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  • 1.
    Nordqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Lönnbom Svensson, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Brundin, Lars
    County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden;Linköping university, Sweden.
    Wanby, Pär
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). County Hospital Kalmar, Sweden.
    Adherence to risk management guidelines for drugs which cause vitamin D deficiency – big data from the Swedish health system2019Ingår i: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, ISSN 1179-1365, E-ISSN 1179-1365, Vol. 11, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several medications are known to cause vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this study is to describe vitamin D testing and supplementation in patients using these “risk medications”, thereby assessing adherence to medical guidelines.Patients and methods: A database with electronic health records for the population in a Swedish County (≈240,000 inhabitants) was screened for patients prescribed the pre-defined “risk medications” during a 2-year period (2014–2015). In total, 12,194 patients were prescribed “risk medications” pertaining to one of the three included pharmaceutical groups. Vitamin D testing and concomitant vitamin D supplementation, including differences between the included pharmaceutical groups, was explored by matching personal identification numbers.Results: Corticosteroids were prescribed to 10,003 of the patients, antiepileptic drugs to 1,101, and drugs mainly reducing vitamin D uptake to 864. Two hundred twenty-six patients were prescribed >1 “risk medication”. Seven hundred eighty-seven patients (6.5%) had been tested during the 2-year period. There were no differences regarding testing frequency between groups. Concomitant supplements were prescribed to 3,911 patients (32.1%). It was more common to be prescribed supplements when treated with corticosteroids. Vitamin D supplementation was more common among tested patients in all three groups. Women were tested and supplemented to a higher extent. The mean vitamin D level was 69 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 24.1% of tested patients, while 41.3% had optimal levels. It was less common to be deficient and more common to have optimal levels among patients prescribed corticosteroids.Conclusion: Adherence to medical guidelines comprising testing and supplementation of patients prescribed drugs causing vitamin D deficiency needs improvement in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Skeppstedt, Maria
    et al.
    The Institute for Language and Folklore, Sweden.
    Ahltorp, Magnus
    The Institute for Language and Folklore, Sweden.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Rzepka, Rafal
    Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Araki, Kenji
    Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Application of a topic model visualisation tool to a second language2019Ingår i: Book of Abstracts of the CLARIN Annual Conference 2019, Leipzig, Germany, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored adaptions required for applying a topic modelling tool to a language that is very different from the one for which the tool was originally developed. The tool, which enables text analysis on the output of topic modelling, was developed for English, and we here applied it on Japanese texts. As white space is not used for indicating word boundaries in Japanese, the texts had to be pre-tokenised and white space inserted to indicate a token segmentation, before the texts could be imported into the tool. The tool was also extended by the addition of word translations and phonetic readings to support users who are second-language speakers of Japanese.

  • 3.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV).
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Automatic classification Using DDC on the Swedish Union Catalogue2019Ingår i: European DDC Users Group, EDUG, Annual Meeting 9-10 May 2019: National Library of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Viebke, Andre
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Memeti, Suejb
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Abraham, Ajith
    Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), USA.
    CHAOS: A Parallelization Scheme for Training Convolutional Neural Networks on Intel Xeon Phi2019Ingår i: Journal of Supercomputing, ISSN 0920-8542, E-ISSN 1573-0484, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 197-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep learning is an important component of big-data analytic tools and intelligent applications, such as, self-driving cars, computer vision, speech recognition, or precision medicine. However, the training process is computationally intensive, and often requires a large amount of time if performed sequentially. Modern parallel computing systems provide the capability to reduce the required training time of deep neural networks.In this paper, we present our parallelization scheme for training convolutional neural networks (CNN) named Controlled Hogwild with Arbitrary Order of Synchronization (CHAOS). Major features of CHAOS include the support for thread and vector parallelism, non-instant updates of weight parameters during back-propagation without a significant delay, and implicit synchronization in arbitrary order. CHAOS is tailored for parallel computing systems that are accelerated with the Intel Xeon Phi. We evaluate our parallelization approach empirically using measurement techniques and performance modeling for various numbers of threads and CNN architectures. Experimental results for the MNIST dataset of handwritten digits using the total number of threads on the Xeon Phi show speedups of up to 103x compared to the execution on one thread of the Xeon Phi, 14x compared to the sequential execution on Intel Xeon E5, and 58x compared to the sequential execution on Intel Core i5.

  • 5.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). DISA.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). DISA.
    Lakaw, Alexander
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). DISA.
    Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach2019Ingår i: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, s. 326-350Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses research that charts new lingua franca English data and broadensthe scope of written elf corpora. We illustrate that, apart from the academic domain,there exist various written genres in non-native contexts in which English is used as asecond language resource alongside native languages. These uncharted data can provideus with new ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. The newapproach incorporates a broader perspective on elf than previously, seeing it as onestage in the long diachronic continuum of Englishes rather than as an entity emergingin interaction. The first part details a corpus project that produces written multi-genrecorpora suitable for real-time studies of how ongoing variability is reflected in linguafranca use. It is followed by three case studies investigating quantitative patterns ofongoing change in elf. The conclusions suggest that a diachronically-informed angleto lingua franca use offers a new vantage point not only to elf but also to ongoinggrammatical variability. It shows that the traditional and canonized way of seeing nonnativespeakers/writers is not sufficient, nor is the simplified view of norm dependency of non-native individuals.

  • 6.
    Dressler, Danny
    et al.
    AIMO AB.
    Liapota, Pavlo
    Softwerk AB.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Data Driven Human Movement Assessment2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality assessment of human movements has many of applications in diagnosis and therapy of musculoskeletal insufficiencies and high performance sport. We suggest five purely data driven assessment methods for arbitrary human movements using inexpensive 3D sensor technology. We evaluate their accuracy by comparing them against a validated digitalization of a standardized human-expert-based assessment method for deep squats. We suggest the data driven method that shows high agreement with this baseline method, requires little expertise in the human movement and no expertise in the assessment method itself. It allows for an effective and efficient, automatic and quantitative assessment of  arbitrary human movements.

  • 7.
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Efficient Dynamic Time Warping for Big Data Streams2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data '18): Workshop on Real-time & Stream Analytics in Big Data & Stream Data Management / [ed] Abe, N; Liu, H; Pu, C; Hu, X; Ahmed, N; Qiao, M; Song, Y; Kossmann, D; Liu, B; Lee, K; Tang, J; He, J; Saltz, J, IEEE, 2019, s. 2924-2929Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many common data analysis and machine learning algorithms for time series, such as classification, clustering, or dimensionality reduction, require a distance measurement between pairs of time series in order to determine their similarity. A variety of measures can be found in the literature, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, but the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance measure has occupied an important place since its early applications for the analysis and recognition of spoken word. The main disadvantage of the DTW algorithm is, however, its quadratic time and space complexity, which limits its practical use to relatively small time series. This issue is even more problematic when dealing with streaming time series that are continuously updated, since the analysis must be re-executed regularly and with strict running time constraints. In this paper, we describe enhancements to the DTW algorithm that allow it to be used efficiently in a streaming scenario by supporting an append operation for new time steps with a linear complexity when an exact, error-free DTW is needed, and even better performance when either a Sakoe-Chiba band is used, or when a sliding window is the desired range for the data. Our experiments with one synthetic and four natural data sets have shown that it outperforms other DTW implementations and the potential errors are, in general, much lower than another state-of-the-art approximated DTW technique.

  • 8.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Experimental evidence of a bandwagon effect on voting2019Ingår i: 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social influence and conformity have been thoroughly studied by social psychologists, leading political scientist to the postulation of the bandwagon effect. However, despite its relevance, the bandwagon effect, claiming that seeing pre-election polls makes votes for majority options more likely, has not been properly tested for political voting and evidence regarding this effect is mixed. Experiments either were ran in very abstract contexts only vaguely representing political voting, or only testing the effect of polls on opinions or hypothetical votes . We present an unique experimental design with more realism than previous designs, keeping the experimental control needed to make causal claims.

    We tested in an online experiment with 1115 participants from the US how votes change when pre-election polls are shown. Our experimental design is unique in that the votes of the participants have real-world consequences within their electoral area (the US), empower actual political organizations falling on a left-right spectrum, and the votes are on issues currently debated in US politics (firearms, abortion, immigration, and environment). Per issue participants chose between three different charities, representing different positions within the political spectrum. As a result of the experiment 1200$ were distributed across these charities as suggested by the vote.

    In line with the bandwagon-effect, we find clear evidence that seeing poll results makes votes for majority opinion more likely. After seeing the surveys, majority opinions received an extra ~7% of votes. In our experiment this effect did not depend on the electoral system and was robust against controlling for the gender and age of voters and the self-assessment on a left-right spectrum. However, we find evidence that under extreme-polarization (where moderate position are the least popular option) the bandwagon-effect is much weaker.

  • 9.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap forclimate change mitigation in high cost conditions2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An established research result is that people's environmental attitudes only loosely translate into actions effectively reducing their environmental impact, something known as the attitude-behaviour gap. On the other hand, correct information and environmental education are often considered a key to promote sustainability, which raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives and, conversely, when other factors have a better chance to succeed. To answer these questions, we tested the effect of environmental attitudes in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world climate mitigation consequences. We found that environmental attitudes mainly affected behaviour in a low cost situation, while their effect was reduced when the stakes were higher. This finding is consistent with the low cost hypothesis of environmental behaviour and has important consequences for the shaping of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.

  • 10.
    Pohl, Margit
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Human Factors and Multilayer Networks2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysts of specific application domains, such as experts in systems biology or social scientists, are often interested to visually analyze a number of different network structures in conjunction, for example by using various visual structures of so-called multilayer networks. From the perspective of the human analyst, a sufficient perception and, consequently, a good understanding of those visual representations of multilayer networks is a non-trivial and often challenging task. Despite this practical importance and the clearly interesting visualization challenges, only few evaluation studies exist that investigate usability and cognitive issues of complex networks or, more specifically, multilayer networks. In this position paper, we address two main goals. On the one hand, we discuss existing studies from the fields of human-computer interaction and cognitive psychology that could inform the designers of multilayer network visualization in the future. On the other hand, we formulate first tentative recommendations for the design of multilayer networks, identify open issues in this context, and clarify possible future directions of research.

  • 11.
    Hönel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Importance and Aptitude of Source code Density for Commit Classification into Maintenance Activities2019Ingår i: QRS 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Dr. David Shepherd, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commit classification, the automatic classification of the purpose of changes to software, can support the understanding and quality improvement of software and its development process. We introduce code density of a commit, a measure of the net size of a commit, as a novel feature and study how well it is suited to determine the purpose of a change. We also compare the accuracy of code-density-based classifications with existing size-based classifications. By applying standard classification models, we demonstrate the significance of code density for the accuracy of commit classification. We achieve up to 89% accuracy and a Kappa of 0.82 for the cross-project commit classification where the model is trained on one project and applied to other projects. Such highly accurate classification of the purpose of software changes helps to improve the confidence in software (process) quality analyses exploiting this classification information.

  • 12.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure2019Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, nr 3-4, s. 453-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

  • 13.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    On whom would I want to depend; humans or computers?2019Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 72, s. 219-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study in a laboratory experiment whether humans prefer to depend on decisions of others (Human-Driven Uncertainty) or states generated by a computer (Computerized Uncertainty). The experimental design introduced in this paper is unique in that it introduces Human-Driven Uncertainty such that it does not derive from a strategic context. In our experiment, Human-Driven Uncertainty derives from decisions, which were taken in a morally neutral context and in ignorance of externalities that the decisions may have on others. Our results indicate that even without strategic interaction and moral elements humans prefer Computerized to Human-Driven Uncertainty. This holds even when the distribution of outcomes under both types of uncertainty is identical. From a methodological point of view, the findings shed a critical light on behavioral research in which it is common practice to control for strategic uncertainty by comparing interaction with an artificial agent with a known strategy to interaction with humans. Outside the laboratory, our results suggest that whenever dependence on humans is changed to dependence on computers and other kinds of “artificial” decision makers, preferences with regard to these dependencies may change too.

  • 14.
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Text Visualization Revisited: The State of the Field in 20192019Ingår i: EuroVis 2019 - Posters / [ed] TBA, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Text and document data visualization is an important research field within information visualization and visual analytics with multiple application domains including digital humanities and social media, for instance. During the past five years, we have been collecting text visualization techniques described in peer-reviewed literature, categorizing them according to a detailed categorization schema, and providing the resulting manually curated collection in an online survey browser. In this poster paper, we present the updated results of analyses of this data set as of spring 2019. Compared to the recent surveys and meta-analyses that mainly focus on particular aspects and problems related to text visualization, our results provide an overview of the current state of the text visualization field and the respective research community in general.

  • 15.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Grimaldo, Francisco
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Lopez-Inesta, Emilia
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Mehmani, Bahar
    Elsevier,Netherlands.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals2019Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikel-id 322Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase transparency in science, some scholarly journals are publishing peer review reports. But it is unclear how this practice affects the peer review process. Here, we examine the effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals involved in a pilot study at Elsevier. By considering 9,220 submissions and 18,525 reviews from 2010 to 2017, we measured changes both before and during the pilot and found that publishing reports did not significantly compromise referees' willingness to review, recommendations, or turn-around times. Younger and non-academic scholars were more willing to accept to review and provided more positive and objective recommendations. Male referees tended to write more constructive reports during the pilot. Only 8.1% of referees agreed to reveal their identity in the published report. These findings suggest that open peer review does not compromise the process, at least when referees are able to protect their anonymity.

  • 16.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    DISA.
    Nordqvist, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för matematik (MA). DISA.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Towards a language independent Twitter bot detector2019Ingår i: Proceedings of 4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries: Copenhagen, March 6-8 2019 / [ed] Navarretta Costanza et al., Copenhagen: Digital Humanities in the Nordic countries , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes our work in developing an application that recognizes automatically generated tweets. The objective of this machine learning application is to increase data accuracy in sociolinguistic studies that utilize Twitter by reducing skewed sampling and inaccuracies in linguistic data. Most previous machine learning attempts to exclude bot material have been language dependent since they make use of monolingual Twitter text in their training phase. In this paper, we present a language independent approach which classifies each single tweet to be either autogenerated (AGT) or human-generated (HGT). We define an AGT as a tweet where all or parts of the natural language content is generated automatically by a bot or other type of program. In other words, while AGT/HGT refer to an individual message, the term bot refers to non-personal and automated accounts that post content to online social networks. Our approach classifies a tweet using only metadata that comes with every tweet, and we utilize those metadata parameters that are both language and country independent. The empirical part shows good success rates. Using a bilingual training set of Finnish and Swedish tweets, we correctly classified about 98.2% of all tweets in a test set using a third language (English).

  • 17.
    Dressler, Danny
    et al.
    AIMO AB.
    Liapota, Pavlo
    Softwerk AB.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Towards an automated assessment of musculoskeletal insufficiencies2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper suggests a quantitative assessment of human movements using inexpensive 3D sensor technology and evaluates its accuracy by comparing it with human expert assessments. The two assessment methods show a high agreement. To achieve this, a novel sequence alignment algorithm was developed that works for arbitrary time series.

  • 18.
    Hönel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A changeset-based approach to assess source code density and developer efficacy2018Ingår i: ICSE '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, IEEE , 2018, s. 220-221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The productivity of a (team of) developer(s) can be expressed as a ratio between effort and delivered functionality. Several different estimation models have been proposed. These are based on statistical analysis of real development projects; their accuracy depends on the number and the precision of data points. We propose a data-driven method to automate the generation of precise data points. Functionality is proportional to the code size and Lines of Code (LoC) is a fundamental metric of code size. However, code size and LoC are not well defined as they could include or exclude lines that do not affect the delivered functionality. We present a new approach to measure the density of code in software repositories. We demonstrate how the accuracy of development time spent in relation to delivered code can be improved when basing it on net-instead of the gross-size measurements. We validated our tool by studying ca. 1,650 open-source software projects.

  • 19.
    Memeti, Suejb
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Pllana, Sabri
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    A machine learning approach for accelerating DNA sequence analysis2018Ingår i: The international journal of high performance computing applications, ISSN 1094-3420, E-ISSN 1741-2846, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 363-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The DNA sequence analysis is a data and computationally intensive problem and therefore demands suitable parallel computing resources and algorithms. In this paper, we describe an optimized approach for DNA sequence analysis on a heterogeneous platform that is accelerated with the Intel Xeon Phi. Such platforms commonly comprise one or two general purpose host central processing units (CPUs) and one or more Xeon Phi devices. We present a parallel algorithm that shares the work of DNA sequence analysis between the host CPUs and the Xeon Phi device to reduce the overall analysis time. For automatic worksharing we use a supervised machine learning approach, which predicts the performance of DNA sequence analysis on the host and device and accordingly maps fractions of the DNA sequence to the host and device. We evaluate our approach empirically using real-world DNA segments for human and various animals on a heterogeneous platform that comprises two 12-core Intel Xeon E5 CPUs and an Intel Xeon Phi 7120P device with 61 cores.

  • 20.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Tshering, Gaki
    Örebro University.
    Fogelberg, Martin
    Örebro University.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kolkowska, Ella
    Örebro University.
    Klein, Gunnar O.
    Örebro University.
    An interface for IoT: feeding back health-related data to Parkinson's disease patients2018Ingår i: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, E-ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-16, artikel-id 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a user-centered design (UCD) process of an interface for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients for helping them to better manage their symptoms. The interface is designed to visualize symptom and medication information, collected by an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system, which will consist of a smartphone, electronic dosing device, wrist sensor and a bed sensor. In our work, the focus is on measuring data related to some of the main health-related quality of life aspects such as motor function, sleep, medication compliance, meal intake timing in relation to medication intake, and physical exercise. A mock-up demonstrator for the interface was developed using UCD methodology in collaboration with PD patients. The research work was performed as an iterative design and evaluation process based on interviews and observations with 11 PD patients. Additional usability evaluations were conducted with three information visualization experts. Contributions include a list of requirements for the interface, results evaluating the performance of the patients when using the demonstrator during task-based evaluation sessions as well as opinions of the experts. The list of requirements included ability of the patients to track an ideal day, so they could repeat certain activities in the future as well as determine how the scores are related to each other. The patients found the visualizations as clear and easy to understand and could successfully perform the tasks. The evaluation with experts showed that the visualizations are in line with the current standards and guidelines for the intended group of users. In conclusion, the results from this work indicate that the proposed system can be considered as a tool for assisting patients in better management of the disease by giving them insights on their own aggregated symptom and medication information. However, the actual effects of providing such feedback to patients on their health-related quality of life should be investigated in a clinical trial.

  • 21.
    Weyns, Danny
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM). KU Leuven, Austria.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Frejdestedt, Frans
    Ericsson AB.
    Thornadtsson, Johan
    Sigma Technology.
    Hulth, Anna-Karin
    Sigma Technology.
    Applying Self-Adaptation to Automate the Management of Online Documentation of Telecom Systems2018Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE): Munich, Germany, August 20-24, 2018, IEEE, 2018, s. 1375-1380Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering software-intensive systems, such as production systems, is complex as these systems are subject to various types of changes that are often difficult to anticipate before deployment. Tackling this complexity requires joint expertise from different backgrounds. In this paper we focus on the problem of maintaining online technical documentation of telecom systems. In the context of continuous deployment and ever-changing user needs, high quality of the documentation of such products is in a key concern of users. To tackle this problem, different experts worked together equipping the online documentation system with a feedback loop. This feedback loop tracks changes in the system and its context and automatically adapts the documentation accordingly. The results demonstrate that this self-adaptation approach offers a viable solution to tackle the maintainability problem of online documentation of telecom systems.

  • 22.
    Golub, Koraljka
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV).
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ardö, Anders
    Lund University.
    Automatic classification using DDC on the Swedish Union Catalogue2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS 2018) Workshop, Porto, Portugal, September 13, 2018 / [ed] Philipp Mayr, Douglas Tudhope, Joseph Busch, Koraljka Golub, Marjorie Hlava & Marcia Zeng, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. 4-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With more and more digital collections of various information re- sources becoming available, also increasing is the challenge of assigning subject index terms and classes from quality knowledge organization systems. While the ultimate purpose is to understand the value of automatically produced Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes for Swedish digital collections, the paper aims to evaluate the performance of two machine learning algorithms for Swe- dish catalogue records from the Swedish union catalogue (LIBRIS). The algo- rithms are tested on the top three hierarchical levels of the DDC. Based on a data set of 143,838 records, evaluation shows that Support Vector Machine with linear kernel outperforms Multinomial Naïve Bayes algorithm. Also, using keywords or combining titles and keywords gives better results than using only titles as input. The class imbalance where many DDC classes only have few records greatly affects classification performance: 81.37% accuracy on the training set is achieved when at least 1,000 records per class are available, and 66.13% when few records on which to train are available. Proposed future research involves an exploration of the intellectual effort put into creating the DDC to further improve the algorithm performance as commonly applied in string matching, and to test the best approach on new digital collections that do not have DDC assigned.

  • 23.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Kirchkamp, Oliver
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Bubbles in hybrid markets: How expectations about algorithmic trading affect human trading2018Ingår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 146, s. 248-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bubbles are omnipresent in lab experiments with asset markets. Most of these experiments are conducted in environments with only human traders. Since today's markets are substantially determined by algorithmic trading, we use a laboratory experiment to measure how human trading depends on the expected presence of algorithmic traders. We find that bubbles are clearly smaller when human traders expect algorithmic traders to be present.

  • 24.
    Nevalainen, Terttu
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Nevala, Minna
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Numi, Arja
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Changes in different stages: From nearing completion to completed2018Ingår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 251-256Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Yantseva, Victoria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Cooperation and conflict in segregated populations2018Ingår i: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans behavior often varies depending on the opponent’s group membership, with both positive consequences (e.g., cooperation or mutual help) and negative ones (e.g., stereotyping, oppression, or even genocide). An influential model developed by Hammond and Axelrod (HA) highlighted the emergence of macrolevel “ethnocentric cooperation” from the aggregation of microlevel interactions based on arbitrary tags signaling group membership. We extended this model to include a wider set of agents’ behaviors including the possibility of harming others. This allowed to check whether and under which conditions xenophobia can emerge beside or in alternative to ethnocentric cooperation. The model was compared to Swedish data documenting social unrest and proxies of cooperative behaviors at the municipal level. The validation results supported the model predictions on conflict but not the ones on cooperation, casting doubts on HA’s original argument.

  • 26.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Dataset fo Investing into climate change mitigation initiatives despite the risk of failure: Version 2.02018Dataset
  • 27.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 149, nr 2, s. 147-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication of risks involved in the climate change discussion is crucial and despite ambitious protection policies, the possibility of irreversible consequences actually occurring can only be diminished but never ruled out completely. We present a laboratory experiment that studies how residual risk of failure of climate change policies affects willingness to contribute to such policies. Despite prevailing views on people's risk aversion, we found that contributions were higher at least in the final part of treatments including a residual risk. We interpret this as the product of a psychological process where residual risk puts participants into an "alarm mode," keeping their contributions high. We discuss the broad practical implications this might have on the real-world communication of climate change.

  • 28.
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    DoSVis: Document Stance Visualization2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP '18) / [ed] Alexandru C. Telea, Andreas Kerren, and José Braz, SciTePress, 2018, Vol. 3, s. 168-175Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Text visualization techniques often make use of automatic text classification methods. One of such methods is stance analysis, which is concerned with detecting various aspects of the writer’s attitude towards utterances expressed in the text. Existing text visualization approaches for stance classification results are usually adapted to textual data consisting of individual utterances or short messages, and they are often designed for social media or debate monitoring tasks. In this paper, we propose a visualization approach called DoSVis (Document Stance Visualization) that focuses instead on individual text documents of a larger length. DoSVis provides an overview of multiple stance categories detected by our classifier at the utterance level as well as a detailed text view annotated with classification results, thus supporting both distant and close reading tasks. We describe our approach by discussing several application scenarios involving business reports and works of literature. 

  • 29.
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för statsvetenskap (ST).
    Ethnic diversity, out-group contacts and social trust in a high-trust society2018Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 182-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ethnic diversity is widely believed to undermine social trust, several scholars have argued that this outcome ultimately depends on the extent of high-quality contacts between diverse groups as well as the extent of equality in society. This article scrutinises these different hypotheses by exploring the association between ethnic diversity and social trust among Swedish schoolchildren. Building on data from Sweden, where legacies of equality would be expected to provide unique opportunities for building trust among diverse groups, the contribution of the article to the literature is twofold. First, it was found that contextual diversity is only weakly related to adolescents’ trust. Furthermore, while interactions revealed that a higher socio-economic level in a classroom reinforces, rather than cushions, the adverse effect, it is concluded that contextual measures obscure the micro-level dynamic underlying the association between diversity and trust in classrooms. Second, when accounting for compositional effects, and the distinction between in-group and out-group contact, the findings strongly supported the conflict hypothesis, while rejecting the contact hypothesis. The principal finding is that ethnic diversity in a classroom undermines social trust among native-born adolescents, whereas the effect is the exact opposite for minorities. In addition, social trust is only promoted if adolescents interact with members of their ethnic in-group. Because these disconcerting results were found in the high-trust context of Sweden, it is suggested that similar findings are likely in less favourable settings. The article concludes by arguing that the high levels of social trust in traditionally homogenous, but increasingly segregated, countries such as Sweden may conceal the fact that individuals primarily include others who are similar to themselves in their ‘imagined communities’.

  • 30.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). University of Sheffield, UK.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ). Kalmar County Hospital ; Linköping University.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Bath, Peter
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Factors influencing the quality of vital signs data in electronic health records: a qualitative study2018Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 27, nr 5-6, s. 1276-1286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives

    To investigate reasons for inadequate documentation of vital signs in an electronic health record.

    Background

    Monitoring vital signs is crucial to detecting and responding to patient deterioration. The ways in which vital signs are documented in electronic health records have received limited attention in the research literature. A previous study revealed that vital signs in an electronic health record were incomplete and inconsistent.

    Design

    Qualitative study.

    Methods

    Qualitative study. Data were collected by observing (68 hr) and interviewing nurses (n = 11) and doctors (n = 3), and analysed by thematic analysis to examine processes for measuring, documenting and retrieving vital signs in four clinical settings in a 353-bed hospital.

    Results

    We identified two central reasons for inadequate vital sign documentation. First, there was an absence of firm guidelines for observing patients’ vital signs, resulting in inconsistencies in the ways vital signs were recorded. Second, there was a lack of adequate facilities in the electronic health record for recording vital signs. This led to poor presentation of vital signs in the electronic health record and to staff creating paper “workarounds.”

    Conclusions

    This study demonstrated inadequate routines and poor facilities for vital sign documentation in an electronic health record, and makes an important contribution to knowledge by identifying problems and barriers that may occur. Further, it has demonstrated the need for improved facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs.

    Relevance to clinical practice

    Patient safety may have been compromised because of poor presentation of vital signs. Thus, our results emphasised the need for standardised routines for monitoring patients. In addition, designers should consult the clinical end-users to optimise facilities for electronic documentation of vital signs. This could have a positive impact on clinical practice and thus improve patient safety.

  • 31.
    Palander-Collin, Minna
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Sairio, Anni
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Säily, Tanja
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    From incipient to mid-range and beyond2018Ingår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 246-252Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Säily, Tanja
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Google Books: A shortcut to studying language variability?2018Ingår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 225-235Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Moreno, Francisco Grimaldo
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Birukou, Aliaksandr
    Springer Nature, Germany.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Hidden connections: Network effects on editorial decisions in four computer science journals2018Ingår i: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine the influence of authors’ reputation on editorial bias in scholarly journals. By looking at eight years of editorial decisions in four computer science journals, including 7179 observations on 2913 submissions, we reconstructed author/referee-submission networks. For each submission, we looked at reviewer scores and estimated the reputation of submission authors by means of their network degree. By training a Bayesian network, we estimated the potential effect of scientist reputation on editorial decisions. Results showed that more reputed authors were less likely to be rejected by editors when they submitted papers receiving negative reviews. Although these four journals were comparable for scope and areas, we found certain journal specificities in their editorial process. Our findings suggest ways to examine the editorial process in relatively similar journals without recurring to in-depth individual data, which are rarely available from scholarly journals.

  • 34.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Indefinite pronouns with singular human reference: Recessive and ongoing2018Ingår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 137-158Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Ambrosius, Robin
    et al.
    Dezember IT GmbH, Germany.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Interviews Aided with Machine Learning2018Ingår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research. BIR 2018: 17th International Conference, BIR 2018, Stockholm, Sweden, September 24-26, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Zdravkovic J., Grabis J., Nurcan S., Stirna J., Springer, 2018, Vol. 330, s. 202-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed and implemented a Computer Aided Personal Interview (CAPI) system that learns from expert interviews and can support less experienced interviewers by for example suggesting questions to ask or skip. We were particularly interested to streamline the due diligence process when estimating the value for software startups. For our design we evaluated some machine learning algorithms and their trade-offs, and in a small case study we evaluates their implementation and performance. We find that while there is room for improvement, the system can learn and recommend questions. The CAPI system can in principle be applied to any domain in which long interview sessions should be shortened without sacrificing the quality of the assessment.

  • 36.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Introducing Quality Models Based On Joint Probabilities: Introducing Quality Models Based On Joint Probabilities2018Ingår i: ICSE '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings, IEEE, 2018, s. 216-217Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-dimensional goals can be formalized in so-called quality models. Often, each dimension is assessed with a set of metrics that are not comparable; they come with different units, scale types, and distributions of values. Aggregating the metrics to a single quality score in an ad-hoc manner cannot be expected to provide a reliable basis for decision making. Therefore, aggregation needs to be mathematically well-defined and interpretable. We present such a way of defining quality models based on joint probabilities. We exemplify our approach using a quality model with 30 standard metrics assessing technical documentation quality and study ca. 20,000 real-world files. We study the effect of several tests on the independence and results show that metrics are, in general, not independent. Finally, we exemplify our suggested definition of quality models in this domain.

  • 37.
    Gimenez, Alfredo
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Gamblin, Todd
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Bhatele, Abhinav
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Schulz, Martin
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Bremer, Peer-Timo
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Hamann, Bernd
    University of California, USA.
    MemAxes: Visualization and Analytics for Characterizing Complex Memory Performance Behaviors2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 2180-2193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory performance is often a major bottleneck for high-performance computing (HPC) applications. Deepening memory hierarchies, complex memory management, and non-uniform access times have made memory performance behavior difficult to characterize, and users require novel, sophisticated tools to analyze and optimize this aspect of their codes. Existing tools target only specific factors of memory performance, such as hardware layout, allocations, or access instructions. However, today's tools do not suffice to characterize the complex relationships between these factors. Further, they require advanced expertise to be used effectively. We present MemAxes, a tool based on a novel approach for analytic-driven visualization of memory performance data. MemAxes uniquely allows users to analyze the different aspects related to memory performance by providing multiple visual contexts for a centralized dataset. We define mappings of sampled memory access data to new and existing visual metaphors, each of which enabling a user to perform different analysis tasks. We present methods to guide user interaction by scoring subsets of the data based on known performance problems. This scoring is used to provide visual cues and automatically extract clusters of interest. We designed MemAxes in collaboration with experts in HPC and demonstrate its effectiveness in case studies.

  • 38.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, MikkoLinnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR). DISA.
    Mobility, variability and changing literacies in Modern times (Preface)2018Ingår i: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0028-3754, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 13-20Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Auer, Anita
    et al.
    University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Laitinen, MikkoLinnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times: Special issue of Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, Bulletin of the Modern Language Society, volume 1192018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). Kalmar County Council.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University;Norwegian University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Intervention Development and Protocol for the Process Evaluation2018Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-12, artikel-id e21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trials of complex interventions are often criticized for being difficult to interpret because the effects of apparently similar interventions vary across studies dependent on context, targeted groups, and the delivery of the intervention. The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention aimed at improving pharmacological secondary prevention. Guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions have recently highlighted the need for better reporting of the development of interventions, including descriptions of how the intervention is assumed to work, how this theory informed the process evaluation, and how the process evaluation relates to the outcome evaluation.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe how the intervention was designed and developed. The aim of the process evaluation is to better understand how and why the intervention in the MIMeRiC trial was effective or not effective.

    METHODS: The research questions for evaluating the process are based on the conceptual model of change processes assumed in the intervention and will be analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data are used to evaluate the medication review in terms of drug-related problems, to describe how patients' beliefs about medicines are affected by the intervention, and to evaluate the quality of motivational interviewing. Qualitative data will be used to analyze whether patients experienced the intervention as intended, how cardiologists experienced the collaboration and intervention, and how the intervention affected patients' overall experience of care after coronary heart disease.

    RESULTS: The development and piloting of the intervention are described in relation to the theoretical framework. Data for the process evaluation will be collected until March 2018. Some process evaluation questions will be analyzed before, and others will be analyzed after the outcomes of the MIMeRiC RCT are known.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the framework for the design of the intervention tested in the MIMeRiC trial, development of the intervention from the pilot stage to the complete trial intervention, and the framework and methods for the process evaluation. Providing the protocol of the process evaluation allows prespecification of the processes that will be evaluated, because we hypothesize that they will determine the outcomes of the MIMeRiC trial. This protocol also constitutes a contribution to the new field of process evaluations as made explicit in health services research and clinical trials of complex interventions.

  • 42.
    Johansson Östbring, Malin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). Kalmar County Council.
    Eriksson, Tommy
    Malmö University;Norweigan University of Sciences and Technology, Norway.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Hellström, Lina
    Kalmar County Council.
    Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary Heart Disease (MIMeRiC): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating Effects on Clinical Outcomes, Adherence, and Quality of Life2018Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1-15, artikel-id e57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Preventive treatment goals for blood pressure and cholesterol levels continue to be unmet for many coronary patients. The effect of drug treatment depends on both its appropriateness and the patients' adherence to the treatment regimen. There is a need for adherence interventions that have a measurable effect on clinical outcomes.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects on treatment goals of an intervention designed to improve patient adherence and treatment quality in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. A protocol for the prespecified process evaluation of the trial is published separately.

    METHODS: The Motivational Interviewing and Medication Review in Coronary heart disease (MIMeRiC) trial is a prospective, randomized, outcomes-blinded trial designed to compare individualized follow-up by a clinical pharmacist using motivational interviewing (MI) and medication review with standard follow-up. Patients were randomized to 2 groups after stratification according to their beliefs about medicines. After standard follow-up at the cardiology clinic, patients in the intervention group are seen individually by a clinical pharmacist 2 to 5 times as required over 7 months, at the clinic. The pharmacist reviews each patient's medication and uses MI to manage any problems with prescribing and adherence. The primary study outcome is the proportion of patients who have reached the treatment goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 12 months after discharge. Secondary outcomes are the effects on patient adherence, systolic blood pressure, disease-specific quality of life, and health care use.

    RESULTS: The protocol for this study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee, Linköping, in 2013. Enrollment started in October 2013 and ended in December 2016 when 417 patients had been included. Follow-up data collection will conclude in March 2018. Publication of the primary and secondary outcome results from the MIMeRiC trial is anticipated in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MIMeRiC trial will assess the effectiveness of an intervention involving medication reviews and individualized support. The results will inform the continued development of support for this large group of patients who use preventive medicines for lifelong treatment. The design of this adherence intervention is based on a theoretical framework and is the first trial of an intervention that uses beliefs about medicines to individualize the intervention protocol.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02102503; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02102503 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6x7iUDohy).

  • 43.
    Drvenica, Ivana
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Vejmelka, Lucija
    Univ Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dekanski, Aleksandar
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Nedić, Olgica
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Peer review of reviewers: the author’s perspective2018Ingår i: Publications, E-ISSN 2304-6775, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-10, artikel-id 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the opinion of authors on the overall quality and effectiveness of reviewers' contributions to reviewed papers. We employed an on-line survey of thirteen journals which publish articles in the field of life, social or technological sciences. Responses received from 193 authors were analysed using a mixed-effects model in order to determine factors deemed the most important in the authors' evaluation of the reviewers. Qualitative content analysis of the responses to open questions was performed as well. The mixed-effects model revealed that the authors' assessment of the competence of referees strongly depended on the final editorial decision and that the speed of thereview process was influential as well. In Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) analysis on seven questions detailing authors' opinions, perception ofreview speed remained a significant predictor of the assessment. In addition, both the perceived competence and helpfulness of the reviewerssignificantly and positively affected the authors' evaluation. New models were used to re-check the value of these two factors and it was confirmed that the assessment of the competence of reviewers strongly depended on the final editorial decision.

  • 44.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Placing ELF among the varieties of English: Observations from typological profiling2018Ingår i: Modelling World Englishes in the 21st century: Assessing the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties / [ed] Sandra C. Deshors, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 109-131Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how (dis)similar ELF is structurally from the core nativevarieties of English, indigenized L2 varieties, and learner English. ELF is understoodas second language use of English in settings where the interactants do notnecessarily share a first language. The empirical part makes use of the method oftypological profiling based on aggregate structural features. This method measuresthree indices (i.e. grammaticity, analyticity, and syntheticity), and it hasbeen used previously to analyze a range of variety types but has not been appliedto the assessment of ELF. The results provide quantitative evidence that placesELF on the map and shows that, on purely structural grounds, ELF is a distinctvariety type among English varieties. Moreover, the observations show that ELFis structurally different from second language acquisition, and there is a quantitativebasis for drawing a distinction between ELF and traditional learner data.

  • 45.
    Ulan, Maria
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Hönel, Sebastian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Quality Models Inside Out: Interactive Visualization of Software Metrics by Means of Joint Probabilities2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2018 Sixth IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization, (VISSOFT), Madrid, Spain, 2018 / [ed] J. Ángel Velázquez Iturbide, Jaime Urquiza Fuentes, Andreas Kerren, and Mircea F. Lungu, IEEE, 2018, s. 65-75Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing software quality, in general, is hard; each metric has a different interpretation, scale, range of values, or measurement method. Combining these metrics automatically is especially difficult, because they measure different aspects of software quality, and creating a single global final quality score limits the evaluation of the specific quality aspects and trade-offs that exist when looking at different metrics. We present a way to visualize multiple aspects of software quality. In general, software quality can be decomposed hierarchically into characteristics, which can be assessed by various direct and indirect metrics. These characteristics are then combined and aggregated to assess the quality of the software system as a whole. We introduce an approach for quality assessment based on joint distributions of metrics values. Visualizations of these distributions allow users to explore and compare the quality metrics of software systems and their artifacts, and to detect patterns, correlations, and anomalies. Furthermore, it is possible to identify common properties and flaws, as our visualization approach provides rich interactions for visual queries to the quality models’ multivariate data. We evaluate our approach in two use cases based on: 30 real-world technical documentation projects with 20,000 XML documents, and an open source project written in Java with 1000 classes. Our results show that the proposed approach allows an analyst to detect possible causes of bad or good quality.

  • 46.
    Takács, Károly
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    Referrals and information flow in networks increase discrimination: A laboratory experiment2018Ingår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 54, s. 254-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Referrals and information flow distort market mechanisms of hiring in the labor market, but they might assist employers under asymmetric information infinding better alternatives. This paper investigates whether an impartial information flow between employers in a cyclic network structure could generate more discrimination than when no information is exchanged between employers. We set up an artificial labor market in which there was no average quality difference between two categories of workers. We asked participants to play the role of employers and examined the partiality of their hiring choices. Results showed that discrimination was prevalent in all conditions. Higher standards by the employers for the quality of workers increased discrimination as did the presence of referrals from workers. Unexpectedly, impartial information flow in a cyclic network of employers did not help to decrease discrimination. We also showed that these mechanisms interact with and subdue each other in complex ways.

  • 47.
    Österlund, Erik
    et al.
    Oracle.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Self-adaptive concurrent components2018Ingår i: Automated Software Engineering: An International Journal, ISSN 0928-8910, E-ISSN 1573-7535, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 47-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the optimum component implementation variant is sometimes difficult since it depends on the component's usage context at runtime, e.g., on the concurrency level of the application using the component, call sequences to the component, actual parameters, the hardware available etc. A conservative selection of implementation variants leads to suboptimal performance, e.g., if a component is conservatively implemented as thread-safe while during the actual execution it is only accessed from a single thread. In general, an optimal component implementation variant cannot be determined before runtime and a single optimal variant might not even exist since the usage contexts can change significantly over the runtime. We introduce self-adaptive concurrent components that automatically and dynamically change not only their internal representation and operation implementation variants but also their synchronization mechanism based on a possibly changing usage context. The most suitable variant is selected at runtime rather than at compile time. The decision is revised if the usage context changes, e.g., if a single-threaded context changes to a highly contended concurrent context. As a consequence, programmers can focus on the semantics of their systems and, e.g., conservatively use thread-safe components to ensure consistency of their data, while deferring implementation and optimization decisions to context-aware runtime optimizations. We demonstrate the effect on performance with self-adaptive concurrent queues, sets, and ordered sets. In all three cases, experimental evaluation shows close to optimal performance regardless of actual contention.

  • 48.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University.
    TapVis: A Data Visualization Approach for Assessment of Alternating Tapping Performance in Patients with Parkinson's Disease2018Ingår i: EuroVis 2018 - Short Papers / [ed] / J. Johansson, F. Sadlo, and T. Schreck, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2018, s. 55-59Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in telemedicine have been helpful for frequent monitoring of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) from remote locations and assessment of their individual symptoms and treatment-related complications. These data can be useful for helping clinicians to interpret symptom states and individually tailor the treatments by visualizing the physiological information collected by sensor-based systems. In this paper we present a visualization metaphor that represents symptom information of PD patients during tapping tests performed with a smartphone. The metaphor has been developed and evaluated with a clinician. It enabled the clinician to observe fine motor impairments and identify motor fluctuations regarding several movement aspects of patients that perform the tests from their homes.

  • 49.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The Human Sustainable Development Index2018Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators / [ed] Simon Bell and Stephen Morse, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, s. 284-293Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 50. Laitinen, Mikko
    et al.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Martins, Rafael Messias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    The Nordic Tweet Stream: A Dynamic Real-Time Monitor Corpus of Big and Rich Language Data2018Ingår i: DHN 2018 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018 / [ed] Eetu Mäkelä, Mikko Tolonen, Jouni Tuominen, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. 349-362Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS), a cross-disciplinarycorpus project of computer scientists and a group of sociolinguists interestedin language variability and in the global spread of English. Our research integratestwo types of empirical data: We not only rely on traditional structured corpusdata but also use unstructured data sources that are often big and rich inmetadata, such as Twitter streams. The NTS downloads tweets and associatedmetadata from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. We first introducesome technical aspects in creating a dynamic real-time monitor corpus, andthe following case study illustrates how the corpus could be used as empiricalevidence in sociolinguistic studies focusing on the global spread of English tomultilingual settings. The results show that English is the most frequently usedlanguage, accounting for almost a third. These results can be used to assess howwidespread English use is in the Nordic region and offer a big data perspectivethat complement previous small-scale studies. The future objectives include annotatingthe material, making it available for the scholarly community, and expandingthe geographic scope of the data stream outside Nordic region.

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