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  • 1.
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). KU Leuven, Belgium.
    A Control-theoretic Approach to Realize Self-adaptive Software Systems with Guarantees2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering modern software systems is a challenging task as these systems are subject to different types of uncertainties. Examples of such uncertainties are disturbances in the environment that are difficult to predict and goals that may change during operation. The idea of self-adaptation is to handle these uncertainties at runtime, when the knowledge becomes available to resolve them. As more software systems with strict requirements are designed to be self-adaptive, the need for adaptation guarantees is becoming a high-priority concern. Providing such guarantees with traditional architecture-based approaches has shown to be challenging, calling for new approaches to engineer self-adaptive systems. To tackle this challenge, this thesis studies control-based software adaptation (CBSA). CBSA applies principles from control theory to design self-adaptive software systems. More specifically, we address the following research problem using CBSA: how to realize self-adaptive software systems that satisfy multiple stakeholder requirements with guarantees in the presence of uncertainties.

    The thesis addresses the research problem in two subsequent stages. The first stage focuses on satisfying multiple stakeholder requirements of different types, and providing adaptation guarantees. This stage starts with a systematic literature review of CBSA, which provides a comprehensive overview of the field, including existing CBSA approaches, applied models and controllers, and analyzed guarantees. From the review, we identify a number of gaps in the existing research and concrete challenges in addressing the research problem. Then, we devise SimCA, a control-theoretic approach to realize self-adaptive software systems that satisfy multiple requirements with guarantees. SimCA combines mathematical models of software system, a control-based adaptation mechanism, and formal analysis of the required guarantees. SimCA is also reusable, meaning that it can be applied to a family of cooperative software systems with strict requirements. The second research stage focuses on handling different types of uncertainty.We first discuss the types of uncertainty and study whether existing CBSA approaches try to deal with these types. We then introduce an enhanced approach called SimCA* that includes components to deal with uncertainty in software parameters, addition or removal of requirements at runtime and software component interactions. In order to obtain evidence about the applicability and reusability of SimCA and SimCA*, we apply informal exploratory case studies with three software systems with strict requirements from different domains.

  • 2.
    Smits, Vivian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV). Studio Västsvensk Konservering, Sweden.
    Att skapa ett kulturarv2019Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande målet för detta arbete ligger i att utveckla samarbetet mellan aktörerna i det uppdragsarkeologiska verksamhetsfältet, i syfte att optimera urvalet och användningen av de ting som genereras och blir till ett kulturarv. Tyngdpunkten i licentiatuppsatsen ligger på de processer och strukturer som ligger till grund för formering av samlingarna och genom vilka det arkeologiska källmaterialet får en ny identitet som musealt kulturarv.

    Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i följande forskningsfrågor: Hur har arkeologins utveckling till uppdragsarkeologi som ett eget fält påverkat samlingarna? Med vilka effekter? Hur påverkar kommunikation och begreppsval processflödet som förvandlar källmaterial till ett kulturarv? Med vilka konsekvenser?

    I studien undersöks organisationsstrukturen för verksamhetsfältet och granskas hur kommunikationsprocesser påverkar vad fältet genererar. Fyndhanterings- och värderingsprocesser analyseras utifrån organisationsstrukturella förutsättningar, den historiska utvecklingen av enskilda professioner i verksamhetsfältet, samt kommunikationen aktörerna emellan. Studien genomförs med actor-network-theory som utgångspunkt och använder ett lingvistiskt perspektiv. Den bygger på litteratur- och dokumentstudier underbyggda med en fallstudie som kombinerar en enkät med en komparativ analys över urval och gallring av källmaterial.

    Studien visar hur verksamhetsfältets organisationsstruktur samt kontrollen på, och uppföljning av, fyndhanteringsprocessen leder till en skev representation av ting i samlingarna, med en förvanskad syn på det förflutna som effekt. Detta förstärks av ”kulturarvsparadoxen” – motsättningen mellan mål och uppdrag, eller teori och praktik, med ursprung i en tudelad begreppsförståelse kring vad som är kulturarv och vilket syfte det tjänar.

  • 3.
    Rahman, Mohammad A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Biophysical studies of the actin-myosin motor system and applications in nanoscience2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The actin-myosin motor system plays important roles in cellular processes. In addition, actin and myosin have been used for developments towards nanotechnological applications in recent years. Therefore, fundamental biophysical studies of actin and myosin and the actomyosin force generating cycle are important both in biology and for nanotechnology where the latter applications require methodological insights for optimization. This dual goal is central in the present thesis with major focus on factors that control the function (e.g. velocity) and the effectiveness of transport of filaments (e.g. filament flexural rigidity) through nanoscale channels with supplementation of methodological insights. The thesis thus provides evidence that actin is a dynamic filament whose flexural rigidity is different at different MgATP concentrations as well as in the presence or absence of myosin binding. Furthermore, probing the myosin ATPase cycle with the myosin inhibitor blebbistatin revealed that velocity is easily modified by this drug. Our detailed studies also suggest that actin-myosin force generation is preceded by Pi release and that blebbistatin changes the rate limiting transition in the cycle from the attachment step to a step between weakly attached states. The studies of actin dynamics and of the actomyosin force generating cycle were largely performed using in vitro motility assay (IVMA) where surface adsorbed myosin motor or its proteolytic fragments propel fluorescently labeled actin filaments. The IVMA is often taken as the basis for developments towards different nanotechnological applications. However, in the IVMA, actomyosin motility is often negatively affected by the presence of “dead”, non-functional myosin heads. Therefore, in this thesis, two popular methods, that are often used to remove dead myosin heads, are analyzed and compared. It was found that after affinity purification, the in vitro actin sliding velocity is reduced compared to the control conditions, something that was not seen with the use of blocking actin. Therefore, the effects of the affinity purification method should be considered when interpreting IVMA data. This is important while using IVMA both for fundamental studies and for nanotechnological applications. Another issue in the use of IVMAs in nanotechnological applications is the requirement for expensive and time-consuming fabrication of nanostructured devices. We therefore developed a suitable method for regenerating molecular motor based bionanodevices without a need to disassemble the flow cell. Evidence is presented that, use of proteinase K with a suitable detergent (SDS or Triton X100) lead to successful regeneration of devices where both actin-myosin and microtubule-kinesin motility are used. Lastly, this thesis presents efforts to immobilize engineered light sensitive myosin motors on trimethyl chlorosilane (TMCS) derivatized surfaces for light operated switching of myosin motor in order to control actin movement in nano-networks. This has potential for developing a programmable junction in a biocomputation network. In brief, the described results have contributed both to the fundamental understanding of actin and myosin properties and the actomyosin interaction mechanisms. They have also given technical insights for molecular motor based bionanotechnology.

  • 4.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Classroom research: Methodology, categories and coding2019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this text is to frame the methodological considerations developed in two research projects focused on classroom research. The first project is titled Understanding curriculum reforms – A theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11 (years 2014–2017), and the second project has the title Exploring the elusive teaching gap – Equity and knowledge segregation in teaching processes (years 2018–2020). Both projects are financed by the Swedish Research Council.

    In the research projects, empirical data are collected from curriculum events in the classroom. The task is therefore about developing an analytical framework to investigate various organisational repertoires (frame factors) that are actualised with a curriculum; for example, factors such as content-orientation, teaching space and temporal organisation of the teaching. It is also about how a curriculum takes shape in the classroom and which different communicative repertoires  (teaching talk including listening and learning talk including listening) are activated in relation to different content focuses, as well as how such repertoires can be described based on comparative typologies/categories. The focus of the research is the coding of data relating to knowledge perceptions and forms of knowledge, which is a more challenging task. All the recorded lessons relate to teaching in a full class. The coding scheme can be found in the last chapter in this anthology

  • 5.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Coated Norway Spruce: Influence of Wood Characteristics on Water Sorption and Coating Durability2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood used outdoors is often degraded and discoloured by microorganisms as a natural part of its life cycle, particularly when exposed to high levels of moisture for prolonged times. In this case, the application of a coating (i.e. paint) is an option for increasing the service life of the wood.

    Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is commonly used for outdoor applications in Sweden. Earlier studies have shown that uncoated spruce heartwood is less prone to moisture sorption in outdoor exposure, resulting in lower moisture content (MC) levels, as compared to sapwood. However, studies related to the above mentioned characteristics are rather limited for coated spruce, especially including the influence of outdoor exposure (i.e. weathering).

    The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to increase the knowledge of how heartwood and sapwood of different densities influence on the durability of coated Norway spruce for outdoor use. Different types of coatings with alkyd-, acrylic-, flour- (calcimine paint), or linseed-oil-based resin were included. The objectives were to study the water sorption (including MC variation) behaviour and crack formation of uncoated and coated heartwood and sapwood of different densities.

    Furthermore was an objective to study the microbial growth on the surface of similar samples of coated spruce in outdoor exposure. The used methods included wetting and liquid permeability experiments, accelerated water absorption (with samples floating freely in water), and outdoor field test. The field method lasted between three to five years and involved monitoring of the MC variation, the crack formation and the microbial growth on the samples.

    The results based on wetting measurements using octane as the adsorbed liquid showed no difference in liquid permeability between the spruce heartwood and sapwood samples of comparable densities, and indicated a similar level of pit aspiration (closure). The common flow path between two cells of conifers occurs through the pits. Still, the sapwood samples had in general a clearly higher water sorption rate than heartwood samples. It could be concluded that the increased sorption was presumably caused by a lowered water surface tension, most likely by a contamination effect of the water by surface-active sapwood extractives rather than differences in morphology of heartwood and sapwood.

    However, no clear difference in water absorption and MC levels was seen between coated heartwood and sapwood in the field study or in the accelerated water absorption study. Thus, it is suggested that a coating hinders the surfaceactive extractives to lower the water surface tension, resulting in a similar water absorption behaviour of coated heartwood and sapwood. The influence of density on water sorption of coated spruce was similarly to uncoated spruce, meaning the low-density samples had a higher MC than the high-density samples in the field tests. Furthermore, a one-year weathering of the coated and uncoated samples caused a larger increase in water sorption of high-density heartwood in the accelerated water absorption study.

    The field study on uncoated and calcimine-coated spruce showed a higher number of cracks on the high-density samples than on the low-density samples. Additionally, within each density group, a larger number of cracks were seen on sapwood samples as compared to heartwood samples. High-density samples with an alkyd- or an acrylic coating also showed a higher number of cracks. As expected, the formation of cracks on the samples increased their water sorption significantly. The microbial growth was higher on sapwood than on heartwood samples with a white coloured alkyd coating.

    The main conclusion is that heartwood and sapwood of different densities influence the water sorption and durability of coated Norway spruce. However, the principles in water sorption of uncoated heartwood and sapwood could not be applied to coated samples. Overall, the results point out that low-density heartwood could be the best material combination to improve the durability of coated spruce in outdoor use. The knowledge acquired in this thesis can enable an increased service life of coated spruce in outdoor use. The increase in service life is achieved by a careful selection of the wood material regarding the proportion of heartwood and to the choice of wood density. As a concluding remark, the role of surface-active spruce extractives needs to be explored, and a follow-up investigation in the context of water sorption is suggested for future research.

  • 6.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Conceptualizing professionals' strategies in care pathways for neurodevelopmental disorders2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Neuroutvecklingstillstånd (NU-tillstånd) är komplexa neuropsykologiska funktionsnedsättningar. Omkring 3-5% av alla barn har uppmärksamhets- och hyperaktivitetsstörning (ADHD) och cirka 1% av alla barn autismspektrumtillstånd (AST), som tillsammans med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning utgör de vanligaste NU-diagnoserna. Grad och typ av funktionsnedsättning varierar stort inom och mellan individer. Utredning och behandling är därför med nödvändighet multiprofessionell.

    Denna avhandling använder klassisk grundad teori (Glaser) för att begreppsliggöra professionellas beteenden i vårdkedjor för NU-tillstånd. Den innehåller också en pilotutvärdering av ett nytt, surfplattebaserat test för uppmärksamhetsproblem.

    Studie I visar att vårdkedjor för NU-tillstånd kännetecknas av sociala dilemman. Det som är rationellt för en enskild professionell, eller enhet, är inte alltid rationellt för vårdkedjan som helhet. För att kunna agera kollektivt när intressen inte alltid sammanfaller, krävs tillit. Studie I påvisar strategier som professionella använder för att kunna avgöra om de ska agera kollektivt eller mer individuellt/lokalt. Det övergripande namnet på sådana strategier är tillitstestning. Fynden sätts i relation till spelteori och social dilemma-teori.

    Studie II visar på vikten av att ha professionell kontroll över strategier, strukturer och metoder (eng. Unpacking control) för att hantera komplexitet i NU-vård i vårdkedjan. Att sakna kontroll över upplevt viktiga professionella prioriteringar kan kortsluta förmågan att jobba framgångsrikt med patienter.  Dessa fynd sätts i relation till professionsteori.  

    Studie III utvärderar ett nytt, snabb-administrerat, surfplattebaserat screening-test för uppmärksamhetsproblem. Syftet är att bidra till utvecklingen av metoder som kan hjälpa professionella att göra mer effektiva kliniska bedömningar av komplexa variabler, som uppmärksamhetsförmåga. Fyra grupper av barn och ungdomar fick utföra testet. Två av grupperna utgjordes av patienter med antingen NU-problematik eller annan klinisk problematik. Två grupper utgjordes av skolbarn utan känd problematik. Resultaten visade att testet med god precision kunde skilja de kliniska från de icke-kliniska grupperna.

    I kappan integreras resultaten från studierna I och II till en sammanhållen teori om professionellt beteende i NU-vårdkedjor. Ur ett professionellt perspektiv föreslås NU-vårdkedjor vara en särskild form av allmänningar, som kollektivt kan förvaltas mer eller mindre väl av de professionella. En kvantitativ modell för dynamiken i vårdkedjorna presenteras.

  • 7.
    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Effects of perinatal distress, satisfaction in partner relationship and social support on pregnancy and outcome of childbirth2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to achieve a deeper understanding of the situation among women experiencing perinatal distress during pregnancy and childbirth and the effects that dissatisfaction in partner relationship and weak social support from family and friends could have on pregnancy and childbirth.

    Methods: Following screening for perinatal distress, 562 expecting mothers came for a semi-structured interview. This screening, done with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, categorized 360 (64.1%) women into the perinatal distressed group (PDG) and 202 (35.9%) into the non-distressed group (NDG). During the interview women answered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Data were collected with these instruments for study I. Additional data for the three other studies were gathered from the women´s pregnancy records (II), electronic medical records (II, III), and childbirth records (IV). Results of the four studies were obtained by using descriptive statistics; parametric and nonparametric statistics and regression modeling.

    Results: Women in the PDG were significantly more likely than the NDG to be dissatisfied in their partner relationship, continue smoking during pregnancy, be dissatisfied with division of household tasks and child-rearing, have elementary or lower education, and to be students or unemployed. They were also significantly more likely to experience fatigue, vomiting and pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Women in the PDG who received weak family support reported nausea and heartburn more frequently than those with strong family support. Women in the PDG utilized more antenatal care service and were allocated more part time as well as earlier sick leaves during pregnancy, than those in the NDG. Women in the PDG were significantly more likely to use epidural anesthesia as a single pain management during labor.

    Conclusion: Perinatal distress affects pregnancy and childbirth. It is more common among women who are dissatisfied in their partner relationship and with the division of household tasks and child-rearing. Perception of weak social support also affects pregnancy among distressed women. Distressed women along with their partners and families should be offered support and consultation to relieve distress and strengthen their bonds during pregnancy and childbirth.  

  • 8.
    Ulan, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Foundation of Multi-Criteria Quality Scoring2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality becomes more critical as our dependence on software increases. We need better quality assessment than ever. Comparison and ranking of software artifacts, detection of bad or good quality are important tasks for quality assessment.

    Software quality models are widely used to support quality assessment. In general, they have a hierarchical structure and defines quality in terms of sub-qualities and metrics in a tree-like structure. Different metrics evaluate different quality criteria, and several metrics often needs to be assessed and aggregated to obtain a total quality score. The quality models standards of today do not enable numerical metrics aggregation. They leave aggregation to decision makers, and different methods of aggregation lead to different assessment results and interpretations. Hence, there is a need to define metrics aggregation formally based on well-known theories.

    We propose to consider the probabilistic nature of quality as a solution. We consider metrics as random variables and define quality scores based on joint probabilities. The aggregation, and the quality model in extension, express quality as the probability of detecting something with equal or worse quality, based on all software projects observed; good and bad quality is expressed in terms of lower and higher probabilities. We analyze metrics dependencies using Bayesian networks and define quality models as directed acyclic graphs. Nodes correspond to metrics, and edges indicate dependencies. We propose an implementation using multi-threading to improve the efficiency of joint probabilities computations.

    We validate our approach theoretically and in an empirical study on software quality assessment of approximately 100\,000 real-world software artifacts with approximately 4\,000\,000 measurements in total. The results show that our approach gives likely results and scales in performance to large projects.

    We also applied our approach to a multi-criteria decision-making task to propose a ranking method to aid evaluation processes. We use a real-world funding allocation problem for a call that attracted approximately 600 applications to evaluate our approach. We compared our approach with the traditional weighted sum aggregation model and found that ranks are similar between the two methods, but our approach provides a more sound basis for a fair assessment.

    Further, we implemented an exploratory multivariate data visualization tool, which visualizes the similarities between software artifacts based on joint distributions. We illustrate the usability of our tool with two case studies of real-world examples: a set of technical documents and an open source project written in Java.

    Our overall results show that our approach for multi-criteria quality scoring is well-defined, has a clear interpretation, and is applicable under realistic conditions, generalizable, and transferable to other domains.

  • 9.
    Zimmer, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Guided Interaction and Collaborative Exploration in Heterogeneous Network Visualizations2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual exploration of large and complex network structures remains a challenge for many application fields, such as systems biology or social sciences. Often, various domain experts would like to work together to improve the analysis time or the quality of the analysis results. Collaborative visualization tools can facilitate the analysis process in such situations. Moreover, a growing number of real world networks are multivariate and often interconnected with each other. Entities in a network may have relationships with elements of other related data sets, which do not necessarily have to be networks themselves, and these relationships may be defined by attributes that can vary greatly. A challenge is to correctly assign the attributes and relations between different data sets and graphs in order to be able to analyze them visually afterwards. The navigation between the resulting visualizations is also difficult. How can users be guided to other interesting data points relevant to their current view and how can this information be additionally displayed in a graph without losing the overview of the data?

    In this dissertation, we propose our new web-based visualization environment OnGraX, which supports distributed, synchronous and asynchronous collaboration of networks and related multivariate data sets. In addition to standard collaboration features like event tracking or synchronizing, our client/server-based system provides a rich set of visualization and interaction techniques for better navigation and overview of the input network. Changes made by specific analysts or even just visited network elements can be highlighted by heat maps, which enable us to visualize user behavior data without affecting the original graph visualization. We evaluate the usability of the heat map approach against two alternatives in a user experiment.

    Additional features of OnGraX include a comprehensive visual analytics approach that supports researchers to specify and subsequently explore attribute-based relationships across networks, text documents, and derived secondary data. Our approach provides an individual search functionality based on keywords and semantically similar terms over an entire text corpus to find related network nodes. For examining these nodes in the interconnected network views, we introduce a new interaction technique, called Hub2Go, which facilitates the navigation by guiding the user to the information of interest. To showcase these features, we use a large text corpus collected from papers listed in the IEEE VIS publications data set (1990--2015) that consists of 2,752 documents. We analyze relationships between various heterogeneous networks, a Bag-of-Words index, and a word similarity matrix, all derived from the initial corpus and metadata. We also propose a design for the interactive specification of degree-of-interest functions, which can be used to provide and evaluate configurations for guidance based on network attributes and logged user data in heterogeneous networks.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Harmonising value in a car’s interior using sensory marketing as a lens2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The human senses have always influenced people’s perceptions of thesurrounding environment and objects. As a consequence of the evolvement ofthe experience economy, research on the human senses has increasedsubstantially and attracted scholars from various research domains, includingsensory marketing. In the marketing domain, research emphasises that value iscreated when consumers experience brands, products, and servicescapes that areexciting and fun to interact with through the human senses. In accordance withthe service-dominant logic discussion, value is created from the servicesurrounding the product, such as the experience, which includes manufacturersand consumers. Although this has partly been captured under sensorymarketing, little is known of how sensory marketing cues contribute to brandexperience and brand value. Theoretically, it is emphasised that creating valueis a service process, where the manufacturer’s goal is to plan and design amultisensory brand experience facilitated by the human senses leading toconsumer value, as well as to enhance the brand as an image. Hence, the purposeof this dissertation is to understand and explain how value is created within acar’s interior by applying sensory marketing as a lens.

    To address the purpose, an exploratory sequential mixed methods approachwas employed to capture different aspects of creating value. The empirical dataare based on a case study with a global premium car manufacturer, focusing onhow value is created and offered within a car’s interior. The qualitative sequenceexplored how the manufacturer plans and designs a value proposition byembedding sensory cues in the car’s interior. Furthermore, how value-in-use iscreated by providing a brand experience is analysed. The quantitative sequenceexamined the relationship between brand experience and brand image to explainhow consumer value as an experience is created.

    The dissertation concludes that creating value in the car’s interior followsthe logic of service-dominant logic and includes manufacturers and consumers.For the manufacturer, this was a strategic process to position the automotivebrand as premium by offering value in the car’s interior. To achieve this, valuewas planned and designed by embedding sensory cues in the car’s interior.However, sensory cues were not embedded in isolation; rather they wereharmonised with another to gestalt the coherent theme of Scandinavia in termsof colour, material, and shape to provide consumers with a brand experience forsense-making. Moreover, it was demonstrated that not all brand experiencedimensions impact brand image to create value as an experience. The resultsshow that sensory, affective, and harmony experience have a positiverelationship with brand image, which generates the consumer’s value as anexperience.

    Overall, the dissertation contributes to the process of creating value in thecar’s interior by relating sensory marketing with branding and service-dominantlogic, with harmony uniting these. Similar to an orchestra, where the conductorstrategically organises various instruments on the stage to play a harmoniousmelody for the audience, the manufacturer uses the car’s interior as a stage withsensory cues to provide consumers with a harmonious brand experience, leadingto a positive brand image. Harmony has been identified, operationalised,measured, and tested with a positive result. Theoretical, managerial, and ethicalimplications are discussed.

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