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  • 1.
    Vogel, Bahtijar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Architectural Concepts: Implications for the Design and Implementation of Web and Mobile Applications to Support Inquiry Learning2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of mobile and sensor technologies, and the design and implementation of different web-enabled visualizations to support inquiry learning in different educational scenarios encompass the main research efforts carried out in this thesis. These challenges are addressed from the perspectives of mobile and web engineering, visualization and technology-enhanced learning (TEL). Thus, the main research question investigated in this thesis relates to the identification of the main features that can guide the design and implementation of web and mobile applications to support inquiry learning in different contexts.

    This thesis consists of a collection of four publications that describe the research efforts conducted during a period of three years in relation to the Learning Ecology through Science with Global Outcomes (LETS GO) research project. The research questions investigated and the implemented technological solutions reported in these publications are closely related to the main goals and challenges of this thesis. The design and implementation of the proposed software system was guided, deployed and refined having the following aspects in mind: (1) System Requirements and Architectural Design, (2) System Implementation and Deployment, and (3) System Assessment and Web Usability Testing. During the three years of development efforts, three software prototypes were implemented utilizing service-oriented approaches. These efforts have been tested with more than 200 users in connection to several trials that took place during this period. The user trials allowed testing the software application throughout three development iterations on authentic settings, while new requirements continuously emerged in these activities. This process made it possible to verify that user requirements were adequately addressed while satisfying their needs.

    The outcomes of these activities led to the design and implementation of a system architecture that relies on service-oriented approaches and open standards. The main outcomes of this thesis are presented in the form of Architectural Concepts, as they can be used to guide the design and implementation of web and mobile applications to support inquiry learning. The idea behind architectural concepts is to provide a set of tools for supporting the overall life cycle of a software development process, such as requirements, design, implementation, deployment and testing while coping with rapid changes of technological implementations. Some of the architectural concepts identified in this thesis correspond well with the kind of support that inquiry-learning activities require. They provide solid foundations in terms of possibilities to tackle the requirements for supporting inquiry learning in a flexible manner.

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    Bahtijar Vogel, Licentiate Thesis
  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Electromagnetic dispersion modeling and analysis for HVDC power cables2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Derivation of an electromagnetic model, regarding the wave propagation in a very long (10 km or more) High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power cable, is the central part of this thesis. With an existing “perfect” electromagnetic model there are potentially a wide range of applications.The electromagnetic model is focused on frequencies between 0 and 100 kHz since higher frequencies essentially will be attenuated. An exact dispersion relation is formulated and the propagation constant is computed numerically. The dominating mode is the first Transversal Magnetic (TM) mode of order zero, denoted TM01, which is also referred to as the quasi-TEM mode. A comparison is made with the second propagating TM mode of order zero denoted TM02. The electromagnetic model is verified against real time data from Time Domain Reflection (TDR) measurements on a HVDC power cable. A mismatch calibration procedure is performed due to matching difficulties between the TDR measurement equipment and the power cable regarding the single-mode transmission line model.An example of power cable length measurements is addressed, which reveals that with a “perfect” model the length of an 80 km long power cable could be estimated to an accuracy of a few centimeters. With the present model the accuracy can be estimated to approximately 100 m.In order to understand the low-frequency wave propagation characteristics, an exact asymptotic analysis is performed. It is shown that the behavior of the propagation constant is governed by a square root of the complex frequency in the lowfrequency domain. This thesis also focuses on an analysis regarding the sensitivity of the propagation constant with respect to some of the electric parameters in the model. Variables of interest when performing the parameter sensitivity study are the real relative permittivityand the conductivity.

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  • 3.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University.
    Forest Biomass Production Potential and its Implications for Carbon Balance2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated methodological approach is used to analyse the forestbiomass production potential in the Middle Norrland region of Sweden, and itsuse to reduce carbon emissions. Forest biomass production, forest management,biomass harvest, and forest product use are analyzed in a system perspectiveconsidering the entire resource flow chains. The system-wide carbon flows as wellas avoided carbon emissions are quantified for the activities of forest biomassproduction, harvest, use and substitution of non-biomass materials and fossil fuels.Five different forest management scenarios and two biomass use alternatives aredeveloped and used in the analysis. The analysis is divided into four main parts. Inthe first part, plant biomass production is estimated using principles of plantphysiologicalprocesses and soil-water dynamics. Biomass production is comparedunder different forest management scenarios, some of which include the expectedeffects of climate change based on IPCC B2 scenario. In the second part, forestharvest potentials are estimated based on plant biomass production data andSwedish national forest inventory data for different forest managementalternatives. In the third part, soil carbon stock changes are estimated for differentlitter input levels from standing biomass and forest residues left in the forestduring the harvest operations. The fourth and final part is the estimation of carbonemissions reduction due to the substitution of fossil fuels and carbon-intensivematerials by the use of forest biomass. Forest operational activities such asregeneration, pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning, fertilisation, andharvesting are included in the analysis. The total carbon balance is calculated bysumming up the carbon stock changes in the standing biomass, carbon stockchanges in the forest soil, forest product carbon stock changes, and the substitutioneffects. Fossil carbon emissions from forest operational activities are calculated anddeducted to calculate the net total carbon balance.

    The results show that the climate change effect most likely will increaseforest biomass production over the next 100 years compared to a situation withunchanged climate. As an effect of increased biomass production, there is apossibility to increase the harvest of usable biomass. The annual forest biomassproduction and harvest can be further increased by the application of moreintensive forestry practices compared to practices currently in use. Deciduous treesare likely to increase their biomass production because of climate change effectswhereas spruce biomass is likely to increase because of implementation ofintensive forestry practices.

    Intensive forestry practices such as application of pre-commercialthinning, balanced fertilisation, and introduction of fast growing species to replaceslow growing pine stands can increase the standing biomass carbon stock. Soilcarbon stock increase is higher when only stem-wood biomass is used, comparedto whole-tree biomass use. The increase of carbon stocks in wood productsdepends largely on the magnitude of harvest and the use of the harvested biomass.The biomass substitution benefits are the largest contributor to the total carbonbalance, particularly for the intensive forest management scenario when wholetreebiomass is used and substitutes coal fuel and non-wood constructionmaterials. The results show that the climate change effect could provide up to 104Tg carbon emissions reduction, and intensive forestry practices may furtherprovide up to 132 Tg carbon emissions reduction during the next 100 years in thearea studied.

    This study shows that production forestry can be managed to balancebiomass growth and harvest in the long run, so that the forest will maintain itscapacity to increase standing biomass carbon and provide continuous harvests.Increasing standing biomass in Swedish managed forest may not be the mosteffective strategy to mitigate climate change. Storing wood products in buildingmaterials delays the carbon emissions into the atmosphere, and the wood materialin the buildings can be used as biofuel at the end of a building life-cycle tosubstitute fossil fuels.

    These findings show that the forest biomass production potential in thestudied area increases with climate change and with the application of intensiveforestry practices. Intensive forestry practice has the potential for continuousincreased biomass production which, if used to substitute fossil fuels andmaterials, could contribute significantly to net carbon emissions reductions andhelp mitigate climate change.

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  • 4.
    Jonsson, Hans
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Housing, labour market conditions and regional migration2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: Swedish micro and macro data on internal migration indicate that home-owners on average have a higher propensity to migrate to other labour market areas in response to higher unemployment and job vacancy rates than renters and tenant-owners. This is evidence that owning your home does not constrain labour mobility across labour market areas in comparison to other forms of housing tenure. The response to high local job vacancy rates indicates that migration in general is driven by differences in matching efficiency in local labour market areas rather than a pure response to high local unemployment. A third finding is that at higher levels of aggregation high unemployment is associated to high levels of home-ownership as previous researchers have found. The suggested explanation for this correlation, i.e. that home-ownership constrains mobility of individuals, however, seems falsified in Sweden by our results.

    Essay 2: Swedish micro and macro data on internal migration indicate that interregional migration responds to regional labour market conditions and individual unemployment. Migration is found to go from relatively high unemployment and high job vacancy to low unemployment and low job vacancy regions contrary to earlier research. The response to job vacancy rates indicate that migration responds to differences in local Beveridge curves and migration goes towards better matching efficiency. Unemployment on the individual level is found to increases the propensity for interregional migration.

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    Licentiate Thesis (Full Text)
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    Front Page
  • 5.
    Backman, Jyri
    University of Gothenburg.
    I skuggan av NHL: en organisationsstudie av svensk och finsk elitishockey2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna licentiatuppsats har svenska elitseriens respektive finska SM-liigas seriemodeller analyserats i ljuset av NHL:s dominans över den globala ishockeyn. Bakgrunden till problemområdet är att företrädarna för svensk respektive finsk elitishockey implementerat olikartade organisatoriska lösningar, trots att de utvecklats i kontexter med likartade sportmodeller och samhällsvillkor. Metodologiskt bygger denna licentiatuppsats på komparativa studier. Som grund för min analys har jag använt mig av dokumentanalys med inslag av rättsdogmatik. Den teoretiska ramen har utgjorts av historikern Martin Alms amerikaniseringsbegrepp samt juristen och forskaren Lars Halgreens analys om amerikaniseringen av europeisk sport. Följande frågeställningar har analyserats: Hur har elitserien respektive SM-liiga utvecklats i relation till den amerikanska respektive europeiska sportmodellen, sedan 1970-talets mitt? Vilka kännetecken kan fastställas för de respektive organisationsmodellerna? På vilka sätt skiljer respektive liknar de varandra samt vilka förutsättningar för parallellverkan kan urskiljas, dels generellt och dels specifikt i en ishockeykontext? Vilka tendenser och inslag kan skönjas i elitserien respektive SM-liiga av det faktum att ishockeyn genom åren både sportsligt och kommersiellt dominerats av NHL? Min studie visar att ishockeysporten är en spjutspets i amerikaniseringen och kommersialiseringen av nordisk sport samt att ishockeyns kommersialisering och professionalisering i någon form leder till en amerikanisering. Studien visar att företrädarna för den finska elitishockeyn haft stor autonomi präglat av förbundssplitting, vilket har sin förklaring i Finlands 1900-talshistoria. Denna självständighet har utgjort grund för den finska elitishockeyns snabba och häftiga utveckling efter andra världskriget. I jämförelse är Sverige präglat av konsensusorientering med Sveriges Riksidrottsförbund som centraladministration och paraplyorganisation för hela den svenska idrotten, även om Svenska Hockeyligan Ab på senare år fått allt större roll inom svensk ishockey. En slutsats är att Finlands högsta ishockeyserie kan anses vara en hybrid mellan den amerikanska respektive europeiska sportmodellen. Sveriges högsta ishockeyserie är å andra sidan närmare sammanlänkad med den europeiska sportmodellen, även om det finns stora kommersiella intressen inom svensk elitishockey.

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  • 6.
    Dahl, Thomas
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Problem-solving can reveal mathematical abilities: How to detect students' abilities in mathematical activities2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dahl, Thomas (2012). Problemlösning kan avslöja matematiska förmågor. Att upptäcka matematiska förmågor i en matematisk aktivitet (Problem-solving can reveal mathematical abilities: How to detect students‟ abilities in mathematical activities). Linnéuniversitetet 2012; ISBN:978-91-86983-28-4. Written in Swedish.The thesis deals with the problem of identifying and classifying components of mathematical ability in students‟ problem-solving activities. The main theoretical framework is Krutetskii‟s theory of mathematical abilities in schoolchildren. After a short historical background focusing on the question of differentiation or integration among students on the basis of their various aptitudes for studies, the theory of mathematical ability and especially the Krutetskiian theory are described. According to Krutetskii mathematical ability should be looked upon as a structure of seven or eight different components called abilities which may appear and be subject to analysis during a mathematical activity.Krutetskii used school pupils and experimental problems to establish the relevance of his structure of abilities. However, in this work the theme is approached from the opposite perspective: If a problem and an experimental person are given, which mathematical abilities will appear and in what ways do they appear in the mathematical activity? The empirical study uses three so called “rich mathematics problems” and 98 students of which 37 study at the lower secondary school, 39 at the upper secondary school and 22 at the teacher education programme. The output data is either the written outcomes of the students‟ individual work on a problem or the recordings from small groups of students solving a problem in cooperation with their peers.In order to identify and classify abilities, the separate components of mathematical ability must be interpreted and adapted to the specific problem on which the students are working. I call this process of conformation of the abilities operationalization and the question in focus is if such an operationalization can be done successfully. The results indicate that it could be done and several examples are given which show how one or several mathematical abilities may come out more or less strongly in the mathematical activity of problem solving. The results also indicate that even low or average achieving students may show significant creative abilities. Another observation from the empirical study is that creative abilities do not seem to be more abundant among upper than lower secondary students. These two observations point out possible pathways to proceed further in the study of mathematical abilities.

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  • 7.
    Svensson, Henric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Stormwater Runoff at a Wood Manufacturing Industry: Diversity in leaching pattern from different tree species2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Strength grading of structural timber and EWP laminations of Norway spruce: Development potentials2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke innebär att värdet på sågade produkter ökar. Sorteringen genomförs oftast med maskinella metoder baserade på statistiska samband mellan s.k. indikerande egenskaper och böjhållfasthet. Den indikerande egenskap (indicating property, IP) som är vanligast på den Europeiska marknaden är styvhet uttryckt som ett medelvärde för elasticitetsmodulen (modulus of elasticity, MOE) i ett virkesstycke, trots att MOE är en materialegenskap som varierar i virket.

    En betydande begränsning med dagens sorteringsmetoder är att de beskrivna sambanden är förhållandevis svaga, vilket innebär att det finns en potential för metoder med högre noggrannhet. Det huvudsakliga syftet med detta doktorandprojekt har varit att initiera en utveckling mot sådana metoder.

    Hållfasthet hos virke är beroende av förekomst av kvistar. Samtidigt har de kvistmått som fram till idag kommit till användning visat sig vara dåliga prediktorer av hållfasthet. Resultat från såväl denna som tidigare forskning har dock visat att inte bara kvistars storlek och läge, utan också variationen i fiberriktning i omgivande träfibrer, är av stor betydelse för lokal styvhet och brottförlopp under inverkan av last. Utveckling av nya IP som tar hänsyn till såväl kvistar som omgivande träfibrers egenskaper fastställda på mycket lokal nivå bedömdes vara en möjlig väg för att uppnå bättre hållfasthetssortering.

    I detta doktorandprojekt användes beröringsfri deformationsmätning för analys av det strukturella beteendet hos virkesstycken på såväl lokal som global nivå. Laserskanning utnyttjades för detektering av lokala fiberriktningar projicerade på virkesstyckenas ytor. Med utgångspunkt från skannad information, virkesdensitet och medelvärde för axiell dynamisk elasticitetsmodul kunde variationen i lokal elasticitetsmodul i virkesstyckenas längdriktning bestämmas. Genom integration över tvärsektioner längs ett virkesstycke kunde en profil över hur böjstyvheten i styva riktningen varierade i virkesstyckets längdriktning beräknas. En ny IP definierades som den lägsta elasticitetsmodulen i böjning utmed virkesstyckets längd.

    För ett urval av granplankor erhölls en förklaringsgrad på 0.68 mellan den nya indikerande egenskapen och böjhållfasthet. För smala sidobrädor avsedda att användas som lameller i våtlimmade limträbalkar var motsvarande förklaringsgrad mellan samma IP och draghållfasthet så hög som 0.77. Eftersom sidobrädorna var avsedda att användas som lameller i våtlimmade balkar genomfördes en studie avseende möjligheten att hållfasthetssortera i vått tillstånd med hjälp av axiell dynamisk excitering och vägning. Det visade sig att sådan sortering gav lika bra resultat som då samma metod användes efter torkning.

    Sambandet mellan den nya indikerande egenskapen och hållfasthet visade sig också vara beroende av på vilken lokal nivå som egenskapen beräknades. Optimum uppnåddes då den bestämdes som ett glidande medelvärde beräknat över en längd motsvarande ungefär halva virkesstyckets höjd.

    Implementering av den nya sorteringsmetoden kommer att resultera i sortering som är noggrannare än vad som kan erhållas med det stora flertalet av de sorteringsmetoder som finns idag. Den nya indikerande egenskapen kommer sannolikt att bli särskilt gynnsam att använda för utveckling av ingenjörsmässiga träprodukter bestående av smala lameller.

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    Licentiate Thesis (Full Text)
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    Front Page
  • 9.
    Hjorth, Fredrik
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Sjöfartshögskolan, SJÖ.
    Säkerhetskultur i Östersjöfart: En studie kring sjösäkerhet, säkerhetskultur och arbetsvillkor ombord på fartyg som trafikerar Östersjön2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande avhandlings centrala syfte är att undersöka säkerhetskultur ombord i fartyg vilka trafikerar Östersjön. Genomgående för fartyg i Östersjöfart är täta hamnanlöp, kustnära resor, trafik i tätt trafikerade områden samt små besättningar. Tidigare forskning antyder att det kan finnas ett systemfel i sjöfarten. Charles Perrow beskriver, till exempel, sjöfarten som ett felskapande system och menar att orsaken till detta är hur sjöfarten bedrivs. James Reason menar att värdering, attityd, kompetens och beteendemönster är fyra viktiga parametrar som definierar en säkerhetskultur. Sjöfartens säkerhetsstyrningssystem, International Safety Management Code (ISM) syftar till att en proaktiv och utvecklande säkerhetskultur skapas och upprätthålls inom sjöfarten. Resultaten av den här studien visar att sjöfarten saknar en framförhållning, ”failure of foresight”, där det proaktiva arbetssättet syftar till att incidenter och olyckor kan förutses.

    Studien har ett etnografiskt perspektiv vilket syftar till att skapa en så fullödig beskrivning över den kultur som studeras. Totalt ingår elva olika fartyg i studien, där besöken ombord varierat från någon timme till ett par dagar. Insamlad data har via en egenutvecklad analysmodell bearbetats för att försöka förklara säkerhetskulturen. I fokus i analysmodellen står hur information, feedback, ansvar, samarbete, uppföljning samt utveckling hanteras. Studien visar att det finns behov av att diskutera och förändra säkerhetskulturen i sjöfarten, både i stort som enskilt i fartygen. Det finns ett behov av vidare studier av hur säkerhetskulturen kan förbättras, samt ett behov av riktade utbildningsinsatser inom systemtänkande, organisationsteori och säkerhetskultur.

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    Licentiate Thesis (Full Text)
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    Front Page
  • 10.
    Päivärinta, Anne
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The anatomy of literary figurativeness: Mapping metaphoric coherence in Dylan Thomas's poetics of embodiment2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [fi]

    Tutkielma tarkastelee walesilaisen Dylan Thomasin (1914–1953) runoudessa esiintyviä ruumiillisuudelle rakentuvia kielikuvia. Tavoitteena on osoittaa, että ruumiillistaminen (embodiment) on paitsi Raamatun luomiskertomuksen ja syntiinlankeemuksen myytteihin pohjaava teema Thomasin runoissa, myös kielikuvien rakentumista määrittävä tekijä. Teema kytkeytyy olennaisella tavalla tutkielman teoreettiseen kehykseen: kognitiivisessa metaforateoriassa (CMT) sekä yhdistelyteoriassa (blending theory) ruumiillisuudella on merkittävä rooli todellisuuden kielellistämisessä. Deskriptiivisen poetiikan hengessä teoria ja kohdetekstit ovat jatkuvassa dialogissa keskenään. Tutkielman keskeinen käsite, käsitteellinen metafora (conceptual metaphor), määritellään skemaattiseen tietoon perustuvaksi yhdistelemisen malliksi. Toisin kuin erityisesti strukturalistisissa metaforakäsityksissä, arkikielen ja poeettisen kielen metaforien välille ei kognitiivisessa metaforateoriassa tehdä merkittävää eroa, vaan metafora on ”kognitiivisen käänteen” myötä ennen kaikkea laaja-alainen ajattelun malli. Toisaalta teorian yleisyys ja monitieteisyys tuottavat runon tulkinnassa sovellettavuuden haasteen: Thomasin monisyiset ja monesti vieraannuttamisefektiä hyödyntävät runot vaativat lukijalta vankkaa kaunokirjallista kompetenssia. Keskeistä onkin metaforan hahmottaminen nimenomaan tulkintaprosessin osana. Kognitiivisen metaforateorian ongelmakohtiin pureudutaan Thomasin runoista nousevien erityiskysymyksien kautta. Tällaisia kysymyksiä ovat metaforien verkostoituminen suhteessa muihin runokeinoihin, intertekstuaalisuus osana yhdistelyprosessia, puhujan roolin merkitys yhdistelyssä, sekä kerronnallisen koherenssin mahdollisuus metaforien verkoston tulkinnassa. Samalla kun tutkielma tarkentaa kognitiivista metaforateoriaa runojen tulkintaan soveltuvammaksi, tarkoituksena on myös näyttää, miten ruumiillistamisen teema kokee Thomasin runoissa muutoksen kohti kielellisesti vähemmän tiheää mutta semanttisesti monessa mielessä ”vaikeampaa” metaforisuutta. Kohdetekstit ovat Thomasin tuotantoa läpileikkaavasta The Collected Poems 1934–1953 -teoksesta (2000), poislukien viimeisessä alaluvussa käsitelty kuunnelma Under Milk Wood (1954). Asiasanat:kognitiivinen metaforateoria, käsitteellinen metafora, blending, ruumiillisuus, embodiment, Dylan Thomas

  • 11.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Thermal stresses in load-bearing glass-timber components2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal stresses can arise in glass used in architectonic realisations in buildings as a result of solar irradiation:  that is, sunlight.  The magnitude of these thermal stresses depends on the temperature conditions in the glass in terms of the temperature differences between warm and cold areas. 

    The work described here has verified the existence and distribution of thermal stresses in glass, both theoretically and experimentally, in a load-bearing element made of glass and wood, when exposed to incident solar radiation and various degrees of shading. 

    The finite element method was used in order to simulate the temperature distribution in the glass, together with the resulting associated thermal stresses.  Parts of these model results were then compared with results and data from experimental investigations in a solar simulator.  The experimental trials were carried out on a plain glass sheet and on a wood-framed glass sheet.  This frame assembly saw the glass fitted in a wooden frame such that its edge was flush with the edges of the frame and therefore freely exposed to the surroundings.  Two different grades of glass were analysed in the theoretical modelling and used in the experimental solar exposure:  a clear glass, with a low absorption coefficient, and a tinted glass having a relatively high absorption coefficient.  The experimental part of the work included two different finishes to the glass edge:  as-cut, with no further attention, and cut and smoothed. 

    The results from the finite element method calculations agree relatively well with the experimental results.  When simulating the temperature values and distributions, the value of the coefficient of heat transfer is an important factor in determining the results.  The coefficient can be given either a constant value, taken from a standard, or a calculated value that varies depending on the surface temperature and ambient temperature at every instant.  For the clear glass with a low coefficient of absorption, the calculated temperatures did not differ significantly depending on which method had been used to provide a value for the coefficient of heat transfer.  However, for the glass with a high coefficient of absorption, and when exposed to high solar intensity, a calculated value of coefficient of heat transfer should be used in order to arrive at relevant values of surface temperatures and stresses.  Thermal tensile stresses have more effect on the total stress level than have stresses arising from typical in-service vertical loads.

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  • 12.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Towards the Visualization of Multivariate Biochemical Networks2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     Many open challenges exist when dealing with different biological networks. They are crucial for the understanding of living beings. Complete drawings of these typically large networks usually suffer from clutter and visual overload. In order to overcome this issue, the networks are divided into single, hierarchically structured pathways. However, this subdivision makes it harder to navigate and understand the connections between pathways. Another challenge is to visualize ontologies and hierarchical clusterings, which are important tools to study high-throughput data that are automatically generated nowadays. Both of these methods produce different types of large graphs. Although these methods are used to explore the same data set, they are usually considered independently. Therefore, a combined view showing the results of both methods is desired. Additionally, real life data sets, including biological networks, usually have additional attributes related to the considered network. Investigating means to visualize such multivariate data together with the network drawing is also one of the ongoing challenges in biology, but also in other fields.

    The aim of this thesis is to lay out the foundations towards defining techniques for the visualization of multivariate biochemical networks. An overall understanding of the problems related to biochemical networks should be acquired to achieve this aim. More importantly, a contribution to the aforementioned challenges is necessary.

    Two research goals have been defined to accomplish our aim: for the first goal, we should improve shortcomings of the approach of dividing larger biological networks into smaller pieces and contribute to the problem of a visualization of different types of interconnected biological networks. The second goal is a contribution for the visualization of multivariate biological networks.

    Initially, a brief survey on techniques to visualize multivariate networks is presented in this thesis. Then, various visualization and interaction techniques are presented that address the challenges in biochemical network analysis. Three different software tools were implemented to demonstrate our research efforts. We discuss all features of our systems in detail, describe the visualization and interaction techniques as well as disadvantages and scalability issues if present.

  • 13.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Uncertainties in Mobile Learning applications: Software Architecture Challenges2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of computer technologies in our daily life is growing by leaps and bounds. One of the recent trends is the use of mobile technologies and cloud services for supporting everyday tasks and the sharing of information between users. The field of education is not absent from these developments and many organizations are adopting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in various ways for supporting teaching and learning. The field of Mobile Learning (M-Learning) offers new opportunities for carrying out collaborative educational activities in a variety of settings and situations. The use of mobile technologies for enhancing collaboration provides new opportunities but at the same time new challenges emerge.

    One of those challenges is discussed in this thesis and it con- cerns with uncertainties related to the dynamic aspects that characterized outdoor M-Learning activities. The existence of these uncertainties force software developers to make assumptions in their developments. However, these uncertainties are the cause of risks that may affect the required outcomes for M-Learning activities. Mitigations mechanisms can be developed and included to reduce the risks’ impact during the different phases of development. However, uncertainties which are present at runtime require adaptation mechanisms to mitigate the resulting risks.

    This thesis analyzes the current state of the art in self-adaptation in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and M-Learning. The results of an extensive literature survey in the field and the outcomes of the Geometry Mobile (GEM) research project are reported. A list of uncertainties in collaborative M-Learning activities and the associated risks that threaten the critical QoS outcomes for collaboration are identified and discussed. A detailed elaboration addressing mitigation mechanisms to cope with these problems is elaborated and presented. The results of these efforts provide valuable insights and the basis towards the design of a multi-agent self-adaptive architecture for multiple concerns that is illustrated with a prototype implementation. The proposed conceptual architecture is an initial cornerstone towards the creation of a decentralized distributed self-adaptive system for multiple concerns to guarantee collaboration in M-Learning. 

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  • 14.
    Bygdéus, Pia
    Lund University.
    Uttryck genom handling: Medierande verktyg i körledararbete med barn och unga2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the choir leader is a complex one. When working with a choir, choir leaders often use several aspects of their professional role. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe, verbalise and make visible the mediating tools that choir directors working with children and youth choirs use. In a longitude study, four choir leaders were observed closely while working with their choirs. They also took part in semi-structured interviews. The empirical data material consists of observation notes, reflective writing, individualinterviews, focus conversations and videotapes. Analysed from a sociocultural perspective, the result points to eight groups of mediating tools: a) a listening attitude towards the choir, with the music in focus; b) a variation in ways of working with the choir, where a variety of physical tools are used; c) the use of musical routines; d) the choir director acting as a role model in shaping musicalexpression with the group; e) a concentrated cooperation with the choir through short and expressive instructions; f) reflection in practice by planning and self-evaluation; g) storytelling, which results in memory training, stimulation of the imagination and the sharing of common experience, and h) the use of target images expressed as visions, small/big goals or jointly stated, communicated targets. The choir directors who participated in the study use a variety of approaches and ways of working as a strategy for communicating and working with child and youth choirs.

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  • 15.
    Berlin Hallrup, Leena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, HV.
    Vardagslivet i bostad med särskild service med institutionell prägel - en studie av personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning och personalens erfarenheter2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The general intention of recent Swedish legislation concerning adults with intellectual disabilities has been to provide care and support for this group in small settings in the community. It has been shown that adults with intellectual disabilities are better equipped to exert influence over their own care and support when living in group homes in the community and other forms of independent living as opposed to large institutional settings. Recent research on this group has to a great extent concerned the study of how life is in small group homes for this group and has highlighted obstacles preventing them from participating in society. Previous research has indicated that living in institutional settings makes it difficult for them to exert influence on their lives. A small number of large institutional care settings still exist, however, in Sweden and there is a dearth of research that focuses on how adults with intellectual disabilities experience everyday life in such settings. In addition, little research has been carried out on the role of the care workers who work in such settings. The aim of this research has thus been to describe the experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities and care workers of living and working in an institutional care setting in Sweden.

     

    An ethnographic approach including participant observation and in-depth interviews was used to gain a deeper understanding of how adults with intellectual disabilities and staff experience their everyday life in an institutional care setting. The result showed that the residents experienced;  I) a sense of belonging, which was connected to having access to a private sphere and being part of social togetherness;  II) a feeling of insecurity in relation to other residents and care workers;  III) a longing for independence and a desire to get away. The study of the staff revealed three main themes that represent their approach; I) creating a family-like atmosphere; II) making the everyday life ordered and structured; III) being exposed to stress factors.

     

    The results revealed the importance of paying close attention to what adults with intellectual disabilities and their care workers have to say about their everyday lives when living and working in an institutional care setting. It may be concluded that adults living in an institutional care setting experience their everyday lives in existential terms such as belonging, insecurity and longing. For caring science and in caring practices of people with intellectual disabilities, it is not satisfactory that residents experience such an insecure existence in a care setting. In order to provide individual care and support, staff need to be more open and vigilant as to the residents’ vulnerability and be able to guide them in matters  concerning emotional aspects. It was seen that care workers in their everyday work with residents in an institutional care setting used experiences from their personal lives in situations where they lacked formal care training. Such experiences may have helped to create meaningfulness but at the same time risked preserving inequality and gender stereotyping. In order to avoid these risks care workers should receive clear directives from the management about the care objectives, and guidelines about how best to care for adults with intellectual disabilities and offer them individualized care. Furthermore, it also became evident that care workers need additional support, training and opportunities for reflection to cope with their complex work situation. The results of this research can contribute to a greater insight and deeper knowledge of what adults with intellectual disabilities experience in an institutional care setting in the 2000’s , enabling the staff and management to further enhance the well-being for this group of individuals. The findings can provide feedback to staff, managers and researchers working in the intellectual disabilities field.

     

    Keywords: adults with intellectual disabilities, care, care workers, ethnography, institutional care setting, Sweden

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