are clear demands for an adaptation to an academic discourse. In these general descriptions, an expectation of all the three voice roles of Hood is included but it is the Researcher voices as Investigator voice and Critic voice, which are explicitly asked for.

    The three voice roles are also asked for in the different phrasing of the questions but they are not explicitly asked for. Not all questions have to be answered in all the roles. It is the type of question that implies which voice role or voice roles the students are expected to use in their answers. The short questions can be answered in the voice role of the Observer and the longer questions implicate the voice roles of the Observer and the Investigator but to a certain extent also that of the Critic, whereas the essay questions require the students to use all the three voice roles in their answers. This means that the demand for the Researcher voice in the general instruction does not apply to all the different parts of the take-home exam, which can be confusing for first year students.

    The language functions asked for in the exams represent all the six cognitive levels of Bloom’s revised taxonomy. However, each separate exam does not include all levels. Gradually there is a progression from the lower towards the higher levels. It is also possible to see a connection between the type of questions and language functions and thus a cognitive level. The short questions are used for the lower levels, essay questions are used for all levels. The language functions that occur most frequently and in different types of questions are to explain or describe something, and also to reason about something.

    Based on the results of the analysis of the instructions and questions, a clear picture appears of what is asked for in the exam and what the students are expected to do to pass the exam.

    On the basis of these results I analyse the students’ answers, especially the language func­tions: to explain, to define, to refer to, to reason about and to reflect on. An analysis of language functions is made on the answers to one short question, one longer question and one essay question in the first take-home exam and, finally, one essay question in the fourth take-home exam. The questions are chosen because the five language functions which I have identified as particularly relevant are asked for in them.

    I can see that the answers of the two different groups of students show greater similarities than differences, overall. The answers are more colloquial and personal than academic. However, the texts demonstrate more interim language traits which illustrate that the students are aware of the academic language and strive to acquire the language of the discourse. The results are comparable with the results of studies of L2-students in the undergraduate English-speaking academic discourse (Hyland 2004, Ivanič 1998, Schleppegrell).

    Not surprisingly, I found that the language functions that are higher in Bloom’s taxonomy are more difficult for the students. Level 4 – analysis – seems to be a critical level for many students but particularly for L2-students. The level of analysis is also the level that Rienecker & Stray Jørgensen regard as the lowest level for a good academic essay (2013: 48). Thus, the level is central to the academic language.

     In addition to the three voice roles defined by Hood, the Observer voice, the Investigator voice and the Critic voice, I was also able to identify the voice roles of the debater, the experiencer and the learner.

    Crucial to the voice roles is whether they are taken by the student’s autobiographical self or discursive self. The experiencer and the learner are interim roles, which lie between the autobiographical and the discursive self and are not explicitly asked for in the instructions. For the student who is not familiar with the discourse, instructions to “reflect”, “reason about” and “give examples of your own” can imply that it is the voice roles as experiencer and learner which are required. The voice roles differ from the required ones by being taken from the students’ autobiographical self rather from their discursive self, as expected. When a voice role is taken by the students’ autobiographical self instead of the expected discursive self, new voice roles emerge and the text becomes less functional. The same effect arises when the wrong strategy, for example the choice of language function, is used to demonstrate a certain voice role.

    A further observation is that the phrasing of the questions is crucial to which language functions and voice roles appear in the answers of the students. Some phrasings of questions lead the students in the wrong direction. For example, yes/no questions result in answers that resemble argumentative texts on lower levels in the educational system rather than the expository texts that are expected in the academic take-home examinations. The students have not understood the difference between arguing on an upper secondary school level and arguing in an academic context, nor have they understood the academic meaning of reasoning. The differences between L1- and L2-students’ adaptations to the demands of the discourse can be linked to which voice roles they take in the text and how they use their own voices in the texts. The results also show that even if both groups of students use a more colloquial language than expected, the L2-students, as a group, are closer to colloquial language and to the autobiographical self in their use of language than L1-students.

    I have noticed that the use of language of the students in the form of voice roles and the adaptation to the required language functions are crucial to how well the texts function in their context. This probably influences how the texts are assessed and, thereby, how well the students succeed in their studies. A challenge for teachers is to give both new and experienced students adequate conditions and realistic opportunities to develop their use of language towards the academic target language. However, it is important that such teaching does not focus only on formal demands but goes below the surface of the text and creates an understanding of the reasons for the demands and expectations of the discourse in order to secure a common understanding of what is required in the examinations. The results in this study imply that teaching based on the levels of the taxonomies, expressed as language functions and the voice roles, can be a way to support the students in their acquisition of the academic discourse.

     

    Translated by Anna Maria Staaf Wernheden

  • 9.
    Cronquist, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Spelet kan börja: Om vad en bildlärarutbildning på samtidskonstens grund kan erbjuda av transformativt lärande2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To enter higher education means making new experiences and develop newunderstanding within a knowledge field. The situation could also entail, for thestudent, an entirely different self-understanding. This licentiate thesis deals withthis kind of learning process.The overall aim of this licentiate thesis is to analyze what an art teachers education,founded on contemporary conceptual art, can offer in terms of transformativelearning. The point of departure is adults learning processes as renegotiations ofprevious interpretations which can be transformed to new understanding. The studyanalyzes what aspects of transformative learning are reflected in students' texts andimages, produced as part of the studied course. The licentiate thesis also discussespossibilities and constraints of this learning process. The study was conducted as acase study based on a hermeneutic approach. Material was collected from thecourse blog which consisted of students' texts and images.The study results show a transformative learning process which students experiencedas emotionally tumultuous because their self-image, as future art teachers, isrenegotiated. The situation contains a dimension of learning which I call "twistingand turning" in which new understanding is being formed. This situation requires aself-reflexive creative approach. The result generates questions about therelationship between the content of the education (what) and the learner (who) in anart teachers education founded on a non-traditional base. This applies above all ineducations that challenge students' prior understanding of a field. One could alsoask how adult learning is staged as relearning in higher education. The studydevelops a concept of reflexive creativity which contains a more abstract level thanjust problem solving. The idea of reflexive turn in art education, based onconceptually contemporary art, is also discussed.

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