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  • 1.
    Muhr, Anneli
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Andra generationens unga företagare med utländsk bakgrund: En förståelse av det egna företagandet utifrån social position2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is about young second-generation immigrants who choose to become entrepreneurs. In a qualitative interview study, 22 young individuals’ choices and trajectories as entrepreneurs were examined. The aim of the dissertation was to understand how these young entrepreneurs, based on their social position, motivated their choices and trajectories into working life as business owners. The results of the study show how the young entrepreneurs act based on their social position, in which both structural and intergenerational factors have significance for their choices. Furthermore, variations are clarified in the individuals’ motives and trajectories as young entrepreneurs, which can be understood against the backdrop of various social positions. Three patterns have crystallised from the young entrepreneurs’ stories: the “follower” – the early entrepreneur with a strong tradition of business in their family, the “climber” – the later and strategic young entrepreneur who also has a strong tradition of business, and finally the “stopover” – who does not have a tradition of business in their family. But the most prominent pattern is the “early and horizontal business trajectory”. This trajectory does not represent the typical highly educated springboard examples, which are normally highlighted in previous research. Instead it represents a “new category” which includes young people who come from less highly educated business environments, and who largely follow in the footsteps of their parents and relatives and continues to work in typical trade- and service branches. For this category, it is more likely the individuals’ lack of education, rather than strong education, that drives them to become entrepreneurs. The young people in this category leave school early and start their own businesses. Central to this is how the young people continue to work in the increasingly uncertain and informal labour market, in which relatively strenuous living patterns are passed on through generations, and where the young people partially fall outside the public welfare systems.

  • 2.
    Ebbelind, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA). Linnaeus University.
    Becoming recognised as mathematically proficient: The role of a primary school teacher education programme2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on upper primary prospective teachers in their first years of a teacher education programme in Sweden, in particular, a 20-week mathematics education course. It aims to contribute with insight into how, or even if, experience from a teacher education programme and other relevant past and present social practices and figured worlds plays a role in prospective generalist teachers’ imaginings of themselves as primary mathematics teachers-to-be and potentially shapes their identity. The theoretical perspective, Patterns of Participation, guides the logic and the research process and is used to interpret the construct of professional identity development. Ethnographic methods were crucial during the research process, which starts by taking a wide perspective on relevant social practices and then focuses exclusively on the everyday lives of prospective teachers.

    This study adds to the understanding of how the similarities in the discursive patterns of two prospective teachers, Evie and Lisa, frame their processes as teachers-to-be by staying committed to their prior positive experiences of mathematics. The figured world of performative mathematics is a significant aspect of Evie’s and Lisa’s experience, which involves being recognised for mathematical ability. Evie’s identity development is framed in relation to how her degree of certainty changes during her teacher education experience. She became recognised as someone who helps others in mathematics and found a way of performing this role during the teacher education programme. Lisa’s identity development is framed in relation to her commitment to the figured world of performative mathematics. She became recognised as a winner of competitions and for quickly completing the textbook exercises – experiences that proved formative during her teacher education programme.

    In this study, I conclude that the teacher education programme has an impact regarding prospective teachers’ professional development, but perhaps not in the way teacher educators expect or want. Thus, the teacher educators’ intention for the education programme differs from the result. An important aspect is that prospective teachers are not challenged first and foremost by encountering the theoretical perspectives involved in teaching mathematics. Instead, their prior experience is confirmed when used as a key source in determining what teaching mathematics means in terms of identity.

  • 3.
    Nordqvist, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    Residue fixed point index and wildly ramified power series2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling behandlar diskreta dynamiska system. Dessa är system där dynamiken modelleras med en itererad funktion. Tillämpningarna för diskreta dynamiska systems återfinns bland annat i biologi, pseudo-slumptalsgenerering och statistisk mekanik för att nämna några exempel. I denna avhandling är vi intresserade av dynamiska system som beskrivs av iterationer av en potensserie f med en fixpunkt i origo, där den tangerar identitetsavbildningen. Särskilt är vi intresserade av potensserier vars koefficienter kommer från en kropp med positiv karaktäristik p. Vi är intresserade av de så kallade underförgreningstalen till f. Underförgreningstalen till en potensserie f kan kortfattat beskrivas som multipliciteten av origo betraktad som en fixpunkt till iterationer av f. Denna avhandling innehåller fyra artiklar som behandlar detta ämne.

    I artikel I studerar vi så kallade 2-förgrenade potensserier och karaktäriserar dessa i termer av dess första signifikanta termer. Detta utvecklas sedan i artikel II, där vi beskriver absolutbeloppet av de periodiska punkterna för 2-förgrenade potensserier. Detta medför också att vi erhåller ett fristående bevis för huvudresultatet i artikel I.

     

    I artikel III, studerar vi potensserier med en fixpunkt i origo med liten multiplicitet, d.v.s. potensserier där multipliciteten för origo som en fixpunkt är mindre än karaktäristiken för koefficientkroppen. Vi erhåller en karaktärisering av dessa i termer av dess första signifikanta termer, samt även formulerat som ickeförsvinnandet av den så kallade iterativa residyn. Vi erhåller även en formel för att beräkna det holomorfa indexet för en fixpunkt i fallet då multiplikatorn av fixpunkten är 1. Vidare utvecklar vi resultaten från artikel II genom att erhålla resultat om de periodiska punkternas geometriska placering i den öppna enhetsskivan för konvergenta potensserier med en fixpunkt med liten multiplicitet.

    I artikel IV studerar vi potensserier där origo är en fixpunkt med multiplicitet som är större än karaktäristiken i koefficientkroppen. Vi introducerar även en invariant i positiv karaktäristik nära besläktad med det holomorfa indexet. Vi erhåller en karaktärisering av sådana potensserier när dessa har de minsta möjliga underförgreningstalen, i termer av ickeförsvinnandet av denna invariant. Vi erhåller också resultat gällande antalet parametrar som behövs för att klassificera dessa potensserier under formella koordinatbyten.

  • 4.
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). KU Leuven, Belgium.
    A Control-theoretic Approach to Realize Self-adaptive Software Systems with Guarantees2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering modern software systems is a challenging task as these systems are subject to different types of uncertainties. Examples of such uncertainties are disturbances in the environment that are difficult to predict and goals that may change during operation. The idea of self-adaptation is to handle these uncertainties at runtime, when the knowledge becomes available to resolve them. As more software systems with strict requirements are designed to be self-adaptive, the need for adaptation guarantees is becoming a high-priority concern. Providing such guarantees with traditional architecture-based approaches has shown to be challenging, calling for new approaches to engineer self-adaptive systems. To tackle this challenge, this thesis studies control-based software adaptation (CBSA). CBSA applies principles from control theory to design self-adaptive software systems. More specifically, we address the following research problem using CBSA: how to realize self-adaptive software systems that satisfy multiple stakeholder requirements with guarantees in the presence of uncertainties.

    The thesis addresses the research problem in two subsequent stages. The first stage focuses on satisfying multiple stakeholder requirements of different types, and providing adaptation guarantees. This stage starts with a systematic literature review of CBSA, which provides a comprehensive overview of the field, including existing CBSA approaches, applied models and controllers, and analyzed guarantees. From the review, we identify a number of gaps in the existing research and concrete challenges in addressing the research problem. Then, we devise SimCA, a control-theoretic approach to realize self-adaptive software systems that satisfy multiple requirements with guarantees. SimCA combines mathematical models of software system, a control-based adaptation mechanism, and formal analysis of the required guarantees. SimCA is also reusable, meaning that it can be applied to a family of cooperative software systems with strict requirements. The second research stage focuses on handling different types of uncertainty.We first discuss the types of uncertainty and study whether existing CBSA approaches try to deal with these types. We then introduce an enhanced approach called SimCA* that includes components to deal with uncertainty in software parameters, addition or removal of requirements at runtime and software component interactions. In order to obtain evidence about the applicability and reusability of SimCA and SimCA*, we apply informal exploratory case studies with three software systems with strict requirements from different domains.

  • 5.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    A decision-making framework for enhancing client well-being: When designing windows and blinds2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformningen av fönster och solskydd omfattar idag mer än att utvärdera en enda egenskap såsom energiförbrukning. Istället är fokus på helheten med det mänskliga perspektivet i design med syftet att skapa värde. De högsta värdena kan uppnås när en arkitektonisk design bidrar till att förbättra välbefinnandet hos människan. Välbefinnandet kontrolleras av de fem huvudsakliga faktorerna hälsa, ekonomi, personlighet, demografi och beteendevariabler. Bland faktorerna visar hälsa och ekonomi starkast och mest positivkorrelation med välbefinnande. En design kan skapa värde när det ökar kunders välbefinnande genom att förbättra hälsan och stärka ekonomin. Kunderna representerar bland annat ägare som äger en byggnad, investerare som satsar kapital och förväntar sig att få ekonomisk avkastning och boende som bor eller arbetar i byggnaden varje dag. Att skapa värde i samband med privata fastigheter kan ses främst som ett försök att öka välbefinnandet för vissa intressenter genom att förbättra hälsan och stärka ekonomin. Att skapa värde när man bygger fastigheter för uthyrning eller försäljning kan ses främst som ett försök att öka välbefinnandet genom att förbättra hälsan för boende och stärka ekonomin för ägare eller investerare.Att välja ett fönster och ett solskydd för att förbättra kundernas välbefinnande förblir en utmanande uppgift på grund av tre huvudsakliga svårigheter. Den första svårigheten avser de motsägelsefulla effekterna av fönster och solskydd på visuell och termisk komfort, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna. Den andra svårigheten handlar om tillgången på ett stort antal olika fönster- och solskyddsdesign i olika storlekar, placeringar och former, vilket leder till att valet av fönster och solskydd blir till ett komplicerat problem. Den tredje svårigheten innebär beslut om val av fönster och solskydd som borde fokusera på alla kriterier (relaterade till den visuella och termiska komforten, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna) och deras interaktioner samtidigt.För att lösa de ovannämnda svårigheterna användes den Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) metoden för att välja fönster och solskyddsdesign baserad på avvägning mellan visuell komfort, termisk komfort, energiförbrukningen och livscykelkostnaderna. Resultaten påvisar AHP metodens förmåga att lösa svårigheter men dess tillämpning är huvudsakligen begränsad inom ett litet antal designalternativ. För att övervinna denna begränsning utvecklades ett ramverk för beslutsstöd baserat på en integration mellan Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) som en optimeringsalgoritm och AHP. Styrkan och begränsningarna angående användningen av ramverket testades senare genom att användning i designprocessen. För att undersöka möjligheter med ramverket utvidgades användningen genom att använda det för att utvärdera andra detaljer på klimatskärmen d.v.s. fönster såväl som ytterväggar, tak- och golvkonstruktioner. Resultaten visar ramverkets förmåga att lösa svårigheter och hitta lämplig designalternativ. Emellertid tillåter ramverket endast analys av objektiva kriterier för visuell komfort, termisk komfort, energiförbrukning och livscykelkostnader. Att ta hänsyn till subjektiva frågor beror därför på arkitekternas kreativitet när de utformar fönster och solskydd.Det Beslutsstödjande ramverket kan användas av designteam eller av kundstöd hos ett företag som tillverkar fönster. En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att utvidga en Technology Acceptance Modell (TAM) och därmed undersöka om designteam eller kundstöd har viljan att använda ramverket i praktiken. Resultaten visade att organisatoriska, individuella, tekniska och miljömässiga egenskaper var de mest inflytelserika externa variablerna vid undersökning av användarnas acceptans av ramverket. Organisatoriska egenskaper inkluderade ledningens stöd, utbildning, organisationskultur och organisationsstorlek, medan individuella egenskaper innehöll användarnas tidigare kunskaper och erfarenheter. Teknologiska egenskaper omfattade informationskvalitet och systemkvalitet, samtidigt som miljökarakteristik omfattade uppfyllande av regler och konkurrenskraft.

  • 6.
    Rahman, Mohammad A.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Biophysical studies of the actin-myosin motor system and applications in nanoscience2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The actin-myosin motor system plays important roles in cellular processes. In addition, actin and myosin have been used for developments towards nanotechnological applications in recent years. Therefore, fundamental biophysical studies of actin and myosin and the actomyosin force generating cycle are important both in biology and for nanotechnology where the latter applications require methodological insights for optimization. This dual goal is central in the present thesis with major focus on factors that control the function (e.g. velocity) and the effectiveness of transport of filaments (e.g. filament flexural rigidity) through nanoscale channels with supplementation of methodological insights. The thesis thus provides evidence that actin is a dynamic filament whose flexural rigidity is different at different MgATP concentrations as well as in the presence or absence of myosin binding. Furthermore, probing the myosin ATPase cycle with the myosin inhibitor blebbistatin revealed that velocity is easily modified by this drug. Our detailed studies also suggest that actin-myosin force generation is preceded by Pi release and that blebbistatin changes the rate limiting transition in the cycle from the attachment step to a step between weakly attached states. The studies of actin dynamics and of the actomyosin force generating cycle were largely performed using in vitro motility assay (IVMA) where surface adsorbed myosin motor or its proteolytic fragments propel fluorescently labeled actin filaments. The IVMA is often taken as the basis for developments towards different nanotechnological applications. However, in the IVMA, actomyosin motility is often negatively affected by the presence of “dead”, non-functional myosin heads. Therefore, in this thesis, two popular methods, that are often used to remove dead myosin heads, are analyzed and compared. It was found that after affinity purification, the in vitro actin sliding velocity is reduced compared to the control conditions, something that was not seen with the use of blocking actin. Therefore, the effects of the affinity purification method should be considered when interpreting IVMA data. This is important while using IVMA both for fundamental studies and for nanotechnological applications. Another issue in the use of IVMAs in nanotechnological applications is the requirement for expensive and time-consuming fabrication of nanostructured devices. We therefore developed a suitable method for regenerating molecular motor based bionanodevices without a need to disassemble the flow cell. Evidence is presented that, use of proteinase K with a suitable detergent (SDS or Triton X100) lead to successful regeneration of devices where both actin-myosin and microtubule-kinesin motility are used. Lastly, this thesis presents efforts to immobilize engineered light sensitive myosin motors on trimethyl chlorosilane (TMCS) derivatized surfaces for light operated switching of myosin motor in order to control actin movement in nano-networks. This has potential for developing a programmable junction in a biocomputation network. In brief, the described results have contributed both to the fundamental understanding of actin and myosin properties and the actomyosin interaction mechanisms. They have also given technical insights for molecular motor based bionanotechnology.

  • 7.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Coated Norway Spruce: Influence of Wood Characteristics on Water Sorption and Coating Durability2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood used outdoors is often degraded and discoloured by microorganisms as a natural part of its life cycle, particularly when exposed to high levels of moisture for prolonged times. In this case, the application of a coating (i.e. paint) is an option for increasing the service life of the wood.

    Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is commonly used for outdoor applications in Sweden. Earlier studies have shown that uncoated spruce heartwood is less prone to moisture sorption in outdoor exposure, resulting in lower moisture content (MC) levels, as compared to sapwood. However, studies related to the above mentioned characteristics are rather limited for coated spruce, especially including the influence of outdoor exposure (i.e. weathering).

    The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to increase the knowledge of how heartwood and sapwood of different densities influence on the durability of coated Norway spruce for outdoor use. Different types of coatings with alkyd-, acrylic-, flour- (calcimine paint), or linseed-oil-based resin were included. The objectives were to study the water sorption (including MC variation) behaviour and crack formation of uncoated and coated heartwood and sapwood of different densities.

    Furthermore was an objective to study the microbial growth on the surface of similar samples of coated spruce in outdoor exposure. The used methods included wetting and liquid permeability experiments, accelerated water absorption (with samples floating freely in water), and outdoor field test. The field method lasted between three to five years and involved monitoring of the MC variation, the crack formation and the microbial growth on the samples.

    The results based on wetting measurements using octane as the adsorbed liquid showed no difference in liquid permeability between the spruce heartwood and sapwood samples of comparable densities, and indicated a similar level of pit aspiration (closure). The common flow path between two cells of conifers occurs through the pits. Still, the sapwood samples had in general a clearly higher water sorption rate than heartwood samples. It could be concluded that the increased sorption was presumably caused by a lowered water surface tension, most likely by a contamination effect of the water by surface-active sapwood extractives rather than differences in morphology of heartwood and sapwood.

    However, no clear difference in water absorption and MC levels was seen between coated heartwood and sapwood in the field study or in the accelerated water absorption study. Thus, it is suggested that a coating hinders the surfaceactive extractives to lower the water surface tension, resulting in a similar water absorption behaviour of coated heartwood and sapwood. The influence of density on water sorption of coated spruce was similarly to uncoated spruce, meaning the low-density samples had a higher MC than the high-density samples in the field tests. Furthermore, a one-year weathering of the coated and uncoated samples caused a larger increase in water sorption of high-density heartwood in the accelerated water absorption study.

    The field study on uncoated and calcimine-coated spruce showed a higher number of cracks on the high-density samples than on the low-density samples. Additionally, within each density group, a larger number of cracks were seen on sapwood samples as compared to heartwood samples. High-density samples with an alkyd- or an acrylic coating also showed a higher number of cracks. As expected, the formation of cracks on the samples increased their water sorption significantly. The microbial growth was higher on sapwood than on heartwood samples with a white coloured alkyd coating.

    The main conclusion is that heartwood and sapwood of different densities influence the water sorption and durability of coated Norway spruce. However, the principles in water sorption of uncoated heartwood and sapwood could not be applied to coated samples. Overall, the results point out that low-density heartwood could be the best material combination to improve the durability of coated spruce in outdoor use. The knowledge acquired in this thesis can enable an increased service life of coated spruce in outdoor use. The increase in service life is achieved by a careful selection of the wood material regarding the proportion of heartwood and to the choice of wood density. As a concluding remark, the role of surface-active spruce extractives needs to be explored, and a follow-up investigation in the context of water sorption is suggested for future research.

  • 8.
    Waxegård, Gustaf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Conceptualizing professionals' strategies in care pathways for neurodevelopmental disorders2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Neuroutvecklingstillstånd (NU-tillstånd) är komplexa neuropsykologiska funktionsnedsättningar. Omkring 3-5% av alla barn har uppmärksamhets- och hyperaktivitetsstörning (ADHD) och cirka 1% av alla barn autismspektrumtillstånd (AST), som tillsammans med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning utgör de vanligaste NU-diagnoserna. Grad och typ av funktionsnedsättning varierar stort inom och mellan individer. Utredning och behandling är därför med nödvändighet multiprofessionell.

    Denna avhandling använder klassisk grundad teori (Glaser) för att begreppsliggöra professionellas beteenden i vårdkedjor för NU-tillstånd. Den innehåller också en pilotutvärdering av ett nytt, surfplattebaserat test för uppmärksamhetsproblem.

    Studie I visar att vårdkedjor för NU-tillstånd kännetecknas av sociala dilemman. Det som är rationellt för en enskild professionell, eller enhet, är inte alltid rationellt för vårdkedjan som helhet. För att kunna agera kollektivt när intressen inte alltid sammanfaller, krävs tillit. Studie I påvisar strategier som professionella använder för att kunna avgöra om de ska agera kollektivt eller mer individuellt/lokalt. Det övergripande namnet på sådana strategier är tillitstestning. Fynden sätts i relation till spelteori och social dilemma-teori.

    Studie II visar på vikten av att ha professionell kontroll över strategier, strukturer och metoder (eng. Unpacking control) för att hantera komplexitet i NU-vård i vårdkedjan. Att sakna kontroll över upplevt viktiga professionella prioriteringar kan kortsluta förmågan att jobba framgångsrikt med patienter.  Dessa fynd sätts i relation till professionsteori.  

    Studie III utvärderar ett nytt, snabb-administrerat, surfplattebaserat screening-test för uppmärksamhetsproblem. Syftet är att bidra till utvecklingen av metoder som kan hjälpa professionella att göra mer effektiva kliniska bedömningar av komplexa variabler, som uppmärksamhetsförmåga. Fyra grupper av barn och ungdomar fick utföra testet. Två av grupperna utgjordes av patienter med antingen NU-problematik eller annan klinisk problematik. Två grupper utgjordes av skolbarn utan känd problematik. Resultaten visade att testet med god precision kunde skilja de kliniska från de icke-kliniska grupperna.

    I kappan integreras resultaten från studierna I och II till en sammanhållen teori om professionellt beteende i NU-vårdkedjor. Ur ett professionellt perspektiv föreslås NU-vårdkedjor vara en särskild form av allmänningar, som kollektivt kan förvaltas mer eller mindre väl av de professionella. En kvantitativ modell för dynamiken i vårdkedjorna presenteras.

  • 9.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Development and evaluation of immunoassays for complement diagnostics2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory analyses of human body fluids play an important role in clinical diagnosis. This thesis comprises projects in which various immune assays have been developed and evaluated as complement diagnostics in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various methods have been used, such as ELISA, Western blot, flow cytometry, and xMAP technology.

    In paper 1, we monitored complement parameters in EDTA-plasma and CSF from patients with suspected neuroborreliosis (NB) by using in-house sandwich ELISAs.  We found significantly elevated levels of C1q, C4, C3, and C3a in CSF, but not in plasma, suggesting that complement plays a role in the intrathecal immune response in NB.

    Complement is a main player in early inflammation, and in paper 2, we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78 and Borrelia garinii LU59. Our results show that complement activation plays an important role in the initial process of phagocytosis, but not in the subsequent cytokine release that occurs in response to live Borrelia spirochetes. C1q, a valuable biomarker of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can be quantitated using a number of different immunochemical techniques.

    In paper 3, we developed and validated a magnetic bead-based immunoassay for quantifying C1q in EDTA-plasma and CSF. In contrast to soluble immunoprecipitation assays such as nephelometry and turbidimetry, this new assay was not hampered by the interaction between C1q and detecting antibodies. The novel assay was shown to give a clear correlation between nephritis and SLEDAI score in SLE.

    Warfarin is a commonly used but complicated treatment in patients with thrombosis. It reduces the function of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins, including protein S, which is a ligand for C4b-binding protein (C4BP). In paper 4, we demonstrated a decrease in various isoforms of C4BP that resulted in a strong complement activation in patients treated with warfarin, but not in patients treated with other anticoagulants.

    Taken together, the results from the papers included in this thesis stress the importance of validated assays with high sensitivity and specificity in enabling accurate diagnosis in patients with various inflammatory diseases.

  • 10.
    Billsten, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Dissemination and Implementation of the Swedish National Guidelines for Treatment of Substance use: – A five year evaluation2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains four empirical studies. The data derives from an evaluation project named Knowledge to Practice (KtP) that aimed to disseminate and implement the Swedish National Guidelines for Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Substance Use Disorder-treatment from 2010–2014. The aim of this thesis was to identify key determinants affecting implementation.

    The data collection consisted of:

    - Web surveys that were distributed annually from 2010–2014 to a panel of 3,852 respondents working in substance abuse treatment in social services and health care

    - Web surveys distributed to approximately 10,000 participants in the national core curriculum course. Surveys were distributed before the start of the course and immediately after the course ended. A follow-up web survey was distributed one year later

    - Semi-structured surveys for all regions’ user organizations to answer in focus groups

    - Interviews with process managers in every region

    The aim of Study I was to describe KtP's efforts and the situation in 2012. Web surveys were distributed to a panel of 3,852 respondents and 10,000 participants from core curriculum courses. Process managers from all 21 regions were interviewed. Study II used an instrument named Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC).The aim was to: (a) identify clusters of employees with different ORC profiles and (b) investigate whether belonging to a specific profile predicted the use of therapy methods, assessment instruments and cross-sectional collaboration. The ORC instrument was part of an annual web survey to a panel of 3,852 respondents.The aim of Study III was to evaluate, via a four-year follow-up study, whether user organizations continued existing after national support concluded and if their influence within social services and health care was implemented over time. The aim of Study III was to evaluate, via a four-year follow-up study, whether user organizations continued existing after national support concluded and if their influence within social services and health care was implemented over time. The aim of Study IV was to evaluate the extent of the dissemination and implementation work organised by KtP and whether there was increased use of treatment methods, assessment instruments and changes in cross-sectional collaboration between authorities. Factors associated with success were studied on three organizational levels: regional, municipal and individual. Results show that setting and person-related determinants, as measured by the ORC instrument, predicted implementation of assessment instruments and treatment methods. Profiles with high scores on institutional resources, staff attributes and organizational climate and low scores on motivational readiness were associated with more successful implementation. Respondent-level specialist competence and the ORC factors of staff attributes and institutional resources were related to the use of treatment methods. The ORC factor of organizational climate was related to the increase of cross-sectionalcollaboration at a respondent level. Years of employment working with substance users predicted increased use of assessment instruments and in contrast, the ORC factor institutional resources available were negatively related to instrument use. No predictors were found at the region/municipality level. The majority of respondents were positive to the national guidelines and found them useful in their daily work. They also reported positive attitudes to the KtP project. In 2011, two-thirds of the process managers from Sweden's 21 counties assessed that KtP's most important results were access to education and method support. The one-year follow-up web survey distributed to the participants in core curriculum courses showed that memory retention of the course content was fair. Eighty per cent of the respondents gave the correct answer to seven out of nine questions. User organizations still existed in most regions and they reported increased influence in the field of substance use treatment, both in social services and within health care services.

  • 11.
    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Effects of perinatal distress, satisfaction in partner relationship and social support on pregnancy and outcome of childbirth2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to achieve a deeper understanding of the situation among women experiencing perinatal distress during pregnancy and childbirth and the effects that dissatisfaction in partner relationship and weak social support from family and friends could have on pregnancy and childbirth.

    Methods: Following screening for perinatal distress, 562 expecting mothers came for a semi-structured interview. This screening, done with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, categorized 360 (64.1%) women into the perinatal distressed group (PDG) and 202 (35.9%) into the non-distressed group (NDG). During the interview women answered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Data were collected with these instruments for study I. Additional data for the three other studies were gathered from the women´s pregnancy records (II), electronic medical records (II, III), and childbirth records (IV). Results of the four studies were obtained by using descriptive statistics; parametric and nonparametric statistics and regression modeling.

    Results: Women in the PDG were significantly more likely than the NDG to be dissatisfied in their partner relationship, continue smoking during pregnancy, be dissatisfied with division of household tasks and child-rearing, have elementary or lower education, and to be students or unemployed. They were also significantly more likely to experience fatigue, vomiting and pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Women in the PDG who received weak family support reported nausea and heartburn more frequently than those with strong family support. Women in the PDG utilized more antenatal care service and were allocated more part time as well as earlier sick leaves during pregnancy, than those in the NDG. Women in the PDG were significantly more likely to use epidural anesthesia as a single pain management during labor.

    Conclusion: Perinatal distress affects pregnancy and childbirth. It is more common among women who are dissatisfied in their partner relationship and with the division of household tasks and child-rearing. Perception of weak social support also affects pregnancy among distressed women. Distressed women along with their partners and families should be offered support and consultation to relieve distress and strengthen their bonds during pregnancy and childbirth.  

  • 12.
    Osbeck, Christofer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Exploring gene expression responses of marine bacteria to environmental factors2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marina bakterier är abundanta och återfinns i alla marina ekosystem, där de som nedbrytare av organiskt material spelar en avgörande roll i att reglera flödet av energi och näringsämnenas kretslopp. Dock saknar vi kunskap om hur bakterieplankton reagerar på miljöförändringar i haven. Därtill är de molekylära mekanismerna för omsättningen av löst organiskt material från olika källor ofullständigt kända. I denna avhandling har jag med hjälp av bakterieisolat och naturliga bakteriesamhällen undersökt hur marina bakterier svarar på miljöförändringar genom att kombinera metoder inom klassisk mikrobiologi och moderna molekylärbiologiska verktyg. Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att få en bättre förståelse för hur bakterier svarar på havsförsurning, organiska föroreningar och löst organisk kol utsöndrat av växtplankton. Under ett experiment med ett bakterieisolat inom klassen Gammaproteobacteria, uppvisade bakterierna svagare respons för organiska föroreningar då de befann sig i stationär fas än i en aktiv tillväxtfas. Detta märktes både genom minskad tillväxt och fysiologiska ändringar uppmätta genom genuttryck i bakterien. Vidare experiment med två skilda modellbakterier kunde vi identifiera viktiga processer såsom upptag av makromolekyler och fosfonater, som svar på tillsats av löst organiskt material producerat av dinoflagellater. I ett annat experiment använde vi naturliga bakteriesamhällen i vatten från Östersjön i ett storskaligt experiment, där vatten från floder i avrinningsområden dominerade antingen av skog eller jordbruk tillsattes. I detta experiment kunde vi visa hur vattnets ursprung påverkade utvecklingen av algblomningarna som i sin tur orsakade olika aktivitet i bakteriernas genuttryck. Vidare så undersöktes hur marina bakteriesamhällen påverkas av förhöjda CO2-halter under låg och hög näringstillgång. Det visade sig att bakterierna ökade sin aktivitet för att bibehålla pH-homeostasen, men bara under låg koncentration av näringsämnen. Detta innebar att bakterierna behövde ställa om sin ämnesomsättning från tillväxt till att lägga energi på att hantera syran i oligotrofa miljöer. Slutligen genomfördes dataanalyser där två metoder för att studera arvsmassan i bakterier tagna direkt från haven jämfördes. Vår studie visade att de två metoderna i viss mån kompletterade varandra men framför allt kunde vi bekräfta att ingen av de två uppvisade några systematiska fel. Sammanfattningsvis presenterar denna avhandling upptäcker som ger oss en bättre förståelse för hur marina bakterier i marina ekosystem svarar på nutida och framtida miljöförändringar orsakade av människor.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Finance and Supply Chain Management: Coordination of a Dyadic Supply Chain through Application of Option Contracts2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the relationship between dyadic supply chain flexibility and dyadic supply chain profitability.

    In today’s global environment, competition is no longer limited to companies but has evolved to supply chains. Supply disruption, lead time uncertainty and stochastic demand can result in costly inefficiencies of up to 40% when companies are trying to coordinate ordering and production. A dyadic supply chain competing in a global economy cannot afford to end up with a 40% smaller share of the pie.

    This thesis applies theory and instruments from finance, specifically portfolio theory and real options theory when applying option contracts to create flexibility in a dyadic supply chain.

    The methodology applied was to conduct an initial literature review of prior research to establish research gaps (first paper). This resulted in the development of an algorithm (second paper) combining the base stock model and the option mechanism to create flexibility for an OEM and supplier to coordinate ordering and production bilaterally in a multi-period setting. In the third paper the algorithm was applied to a case study using data from two companies, which resulted in the algorithm being tested and validated. Furthermore, option contract theory was integrated with dyadic supply chain practise while Fisher portfolio paradox was addressed.

    The dissertation contributes in the following areas: the empirical contribution is evidence of the relationship between dyadic supply chain flexibility and profitability using quantitative data from two companies.

    The methodological contribution is a method for the objective valuation of dyadic supply chain flexibility and the measurement of profitability, by valuing the option contract.

    The theoretical contribution is achieved through the integration of portfolio and option theory into SCM while addressing Fisher’s portfolio paradox.

    The practical contribution is an algorithm that creates flexibility for an OEM and asupplier to coordinate ordering and production bilaterally and maintain its collaborative advantage when competing in a global economy, thus avoiding ending up with a 40% smaller share of the pie. In addition, this dissertation advances this topic in SCM into a quantitatively measurable theory.

  • 14.
    Österlund, Erik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Going beyond on-the fly-garbage collection and improving self-adaptation with enhanced interfaces2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Zimmer, Björn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Guided Interaction and Collaborative Exploration in Heterogeneous Network Visualizations2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The visual exploration of large and complex network structures remains a challenge for many application fields, such as systems biology or social sciences. Often, various domain experts would like to work together to improve the analysis time or the quality of the analysis results. Collaborative visualization tools can facilitate the analysis process in such situations. Moreover, a growing number of real world networks are multivariate and often interconnected with each other. Entities in a network may have relationships with elements of other related data sets, which do not necessarily have to be networks themselves, and these relationships may be defined by attributes that can vary greatly. A challenge is to correctly assign the attributes and relations between different data sets and graphs in order to be able to analyze them visually afterwards. The navigation between the resulting visualizations is also difficult. How can users be guided to other interesting data points relevant to their current view and how can this information be additionally displayed in a graph without losing the overview of the data?

    In this dissertation, we propose our new web-based visualization environment OnGraX, which supports distributed, synchronous and asynchronous collaboration of networks and related multivariate data sets. In addition to standard collaboration features like event tracking or synchronizing, our client/server-based system provides a rich set of visualization and interaction techniques for better navigation and overview of the input network. Changes made by specific analysts or even just visited network elements can be highlighted by heat maps, which enable us to visualize user behavior data without affecting the original graph visualization. We evaluate the usability of the heat map approach against two alternatives in a user experiment.

    Additional features of OnGraX include a comprehensive visual analytics approach that supports researchers to specify and subsequently explore attribute-based relationships across networks, text documents, and derived secondary data. Our approach provides an individual search functionality based on keywords and semantically similar terms over an entire text corpus to find related network nodes. For examining these nodes in the interconnected network views, we introduce a new interaction technique, called Hub2Go, which facilitates the navigation by guiding the user to the information of interest. To showcase these features, we use a large text corpus collected from papers listed in the IEEE VIS publications data set (1990--2015) that consists of 2,752 documents. We analyze relationships between various heterogeneous networks, a Bag-of-Words index, and a word similarity matrix, all derived from the initial corpus and metadata. We also propose a design for the interactive specification of degree-of-interest functions, which can be used to provide and evaluate configurations for guidance based on network attributes and logged user data in heterogeneous networks.

  • 16.
    Eklund, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Harmonising value in a car’s interior using sensory marketing as a lens2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The human senses have always influenced people’s perceptions of thesurrounding environment and objects. As a consequence of the evolvement ofthe experience economy, research on the human senses has increasedsubstantially and attracted scholars from various research domains, includingsensory marketing. In the marketing domain, research emphasises that value iscreated when consumers experience brands, products, and servicescapes that areexciting and fun to interact with through the human senses. In accordance withthe service-dominant logic discussion, value is created from the servicesurrounding the product, such as the experience, which includes manufacturersand consumers. Although this has partly been captured under sensorymarketing, little is known of how sensory marketing cues contribute to brandexperience and brand value. Theoretically, it is emphasised that creating valueis a service process, where the manufacturer’s goal is to plan and design amultisensory brand experience facilitated by the human senses leading toconsumer value, as well as to enhance the brand as an image. Hence, the purposeof this dissertation is to understand and explain how value is created within acar’s interior by applying sensory marketing as a lens.

    To address the purpose, an exploratory sequential mixed methods approachwas employed to capture different aspects of creating value. The empirical dataare based on a case study with a global premium car manufacturer, focusing onhow value is created and offered within a car’s interior. The qualitative sequenceexplored how the manufacturer plans and designs a value proposition byembedding sensory cues in the car’s interior. Furthermore, how value-in-use iscreated by providing a brand experience is analysed. The quantitative sequenceexamined the relationship between brand experience and brand image to explainhow consumer value as an experience is created.

    The dissertation concludes that creating value in the car’s interior followsthe logic of service-dominant logic and includes manufacturers and consumers.For the manufacturer, this was a strategic process to position the automotivebrand as premium by offering value in the car’s interior. To achieve this, valuewas planned and designed by embedding sensory cues in the car’s interior.However, sensory cues were not embedded in isolation; rather they wereharmonised with another to gestalt the coherent theme of Scandinavia in termsof colour, material, and shape to provide consumers with a brand experience forsense-making. Moreover, it was demonstrated that not all brand experiencedimensions impact brand image to create value as an experience. The resultsshow that sensory, affective, and harmony experience have a positiverelationship with brand image, which generates the consumer’s value as anexperience.

    Overall, the dissertation contributes to the process of creating value in thecar’s interior by relating sensory marketing with branding and service-dominantlogic, with harmony uniting these. Similar to an orchestra, where the conductorstrategically organises various instruments on the stage to play a harmoniousmelody for the audience, the manufacturer uses the car’s interior as a stage withsensory cues to provide consumers with a harmonious brand experience, leadingto a positive brand image. Harmony has been identified, operationalised,measured, and tested with a positive result. Theoretical, managerial, and ethicalimplications are discussed.

  • 17.
    Lindblad, Fredrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT).
    Identifying drivers and barriers for market growth within the industry producing wooden multi-family houses: Land allocation process for future growth2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är just nu inne i en bostadskris som enligt de svenska myndigheterna förväntas fortsätta fram till 2025. Tillverkare av flerfamiljshus i trä har en relativt liten marknadsandel jämfört med de traditionella byggnadsmaterialen. Den begränsade byggkapaciteten av träbyggnation hindrar även möjligheterna till innovation, bioekonomi och hållbarhet med fokus på miljömässiga och hållbara byggnadsmetoder.

     

    Svenska kommuner ansvarar för att planera en lämplig bostadsutveckling som bygger på krav och strategier i relation till bostadsförsörjningsplanen. Komplexiteten ökar när man kombinerar den ökade efterfrågan med en önskan att utveckla hållbara byggnadslösningar baserade på trä, vilket för närvarande uppnås genom offentlig upphandling eller markanvisning beroende på kommunens utvecklingsstrategi. Detta kan även inkludera lokala strategier beträffande t.ex. design, materialval och geografisk utveckling. Genom att analysera industrins drivkrafter och barriärer kan förbättringsfaktorer identifieras och kunskap om dessa kan bidra till en marknadsutveckling av träbyggnation relaterat till kommunernas behov av bostadsförsörjning. En ökad tydlighet medför förbättrade möjligheter för företag att framgångsrikt svara på kommunernas förfrågan gällande bostadsutvecklingsprojekt. Denna kunskap kan även användas av företagen, regeringen och kommunerna för att bättre förstå det strategiska utvecklingsbehovet relaterat till hållbart byggande av flerfamiljshus med trästomme.

     

    Resultaten i denna avhandling visar att industrin upplever hinder som hör samman med kommunernas agerande och dess kunskapsnivå avseende till träbyggnadslösningar. Den nuvarande marknadsdominans för betong som byggmaterial är ett problem då kommunerna ofta tenderar att välja välkända lösningar. Industrin upplever att kunskapsnivån bland de kommuner som hanterarar markanvisningar är otillräcklig, med subjektiva bedömningar av de presenterade byggnadslösningarna, samt kombinerat med otydliga roller inom markanvisningsprocessen. Dessa faktorer bidrar till osäkerhet och suboptimering för de byggherrar som föreslår en bygglösning baserat på trä.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Intensivvårdsdagbok i Sverige: betydelse och tillämpning2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore how the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) diary was experienced by family members, family members of non-survivors and nursing staff in the ICU setting, thereby contributing to the development of national clinical practice guidelines regarding the structure, content and use of the ICU diary.

    Methods:  A qualitative design was employed for all four studies:  a hermeneutic approach was adopted in studies I and II, whilst a qualitative descriptive design with the use of focus groups interviews was chosen in study III. An Instrumental Multiple Case Study design was carried out in study IV.

    Main Findings: The diary symbolised the maintenance of relationships with the patients and was a substitute for the usual opportunities for communication. The diary was instrumental in meeting the needs of the majority of participant family members. The diary provided the means to be present at the patient’s bedside, to feel involved in caregiving, to maintain hope and to relay relevant information. If the critically ill family member did not survive the stay in the ICU, the diary acted as a form of bereavement support by processing the death of the patient. Nevertheless, some family members found the diary too public an arena to write in as the diary entries indicated visiting patterns which in turn provoke feelings of guilt when the visits were infrequent. Further, not knowing what to write was another source of pressure.

    Nursing staff experienced that writing diaries often felt meaningful and led to an increased motivation and engagement in patient care and family support. They expressed that they felt they did something good for the patient and family members. Thus, the diary can be seen as a way to promote person-centred care, where family members were offered to participate in the care. However, in the absence of guidelines or clear guidelines about the use of an ICU diary, then not many patients actually received a diary.

    Conclusions: Practice guidelines concerning ICU diaries would help to ensure the more widespread and consistent use of diaries for all ICU patients. As family members may benefit from the diary, even if the patient may not always be able to do so. The ICU diary can be seen as a tool to help promote person-centred care by directly involving family members and providing a human touch, thus helping to counterbalance the highly technical physical environment of ICU.

  • 19.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för maskinteknik (MT). RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Low Frequency Impact Sound in Timber Buildings: Transmission Measurements and Simulations2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased share of multi-story buildings that have timber structures entails potential in terms of increased sustainability as well as human-friendly manufacturing and habitation. Timber buildings taller than two stories were prohibited in Europe until the 1990s due to fire regulations. In 1994, this prohibition was removed in Sweden. Thus, being a rather new sector, the multi-story timber building sector lags behind in maturity compared to the multi-story concrete sector. The low-frequency range down to 20 Hz has been shown to be important for the perception of the impact of sound in multi-story apartments with lightweight floors. This frequency range is lower than the one that has traditionally been measured according to standards and regulations. In small rooms, the measurement conditions tend to go from diffuse fields above 100 Hz to modal sound fields dominated by few resonances, below 100 Hz. These conditions lead to new challenges and to new possibilities for measurements and modelling.

    In the present research, a frequency response functions (FRFs) strategy aimed to simplify simulations and correlations between the simulations and test results was used. Measurements made indicate that, in the low frequencies, the highest sound pressures occur at the floor level opposite the ceiling / floor that is excited. By having an iterative measurement strategy with several microphones and making measurements until a required standard error is obtained, it is possible to gain a desired precision and information about the statistical distribution of both the sound fields and floor insulation performance. It was also found that, depending on the excitation source, the FRF from an excitation point on the floor above to the sound pressure at a microphone position in the room below may differ. This indicates that non-linearities in sound transmissions are present. Thus, the excitation source used in a test should be similar in force levels and characteristics to the real excitation stemming, for instance, from a human footfall, to achieve reliable measurement results. The ISO rubber ball is an excitation source that is close to fulfilling this need. In order to obtain an FRF, the impact force must be known. A rig that enables the impact force from a rubber ball to be measured was developed and manufactured. The results show that the force spectra are the same up to about 55 Hz, regardless of the point impedances of the floors excited in the tests. Similar results have been found by others in tests with human excitations. This means that FRFs up to about 55Hz can be achieved without actually measuring the excitation force.

    On the calculation side, finite element simulations based on FRFs may offer advantages. FRFs combined with the actual excitation force spectra of interest give the sound transmission. At higher frequencies, it is more important to extract the point mobilities of the floors and relate them to the excitation forces. By using an infinite shaft, sound transmission can be studied without involving reverberation time. The calculation methodology is used in the present research to evaluate different floor designs using FE models.

  • 20.
    Ivanenko, Yevhen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för fysik och elektroteknik (IFE).
    Optimization and Physical Bounds for Passive and Non-passive Systems2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical bounds in electromagnetic field theory have been of interest for more than a decade. Considering electromagnetic structures from the system theory perspective, as systems satisfying linearity, time-invariance, causality and passivity, it is possible to characterize their transfer functions via Herglotz functions. Herglotz functions are useful in modeling of passive systems with applications in mathematical physics, engineering, and modeling of wave phenomena in materials and scattering. Physical bounds on passive systems can be derived in the form of sum rules, which are based on low- and high-frequency asymptotics of the corresponding Herglotz functions. These bounds provide an insight into factors limiting the performance of a given system, as well as the knowledge about possibilities to improve a desired system from a design point of view. However, the asymptotics of the Herglotz functions do not always exist for a given system, and thus a new method for determination of physical bounds is required. In Papers I–II of this thesis, a rigorous mathematical framework for a convex optimization approach based on general weighted Lp-norms, 1≤p≤∞, is introduced. The developed framework is used to approximate a desired system response, and to determine an optimal performance in realization of a system satisfying the target requirement. The approximation is carried out using Herglotz functions, B-splines, and convex optimization. 

    Papers III–IV of this thesis concern modeling and determination of optimal performance bounds for causal, but not passive systems. To model them, a new class of functions, the quasi-Herglotz functions, is introduced. The new functions are defined as differences of two Herglotz functions and preserve the majority of the properties of Herglotz functions useful for the mathematical framework based on convex optimization. We consider modeling of gain media with desired properties as a causal system, which can be active over certain frequencies or  frequency intervals.  Here, sum rules can also be used under certain assumptions.

    In Papers V–VII of this thesis, the optical theorem for scatterers immersed in lossy media is revisited. Two versions of the optical theorem are derived: one based on internal equivalent currents and the other based on external fields in terms of a T-matrix formalism, respectively. The theorems are exploited to derive fundamental bounds on absorption by using elementary optimization techniques. The theory has a potential impact in applications where the surrounding losses cannot be neglected, e.g., in medicine, plasmonic photothermal therapy, radio frequency absorption of gold nanoparticle suspensions, etc.  In addition to this, a new method for detection of electrophoretic resonances in a material with Drude-type of dispersion, which is placed in a straight waveguide, is proposed.

  • 21.
    Sjöstrand Öhrfelt, Magdalena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Ord och inga visor: konstruktioner av förskolebarnet i kunskapsekonomin2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, changes in preschool policy have been legitimized in relation to ideas about the preschool child and the various problems that the education of this child is supposed to be able to “solve”. From an early age, children have been considered the most effective tool for dealing with a variety of social, economic or environmental issues of central importance for maintaining and developing society.

    Against this background, the purpose of this thesis is to examine representations of the preschool child in different policy texts (textbooks, research- and educational policy) related to changing requirements and targets affecting contemporary Swedish preschools. Discursive constructions of the preschool child are considered as important central aspects, used to legitimize political reforms in accordance with pedagogical ideas and prevailing social contexts. The thesis focuses on the tensions within contemporary constructions of the preschool child in the so-called “knowledge economy”: i.e. the tensions between a competent child, who is both able and willing to take advantage of education, and a “newcomer” – the vulnerable child – in need of obtaining the benefits of education in order to be able to cope with the future.

    The simultaneously competent and vulnerable preschool child is thus an efficiently designed target for the interests of economic transnational organizations viewing education mainly in terms of human capital development, as well as an important factor for economic competitiveness.

    In the thesis’ final analysis, I study how the OECD, EU and IEA are developing methods for measuring and evaluating the results of preschool education, with the intention of being able to "streamline" it by finding universally successful concepts that are both cost-effective and of high quality. The construction of the preschool child as simultaneously competent and vulnerable is used to legitimize shifts in power over the definition of the Swedish preschool agenda, the fundamental ideas of what preschool is about, what its aims are, and for whom it is intended. As these ideas are disguised as being the result of supposedly "objective" forces far from the ideological contradictions of the political sphere, a critical discussion concerning the goals and aims of early childhood education becomes almost impossible to achieve.

  • 22.
    Vingare, Emme-Li
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Paradoxer i välfärden: När anhöriga blir lösningen på demensomsorgens utmaningar2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses dementia care in Sweden and the function family caregivers are given. The aim of the thesis is to analyse critically the system of municipal eldercare and the function of family caregivers in this system, and in various types of organisations. In the thesis, both organisational perspectives and the experiences of family caregivers are in focus. Eldercare has been a focus of the welfare state from its early days. Throughout the years both the organisation of care and the understanding of responsibility between family and state has changed several times. Today, family caregivers in Sweden have no formal responsibility for people with dementia, but many family caregivers still take on a caregiver responsibility. This raises questions about the function family caregivers play in dementia care and the reasons behind the choice of caregiving. The thesis consists of four papers on which a cumulative analysis was made. The empirical material is based on interviews with 146 family caregivers, of which 55 answered additional questions. Furthermore, a mapping study of activities and professional specialisation was used to study variations between municipalities. Text material was also utilised, both in the form of policies and formal documentation on a municipal level, and on research on family caregiving in dementia care on a national level. The cumulative analysis was made from the perspective of critical systems theory and resulted in three paradoxes: The welfare paradox, the value paradox and the responsibility paradox. The paradoxes are closely connected, and limit agency among family caregivers. Opposition in processes of familisation (the welfare paradox), individual values rather than family values (the value paradox), and the limitations in factual choice in taking on a caregiver responsibility (the responsibility paradox) cooperate in shaping the function of family caregiving and simultaneously limiting family caregiver agency. Since it is in the interest of dementia care to involve family caregivers the paradoxes also contribute to a solution to challenges in dementia care.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Maude
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Postpartum depression, depressive symptoms and parental stress in mothers and fathers 25-30 months after child birth: A family perspective2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka förekomsten av postpartum depression och föräldrastress 25 – 30 månader efter förlossningen. Den första studien genomfördes 25 månader efter förlossningen. Studien undersökte förekomsten av postpartum depression och föräldrastress hos 700 mödrar och 646 fäder. Förekomsten av postpartum depression var mer än 11% hos mödrarna och nästan 5 % hos fäderna.

    Studien visade att föräldrar med postpartum depression upplevde mer föräldrastress samt känslor av inkompetens i föräldraskapet och relationsproblem i parrelationen än föräldrar utan postpartum depression. Studie II inkluderade 176 mammor och 146 pappor. Syftet med studien var att uppskatta förekomsten av postpartum depression, och om föräldrastress och anknytningsstil påverkade postpartum depression hos mammor och pappor 30 månader efter förlossningen. Förekomsten av postpartum depression hos mödrarna var 14. 9 % och 11. 5 % för fäderna.

    Resultatet visade en skillnad, dock ej signifikant mellan anknytningsstilarna preoccupied och fearful, avseende föräldrar med postpartum depression och föräldrar utan postpartum depression. Föräldrastress överträffade dock anknytningsstil som prediktor för postpartum depression för både mammor och pappor. Resultat tyder på att depressiva symtom ökar efter det första året särskilt hos fäderna.

    Study III var en intervjustudie som undersökte mammor och pappors erfarenheter av postpartum depression och föräldrastress efter förlossningen. Fem viktiga teman identifierades. Både mammor och pappor beskrev upplevelser av otillräcklighet, som mest stressande. Graviditetsproblem och / eller en traumatisk förlossning medverkade till postpartum depression och ångest hos mödrarna och påverkade fäderna negativt. Trots att Barnhälsovården identifierat postpartum depression med Edinburgh postnatal depression skalan (EPDS), erhöll mödrarna inte alltid stöd och behandling. Postpartum depression påverka relationen till maka / make och både mödrar och fäder beskrev relationsproblem till partner. Mödrar med emotionella problem och otrygghet i ursprungsfamiljen hade en ökad sårbarhet för depressiva symtom. Den konkluderande slutsatsen var att depressiva symptom och föräldrastress hade en signifikant påverkan på föräldrarnas vardag och att PPD inte verkade minska 25–30 månader efter förlossningen.

  • 24.
    Thulin, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för socialt arbete (SA).
    Putting words to child physical abuse: Possible consequences, the process of disclosure, and effects of treatment. From children’s perspectives2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to explore the experiences and possible consequences concerning reported health and relations between a parent perpetrator of physical child abuse and the children who are victims of the parental physical abuse, the children’s thoughts when disclosing the abuse, and the impact of an intervention designed to support these children in a Swedish context – Combined Parent Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CPC-CBT). Methods: This thesis has a mix-method design. Study I and IV used different self-assessment scales, and the outcomes were analysed using descriptive statistics, paired-samples t test, independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical linear regression. Study II and III consisted of interviews with 15 (Study II) and 20 (Study III) children, respectively. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The results suggest that experiencing child physical abuse affects the relationship between a parent and a child as well as the child’s wellbeing in several ways. However, the results also suggest that participating in the CPC-CBT intervention could decrease parents’ use of violence and increase the child’s wellbeing. In addition, the results suggest that trust and participation influence whether a child discloses abuse and contributes to the success of treatment. Conclusion: The CPC-CBT could be seen as a successful turning point for the participating children, shifting from one trajectory (living in fear of violence) to another (living without fear). Furthermore, when children disclose to adults about their physical abuse, it is important that the adults recognise the children’s participatory rights and strive to earn their trust.

  • 25.
    Ståhlkrantz, Katarina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik och lärande (PEL).
    Rektors pedagogiska ledarskap: en kritisk policyanalys2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pedagogical leadership is regarded as the most significant of the principal ́s duties. Because there is no clear definition of pedagogical leadership as a concept, it may be difficult for the principal to know how to practice it. Various versions of the concept’s meaning are currently circulating, in turn offering different norms to relate to and act upon. This doctoral thesis takes its point of departure from the policy proposal of a Rektorslyft in the Swedish national budget of 2011, as a solution to the problem that principals were not considered to be good enough pedagogical leaders. The study is designed as a critical policy analysis, with a curriculum theory framework and a critical interpretative perspective. The critical approach is directing focus towards the steering of the school. Further, a poststructuralist perspective adds a discursive approach to the study. The empirical material consists of a selection of official education policy documents, mainly governmental official reports. The aim of the study is to examine and analyse how the pedagogical leader is discursively constructed in official education government documents, what changes and stabilities can be distinguished in these discursive constructions over time and how these can be understood and explained. Bacchi ́s WPR-method and Foucault ́s genealogy is used as a methodological framework for the text analysis. The result shows six discursive breakpoints in the construction of the pedagogical leader from the 1950s to 2010s. These breakpoints have a close relationship to changes in school steering. Principals’ pedagogical leadership can therefore be regarded as a policy to legitimise new steering reforms. The result further indicates that principals from the 1950s to 2010s were given a clearer personal responsibility within the pedagogical leadership. The changes identified through the critical policy analysis can be explained by the context and policy streams. The text analysis also indicated stabilities in the discursive construction of the pedagogical leader. These stabilities can be explained by traditions and school structures. Hopefully, this study has contributed to a better and deepened understanding of principals’ pedagogical leadership, as well as have given the concept an empirical and theoretical basis.

  • 26.
    Svensson, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Räddningsaktörers tidiga närvaro vid akuta situationer på svensk landsbygd2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim was to describe the first responders´ (FRs) experiences ofarriving early at emergency situations in rural areas in Sweden and the characteristicfeatures of the assignments they encounter. The four studies aimed to: describe critical incidents in which ambulance nurses experience worry in their professional life and the actions they take in order to prevent and cope with it (I), explore and describe experiences of the First Incident Person (FIP) assignment within an Fire Department (FD) (II), describe experiences of the While Waiting for the Ambulance (WWFA) assignment, as experienced by home healthcare nurses (III) and map out and describe WWFA assignments focusing on frequency, event time,CardioPulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and survival >30 days after performed CPR (IV).

    Methods: The four studies in this thesis had both descriptive and explorative designs. They were analysed with qualitative and quantitative analysis methods.

    Results: By dispatching FRs in rural areas an early presence at the scene of anaccident or emergency situation can be secured, which prevent full scenarios to happen and increase the possibility to save lives. However, FRs are worried about specific emergency situations as well as situations related to their work environment.Leaving ongoing work tasks cause ethical dilemmas and inner emotional worries why support before, during and after an FR assignment is sought for.

    Conclusions: Generating effective interprofessional collaboration during FR assignment requires that the FRs work conditions are adopted to the assignment requirements for immediate response. The feeling of security disappears when the FRs are excluded from the group affiliation and the need to feel support in new interprofessional collaboration structures becomes clear. Support function based on individual requests is to be designed. Continuous collaborative exercises are required where all involved FRs participate.

  • 27.
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Sentiment and Stance Visualization of Textual Data for Social Media2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid progress in digital technologies has transformed the world in many ways during the past few decades, in particular, with the new means of communication such as social media. Social media platforms typically rely on textual data produced or shared by the users in multiple timestamped posts. Analyses of such data are challenging for traditional manual methods that are unable to scale up to the volume and the variety of the data. While computational methods can partially address these challenges, they have to be used together with the methods developed within information visualization and visual analytics to gain knowledge from the text data by using interactive visual representations.

    One of the most interesting aspects of text data is related to expressions of sentiments and opinions. The corresponding task of sentiment analysis has been studied within computational linguistics, and sentiment visualization techniques exist as well. However, there are gaps in research on the related task of stance analysis, dedicated to subjectivity that is not expressible only in terms of sentiment. Research on stance is an area of interest in linguistics, but support by computational and visual methods has been limited so far. The challenges related to definition, analysis, and visualization of stance in textual data call for an interdisciplinary research effort. The StaViCTA project addressed these challenges with a focus on written text in English. The corresponding results in the area of visualization are reported in this work, based on multiple publications.

    The main goal of this dissertation is to define, categorize, and implement means for visual analysis of sentiment and stance in textual data, in particular, for social media. Our work is based on the theoretical framework and automatic classifier of stance developed by our project collaborators, involving multiple non-exclusive stance categories such as certainty and prediction. We define a design space for sentiment and stance visualization techniques based on literature surveys. We discuss multiple visualization and visual analytics approaches developed by us to facilitate the underlying research on stance analysis, data collection and annotation, and visual analysis of sentiment and stance in real-world text data from several social media sources. The work described in this dissertation was carried out in cooperation with domain experts in linguistics and computational linguistics, and our approaches were validated with case studies, expert user reviews, and critical discussion. The results of this work open up further opportunities for research in text visualization and visual text analytics. The potential application areas are academic research, business intelligence, social media monitoring, and journalism.

  • 28.
    Henriksson, Kristina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    Skolbesökets osynliga bedömningsprocesser: en studie av hur lärarstudenters yrkeskunnande bedöms under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis treats the assessment of student teachers’ professional skills within the school-based section of Swedish teacher education, more specifically the school visits organized by the university. School visits ordinarily consist of an observed lesson, followed by a post-observation conference. School-based teacher education is regarded as a specific educational element, where the education is transferred to the organisation of professional teachers who educate the student teacher. However, there is a lack of direct research about what happens to the assessment of the student teacher’s proficiency when the assessment system of the education is applied outside the university domain. Research shows that there is tension regarding the view of professional skills between players in teacher education and school organisations, and uncertainties regarding the mandate to develop the student teacher’s professional skills. From a political perspective the school visit is perceived as a guarantee for the fulfilment of the increasing demands for equal and legally secure assessments. The aim of this thesis has therefore been to enhance the understanding of the function of assessment within school-based teacher education. The interactive assessment process of the post-observation conference has been in focus and studied through video observations and interviews. The study assumes multiple theoretical perspectives; a new institutional perspective, Goffman’s interactionist perspective and a professional theoretical perspective. The result shows that simultaneous and conflicting assessment logics guide the assessment task, creating protective and defensive interaction patterns to establish a loyal consensus between conference participants. The situation needs to be played down. The interactive patterns of the conference counteract the institutional logics of the visit, making access to information selective and limited. Judgements and feedback become invisible and the aim of the assessment process is unclear. The controlling purpose of the process, and partly also the formative purpose, is impaired. However, in the execution of assessment itself, assessment logics collaborate with interaction patterns, displaying a secondary adaptation to the situation. This collaboration contributes to a reasonable and legitimate manner of executing the assessment process, assigning meaning to the school visit.

  • 29.
    Lindgren, Patric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Småstat i brytningstid: Sveriges säkerhetspolitiska orientering efter tre världskonflikter under 1900-talet2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explain how small states, in this case Sweden, security politics adapts to new circumstances after great conflicts in the 20th century. The analytical model is built by a combination of the opposite theories of international politics, realism and idealism, combined with actor based and structure based perspectives and thus creating a four field analytical matrix.

    The empirical foundation constitutes of three post conflict periods; post-first world war, post-second world war and post-cold war periods. For every period three cases are analyzed; one foreign politics initiative, one association to an international organization and one defence politics decision. In the post-first world war period the focus is on the Swedish intervention of the Åland archipelago, the association to the League of Nations and disarmament decision in 1925. In the post-second world war period the focus is on the association of Sweden to the United Nations, the Swedish initiative to a Scandinavian defence alliance and the defence decision of 1948. In the post-cold war period the focus is on the Swedish association to the European Union, the Swedish participation in the NATO led IFOR operation in Bosnia and the defence decision in 1996.

    The main conclusions of these investigations are that small states, like Sweden, both are restricted in their foreign and security politics by international structures and able to use the same structure to promote their interests. Time is a key element for analyzing both structural and actor based aspects of a small states capacity. Also, in the case of Sweden, there tends to be a tension between an idealistic dominated politics and a realistic dominated politics when it comes to foreign and security politics, and that idealism seems to have increased in the latter period.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Maria C.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för didaktik och lärares praktik (DLP).
    The institutionalisation of validation and the transformation of vocational knowledge: The case of admission into Vocational Teacher Education in Sweden2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the validation of vocational knowledge prior to entry into vocational teacher education in Sweden with regard to conceptions and understandings of vocational knowledge, and also to understand how institutional conditions, such as ideas of how to organise validation, influence the content and form of the validation practice. From this aim the following research questions were developed: What ideas about the organisation of validation stand out in the policy and practice of validation? What conceptions and understandings of vocational knowledge is the organisation of validation built on and what do they entail? Who has the agency to describe and decide upon vocational knowledge in the policy and practice of validation? What institutional arrangements appear in the practice of validation?

    To conduct the studies in the thesis a multimethods approach was adopted, combining policy analysis and interviews. For theoretical support, new institutional theories were used and also theories of knowledge. The results revealed that the regulative elements of validation have transformed vocational knowledge to fit a frame similar to formal education. In terms of norms and values, it appears as if validation is more of a social and economic project than one of accounting for vocational knowledge and vocational pride. Cultural/cognitive matters that are taken for granted when considering vocational knowledge differ quite significantly between agents involved in validation. Validation of vocational knowledge exhibits a conceptual confusion having different conceptions of knowledge simultaneously at play. This confusion blurs the boundaries between concepts of knowledge, learning, and the learning context. In the complexity of ideas of how to organise validation and different knowledge conceptions, institutional arrangements appear to be based on a sense of belonging, either to academia or to the trade. The agency of those with vocational knowledge is limited in several ways within validation.

  • 31.
    Roos, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    The meaning(s) of inclusion in mathematics in student talk: Inclusion as a topic when students talk about learning and teaching in mathematics2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra till forskning och praktik inom fältetspecialpedagogisk matematikdidaktik med mer kunskap om, och enförståelse för hur varje elev kan bli inkluderad i matematikundervisningenur ett elevperspektiv. Forskningsfrågorna i studien var:Vilken eller vilka mening(ar) tillskrivs inkludering i matematikdidaktiskforskning? Vilken eller vilka mening(ar) tillskriver eleverinkludering i lärande och undervisning i matematik? Vad inramarelevers mening(ar) om inkludering i lärande och undervisning imatematik?Denna studie föregicks av en licentiatstudie som behandlade sammaämne, inkludering i matematikundervisning, där med fokus på läraresmening av inkludering. I denna föregående studie varforskningsfrågorna: Vad kan inkludering i matematik vara igrundskolans tidigare år, och vad påverkar inkluderingsprocessen imatematik? samt, vad förefaller vara viktigt i lärande och undervisningav matematik från ett inkluderande perspektiv? Ett deltagandeperspektiv användes i licentiatstudien, vilket innebär att lärande sessom deltagande. En del av en lärande teori som fokuserar påpraktikgemenskaper (Wenger, 1998) användes tillsammans med ettbegreppsligt ramverk som behandlar inkludering ur tre aspekter,spatial, didaktisk och social inkludering (Asp-Onsjö, 2006) för attanalysera hur lärare talar om inkludering i matematik. I studienanvändes etnografi som guide när en stor låg och mellanstadieskolaföljdes under två år i en fallstudie. Tre fall på identifierades på skolan.Utifrån dessa fall identifierades fyra praktikgemenskaper. Fallensdeltagande i dessa praktikgemenskaper i med fokus på inkludering imatematik analyserades. Resultatet visade att processen inkludering imatematik på den undersökta skolan kan beskrivas med tre begrepp,dynamisk inkludering, innehålls inkludering samt deltagande inkludering.Dessa tre olika former av inkludering interagerar med varandra i enprocess. Begreppen innehållsflöde och igenkännande av likheter användesför att beskriva sätt att stödja elever i särskilda utbildningsbehov imatematik. Viktiga aspekter för inkludering i matematik var organisatoriska åtgärder för att stödja samarbete och diskussioner; att ha välfungerande team som arbetar med förebyggande åtgärder imatematikundervisningen, det vill säga att utnyttja den lärarkunskapsom finns i organisationen om och i matematikdidaktiska frågor, samtsist, men inte minst; att lyssna på elevernas röst. Från denna studie syntesalltså ett behov av att lyssna på elevernas röst i undervisningen. Menhur lyssnar vi på elevernas röst i forskningen? Denna fråga levde vidareoch togs med in i doktorandstudien. Således blev det övergripandemålet i doktorandstudien att undersöka elevers mening(ar) avinkludering i matematikundervisningen.Doktorandstudien inleddes med att undersöka vilken, eller vilka,mening(ar) som tillskrivs begreppet inkludering i matematikdidaktiskforskning. Detta för att undersöka hur begreppet används samt att sehur elevernas röst kommer fram i forskning. För att undersöka dettagjordes en systematisk litteraturstudie med fokus på att identifieramening(ar) av begreppet inkludering i forskning och en artikel somanalyserade resultatet av detta skrevs (Roos, 2019a). Resultatet visadeatt det finns en mångfald av sätt att använda begreppet inkludering imatematikdidaktisk forskning, och det finns en mångfald av tillskrivnameningar för begreppet i forskningen (se artikel 1 - Inclusion inmathematics education: an ideology, a way of teaching, or both?).Resultatet visade även att frågor kring access och deltagande imatematikundervisningen var centrala i forskningen. På en samhällelignivå visualiserades detta genom forskning som betonande vikten avreflektion i jämlikhetsfrågor och hur jämlikhet värderas (eller inte) imatematikundervisning. På samhällsnivå synliggjordes ävenreflektioner kring att göra matematiken tillgänglig för alla elever, ellerreflektioner kring varför inte matematik är eller kan vara tillgänglig föralla elever. Genom att denna reflektion blir den rådande synen på eleveri särskilda utbildningsbehov i matematik (SUM) synlig och faktorer imatematikundervisningen som exkluderar elever kan synliggöras.Genom att synliggöra dessa faktorer kan inkludering imatematikundervisning öka, om man adresserar dessa faktorer iundervisningen. Ett annat sätt att öka access och deltagande imatematikundervisningen kan vara genom att värdera mångfald imatematikundervisningen på en övergripande nivå. Resultatet av den systematiska litteraturstudien visade även att mycketav den forskning som fokuserar på inkludering i matematik påklassrumsnivå belyser vikten av att skapa möjligheter för elever att deltai matematikundervisningen, lyckas i samarbetet med kamrater samt ilyckas i relation till det matematiska innehållet för att öka access ochdeltagande. Vikten av att i undervisningen reflektera kring vad som ärviktigt för individen, om det är att vara i klassrummet, eller att delta iinterventioner i specialundervisning och på vilket sätt. Således betonashur interventioner kan hjälpa till att uppnå meningsfullt deltagande imatematikklassrummet, med större möjligheter för deltagande imatematikundervisningen. Ett sätt att göra det är att byta perspektiv iundervisningen, och istället för att försöka få elever att passa in i denbefintliga matematikundervisningen, skapa undervisningen utefter denmångfald av elever som finns i klassrummet. Slående var att det fannsendast några få forskningsstudier som undersökte inkludering medfokus på elevers mening.Efter den systematiska litteraturstudien genomfördes en studie medfokus på att undersöka elevers mening av inkludering i matematik, justför att tillföra elevperspektivet till forskning om inkludering imatematikundervisning. I denna studie är inkludering definierat somprocesser av deltagande. Dock, inte vilket deltagande som helst, utandeltagande i matematik klassrummet av elever i SUM. Detta medfördeatt elever som var i någon form av SUM, samt hade kännedom ominkluderande matematikundervisning eftersöktes. Således valdes enhögstadieskola som utger sig för att arbeta inkluderande i allundervisning. Med detta menar de att de har som mål att inte ha någrasärskilda undervisningsgrupper, utan målet är att alla elever ska delta iden undervisning som bedrivs i de vanliga klassrummen. Elever somgick i årskurs 7 respektive 8 valdes ut i samspråk med de undervisandelärarna och speciallärare i matematikutveckling. Sex elever följdesunder en termin. I denna avhandling har tre elever fokuserats, en flicka,Veronica, i årskurs 7, och två pojkar, Ronaldo och Edward, i årskurs 8.Edward valdes på grund av att han uppleves av lärarna som en elevmed god access till matematikundervisningen. De andra två elevernavaldes på grund utav att de upplevdes kämpa med att få access tillmatematikundervisningen.Data i denna studie består av både observationer och intervjuer.Datainsamlingen gjordes under våren 2016. Observationerna gjordes idet årskurs 7-klassrum som Veronica deltog i samt i det årskurs 8-klassrum som Edward och Ronaldo deltog i. Minst en matematiklektioni veckan för varje klass observerades och elevintervjuer följde varjeobservation. Observationerna användes både som bakgrund tillintervjuerna såväl som en del av empirin som analyserades.I studien har diskurs analys (DA) använts, både som teori och analytisktredskap. Genom att analysera språket och hur det används i specifikasituationer kan vi säga någonting om den sociala världen. I både teorioch analys av språket i denna studie har Gee´s (2014b) sätt att se på DAanvänts. Gee har två teoretiska begrepp, stora Diskurser och smådiskurser (stort D indikerar stor Diskurs, litet d indikerar liten diskurs).De stora Diskurserna förklarar historiska och kulturella uppsättningarav konventioner som konstituerar och reglerar hur vi talar (lingvistik),tänker (kognitiva processer) och interagerar (sociala processer). De smådiskurserna fokuserar på hur språket används. Här undersöker manvilka spår som finns i kommunikationen (‘stretches of language’ Gee,2014b). Med detta avses vilka relationer som finns mellan ord ochmeningar, och hur dessa relationer visualiserar de olika teman som finnsi kommunikationen. Dessa små diskurser kan visa hur språket används,vilka typiska ord och teman som är synliga och hur den som talar ellerskriver designar språket.Gee har 28 undersökningsverktyg som belyser kommunikation genomatt ställa frågor till texten. Dessa frågor öppnar upp för undersökning avtexten och vad som finns bakom texten i termer av d(D)iskurs(er). Någraav verktygen är lingvistiska och ligger nära texten och textenssammanhang, medan andra verktyg ger tillgång till tolkning av denstörre bilden och det större sammanhangen avseende vad som sker i densociala världen. I denna studie av elevers tal om sitt eget deltagande imatematikundervisningen, har dessa verktyg använts i relation tilldenna studies syfte och forskningsfrågor. Resultatet av denna analys presenteras i forskningsartiklarna II-IV.Resultatet kan kortfattat beskrivas med hjälp av tre interrelateradeDiskurser: Diskursen matematikundervisningens uppbyggnad, bedömnings-Diskursen och tillgänglighets-Diskursen. Dessa Diskurser beskriver eleversmening(ar) av inkludering i matematikundervisning, och vad somramar in och påverkar denna/dessa mening(ar).Diskursen matematikundervisningens uppbyggnad visar hur organisationenav matematikundervisningen gällande användning av läroböcker,diskussioner med klasskamrater och genomgångar ramar in ochpåverkar elevers mening(ar) av inkludering matematikundervisning.Emellertid visar denna Diskurs inte endast vad som ramar in, men visaräven begränsande faktorer för elevernas access till matematik.Diskursen visar även hur att vara i en liten undervisnings-grupp kanförstärka eller minska elevernas deltagande imatematikundervisningen, vilket visar på att den lilla undervisningsgruppenbåde ramar in och påverkar inkludering imatematikundervisningen. Ur detta resultat föds en kritisk fråga; hurpåverkas access och deltagande i matematikundervisning när man ärklassad som en SUM-elev?Bedömnings-Diskursen visar hur elevers deltagande i matematikundervisningenär begränsad av bedömning i termer av betyg och prov.Hur test konstrueras, och de krav testen har på elevers skriftligaförklaringar och svar påverkar starkt SUM-elevernas deltagande ochdärmed deras access till matematik. Betygen påverkar även vad eleverupplever vara matematik, och därmed konstituerar betygen enbegränsande faktor för elevers deltagande och access imatematikundervisning.Tillgänglighets-Diskursen visar hur utmaningar, eller brist påutmaningar, i matematikuppgifter påverkar elevernas deltagande ochaccess. Diskursen visar även att ibland begränsar matematikuppgifternaelevernas deltagande i matematikundervisning, och därmed derasinkludering. I denna Diskurs blir det även synligt hur lärarenspedagogiska takt och hållning kan öka eller minska elevers deltagande, och därmed deras access till matematiken. Följaktligen påverkarlärarens medvetenhet elevers mening av inkludering. Detta relaterar tillhur matematik-undervisningen värderar elever, något som ocksåpåverkar elevers mening(ar) av inkludering i matematik. En annanbegränsande faktor som återfinns i denna tillgänglighets-Diskurs äruppfattningen av matematik som ett tråkigt ämne. Detta blir enbegränsning för access till matematik.För att sammanfatta, de tre övergripande Diskurserna kan ses sominramande, men också till viss utsträckning begränsande förinkludering i matematikundervisningen ur ett elevperspektiv. Även omD(d)iskurserna för de tre eleverna i denna studie var samma, var deändå olika. Det är som att titta igenom en kristall (där kristallen ärD(d)iskursen), kristallen är densamma, men beroende på från vilket hållman tittar, kommer olika objekt och olika färger i fokus. Således, dethandlar alltid om vilken utgångspunkt som tas, och om den individuellaeleven.D(d)iskurserna i denna studie säger något om elevernas mening avinkludering i matematikundervisning, inte bara på en individnivå, menockså på en mer generell nivå. På en mer generell nivå kan sägas attbedömning i matematik påverkar och begränsar elevers syn påinkludering. Vi kan också konkludera att hur matematikundervisningenär uppbyggd, och hur skolan och lärarna reflekterar kring, och arbetarmed denna uppbyggnad av matematikundervisningen påverkarelevernas mening av inkludering. Även hur lärare och organisation påen skola reflekterar kring och använder små grupper i undervisningensom ett sätt att öka elevernas access till matematiken påverkar elevernasmening av inkludering.En annan slutsats som kan dras av resultaten av denna studie på en merövergripande nivå handlar om tillgänglighet till matematikundervisningen.Hur och vilka uppgifter som används i matematikundervisningensamt hur läraren förklarar och värderar SUM-elevernapåverkar tillgängligheten till matematiken för eleverna. Ytterligare enreflektion kring resultaten är hur vi kan gå ifrån synen på matematik som ett tråkigt ämne, och därmed öka tillgängligheten imatematikundervisningen för eleverna.För att konkludera, det finns ingen ”one-size-fits-all” lösning påinkludering i matematikundervisning, det beror alltid på de elever ochlärare som är involverade i lärande och undervisningsprocessen.Följaktligen, en mångfald av elever kräver en mångfald imatematikundervisningen.

  • 32.
    Engström, Robin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    The Scottish Independence Referendum in Text, Image and Thought2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, a referendum was held in Scotland in order to decide the country’s constitutional future. The referendum was the climax of years of campaigning that gave rise to a rich body of political discourse. This compilation thesis attempts to show how an independent Scotland was discursively constructed, and how these constructions impacted on Scottish identity. The thesis consists of four original research papers which employ a number of complementary approaches in order to analyse a rich and diverse data set.

    The first article examines how the Scottish government looked at small European states in order to construct a vision of a future independent Scotland. This was achieved by discursively constructing small states as economically successful and democratically progressive and then by emphasizing Scotland’s role as a small country.

    The second article analyses the many new metaphorical personifications of Scotland, notably as a woman, that appeared during the campaign. The article finds that traditional, gendered metaphors were largely reworked in order to function in a modern political context.

    The third article maps the central topics and the ideological morphology of discourses on Scottish independence produced by the Scottish National Party and the intellectual and artistic movement National Collective. Unlike previous research, the results of the analysis suggest that these organizations as complementary but labels the former politically nationalist and the latter culturally nationalist.

    The fourth article analyses image tweets published by the official Yes and No campaigns in order to ascertain how the two campaigns legitimated their own standpoints and how they delegitimated their opponents online. The analysis finds that the Yes campaign balanced between promoting its own visions whilst criticizing their opponents, in contrast to the No campaign which almost entirely focused on delegitimating its opponents, thus failing to offer alternative visions.

    Collectively, the thesis paints a picture of a diverse independence movement with different aims and different rationales for advocating independence. Besides making a contribution to the literature on nationalism in general and Scottish nationalism in particular, the thesis further integrates the fields of political theory and discourse studies.

  • 33.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Thiamin (vitamin B1) in the aquatic food web2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tiamin (vitamin B1) är nödvändigt för flera livsuppehållande processer i cellerna hos det stora flertalet organismer, t.ex. vid omvandling av näring till energi. Vitaminet fungerar också som en antioxidant och är viktigt för korrekt nervfunktion. I den akvatiska födoväven produceras tiamin i första hand av bakterier och växtplankton. Dock inte av alla bakterier och växtplankton, utan dem, liksom organismer från högre trofiska nivåer, måste förlita sig på kontinuerlig tillgång samt upptag av detta livsviktiga ämne. Perioder av tiaminbrist har observerats i flera olika djurgrupper, speciellt i högre trofiska nivåer. I Östersjön har tiaminbrist varit mest utbrett i lax (Salmo salar) och har på senare tid även rapporterats för andra fiskarter och fåglar.

    Denna avhandling fokuserar på dynamiken av tiamin i lägre trofiska nivåer, såsom primärproducenter men även primärkonsumenter eftersom den största delen av tidigare forskning fokuserat på de högre trofiska nivåerna. Tiamininnehållet i vanligt förekommande växt- och djurplankton samt överföringen av tiamin mellan de trofiska nivåerna har undersökts i både experiment och fältstudier. Sambandet mellan tiaminbrist och underliggande miljöfaktorer har även undersökts genom att flerårig övervakningsdata analyserats.

    Tiaminnivåerna skiljde sig åt mellan olika växtplanktonklasser, mellan arter och även mellan olika isolat av samma art. Filamentösa (trådformiga) cyanobakterier hade betydligt högre tiamininnehåll än övriga växtplankton. Dock var överföringen av tiamin lägre från cyanobakterier till djurplankton jämfört med andra arter, förmodligen på grund av svårigheter att konsumera filamenten. I övrigt så varierade partikulärt bundet tiamin (s.k. seston) säsongsmässigt och var högst under sommaren när både Prymnesiophyceae och filamentösa cyanobakterier utgjorde en stor del av växtplanktonsamhället. Det var en stark korrelation mellan tiaminnivåerna i de två olika storleksfraktionerna av seston och det var alltid högre koncentrationer i den mindre fraktionen, vilket visar vikten av piko-plankton och bakterier i dynamiken av tiamin i den akvatiska födoväven. Seston från Östersjön hade också högre tiamininnehåll än seston från Skagerrak. Tiaminnivåerna i djurplankton skiljde sig åt mellan olika grupper och även mellan platser. Acartia sp. hade högst nivåer av tiamin och hoppkräftor från Skagerrak hade högre nivåer än individer från Östersjön. Slutligen visade analysen att utbrotten av tiaminbrist i lax var relaterade till flera abiotiska faktorer samt förändringar i samtliga trofiska nivåer.

    Denna avhandling ger nya insikter kring koncentrationer och säsongsmässig dynamik av tiamin i olika växt- och djurplanktonarter, överföringen av detta vitamin mellan olika trofiska nivåer, samt betydelsen av tiamin i den akvatiska födoväven.

  • 34.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Towards low-emitting and sustainable particle and fibreboards: Formaldehyde emission test methods and adhesives from biorefinery lignins2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    High volumes, fast production speed, and low material costs have been historically the driving factors of the particle- and fibreboard industries. However, in recent years the fossil-fuel dependency and health issues of the formaldehyde-containing adhesives used in the production have gained attention from both legislators and consumers. The latest example of legislation development is the change that the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany  (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Nukleare Sicherheit) made to their testing method, effectively lowering the formaldehyde emission levels of wood-based panels in Germany from the European emission level of 0.1 ppm (E1, EN 717-1) to 0.05 ppm. As the emission levels of requirements decrease, market opportunities arise for formaldehyde-free bio-based adhesive systems. The aim of this thesis was thus to evaluate the different formaldehyde test methods at low emission levels (<0.05 ppm), and to explore new adhesive alternatives to the formaldehyde and petroleum-based systems used today.

    As formaldehyde emissions decrease, choosing the right measurement method becomes increasingly important. Repeatability and correlation between the main European and American formaldehyde measurement chambers, described in EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 standards respectively, were determined. In addition, an alternative fast factory method based on emissions was evaluated, and the effect of reducing the conditioning time before emission measurements was investigated. A literature research was conducted on different bio-based raw materials in order to review their potential, from both scientific and industrial viewpoints, as alternatives to the current petroleum-derived and formaldehyde-based adhesives. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were chosen for further testing due to their increasing volumes and potential to suit various pathways for adhesive making. Three different biorefinery lignins were compared, and ammonium lignosulfonate was chosen for making adhesives for particleboards by using one petroleum-based and one bio-based crosslinker.

    The main conclusion of the formaldehyde emission part of the thesis was that formaldehyde emissions can be measured both accurately and quickly at low levels using chamber methods, even at factory environment. There was a good correlation between the American D 6007 and European EN 717-1 chamber methods at emission levels <0.05 ppm for both particleboards (r2 = 0.9167) and fibreboards (r2 = 0.9443). Further understanding on the effect of edge-sealing of boards and analytical methods described in the standards was obtained. It was confirmed that a fast chamber method with 1 day conditioning and 15 minutes measuring time could be used for factory formaldehyde control for most board types.

    The bio-based adhesives’ literature review revealed a large amount of studies on different sustainable adhesive systems, some of which seem promising. Both soy protein and tannin were found to be partially commercialized, with certain pre-requisites. Kraft-lignin was especially well researched, but was found to be difficult to use for other applications than partial replacement of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives due to poor water solubility and purity. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were found to be a less studied, growing raw-material source with a lot of potential. Thus, supercritical water hydrolysis lignin (SCWH) and two biorefinery lignosulfonates were chemically and thermally characterized, and evaluated as raw materials for value-added applications, including adhesives. SCWH lignin was found to have more β-R linkages and lower amount of impurities than the lignosulfonates. High amount of phenolic hydroxyl groups indicated that SCWH would be well suited for phenol replacement in PF adhesives. The two lignosulfonates had more aliphatic hydroxyl groups, which can be interesting for other crosslinking reactions than PF. Ammonium lignosulfonate (ALS) was chosen for further evaluation as having slightly better properties than sodium lignosulfonate (SLS). ALS was combined with one bio-based crosslinker, furfuryl alcohol (FOH), and one synthetic crosslinker, 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and tested as particleboard adhesive. Although in veneer tensile shear strength testing the crosslinkers worked equally well, pMDI provided significantly better results in particleboards. In addition, higher emissions than what can be expected from wood particles alone were detected from the particleboard samples crosslinked with FOH, even though FOH can be classified as non-formaldehyde added adhesive system. Further research is needed to elucidate how much the lignin contributes to the final adhesion strength when it is used together with pMDI.

    This thesis has provided new insights on formaldehyde emissions and bio-based adhesives towards healthier and more sustainable particle- and fibreboards. It has been proven that formaldehyde emissions can be measured accurately at emission levels of wood, enabling comparisons of formaldehyde-free systems. Formaldehyde-free adhesives based on a biorefinery lignin type and pMDI showed promising results for particleboards. However, these results need to be improved by different modifications of the lignin in order to bring the adhesive system to the economical and performance level required by the particleboard industry.

  • 35.
    Nordmark, Susanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A Multimodal Seamless Learning Approach Supported by Mobile Digital Storytelling (mDS)2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of digital tools such as smartphones, tablets and laptops have shown potential to enhance teaching and learning in a wide variety of contexts. 21st century skills such as creativity, problem-solving and innovation as means for supporting learning and knowledge creation, are considered fundamental proficiencies in today's technology- driven society, and they are therefore considered essential to promote, already from the earliest of school years. Hence, there are a number of challenges related to how to design and implement innovative and varied strategies

    for teaching and learning supported by mobile technologies in educational settings. Moreover, it is also crucial to think about how to actively involve teachers into the processes mentioned above, inspiring and inviting them to implement new methods and technologies into their everyday educational practices.

    The work presented in this thesis embodies a series of co-design and design-based research efforts aiming at exploring the interplay between design, information and communication technologies and learning through mobile digital storytelling, guided by the theoretical frameworks of constructivism, multimodality, new media literacies, mobile seamless learning, and technology enhanced learning. Two main research questions have been identified as formulated below, and have served as

    the basis that guided my efforts:

    What design features are necessary to scaffold mobile seamless learning approaches with the support of mobile digital storytelling?

    Considering the role of mobile digital storytelling for educational settings: which design factors and learning requirements could guide and support similar initiatives?

    Over the years of my doctoral studies, a progression of research interventions involving teachers, pupils, and museum staff have been co-designed, developed, tested and validated. These efforts have resulted in a method, a mobile application, and a web service for mobile digital storytelling in educational contexts, named the mobile digital storytelling (mDS) system.

    The mDS system introduces learning technology approaches aiming to support teacher and pupil digital inclusion, mobile seamless learning and multimodal aspects, and serves as a reflective instrument for both collaborative and individual work. The validation of mDS in different educational settings indicates that it can be independent of subject matter, user age, locality and previous knowledge of technology enhanced learning, and is easy to access and manage for teachers as well as pupils. Hence, it proposes several innovative means on multiple levels for meeting the 21st century skills required for supporting contemporary learning and knowledge creation.

  • 36.
    Perez, Miguel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA).
    A teacher-centred design system to integrate digital technologies in secondary mathematics classrooms2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efforts made by teachers and researchers, studies show that digital technologies have not improved conditions for teaching and learning mathematics to the degree expected by stakeholders inside as well as outside the school system.

    In this research, the problem of the integration of digital technologies is addressed through the perspective of design. It sets out to explore the conditions where educational design researchers may succeed in producing valuable and sustainable contributions to teacher change. The design approach developed and used for this purpose is Agile Educational Design (AED). It shares many of the common features of other design methodologies within the field; however, the AED approach is an explicit systems approach to design based on the Singerian philosophy of design. Rather than focus on ready-made products or other resources such as curriculum material, professional development or design principles, the focus is on processes and supporting teachers’ operationalisation of theoretical principles to achieve change. It is argued that all phases of the design process need to be considered from a research perspective. The developmental phases cannot be treated as uncomplicated inputs that only serve as a ‘design base’ for research activities. The Anthropological Theory of the Didactic is used as an overall theoretical framework to describe all aspects of the design process and to analyse the empirical data which consists of three design cycles related to three different ways of interacting with teachers. The design cycles were carried out in various settings, including different schools (secondary level) and with different teachers and different learning objectives. The dynamic geometry software GeoGebra was used in all three cycles.

    The results highlight some of the internal and external constraints that hinder teachers from integrating digital technologies in an effective way to support students learning mathematics. Digital technologies introduce important epistemological changes in the mathematical content that may explain some of the teachers’ difficulties in exploiting the full potential of digital technologies. However, giving teachers the responsibility for orchestrating lessons in accordance with theoretical principles provided by a researcher showed promising results regarding achieving sustainable changes in teachers’ practices. 

  • 37.
    Morgalla, Mario
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Benzene-char conversion and particle-vapor characterization in biomass gasification2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is increasingly attracting attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification permits the thermochemical conversion of biomass into a product gas rich in carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The product gas can be further processed to generate heat, electricity, synthesis gas, chemicals, and biofuels. Particulate matter (PM), inorganic and organic (tars) impurities are formed as contaminants in the gasification process. In this thesis PM and tars formed during atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasification are characterized and the conversion of a model tar compound (benzene) using a biomass based char aerosol in high temperature (HT) applications is investigated.

    PM in the product gas of a steam-blown atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was characterized for mass size distribution and concentration, morphology, and elemental composition. The hot product gas was extracted using a HT- dilution probe combined with a primary and a secondary thermodenuder to adsorb tars and investigate the volatility/thermal stability of the remaining aerosol, respectively. Size distributions with three distinct modes were established. The fine and intermediate modes were mainly formed by tar and alkali vapors that had condensed in the sampling and conditioning systems. The coarse mode mainly consisted of the original particles, which are char, fly ash, and fragmented bed material. The presented PM sampling and conditioning system also showed the potential for online monitoring of heavy tars.

    The tar conversion performance of finely dispersed char particles within a HT-filter and an Al2O3 bed were tested experimentally using benzene as the model-tar. Benzene plus steam (or CO2) were simultaneously supplied to a tubular ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. Fragmented char particles were suspended and continuously supplied via a separate supply line. A HT-filter or a packed bed of crushed Al2O3 balls was positioned in the reactor to retain the char particles. The benzene conversion in the so formed hot char bed was investigated by varying the temperature of the filter or bed, gas flow rates, benzene concentrations, gasification media, char type, char mass and char concentration.

    Increasing the ratio of the char mass and gas flow rate (also referred to as char weight time) enhanced the benzene conversion. This was accomplished by increasing the supplied char concentrations, reducing the gas flow rates or slowing the char gasification reactions. The latter was achieved by lowering the steam concentrations or changing the gasification medium from steam to CO2. Increasing the temperature of the Al2O3 bed did not only raise the char gasification rate and thus reduce the char weight time but also showed to enhance the specific benzene conversion activity of the woody char samples. However, in the 900−1100 °C temperature range, the combined effect was to lower benzene conversions at higher temperatures. The apparent rate constant of the benzene conversion was slightly higher when CO2 rather than steam was used as the gasification medium. Increasing the benzene concentration slightly reduced the benzene conversion. Activated carbon pellets showed higher benzene conversions compared to a pine wood char which was related to the higher specific surface area of the activated carbon pellets. In contrast to a commercially available barbeque charcoal made from broadleaf wood, steam-activated woody charcoal converted benzene even in the absence of steam. This was probably due to the earlier steam activation of the woody charcoal and thus higher microporous surface area compared with that of the barbeque charcoal. Doping the woody barbeque charcoal with approximately 0.7 wt. % iron or 2 wt. % potassium did not improve the specific benzene conversion of the char. For a certain char concentration, however, the doping increased the char gasification rate, leaving less char in the packed alumina bed, thus leading to overall lower benzene conversions.

  • 38.
    Siméus, Jenny
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Black Lives, White Quotation Marks: Textual Constructions of Selfhood in South African Multivoiced Life Writing2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on South African multivoiced and collaborative life writing. The analysed primary texts are The Long Journey of Poppie Nongena (1980) by Elsa Joubert, The Calling of Katie Makanya: A Memoir of South Africa (1995) by Margaret McCord, Finding Mr Madini (1999) by Jonathan Morgan and the Great African Spiderwriters, David’s Story (2000) by Zoë Wicomb, and There Was This Goat: Investigating the Truth Commission Testimony of Notrose Nobomvu Konile (2009), co-written by Antjie Krog, Nosisi Mpolweni and Kopano Ratele. All of these primary texts are either collaborative autobiographies about black lives, multivoiced life writing texts about black lives, or a text that problematises this kind of life writing where predominantly disadvantaged, black life writing subjects either have had their lives narrated or have had their narration steered by well educated, advantaged, Westernised and usually white writers.

    The analyses of the primary texts are carried out by problematising them in the light of the South African historical and cultural context within which they were produced. The focus of the analyses is on the effects on and the consequences for textual constructions of selfhood when the writers tell or include the life writing subjects’ lives in the life writing texts. The involvement of the writers in the life writing projects is argued to greatly have impacted the textually represented selves that were created in the resulting multivoiced life writing texts.

    Drawing on theory rooted in postcolonial studies, life writing in general, and self-narration in particular, this thesis concludes that the examined black South African life narratives to various extents are told on white, Western terms and thus inserted in white quotation marks. White quotation marks are defined in this thesis as a certain Western perception of self-narration and selfhood, consisting of components rooted in language, racial tropes, narrative form, and Western autobiographical traditions. Both writers and life writing subjects have been involved in creating or employing these white quotation marks. In some cases this has been an unintentional result and in other cases it has been a conscious effort.

  • 39.
    Razmjoo, Narges
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Characterization of conversion zones in a reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Grate-firing systems are a common and popular combustion technology for burning biomass. However, combustion of biomass in these furnaces may emit a large amount of pollutants in the form of CO, CH4, PAH, NOx, and particles. These furnaces need to be further developed to increase their efficiency and improve the overall system performance while ensuring environmental compatibility. To improve the combustion of biomass in grate furnaces, it is vital to understand the processes occurring inside both the fuel bed and the gas phase above the bed (freeboard).

    The aim of this study was to characterize the conversion zones in two reciprocating-grate furnaces, with 4 and 12 MW maximum thermal outputs, firing wet woody biomass, mainly by measuring the temperature and gas concentration distributions. Measurements in the freeboard were conducted in both of the furnaces. However, measurements in the fuel bed were carried out only in the 4-MW furnace, in which the influence of two parameters, i.e., the fuel moisture and the primary airflow rate, on the bed conversion was investigated. Furthermore, a simplified model of the drying of wet biomass on a grate was developed and used to estimate the drying rate and to simulate the extent of the drying zone along the grate. The model was then validated against measurements of the fuel moisture and flue gas water vapor concentration made by NIR and FTIR, respectively.

    Measurements of temperature and gas concentration (i.e., CO, CO2, O2, CH4, and NO) profiles in the fuel bed were carried out through ports located in the wall of the furnace, by means of a stainless steel probe incorporating a K-type thermocouple. The temperature distribution along the height of the fuel bed was measured through a view-glass port, using a bent probe. High temperatures within a layer of about 0.1 m from the grate surface indicated the existence of a combustion layer at the bottom of the fuel bed (co-current combustion pattern). The drying rate of the moist fuel was calculated by the model to be about 0.0211–0.0235 kg water/m2s, under a certain condition. Therefore, the drying layer of the moist fuel was estimated to occupy almost two-thirds of the total grate length.

    Measurements of temperature and gas concentration profiles in the freeboard of the two furnaces were carried out by means of a water-cooled stainless-steel suction pyrometer. The pyrometer was introduced into the furnaces through the measuring ports, located along the pathways of the hot gas flow, and positioned at several locations between the wall and the furnace width center. For both of the furnaces, the temperature varied mainly in the 600–1000°C range in the primary combustion chamber, and reached about 1100–1200°C in the secondary chamber. A significant rise in NO concentration was observed in the transition sections between the primary and secondary combustion chambers of the furnaces. There was a positive correlation between NO and O2 at the ports in the secondary combustion chambers, which implied that in this high temperature region, the O2 concentration was the limiting factor for oxidation of N-volatiles to NO.

  • 40.
    Pernebo, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Children in group interventions after exposure to violence toward a caregiver: Experiences, needs, and outcomes2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att som barn bevittna våld mot en förälder är förknippat med negativ påverkan på barns hälsa och utveckling, vilket medför att det finns ett behov av verksamma interventioner för barn som exponerats för våld mot en förälder. Denna avhandling innehåller tre empiriska studier som alla är del av ett sammanhållet forskningsprojekt. Det övergripande syftet är att undersöka interventioner för barn som exponerats för våld mot en förälder.

    Studie I syftade till att belysa små barns upplevelser och erfarenheter av att delta i gruppinterventioner riktade till barn som bevittnat våld mot en förälder. Nio barn, 4 till 6 år gamla, intervjuades efter att de deltagit i gruppverksamhet för barn som bevittnat våld i sina familjer. Intervjuerna analyserades med interpretativ fenomenologisk analys, och fem huvudteman identifierades: glädje, trygghet, att vara i relation, att prata och kompetens.

    Syftet med studie II var att undersöka hur barn berättar om en våldsutsatt förälder. Intervjuer genomfördes med 17 barn mellan 4 och 13 år som bevittnat våld mot en förälder. Tematisk analys identifierade tre huvudteman: sammanhängande berättande om föräldern, bristfälligt berättande om föräldern och föräldern som trigger för traumareaktioner.

    Studie III var en utfallsstudie som undersökte utfallet av två olika gruppinterventioner för barn som bevittnat våld mot en förälder, en psykoedukativ och en psykoterapeutisk. Studien inkluderade 50 barn mellan 4 och 13 år och deras mammor. Symtom på psykisk ohälsa och posttraumatisk stress skattades före och efter interventionerna. Resultaten tyder på att barnen drog nytta av båda interventionerna, men förbättring av symtom var störst för de barn som deltagit i den psykoterapeutiska gruppinterventionen. Trots symtomförbättringarna rapporterade en majoritet av barnens mammor kvarstående symtom på klinisk nivå efter interventionerna. Mammorna visade signifikant lägre nivåer av egna symtom på posttraumatisk stress efter båda interventionerna.

    Resultaten tyder på att barnen uppskattade och drog nytta av båda de studerade interventionerna, men en majoritet uppvisade symtom på klinisk nivå även efter behandling och ett möjligt behov av kompletterande och/eller alternativt stöd och behandling. Dessa resultat tydliggör såväl behovet av rutiner för att bedöma barns symtom under och efter behandling som värdet av att inkludera barn som informanter i forskning.

  • 41.
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Climate impact of the sustainable use of forest biomass in energy and material system: a life cycle perspective2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human society releases greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere while providing housing, heat, mobility and industrial production. Man-made greenhouse gas emissions are the main causes of climate change, coming mainly from burning fossil fuels and land-use changes. Sustainably managed forests play an important role in climate change mitigation with the prospect of sustainably providing essential materials and services as part of a low-carbon economy, both through the substitution of fossil-intensive fuels and material and through their potential to capture and store carbon in the long-term perspective.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology under a life cycle perspective to assess the climate impact of the sustainable use of forest biomass in bioenergy and material systems. To perform this kind of analysis a methodological framework is needed to accurately compare the different biological and technological systems with the aim to minimize the net carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and hence the climate impact. In such a comparison, the complete energy supply chains from natural resources to energy end-use services has to be considered and are defined as the system boundaries.

    The results show that increasing biomass production through more intensive forest management or the usage of more productive tree species combined with substitution of non-wood products and fuels can significantly reduce global warming. The biggest single factor causing radiative forcing reduction was using timber to produce wood material to replace energy-intensive construction materials such as concrete and steel. Another very significant factor was replacing fossil fuels with forest residues from forest thinning, harvest, wood processing, and post-use wood products. The fossil fuel that was replaced by forest biomass affected the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, with carbon-intensive coal being most beneficial to replace. Over the long term, an active and sustainable management of forests, including their use as a source for wood products and bioenergy allows the greatest potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 42.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Cost-optimality approach for prioritisation of buildings envelope energy renovation: A techno-economic perspective2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing residential buildings in the European countries are rather old and often fail to meet the current energy performance criteria. In Sweden, about 45% of the existing residential buildings have been constructed before 1960. Considering the significant contribution of existing buildings to Greenhouse Gas emissions, improving buildings energy performance could considerably help to achieve the national targets. Sweden’s fourth national action plan calls for 45% reduction in final energy use for heating of buildings by 2050, compared to 1995. Deep energy renovation of buildings envelope would significantly contribute to heat demand reduction. However, it is often subject to complex challenges from economic perspectives.

    In this thesis, the cost-effectiveness and cost-optimality of building energy renovation have been studied in order to provide knowledge on where to start building renovation, in which order and to what extent. It aims at suggesting cost-effective approaches for prioritising the implementation of energy renovation measures in residential buildings, considering different techno- economic scenarios. An extensive building energy simulation work and analytical analysis were performed on a multi-family building and single- family houses.

    The findings suggest how to prioritise the energy renovation of different envelope components in buildings located in different outdoor climates from energy saving and cost-effective perspectives. The findings indicate that the energy renovation of older buildings in northern climate zones are more cost- effective, compared to less old buildings in southern zones, when renovated to a cost-optimal level. The older buildings offer more energy saving when renovated to a cost-optimal level, compared to less old buildings or those in southern zones. The contribution of climate zones to the cost-effectiveness of energy renovation varies significantly in different components, depending on their level of exposure to outdoor climate.

    An optimisation exercise was done in order to maximise energy saving by renovation of building envelope components under budget constraint condition. The enumerative algorithm of Brute-force was employed for this optimisation problem. The results suggest optimum renovation packages which could offer as much energy saving as a limited budget allows. It helps to develop a forward-thinking perspective that would guide individuals and financial institutions in their investment plans and incentives allocation policy.

  • 43.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Designing Self-Adaptive Software Systems with Reuse2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are increasingly more connected, pervasive, and dynamic, as such, they are subject to more runtime variations than legacy systems. Runtime variations affect system properties, such as performance and availability. The variations are difficult to anticipate and thus mitigate in the system design.

    Self-adaptive software systems were proposed as a solution to monitor and adapt systems in response to runtime variations. Research has established a vast body of knowledge on engineering self-adaptive systems. However, there is a lack of systematic process support that leverages such engineering knowledge and provides for systematic reuse for self-adaptive systems development. 

    This thesis proposes the Autonomic Software Product Lines (ASPL), which is a strategy for developing self-adaptive software systems with systematic reuse. The strategy exploits the separation of a managed and a managing subsystem and describes three steps that transform and integrate a domain-independent managing system platform into a domain-specific software product line for self-adaptive software systems.

    Applying the ASPL strategy is however not straightforward as it involves challenges related to variability and uncertainty. We analyzed variability and uncertainty to understand their causes and effects. Based on the results, we developed the Autonomic Software Product Lines engineering (ASPLe) methodology, which provides process support for the ASPL strategy. The ASPLe has three processes, 1) ASPL Domain Engineering, 2) Specialization and 3) Integration. Each process maps to one of the steps in the ASPL strategy and defines roles, work-products, activities, and workflows for requirements, design, implementation, and testing. The focus of this thesis is on requirements and design.

    We validate the ASPLe through demonstration and evaluation. We developed three demonstrator product lines using the ASPLe. We also conducted an extensive case study to evaluate key design activities in the ASPLe with experiments, questionnaires, and interviews. The results show a statistically significant increase in quality and reuse levels for self-adaptive software systems designed using the ASPLe compared to current engineering practices.

  • 44.
    Ahlbäck, Tor
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik och lärande (PEL).
    Digitala skrivtavlor - till vad, hur och varför?: En studie om den digitala skrivtavlans betydelse för grundskolans digitalisering utifrån ett lärarperspektiv2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine in what aspects the interactive whiteboard (IWB) has contributed to the digitalization of our schools, and how it may have changed the actual teaching in the classroom. This research explores this question from a didactic perspective, as well as from the perspective of the teachers’ reflections. The main research questions are: What do teachers use the IWB for? How do teachers use the IWB? Why do teachers use the IWB? These questions have been analyzed within a didactic framework, which is based on the expanded didactic triangle (Hudson & Meyer 2011) and the logic of events (von Wright 1983). Data was collected by interviews and surveys. The analysis was done abductively, based on a mixed methods approach. The results show that the IWB has the function of a digital hub in whole-class teaching, being mainly used as a computer projector, film projector and digital whiteboard. The main value of the IWB according to the study is that it provides the teacher access to digital information during a class. In their response, teachers express a wish to vary and adapt the teaching to include the IWB, in order to increase student motivation and participation. The study shows major differences with regards to the extent and the ways that the IWB is used in relation to teacher and school, leading to differences in pupils’ learning. Moreover, the complexity of teaching increases with the introduction of the IWB, as it requires the development of the teacher’s knowledge and skills. The study indicates that the use of the IWB implies a shift of the norm in school’s whole-class teaching to become more digital. The results are further discussed through four aspects of education: classroom practice, teachers, the school as an organization and society as a whole. The results imply that in order to develop teachers’ didactic repertoire, teachers need to be given clear assignments as well as opportunities for investigating the possibilities and limitations of digital tools, including developing and describing different methods and their advantages and disadvantages. This is proposed to be an area for further research in general and subject didactics, through action and participatory research.

  • 45.
    Broman, Elias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ecology and evolution of coastal Baltic Sea 'dead zone' sediments2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arealerna av 'döda bottnar' i Östersjön har ökat som en följd av industrialiseringen och användandet av gödningsmedel. Föroreningen av Östersjöns kust och öppna vatten med näringsämnen leder till en ökad tillväxt av algblomningar. En del av dessa alger sjunker till havsbotten och orsakar att så kallad hypoxia utvecklas. Den naturliga stratifieringen av vattenkolummen avgränsar yt- och bottenvattnet vilket leder till att bottenzonen är speciellt utsatt för syrebrist. Detta eftersom mikroorganismer i bottensedimentet använder syre och organiskt material för att leva. Hypoxia (<2 mg/L O2) och anoxia (inget syre) är dödligt för de flesta organismer och endast specialiserade organismer (vanligtvis vissa mikroorganismer) kan överleva. Det är av denna anledning dessa bottenzoner ofta kallas för 'döda bottnar'. Målet med denna avhandling var att undersöka förändringar i de mikrobiologiska samhällena vid nedbrytning av organiskt algmaterial, och undersöka vilken effekt syresättning har på ekologin i döda bottensediment i Östersjöns kust. I mer detalj studerades kemiska flöden, växt- och djurplankton, samt mikrobiologiska samhällen och deras metaboliska processer. Resultaten från fältprovtagningar och inkubationer i laboratoriet visade att nedbrytning av algmaterial i syrerikt sediment till viss del gynnade arkéer; syretillsättning av anoxiska sediment minskade det lagrade organiska materialet och ledde till ökad kläckning av djurplanktonägg; vilande kiselalger begravda i hypoxisk/anoxisk sediment var levande och vaknade vid tillförsel av ljus snarare än syre. Förändringar i mikrobiologiska samhällen vid syreförändringar var beroende av historisk exponering av syre i sedimentytan. Det observerades också att mikroorganismer anpassade till episodiska förändringar i syre gynnades. Fakultativt anaerobiska svavel/sulfidoxiderande bakteriesläkten gynnades efter syresättning av hypoxisk/anoxiskt sediment och gener involverade i omvandling av svavelämnen och kvävefixering var vanliga. Slutligen visade resultaten att syresättning reglerar metaboliska processer involverade i kretsloppen för svavel och metan. Speciellt genom processer som leder till en minskning av den gifta gasen svavelväte och växthusgasen metan. Denna avhandling har undersökt hur döda bottensediment förändras och utvecklas vid skiftande syreförhållanden och visar att syresättning av 'döda bottnar' kan skapa gynnsamma förhållanden i sedimentytan för återetablering av mikro- och makroorganismsamhällen. 

  • 46.
    Mattsson, Pontus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Essays on Efficiency, Productivity, and Impact of Policy2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five self-contained empirical essays centering on total factor productivity (TFP), efficiency, and impacts of policy.

    Essay I: “TFP Change and Its Components for Swedish Manufacturing Firms During the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson and William H. Greene). A driving force of economic development is growth in total factor productivity (TFP). Manufactured goods are, to a large extent, exports, and represent an important part of the economy for many developed countries. Additionally, a slowdown in labour productivity has been observed in many OECD countries after the financial crisis 2008-2009. This study investigates TFP change and its components for the Swedish manufacturing industry, compared with the private service sector, during the years 1997-2013, centering on the financial crisis. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) is used to disentangle persistent and transient efficiency from firm heterogeneity and random noise, respectively. In addition, technical change (TC), returns to scale (RTS) and a scale change (SC) component are also identified. Along with the empirical analysis, an elaborative discussion regarding TC in SFA is provided. The persistent part for manufacturing (service) is 0.796 (0.754) and the transient part is 0.787 (0.762), indicating improvement potentials. Furthermore, TFP change is substantially lower between the years 2007-2013, compared to 1997-2007, driven by lower technological progress. Policy should, therefore, target interventions that enhance technology. However, care needs to be taken so that policies do not sustain low-productive firms that otherwise would exit the market. 

    Essay II: “A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Jonas Månsson, Christian Andersson and Fredrik Bonander). This study measures the total factor productivity (TFP) of the Swedish district courts by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) to calculate the Malmquist productivity index (MPI) of 48 Swedish district courts from 2012 to 2015. In contrast to the limited international literature on court productivity, this study uses a fully decomposed MPI. A bootstrapping approach is further applied to compute confidence intervals for each decomposed factor of TFP. The findings show a 1.7% average decline of TFP, annually. However, a substantial variation between years can be observed in the number of statistically significant courts below and above unity. The averages of the components show that the negative impact is mainly driven by negative technical change (TC). Large variations are also observed over time where the small courts have the largest volatility. Two recommendations are: (1) that district courts with negative TFP growth could learn from those with positive TFP growth; and (2) that the back-up labour force could be developed to enhance flexibility.

     

    Essay III: “Potential efficiency effects of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Claes Tidanå). The Swedish district courts have undergone a substantial restructuring process in which the main reform has been to merge. As a result, the number of district courts has declined from 95 in 2000 to only 48 in 2009. All main arguments that support merging concern enhancements of efficiency. However, it has not yet been explicitly examined whether the mergers have the potential to increase efficiency ex ante. Thus, the expectation concerning higher efficiency was built on a subjective view. This paper investigates whether the mergers can be rationalized from a production economic point of view. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute a production frontier where the conducted mergers are incorporated to identify the potential ex ante gains. Furthermore, the overall potential is decomposed into learning, scale, and harmony to investigate the source of the potential gain, e.g., an effect of adjusting to best practice or a pure merging effect such as scale. The results show diverse potentials, i.e., a number of mergers did not have the potential to gain in efficiency while others could gain substantially. A conclusion based on the analysis is that the potential production economic effects should be investigated before merger decisions are made in the future. This is also likely to be true beyond the Swedish district courts.

    Essay IV: “Impacts on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts” (co-authored with Per J. Agrell and Jonas Månsson). Judicial courts form a stringent example of public services using partially sticky inputs and outputs with heterogeneous quality. Notwithstanding, governments internationally are striving to improve the efficiency of and diminish the budget spent on court systems. Frontier methods such as data envelopment analysis (DEA) are sometimes used in investigations of structural changes in the form of mergers. We review the methods used to evaluate the ex post efficiency of horizontal mergers. Identification of impacts is difficult. Therefore, we apply three analytical frameworks: 1) a technical efficiency comparison over time, 2) a metafrontier approach among mergers and non-mergers and 3) a conditional difference-in-differences (cDiD) approach where non-merged twins of the actual mergers are identified by matching. In addition, both time heterogeneity and sources of efficiency change are examined ex post. We apply our method to evaluate the impact on efficiency of merging the Swedish district courts from 95 to 48 between 2000 and 2009. Whereas the stated ambition for the mergers was to improve efficiency, no structured ex post analysis has been done. Swedish courts are shown to improve efficiency from merging. In addition to the particular application, our work may inform a more general discussion on public service efficiency measurement under structural changes, and their limits and potential.

    Essay V: “The impact of labour subsidies on total factor productivity and profits per employee.” Subsidizing targeted labour groups is a common intervention to prevent long-term unemployment. Lower expected productivity is the motivation for subsidizing labour, but all research, with one exception, focuses on other effects while some investigates the TFP effects of capital subsidies. This study combines methods that, to the best of my knowledge, have not previously been used together to determine the impacts of labour subsidies on total factor productivity (TFP). Further, the profit per employee is included as a second outcome. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) is performed on the key variables; difference-in-differences (DiD) is then applied to the matched data. It is found that firms employing workers with wage subsidies experience negative and significant effects on both TFP and profit per employee. Heterogeneity is, however, observed; the only sector to show a deficit in both TFP and profit per employee is wholesale. During the second year with a subsidy, a negative impact can be observed on the profit per employee but not on TFP. The policy conclusion from the analysis is that subsidizing individuals from particular groups is necessary to induce firms to hire workers from these groups. However, the time period for which a single firm is subsidized should be considered.

  • 47.
    Bossér, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Exploring the complexities of integrating socioscientific issues in science teaching2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific issues, SSI, can briefly be described as societal issues in which science plays a role. Dealing with SSI in science education is a means to prepare and empower students for active and responsible participation in a complex, democratic society. The implementation of SSI-based teaching calls for classroom practices in which scientific evidence alongside for example social and ethical perspectives are considered. Discourse-based teaching activities are emphasized as a means to provide opportunities for students to practice negotiations of SSI and explore diverse viewpoints on the issues. Dealing with SSI in science teaching is recognized as a challenging task for science teachers. This thesis aims to provide knowledge to support the implementation of SSI-based science teaching. Three studies involving two upper secondary school science teachers are performed to achieve this aim. The first study makes use of video-stimulated discussions to investigate the two teachers’reflections on their classroom practices while they implement SSI throughout an academic year. The second study utilizes the concept positioning as a tool to identify and describe the ways in which one teacher’s interactions with students during group work make available different parts for the students to play as participants, when dealing with SSI in the classroom. The third study makes use of the concept communicative approach to investigate how the two teachers’ management of classroom discussions sets conditions for the consideration of multiple perspectives relevant to SSI, including the students’ viewpoints. The results provide knowledge useful when making considerations about the design and enactment of teaching activities in relation to specific educational goals. The results suggest that a specific challenge with designing and enacting SSI-based teaching activities is to balance between controlling and directing the teaching activities to promote specific learning goals and providing space for students’ participation and perspectives. The results of employing the analytical tools elucidate how this challenge can play out in classroom practice and contribute with knowledge of the ways in which teachers’ discursive practices play a role in addressing this challenge. Strategies to support teachers’ implementation of SSI-based teaching that take account of teachers’ existing practices are discussed.

  • 48.
    Holgersson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik (ELO).
    Finans och Existens: Tolkning av vardagslivets finansialisering2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this book is to inquire into the relationship between human beings and financial markets. In this inquiry the author wishes to emphasize two aspects. Firstly, the act of creation of scientific knowledge, and secondly, the ubiquitous relationship that seems to interweave our everyday lives with financial markets. These two aspects highlight the main conversations to which this book wants to contribute. These are interpretative and hermeneutic research within social science in general and business administration in particular, as well as the growing literature on financialization. The more precise problem discussed concerns the insecurity and uncertainty that seem to surround our relationship with financial markets, or, as put in the literature: “the uncertain subjects of financialization”. Inspired by the ethnographic tradition, the author observed a gathering of thousands of people under the topic of making money from money in a spectacular building. The experience of this event worked as a catalyst for an interpretation of not only the specific meeting but also of our relationship to financial markets more generally. With the help of an elaborated analogy, it is suggested that we live (within) a spirit of finance capitalism, a spirit that has an ever-increasing presence in our lives. The author argues that our relationship to financial markets – and the financialization of daily life – is an existential dilemma as much as a financial one. Differently put, we can read the widespread uncertainty surrounding financial markets as doubt about the existence that w