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  • 1.
    Aakre, Nina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattningar av lärande till yrkesprofession: -en fenomenografisk studie.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Anestesisjuksköterskan arbetar i en komplex vårdmiljö med självständigt ansvar för patientens anestesi under operation och förväntas bedöma och hantera komplexa vårdsituationer. Lärande till yrkesprofession sker delvis under utbildningen till specialistsjuksköterska inom anestesi och delvis inom ramen för det yrkeskollektiv som anestesisjuksköterskan arbetar. För att uppnå kompetens som anestesisjuksköterska krävs vissa komponenter i lärandet till yrkesprofession.

    Syfte: Att beskriva anestesisjuksköterskors uppfattningar av lärandet till yrkesprofession.

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ design med fenomenografisk forskningsansats.  Anestesisjuksköterskor från en operationsavdelning i sydöstra Sverige har intervjuats kring temat lärande till yrkesprofession. Intervjumaterialet har analyserats enligt fenomenografisk metod.

    Resultat: Fyra beskrivningskategorier som handlade om lärande till yrkesprofession identifierades. Att lära sig utföra anestesisjukvård, att lära sig tänka och agera som anestesisjuksköterska, att lära sig bemöta patienter och att lära sig samarbeta.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att för att lära sig vårda en patient i en anestesikontext krävs vissa komponenter. Det är viktigt att vara medveten om dessa komponenter när studenter eller nyanställda skall lära sig yrkesprofessionen. Genom klinisk träning och teoretisk förankring kan anestesisjuksköterskan lära sig vårda komplexa sjukdomstillstånd där patientens säkerhet och integritet bibehålls.

  • 2.
    Abada, Mariam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka problem finns det med förfalskade läkemedel?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världsmarknaden för läkemedlen beräknades år 2011 till 900 miljarder US$ enligt IMS-health. Marknaden för illegala läkemedel uppskattas vara värd mellan 75-200 miljarder dollar. I Sverige uppskattas den illegala läkemedelsmarknaden till motsvarande ≤0,5 %. Straffet för insmuggling av läkemedel till Sverige är böter eller max 2 års fängelse. Tullverket räknar med att man endast hittar 10 % av det som smugglas in. I andra länder kan straffet variera mellan böter (ekonomisk brottslighet i Afrika) till dödsstraff i Kina.

    I Utvecklingsländerna uppskattas 10-30 % av alla läkemedel som säljs vara förfalskade, jmf 1 % I-länderna. l. Förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel har många allvarliga konsekvenser på människor som exempelvis, utebliven effekt, toxiska reaktioner, förgiftningar, som kan i värsta fall leda till döden. Ett annat alvarligt problem är resistensutveckling, ökad spridning av smittsamammasjukdomar som exempel, tuberkulos och/ eller HIV/AIDS.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att besvara frågan: Vilka problem ger den ökande förekomsten av förfalskade läkemedel i samhället. Undersökningen fokuserar på livstidsläkemedel, dvs ett läkemedel en person måste ta resten av sitt liv för behandling av sin kroniska sjukdom.

    För att komma till rätta med de problem, som förfalskade läkemedel, skapar krävs ett mer utvecklat samarbete mellan olika läkemedelsmyndigheter, läkemedelsföretag, internationella polisorganisationer, tull m.fl. Arbetet med att utveckla förpackningar som är svåra att förfalska bör intensifieras. Straffsatser bör kanske ses över. Det är viktigt att öka medvetandet bland allmänheten om risker med att köpa läkemedel utanför apotek (t ex via nätet).

  • 3.
    Abarca-Guerrero, Lilliana
    et al.
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Maas, Ger
    Univ Tecnol Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Desafíos en la gestión de residuos sólidos para las ciudades de países en desarrollo [Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries]2015In: Tecnología en Marcha, ISSN 0379-3982, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 141-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  • 4.
    Abdo, Jasmin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Tidig insulinbehandling för typ II diabetiker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Diabetes mellitus är en av de vanligaste endokrina sjukdomarna och de vanligaste formerna är typ I och typ II. Idag har ca 350 000 personer i Sverige diabetes och av dessa har 85-90% diabetes typ II. Typ II diabetes börjar med insulinresistens och så småningom blir det avtagande funktion av β- cellerna vilket leder till nedsatt insulinkänslighet och främsta orsakerna till typ II diabetes är övervikt och fetma. Det finns olika behandlingsrekommendationer för att behandla typ II diabetiker för att minska att sena komplikationer uppstår. Främst genom livsstilsförändringar som kost och fysisk aktivitet, men då dessa inte räcker till kan perorala läkemedel komma i efterhand och om inte det heller ger tillräcklig effekt kan insulinbehandling sättas in. Ca 50 % av typ II diabetiker får insulin efter 10 års sjukdom.

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka om det finns en god implikation av att sätta in insulin tidigare än det som redan är rekommenderat.

    Denna litteraturstudie är baserad på artiklar hämtade från databasen PubMed. Sammanlagt har fem randomiserade kontrollerade studier granskats.

    Resultaten visar att en HbA1c-sänkning med ca 1,5 - 2,0 % kan erhållas samt också en bibehållen β- cellfunktion vid insättning av insulin. Insulinbehandlingen bör sättas in så snart HbA1c går över 7,5 % istället för att vänta en viss tid. Den kan sättas in hos behandlingsnaiva personer med framträdande symtom eftersom insulin fortfarande sänker HbA1c och det finns inget som tyder på att insulin inte kan sättas in tidigare än det som är rekommenderat.

    Slutsatsen som dras är att stödja intensiv behandling som gör att HbA1c hålls på en så låg nivå det är möjligt och när målvärden för HbA1c inte kan hållas kan insulin med fördel sättas in hos typ II diabetiker som behandlats med perorala antidiabetika.

  • 5.
    Abdo, Shindar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skillnaden mellan ögonen av phenol red thread och Schirmers test2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien var att se om det är någon skillnad mellan ögonen när man utför testen Phenol röd tråd (PRTT) och Schirmers test, och därefter se om det visar någon skillnad mellan de två tester när man diagnostiserar om torra ögon.

    Metod: 30 personer deltog i studien. Innan mätningar fyllde försökpersoner i informationsamtycke och enkäten Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). De undersöktes med PRTT först och därefter utfördes Schirmers test. PRTT utfördes på 20 sekunder, det börjades alltid med höger öga, torka upp nedre fornix med en bomullspinne och till sist mättes den fuktiga delen. Schirmers test utfördes på 5 minuter. Testet består av en pappersremsa som placeras över undre ögonlocket. Resultatet kan läsas av remsan direkt.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att det inte fanns någon skillnad mellan ögonen och ingen signifikant skillnad mellan olika metoder. Studien visar att det inte fanns samband mellan någon av de två tester och OSDI symtomenkät.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av denna studie var att det inte fanns någon skillnad mellan höger respektiv vänster öga när metoder Schirmers test och phenol röd tråd test utfördes. För tydligare resultat av de två tester krävs större urvalsgrupp.

  • 6.
    Abdul Rahim, Ranya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kommunikationsproblem på svenska apotek: Förekomst och orsak2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word communication originates from the Latin word communicare that means to do something in common. When human beings communicate with each other, we share thoughts, emotions, values and actions. The foundation in communication is found within the interpersonal communication, which is the act of communication between two persons. All types of communications include of verbal and nonverbal acts of communication.

    The verbal communication consists of words either in speech or writing, the nonverbal act implies gestures, frequency of the tone and facial expressions.

    Within the pharmaceutical profession, good communication between the pharmacist and the customer is important and can affect the customer’s health and quality of life in both direct as well as indirect ways. In recent years, the pharmacist's role in the pharmacy has drastically changed. Nowadays the care of the customer has gained more significance than before. To improve customer health and quality of life it is important that the pharmacist acts to promote a good relationship with the customer and the foundation for this relationship should be built on good terms of communication.

    The purpose of this study was to study how common it is with communication errors between pharmacist and customer, and to demonstrate probable underlying causes. Secondary questions were, how is the drug advice the pharmacist provides affected by communication errors?

    Collection of data for the study was done with structured observation charts, where the customer and pharmacist were strictly observed. A total of 316 meetings were observed and the data collected referred to prescriptions. In more than one-third of the observed meetings, there were communication errors between the pharmacist and the customer. Communication errors that arose concerned lack of eye contact, language barriers, choice of questions, background noise from colleagues and customers and discussions from generic exchanges. To reduce future communication errors, the pharmacist's actions should be strengthened, such as eye contact, clear follow-up questions and improved feedback.

  • 7.
    Abdulhadi, Nadia M. Noor
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst ; Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed Ali
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Oman.
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst ; Uppsala University.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Doctors' and nurses' views on patient care for type 2 diabetes: an interview study in primary health care in Oman2013In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 258-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aimed at exploring the experiences of primary health-care providers of their encounters with patients with type 2 diabetes, and their preferences and suggestions for future improvement of diabetes care. Background: Barriers to good diabetes care could be related to problems from health-care providers' side, patients' side or the healthcare system of the country. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes has become a huge challenge in Oman, where the prevalence has increased to high levels. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 health-care professionals, 19 doctors and seven nurses, who worked in primary health care in Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Findings: Organizational barriers and barriers related to patients and healthcare providers were identified. These included workload and lack of teamwork approach. Poor patients' management adherence and influence of culture on their attitudes towards illness were identified. From the providers' side, language barriers, providers' frustration and aggressive attitudes towards the patients were reflected. Decreasing the workload, availability of competent teams with diabetes specialist nurses and continuity of care were suggested. Furthermore, changing professional behaviours towards a more patient-centred approach and need for health education to the patients, especially on self-management, were addressed. Appropriate training for health-care providers in communication skills with emphasis on self-care education and individualization of care according to each patient's needs are important for improvement of diabetes care in Oman.

  • 8.
    Abdulsalam Muhammednouri, Hevi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan Entresto ersätta ACE-hämmare vid hjärtsvikt och är den behandlingen optimal med avseende på farmakogenetiken?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around 200,000–250,000 people suffer from heart failure in Sweden. Heart failure is a condition of impaired heart pumping capacity. The condition results in reduced quality of life, high morbidity and mortality and there have been many attempts to find suitable drug targets to minimize these consequences. Neurohormonal compensatory mechanisms, such as renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, aim to restore blood pressure to normal levels again but in the long-term it also increases the stress on the heart. The hormone angiotensin II gets activated through this mechanism and is the reason behind the increased stress. Therefore, the hormone has been an important drug target for ACE inhibitors (ACEI) and AT1 blockers (ARB) to prevent antihypertensive effects. The enzyme neprilysin is another drug target whose inhibition is accomplished by using neprilysin inhibitors. Entresto® is a new medication that contains a neprilysin inhibitor and an ARB. The neprilysin inhibitory component, sacubitril, is activated by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) but mutations in the gene encoding CES1 may cause a non-therapeutic effect. Additionally, patients with wild-type CES1 may risk unacceptable side effects such as rhabdomyolysis and Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study is to investigate whether replacement of ACE inhibitors with Entresto is optimal in heart failure with regard to pharmacogenetics.

    This study is organized as a literature study in which five scientific articles (I-V) were analyzed and selected from PubMed database and through Linnaeus University's search engine, OneSearch. The studies show that Entresto is superior to enalapril in reducing the risk for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. However, the effects of Entresto is dependent on a functioning CES1 gene because mutations like G143E cause a non-therapeutic effect. Enalapril has shown to be independent of such mutations.

    Theoretically, inhibition of neprilysin may cause accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), which associates with Alzheimer's disease. Study IV, with the purpose to investigate the effect of Entresto on Aβ isoforms, showed no significant change in Aβ concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. However, further studies with longer duration were suggested. On the other hand, study V shows that a combination of Entresto and statins increases the plasma concentration of statins. That in turn would increase the risk of a development of rhabdomyolysis. The conclusion is that it is not optimal to replace enalapril with Entresto in heart failure with regard to pharmacogenetics.

  • 9.
    Abellan-Flos, Marta
    et al.
    Univ Namur, Belgium;PSL Univ, France.
    Timmer, Brian J. J.
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden.
    Altun, Samuel
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Aastrup, Teodor
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Vincent, Stephane P.
    Univ Namur, Belgium.
    Ramström, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Univ Massachusetts, USA.
    QCM sensing of multivalent interactions between lectins and well-defined glycosylated nanoplatforms2019In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 139, article id 111328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methodology has been adopted to unravel important factors contributing to the "cluster glycoside effect" observed in carbohydrate-lectin interactions. Well-defined, glycosylated nanostructures of precise sizes, geometries and functionalization patterns were designed and synthesized, and applied to analysis of the interaction kinetics and thermodynamics with immobilized lectins. The nanostructures were based on Borromean rings, dodecaamine cages, and fullerenes, each of which carrying a defined number of carbohydrate ligands at precise locations. The synthesis of the Borromeates and dodecaamine cages was easily adjustable due to the modular assembly of the structures, resulting in variations in presentation mode. The binding properties of the glycosylated nanoplatforms were evaluated using flow-through QCM technology, as well as hemagglutination inhibition assays, and compared with dodecaglycosylated fullerenes and a monovalent reference. With the QCM setup, the association and dissociation rate constants and the associated equilibrium constants of the interactions could be estimated, and the results used to delineate the multivalency effects of the lectin-nanostructure interactions.

  • 10.
    Abiib, Amina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Probiotika som behandling vid IBS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with an unclear etiology and pathophysiology. IBS is a common disorder in the Western population and is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/ discomfort, bloating, flatulence, diarrhea and/ or constipation. There is currently no cure for IBS, but the interest in probiotics as an option of treatment has recently increased. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, provide a health benefit on the host, and are believed to have a symptomatic effect in IBS. Probiotics have therefore been of interest for the treatment in IBS.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether probiotics have a therapeutic effect and if it could be used as a treatment for IBS.

    Method: Five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were reviewed that examined the therapeutic effect of different probiotics in the IBS-patients. Articles were obtained through searches in the medical database PubMed, during the month of February 2016.

    Results: Four of the five studies showed a significant improvement of symptoms especially in abdominal pain/ discomfort. The best results were seen in a study that investigated the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. Three of the five studies showed a significant improvement in quality of life (QOL) of the subjects in the study. One of the five studies which examined the effect of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, there was no significant difference between E.coli (probiotics) and placebo.

    Conclusion: There is reasonable evidence that treatment with certain probiotics might provide improvement in symptoms of abdominal pain/ discomfort, and increase patients quality of life based on the five studies. Further studies are required to determine the most effective probiotic, dose and duration of IBS-treatment.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson Emelie, Salomonsson Elsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse och föreställningar av mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relarion kommer mer frekvent i kontakt med sjukvården än andra kvinnor. Flera kvinnor som söker vård för sina skador identifieras aldrig som offer för våld i nära relation. Detta beror på att flera sjuksköterskor saknar utbildning i att identifiera att våld förekommer. Det finns en osäkerhet hos sjuksköterskan i mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor som gör att mötet med vården av kvinnan påverkas.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskans upplevelse och föreställningar av mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor inom hälso-och sjukvården.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie där sex kvalitativa artiklar och två kvantitativa artiklar har granskats, analyserats och kategoriserats.

    Resultat: Det fanns en tydlig emotionell påverkan hos sjuksköterskor under och efter mötet med våldsutsatta kvinnor. En påverkan som ibland var så stor att det påverkade deras privatliv. Det visade sig även finnas ett stort utbildningsbehov att förbättra vården för våldsutsatta kvinnor och få sjuksköterskor att känna sig tryggare i rollen som vårdare för dessa kvinnor.

    Slutsats: Det visade sig finnas ett ökat utbildningsbehov för sjuksköterskor i hur de ska bemöta och vårda kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relationer. Det fanns även ett behov av att bearbeta de känslor sjuksköterskan upplevde i mötet med kvinnorna. 

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

  • 13.
    Abromaitis, V.
    et al.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania ; Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Racys, V.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    van der Marel, P.
    WLN, Netherlands.
    Ni, Gaofeng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wolthuizen, A. L.
    Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Meulepas, R. J. W.
    Wetsus, European Ctr Excellence Sustainable Water Technol, Netherlands.
    Effect of shear stress and carbon surface roughness on bioregeneration and performance of suspended versus attached biomass in metoprolol-loaded biological activated carbon systems2017In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 317, p. 503-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bioregeneration of activated carbon (AC) in biological activated carbon (BAC) systems is limited by sorption-desorption hysteresis and transport between the adsorbent and biomass. In this study, we investigated these limitations and whether a biofilm covering the AC surface is required. Consequently, BAC reactors were operated at different shear stress and AC surface smoothness, since this may affect biofilm formation. The experiments were carried out in BAC and blank reactors treating synthetic wastewater containing the pharmaceutical metoprolol. After start-up, all reactors removed metoprolol completely; however, after 840 h the removal dropped due to saturation of the AC. In the blank reactors, the removal dropped to 0% while in the BAC reactors removal recovered to >99%, due to increased biological activity. During the initial phase, the metoprolol was adsorbed, rather than biodegraded. At the end, the AC from the BAC reactors had higher pore volume and sorption capacity than from the blank reactors, showing that the AC had been bioregenerated. At high shear (G = 25 s(-1)), the rough AC granules (R-a = 13 mu m) were covered with a 50-400 gm thick biofilm and the total protein content of the biofilm was 2.6 mg/gAC, while at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) the rough AC granules were only partly covered. The biofilm formation at lower shear (G = 8.8 s(-1)) on smooth AC granules (R-a = 1.6 mu m) was negligible. However, due to the presence of suspended biomass the reactor performance or bioregeneration were not reduced. This showed that direct contact between the AC and biomass was not essential in mixed BAC systems. The microbial analyses of the suspended biomass and the biofilm on AC surface indicated that metoprolol was mainly biodegraded in suspension. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Abudaya, Mohammed
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Palestine.
    Ulman, Aylin
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Salah, Jehad
    Minist Agr, Palestine.
    Fernando, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Manta Trust, UK;Blue Resources Trust, Sri Lanka.
    Wor, Catarina
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    di Sciara, Giuseppe Notarbartolo
    Tethys Res Inst, Italy.
    Speak of the devil ray (Mobula mobular) fishery in Gaza2018In: Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, ISSN 0960-3166, E-ISSN 1573-5184, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the giant devil ray (Mobula mobular), an endangered species endemic to the Mediterranean. Gaza is the only region where this species is targeted, hence, this fishery was studied to address the knowledge gap on fishery interactions, species behavior, and life-history traits. Devil rays have been frequenting this maritime area for at least the past 50 years for a short window from February to April. Landings are reported from 2005 to 2016, along with disc-width (DW) measurements for recent years. A total of 304 M. mobular (over 90% males) were landed in Gaza from 2014 to 2016, most which were mature and appeared to be mating (over 90% of males had sperm-filled claspers), providing critical insight that this area may serve as a mating ground. Yearly landings are shown here to closely match the allowed fishing distance from shore, which changes regularly, indicating that the rays are normally caught between 6 and 12 n.m. offshore. Width-weight conversion parameters are calculated for the first time for this species: a = 2.68 x 10(-6) and b = 4.39. Fresh protein drives this local fishery, as food security is a major issue. An export market for gill plates was reported intermittently, and is no longer possible due to strict trade restrictions. We highlight the lack of awareness of fishers regarding the IUCN's Red List 'Endangered' status of devil rays, and stress the urgent need for national protection of this species, particularly due to the species' very slow life-history traits and probable usage of this area as a mating ground.

  • 15.
    Acuna, Lillian G.
    et al.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Pablo Cardenas, Juan
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Covarrubias, Paulo C.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Jose Haristoy, Juan
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Flores, Rodrigo
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Nuñez, Harold
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Riadi, Gonzalo
    Universidad de Talca, Chile.
    Shmaryahu, Amir
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile.
    Valdes, Jorge
    Center for Systems Biotechnology, Chile.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rawlings, Douglas E.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Banfield, Jillian F.
    University of California, USA.
    Holmes, David S.
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Quatrini, Raquel
    Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Chile ; Universidad Andres Bello, Chile.
    Architecture and Gene Repertoire of the Flexible Genome of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, article id e78237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acidithiobacillus caldus is a sulfur oxidizing extreme acidophile and the only known mesothermophile within the Acidithiobacillales. As such, it is one of the preferred microbes for mineral bioprocessing at moderately high temperatures. In this study, we explore the genomic diversity of A. caldus strains using a combination of bioinformatic and experimental techniques, thus contributing first insights into the elucidation of the species pangenome. Principal Findings: Comparative sequence analysis of A. caldus ATCC 51756 and SM-1 indicate that, despite sharing a conserved and highly syntenic genomic core, both strains have unique gene complements encompassing nearly 20% of their respective genomes. The differential gene complement of each strain is distributed between the chromosomal compartment, one megaplasmid and a variable number of smaller plasmids, and is directly associated to a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE). These include integrative conjugative and mobilizable elements, genomic islands and insertion sequences. Some of the accessory functions associated to these MGEs have been linked previously to the flexible gene pool in microorganisms inhabiting completely different econiches. Yet, others had not been unambiguously mapped to the flexible gene pool prior to this report and clearly reflect strain-specific adaption to local environmental conditions. Significance: For many years, and because of DNA instability at low pH and recurrent failure to genetically transform acidophilic bacteria, gene transfer in acidic environments was considered negligible. Findings presented herein imply that a more or less conserved pool of actively excising MGEs occurs in the A. caldus population and point to a greater frequency of gene exchange in this econiche than previously recognized. Also, the data suggest that these elements endow the species with capacities to withstand the diverse abiotic and biotic stresses of natural environments, in particular those associated with its extreme econiche.

  • 16.
    Adbo, Karina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vidal Carulla, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Designing play-based learning chemistry activities in the preschool environment2019In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 542-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the design of play-based learning activities for chemistry in preschool. Viewing chemistry as a part of our past and present culture instead of as a subject, provides the backdrop for a more holistic approach to chemistry within this specific environment. A cultural-historical perspective, together with scaffolding, emergent science skills and sustained shared thinking, made up the framework for the design of the learning activities. Results show that when scaffolding and emergent science skills are used within the design, they provide good support for both the content and the teacher in the actual learning situation. Working with scaffolding was also beneficial for professional development. However, for a progressive and inclusive activity design, it is essential to take into account aspects of the immediate environment and methods for direct evaluation.

  • 17.
    Adel Ali, Sura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kan manuell analys av Csv-EPK ersättas med automatiserad analys på Sysmex XN-1000?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of erythrocyte count in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-EPC) is used to exclude various intracranial hemorrhage, especially subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH means a bleeding between the pia mater and arachnoidea which occurs due to rupture of an aneurysm in the subarachnoid space. Manual counting of erythrocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid with Bürkers chamber and microscopy has been the gold standard for the past decades, but the manual method is time consuming and requires great experience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if manual analysis of  CSF-EPC with counting chamber, and light microscopy can be replaced by automated analysis of CSF-EPC with Hematology Analyzer XN-1000 (Sysmex). Fortyeight cerebrospinal fluid samples with various concentrations of erythrocytes ware prepared by diluting known concentration of erythrocytes in cell-free CSF. Prepared CSF-samples with added erythrocytes were analyzed first on the XN-1000. Thereafter, manual counting of erythrocytes was performed using Bürkers counting chamber. A linear regression was established to describe the correlation between the automated analysis of the CSF-EPC and manual analysis of the CSF-EPC. Imprecision in the analysis of the CSF-EPC on the XN-1000 (Sysmex) was assessed by within-run imprecision. A very good correlation (r = 0.999) was found between the XN-1000 and manual counting. For results in the lower range, 100 - 5000 (106/L), correlation was also good (r = 0.997). The coefficient of variation was 19,8 % at CSF-EPC of 370 x 106/L and 3.1 % at CSF-EPC of 25 950 x 106/L. The sensitivity for analysis of CSF-EPC on XN-1000 was 370 x 106/L. The conclusion is that the analysis of Csv-EPC on XN-1000 can be used for clinical diagnostics of CSF- samples. However, it should be noted that XN-1000 has poor sensitivity for low CSF-EPC values < 370 x 106/L. To ensure high diagnostic quality even in CSF-samples with low erythrocyte counts are recommended a reference limit of < 500 x 106/L as a practical cut off for supplemental microscopic counting in routine healthcare laboratories.

     

     

     

  • 18.
    Adell, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Isolering och identifiering av bakterie som orsakar missfärgning på kött2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meat is skeletal muscle from different animals, such as pigs, cattle or sheep. Pseudomonas are bacteria that may cause food spoilage. The bacteria live in our environment and can cause problems due to biofilm formation in hospitals and industries. The slaughterhouse KLS Ugglarps has found that some pig cuttings have become discolored with at blue color and they wanted to find out what caused it. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had previously been found in the production area and was suspected as the cause.Meat, with and without discoloration, was investigated using various microbiological methods to see which bacterium cause the blue color. Different colonies were isolated and identified. The methods used were API 20NE, gram staining and oxidation test. A reference isolate was used as control. It was found that it was not P. aeruginosa but instead Pseudomonas fluorescens that caused the blue color. This was confirmed by applying the isolated bacteria to sterile meat and the blue color did appear after incubation. A screening for the source of contamination was performed in the production area to see if the bacterium could be found before start-up and during production. The samples taken showed that there were bacteria at both time points and that the production surfaces at the beginning of the production line were more prone to contamination than the other surfaces.

  • 19.
    Adevåg Guagliano, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av delaktighet i vård i livets slut: En systematisk litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care is performed throughout the continuum of care, from home care to specialized care in an institution. Palliative care is buildt on a holistic approach that is secured through patient-centered care where the patient's participation is central.

    Objective: Highlighting adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care.

    Method: The study is a systematic literature review mainly based on the methodology described by Forsberg and Wengström (2013).

    Results: The theme opportunities and obstacles in the experience of their participation emerged, with four categories below: the management of their disease situation, overwhelming new living situations, be seen as an individual and not to be seen as an                                    individual. It was discovered that patients in the late stage palliative phase found opportunities to participate in their care by gathering knowledge about their disease and their future. This knowledge created understanding, giving them the tools to manage and participate in their care. An obstacle to patients’ participation appeared to be when the patients experienced neglect by health professionals.

    Conclusion: Adult patients' experiences of participation when they are cared for in late stage palliative care cannot be described as a single phenomenon, but needs to be described by an integrated approach of the patient. The unique patient forms a dynamic whole, and needs to be treated as the unique individual he/she is.

  • 20.
    Adler, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Är det säkert att byta från originalläkemedlet för inflixmab, Remicade®, till CT-P13 och är CT-P13 ekvivalent med Remicade® med avseende på effekt, säkerhet, immunogenicitet och farmakokinetik?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biologic drugs are effective against numerous diseases but they are very expensive. The European Medicines Agency approved sales of biosimilars in 2006. Biosimilars are copies of already approved biologic drugs, but they are not considered to be exact copies like generic drugs are. Only living organisms can produce substances with the complexity of biologic drugs. Differences in pH, enviroment, and the purification process during the production of biologic drugs can affect the structure of the final product. Differences in the production processes can affect properties like the glycosylation pattern of the molecules which in turn can influence the effect of the drug. This is the reason biosimilars are not considered as exact copies of the original drug. The patent for Remicade® a TNF inhibitor expired in 2015 which led to the introduction of the first biosimilar for monoclonal antibodies (CT-P13) on the European market. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence between CT-P13 and the original drug for infliximab, Remicade®. And to investigate if it was safe to switch from Remicade to CT-P13.

     

    The articles for the study were collected from PubMed, a medical and bioscientific database, and five studies were chosen for further analysis. The articles were not limited to a specific indication for infliximab, so the studies included patients with rhematoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The short-term equivalence between Remicade® and CT-P13 was analysed in the studies but more studies including long-term equivalence are needed. Based on the primary endpoints in the studies it seems to be safe to switch from Remicade® to CT-P13 and short-term equivalence seems to exist between CT-P13 and Remicade® considering the efficacy, safety profile, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics equivalence in patients with RA, AS and IBD.

  • 21.
    Adolfsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Neureuther, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Se mig för den jag är - Jag är också en människa: Hur självskadebeteende påverkar kvinnans livsvärld - en studie gjord på bloggar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakrund:I Sverige har självskadebeteende hos kvinnor i åldrarna 15-24 år ökat avsevärt sedan 90-talet fram till 2007. Självskadebeteende definieras med att medvetet skada sin egen kropp. Det kan upplevas som ångestlindrande men många har också i avsikt att ta sitt eget liv. Syfte: Syftet är att belysa unga kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med självskadebeteende. Metod: Studien har gjorts med en kvalitativ ansats med ett livsvärldsperspektiv och baseras på fem bloggar. Bloggarna analyserades med hjälp av Graneheim och Lundman innehållsanalys (2004). Resultat: Ur resultatet framkom fem kategorier som beskriver de unga kvinnornas känslor av att leva med ett självskadebeteende. De fem kategorierna är att uppleva ångest, trygghet, uppgivenhet och smärta, samt att i efterhand begrunda sin situation. Slutsats: Ur reslutatet framkom att de vanligaste förekommande känslorna i samband med självskadebeteende är ångest, smärta, ensamhet och uppgivenhet. Kvinnorna beskriver att de vill göra den psykiska smärtan fysisk. Självskadebeteende kan även ses som ett beroende. Som sjuksköterska är det viktigt att ta del av kvinnans livsvärld för att kunna möte henne på bästa sätt.

  • 22.
    Adolfsson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Anthelmintika mot hästens inälvsparasiter: en studie av effekt, resistensförekomst och försäljning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wernholm, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mastektomins påverkan på kvinnors livskvalitet: En systematisk litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige drabbas ungefär 20 kvinnor av bröstcancer varje dag och nästan hälften har genomgått en mastektomi. En av sjuksköterskans uppgifter är att ge stöd för att förbättra kvinnans livskvalitet, då kvinnan ska uppleva ett gott liv med harmoni i sig själv och sin omgivning.Studien förankrades i Katie Erikssons lidandeteori.

     

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur en mastektomi till följd av bröstcancer kan påverka kvinnors livskvalitet.

     

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie med induktiv ansats har använts. Datainsamlingen resulterade i 17 artiklar som sedan kvalitetsgranskades. Totalt ingick 14 artiklar. En manifest innehållsanalys genomfördes.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet utgörs av fyra huvudkategorier: Operationens fysiska och psykiska konsekvenser, Förändrade relationer, Inverkan av det kosmetiska resultatet med tre tillhörande underkategorier samt Acceptansens betydelse. En mastektomi leder till både fysiska och psykiska påfrestningar som påverkar livskvaliteten. Förmågan att skapa relationer försämrades. Många kvinnor upplevde bröstförlusten som påfrestande genom att kroppsuppfattningen, kvinnligheten och sexualiteten påverkades negativt. Äldre kvinnor accepterade förlusten lättare.

     

    Slutsats: Kvinnor som genomgått en mastektomi upplevde sämre livskvalitet där förlorandet av bröstet spelar stor roll. De drabbas emotionellt och förlusten har betydelse för livskvaliteten. Resultatet kan ge en ökad förståelse för sjuksköterskor som i sin tur kan vara ett stöd för att lindra lidande.

  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isomettä, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med symtomgivande endometrios: En systematisk litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING:

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en sjukdom som drabbar 10% av livmoderbärande kvinnor över hela världen. Att lida av endometrios kan innebära symtom som kraftig bäckensmärta, kraftiga blödningar, dyspareuni och infertilitet.

    Syfte: Beskriva kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med symtomgivande endometrios.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie har använts. 10 artiklar valdes ut, kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkom olika kategorier som beskriver kvinnornas olika erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios. Det handlade om erfarenheter av fysiska symtom, erfarenheter av möten i vården, emotionella erfarenheter och erfarenheter av sociala relationer.

    Slutsats: Studien visade att endometrios påverkade kvinnorna fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Kvinnornas liv påverkades av sjukdomen på många sätt och gjorde att de kände sig begränsade i vardagen. Den långa tiden för att få en diagnos fastställd orsakade vårdlidande. Kvinnorna möttes av misstro från vården där symtomen avfärdades som kvinnoproblem. Kvinnornas känslor växlade under sjukdomstiden, allt mellan hopp och förtvivlan inför framtiden.

  • 25.
    Adolfsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barnvaccinationer: BHV-sjuksköterskans kommunikation och information till föräldrar. 2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The childhood vaccination program is the most successful medical response to public health. Despite this, there have always been negative voices about vaccination. Information about childhood vaccinations is spread quickly and easily through media and information channels, such as Facebook and YouTube. This information is not always critically reviewed and suspected sideeffects may then be overestimated. Evidence shows that there is a variety of reasons why some parents have doubt about childhood vaccination. Child Health nurse's task is to meet all parents with respect and give correct information so the parents have a decision basis for vaccination.

    A lack of communication between the Child Health nurse and the parents can contribute to increased concern, which may lead to the parents choosing to abstain from vaccination.

    Aim: The aim was to describe Child Health nurse's experiences of communicating with parents before childhood vaccinations.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with nine Child Health nurses. The study has been analyzed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result showed that all participants in the study felt that most parents had a positive attitude towards childhood vaccination. The study showed that the Child Health nurses felt that they provided a good and distinct information to the parents. At the same time, participants believed that the dissemination of information could be improved. It showed that there are differences in when Child Health nurses present information to the parents. The participants in the study felt safe in the meeting with parents and about communication of information prior to vaccination.

    Conclusion: The study showed that Child Health nurses felt secure about communication, both with information before vaccination and in meeting hesitent parents. Child Health nurses described that they had good and distinct information within the organization.

  • 26.
    Adriansson, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Snäll, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Digitaliserad vård i hemmet: En kvalitativ studie av hur äldre patienter med hjärtsvikt och deras anhöriga upplever självmonitorering med ny digital teknik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sweden has one of the highest proportions of older people in the world. More people live longer with chronic diseases, which increases the demand for care. The proportion of people with heart failure is increasing. Digital technology can become an important link between patient, relative and healthcare. Increased use of digital technology in healthcare can help patients with chronic illness and lead to a better quality of life. Self-monitoring in the home provides a quick indication of deterioration and leads to less emergency visits and admissions as well as reduced healthcare costs.

    Aim: The aim was to describe the experience of self-monitoring in the home based on the elderly patient with heart failure and the relative's perspective.

    Method: A qualitative study with inductive design was chosen to answer the study's purpose and problem area. Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews, and analysed using qualitative analysis according to Malterud's systematic text condensation.

    Results: Seven elderly patients with heart failure and six relatives participated in the study.  Participants self-monitored in the home using a mobile device. The analysis resulted in three categories. Aspects of security and insecurity related to self-monitoring, self-monitoring provides support for self-care and self-monitoring a support to become a partner in care but also a responsibility.

    Conclusion: Health care is facing major challenges with an increasing ageing population where more people live longer with chronic diseases. The patient needs to become more involved and need to take greater responsibility for their own care. The results of the study indicate that elderly patients with heart failure and their relatives through self-monitoring in the home experience security, are described to gain an increased knowledge of their disease and treatment and take greater responsibility for their health by performing advanced self-care at home.

  • 27.
    Aeinehband, Shahin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindblom, Rickard P. F.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Al Nimer, Faiez
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Vijayaraghavan, Swetha
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Darreh-Shori, Taher
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Complement Component C3 and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Are Associated with Neurodegeneration and Clinical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0122048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genomewide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL), a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with MS (n = 48) and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18). C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with >= 9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

  • 28.
    Agell, Blenda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effect of Antibacterial Mouthwash on Basal Metabolic Rate in Humans: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Cross-over Study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mouthwash is a common complement to oral care. However, the physiological implication of this use, besides of effects on oral hygiene, is poorly known. The research of the gut micro flora and its implications on the host is a very active area of research today. Many important connections between the gut micro flora and obesity and diabetes have been found. These billions of bacteria are part of the immune system, they produce essential vitamins and they make inaccessible polysaccharides more digestible to the host, just to mention a few of their symbiotic roles for the host.

    A less explored area is the micro flora in the oral cavity. On the back of the tongue, anaerobic bacteria can reduce dietary nitrate to nitrite which then further can be reduced to nitric oxide, NO. NO is important in several important biological functions, e.g. as a signal substance, vasoregulation, mucus production and antibacterial effects. Vegetables as beetroot and spinach are dietary sources with a high nitrate content. Also drinking water and processed meats can be of relevance. Nitrite is added to processed meat for the prevention of botulism but also adds taste and color.  

    Experiments on humans indicate that mitochondrial efficiency increases after nitrate load, manifested as a decreased oxygen demand during physical exercise. This can also be relevant under conditions where the mitochondrial function is impaired, such as in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

    First a pilot study was made to evaluate the nitrate reducing effect from the antibacterial mouthwash. The mouthwash proved very effective. The concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in saliva was analyzed by HPLC and saliva from the antibacterial treatment showed greatly reduced concentrations of nitrite and high concentrations of nitrate. Saliva from placebo mouthwash showed high concentrations of nitrite and low concentrations of nitrate as expected.

    To study the importance of oral bacteria on metabolism, we performed a randomized, cross-over double-blinded study with 19 healthy males between 22-43 years. During two separate three-day periods they used an antibacterial and placebo mouthwash, respectively. On the fourth day their basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured with an indirect calorimetric system. Moreover, samples from saliva, urine and blood were collected but these results are not included in this thesis. An earlier, unpublished study has demonstrated that nitrate administration reduces the basal metabolic rate. Accordingly, our aim was to study potential effects on the basal metabolic rate following reduction of the number of oral bacteria by aid of antibacterial mouthwash. Our hypothesis was that the reduced availability of nitrite would decrease the availability of NO in the body and manifest as an increased basal metabolic rate.

    The results from indirect calorimetry measurements showed no significant difference between placebo and antibacterial mouthwash, but there may be confounding factors. Further study is needed to assess the potential effects on host metabolism by these bacteria.

  • 29.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2014In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 52, p. 35-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows the existence of a height premium in the workplace with tall individuals receiving more benefits across several domains (e.g., earnings) relative to short people. The current study probes deeper into the height premium by focusing on the specific favorable traits, attributes, and abilities tall individuals are presumed to have, ultimately giving these individuals an advantage in hiring. In an experiment, we made a male job applicant taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by professional recruiters. We find that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, specific job competency (including employability), and physical health, whereas warmth and physical attractiveness seem to matter less. Interestingly, physical height predicted recruiters' hiring intentions even when statistically controlling for competence, warmth, health, and attractiveness.

  • 30.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal construal and moral motivation2013In: Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications / [ed] K. Heinrichs, F. Oser & T Lovat, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Why people with an eye toward the future are more moral: The role of abstract thinking2013In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do future-oriented people show greater moral concern than present-oriented people? Consistent with construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003), we find that future-oriented people construe morally relevant actions at a higher level of abstraction, which clarifies their larger implications. Moreover, we show that level of construal partially explains the relationship between individual differences in temporal orientation and moral judgments. These findings support CLT and contribute to our understanding of moral psychology, as they are the first to show how individual differences pertaining to psychological distance relate to abstract thinking and moral judgments.

  • 32.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

  • 34.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Descriptive social norms and charitable giving: the power of local norms2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., “this is what most people do”) leads to more charitable giving compared to industry standard appeals. Moreover, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one’s immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one’s local environment. University students received a charity organization’s information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimental descriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable giving than conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 35.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using descriptive social norms to increase charitable giving: The power of local norms2016In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 52, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., "this is what most people do") increases charitable giving. Additionally, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one's immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one's local environment. University students received a charity organization's information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimentaldescriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable givingthan conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 36.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?2017In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 748-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

  • 37.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Axman, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pain here and now: physical pain impairs transcendence of psychological distance2019In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 12, p. 961-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to traverse psychological distance by going beyond the experienced reality of the self, here and now, is fundamental for effective human functioning. Yet, little is known about how physical pain affects transcendence of psychological distance. Using a construal level theory framework of psychological distance, the current research examines the hypothesis that pain impairs people's ability to traverse any kind of psychological distance whether it be temporal, social, and spatial distance, or the hypothetical. Methods: Using the cold pressor test, 151 participants participated in an experiment where they were either induced with acute pain (treatment group) or no pain (control group) while completing a battery of questions measuring to what extent their current thoughts were transcending psychological distance. Results: The results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Relative to the control group, pain induced participants showed significantly less transcendence of past temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, and the hypothetical. Furthermore, greater self-reported pain intensity was significantly associated with less transcendence of temporal (past and future), social, and spatial distance. Conclusion: Physical pain impairs the ability to traverse psychological distance. The research has practical implications for the pain clinic and for pain-afflicted individuals in everyday life.

  • 38.
    Ageton, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att, som telefonrådgivare vid 1177, samtala med vuxna patienter som väntar på samtalsstöd i primärvården.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykisk ohälsa är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukskrivning i Sverige. Uppskattningsvis lider mellan fem och tio procent av befolkningen av en så allvarlig psykisk ohälsa att den kräver psykiatrisk vård. Att få professionell hjälp i form av samtalsstöd kan ge patienten en trygghet och kan även hjälpa patienten att förstå sin situation på ett bättre sätt. En del patienter som väntar samtalsstöd i primärvården ringer 1177 och berättar att de tycker det tar lång tid att få hjälp till samtalsstöd.

    Syfte: Studiens övergripande syfte är att belysa sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att, i rollen som telefonrådgivare vid 1177, samtala med vuxna patienter som väntar på samtalsstöd i primärvården.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer, där nio sjuksköterskor på 1177 Vårdguiden deltog. Alla deltagare var kvinnor. Analysen genomfördes med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskornas berättelser om telefonsamtal med patienter som väntar samtalsstöd i primärvården belyser; Sjuksköterskornas tankar och känslor, vilka möjligheter finns för att hjälpa patienterna? Hur hanterar och bearbetar sjuksköterskorna svåra samtal och vilken kompetens och resurser har sjuksköterskorna?

    Slutsats: Det är mycket som krävs för att ett samtal ska kännas bra för sjuksköterskan på 1177 vårdguiden. Studien ger en bild av de upplevelser sjuksköterskorna på 1177 Vårdguiden har av att samtala med patienter som väntar samtalsstöd i primärvården. Vad kan behöva utvecklas för att sjuksköterskorna ska hantera dessa samtal?

  • 39. Agewall, Stefan
    et al.
    Rydén, Lars
    Perk, Joep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Boman, Kurt
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ros, Inger
    Efterlyses: politik mot hjärtinfarkt2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 13-14, p. 664-664Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Medicinen kommer inte så mycket längre när det gäller att minska dödligheten i hjärt–kärlsjukdomar. Framtidens utmaning ligger i att förhindra att människor alls insjuknar i hjärtinfarkt. Författarna efterlyser politiska åtgärder som gör de hälsosamma valen billiga och attraktiva.

  • 40.
    Aguirre-Gutierrez, Jesus
    et al.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Oxford, UK;Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    WallisDeVries, Michiel F.
    De Vlinderstichting, Netherlands;Wageningen Univ, Netherlands.
    Marshall, Leon
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Univ Namur, Belgium.
    van't Zelfde, Maarten
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Villalobos-Arambula, Alma R.
    Univ Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Boekelo, Bastiaen
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Bartholomeus, Harm
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Netherlands.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. UFZ, Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.
    Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use2017In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1126-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimBiodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services. LocationThe Netherlands. MethodsWe compiled a dataset of c.3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers. ResultsWe found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity. Main conclusionsFunctional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.

  • 41.
    Ahl, Johannes
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsmo, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    SJUKSKÖTERSKANS STRESS RELATERAD TILL ARBETSBELASTNING: En enkätsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Negativ arbetsrelaterad stress är ett ständigt problem i flera samhällssektorer, även så i stor utsträckning inom vårdsektorn. Forskning visar att arbetsrelaterad stress inom vården kan utlösas av flera olika faktorer, bland annat en för hög arbetsbelastning. Långvarig negativ stress kan orsaka utmattningssymtom och utbrändhet.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka stress relaterad till arbetsbelastningen hos allmänsjuksköterskor som arbetar på sjukhusavdelningar.

    Metod: En kvantitativ enkätstudie utfördes på fyra sjukhusavdelningar på ett sjukhus i Södra Sverige. Instrumentet Maslach Burnout Inventory- HSS användes för att mäta respondenternas stress. Resultatet redovisades och analyserades med deskriptiv statistik, regressionsanalys och Spearmans rangkorrelationskoefficient.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att det hos allmänsjuksköterskor finns ett samband mellan arbetsbelastning och stress. Samband uppmättes mellan antal övertidstimmar och utbrändhetsfaktorn ”Otillräcklighet” (p < 0,05), samt mellan känslan av att vara överarbetad och utbrändhetsfaktorn ”Emotionell utmattning” (p < 0,01).  Resultatet visar också att bakgrundsfaktorer som kan kopplas  till privatlivet spelar en mindre roll för sjuksköterskornas upplevda arbetsstress och att det huvudsakligen är arbetsrelaterade faktorer som påverkar upplevelsen av stress.

    Slutsats: Den undersökta populationen lider av stressfaktorer kopplade till arbetsbelastning och låg arbetstillfredsställelse och majoriteten av den undersökta populationen löper en risk att drabbas av utbrändhet. För att bibehålla god vårdkvalité, eller förbättra den ytterligare, bör åtgärder för att sänka arbetsbelastningen och öka arbetstillfredställelsen ses över.

  • 42.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska Univ Hosp ; Karolinska Institutet.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro university.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1368-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients' anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients' experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach's alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 43.
    Ahlberg, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur påverkar höftlinjen patientens tillfrisknande: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundA fast-track system was introduced do topeople suffer from low-energy trauma with a suspected hip fracture.Thispathway up comewas to minimize the suffering a was introduced to bypass the emergency department to win time and minimizes the numbers of movement and getsthe patient faster on to the operating table.MethodsThe aim ofthis study was toexplore howthe pathway have any positiveeffects for the patient through analyzing made studies on the subject. Twelve studies wereused toanswer the aim of this study.All twelve were analyzedtrough SBU:s model for analysis.Both studies with qualitative and quantitative design wereused to answer the aim and to give it a deeper understanding. ResultsThere was an advantage for the patient in the pathway with the fewer new faces in anoften confused and painfulmomentwhich gives the patient a calmer and quicker recovery. The compassion and knowledge of the patient was bigger if the same person took care of the patient through the process. The gain in time was only a fact up untilthe x-ray after that the waitingtimebecame the same with orwithout pathway. ConclusionThe studies show an advantage for the patient with the pathway up to a point after that point there still is room for more research and change in the pathway to optimize for the patient and caregiver.

  • 44.
    Ahlgren, Helén
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dialysberoendets påverkan på det dagliga livet: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Behov av dialysbehandling är en omvälvande förändring av patientens livsvärld. Behandlingen är livsuppehållande fram till dess att eventuell möjlighet till njurtransplantation ges. Trötthet samt viktuppgång mellan dialysbehandlingarna, orsakad av minskad filtration i njurarna har i tidigare studier framställts som försämrad livskvalitet vid dialysberoende. Hur beroendet av behandling påverkar det dagliga livet är dock personligt och varierande.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur patienter upplevde att vara beroende av dialysbehandling.

    Metod: Intervjuer gjordes med nio informanter som lever med behov av dialysbehandling.  Intervjumaterialet analyserades därefter med kvalitativ innehållsanalys, enligt Graneheim och Lundman.

    Resultat: Trots undervisning före dialysstart om vad beroendet kan komma att innebära, beskrevs beskedet som chockartat när de förstod att dialysberoendet var livslångt. Tidsåtgången för behandling minskade möjligheterna att arbeta. Dialysberoendet påverkade relationen till närstående. Betydelsen av delaktighet i behandlingsbeslut, planering och genomförande beskrevs som en känsla av självständighet och ökad egenkontroll. Möjlighet till njurtransplantation sågs som ett hopp.

    Slutsats: De hälsovinster som de dialysberoende patienterna beskrev genom möjlighet till delaktighet och självständighet, ansågs medverka till ökad livskvalitet – i väntan på hoppet om njurtransplantation.

  • 45.
    Ahlgren, Helén
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kliniska examinationer, exemplet ULVE2015In: Kliniska examinationer: Handbok för sjuksköterskestudenter på grund- och avancerad nivå / [ed] Sofia Almerud Österberg, Carina Elmqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 115-131Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ahlgren, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Food intake, diet-related attitudes and information sources among university students2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A series of food surveys suggest that the dietary intake among the Swedish population has changed substantially in recent years. Fat intake has increased whereas carbohydrate intake has decreased. The reason for this change is not clear but it has been suggested to be an effect of the public breakthrough of high-fat diets such as LCHF (Low Carbohydrate High Fat).

    In this study we attempt to shed light on the associations between food intake, attitudes to different diets and the information sources with regard to food, nutrition and health.

    The study is based on data collected from 311 students at the Linnaeus University, from 2015 through 2017. Food intake was identified through three-day food records using Dietist Net software. Opinions about diets, and the degree to which different sources of information were used to obtain diet-related information, were evaluated through questionnaires. Where applicable, Pearson’s correlation tests were performed in SPSS.

    In general, the students reported a low intake of iron, carbohydrates and alcohol as well as a high intake of dietary fiber, folate and selenium, relative to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and national food surveys. Out of ten selected diets, the students ranked Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and the Mediterranean diet as the healthiest diets and the LCHF and Atkins diets as the least healthy diets. The correlation tests identified a number of associations between dietary intake and opinions about diets. Similar diets were associated to each other, such as Paleo, LCHF and Atkins diet on one hand, and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, Vegan, Low-fat and Weight Watchers diet on the other hand. However, the Mediterranean diet, Gluten-free and 5:2 diets were associated with both low-carbohydrate diets and high-carbohydrate diets. As previous research has suggested, an association between media use and attitudes to diets which is reflected in dietary intake, can be observed. The main conclusion is that there are associations between and within reported dietary intake, information sources regarding cooking, diets and health and reported opinions regarding different diets. However, causality cannot be elucidated by this analysis.

  • 47.
    Ahlin, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Graae, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ett dilemma på liv och död. En systematisk litteraturstudie om när vuxna patienter väljer att avsluta livsuppehållande hemodialysbehandling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Ahlin, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Utvärdering av dricksvattenkvaliteten i Bjuv: Kartläggning av klagomål och eftersökning av orsak2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid bytet från grundvattentäkt till ytvattentäkt i Bjuvs kommun började klagomål om dricksvattnets kvalitet att strömma in till Nordvästra Skånes Vatten och Avlopp (NSVA), ansvarig för vattenverksamheten i kommunen. Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga klagomålen kring dricksvattnet, ringa in problemet och eftersöka orsaken. Detta har skett genom intervjuer med konsumenter liksom vattenprovtagningar hos dessa. En geografisk spridning låg till grund vid valet av provtagningspunkterna. Utöver mikrobiologiska, kemiska och fysikaliska parametrar som inkluderas i Livsmedelsverkets föreskrifter om dricksvatten har vattnet analyserats för innehåll av geosmin, 2-metylisoborneol och 2,4,6-trikloranisol då dessa föreningar är kända för att orsaka dålig lukt och bismak på dricksvatten. Analysresultaten visar generellt på ett vatten med god kvalitet. Av de intervjuer som gjorts hos de utvalda konsumenterna framgår det dock att vattenkvaliteten inte är tillfredsställande. Det är i huvudsak vattnets lukt och smak som kritiseras där unken och mögel är den vanligaste beskrivningen. Vad denna lukt och smak beror på har inte kunnat fastställas. En kartläggning av klagomålen och definiering av problemet har dock påbörjats vilket underlättar för fortsatta studier och eventuella åtgärder.

  • 49.
    Ahlstrand, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Universita’ della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland;Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Switzerland.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    An interactive computer lab of the galvanic cell for students in biochemistry2018In: Biochemistry and molecular biology education, ISSN 1470-8175, E-ISSN 1539-3429, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe an interactive module that can be used to teach basic concepts in electrochemistry and thermodynamics to first year natural science students. The module is used together with an experimental laboratory and improves the students’ understanding of thermodynamic quantities such as ΔrG, ΔrH, and ΔrS that are calculated but not directly measured in the lab. We also discuss how new technologies can substitute some parts of experimental chemistry courses, and improve accessibility to course material. Cloud computing platforms such as CoCalc facilitate the distribution of computer codes and allow students to access and apply interactive course tools beyond the course's scope. Despite some limitations imposed by cloud computing, the students appreciated the approach and the enhanced opportunities to discuss study questions with their classmates and instructor as facilitated by the interactive tools. 

  • 50.
    Ahlstrand, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University.
    Friedman, Ran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Interaction Energies in Complexes of Zn and Amino Acids: A Comparison of Ab Initio and Force Field Based Calculations2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 121, no 13, p. 2643-2654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc plays important roles in structural stabilization of proteins, eniyine catalysis, and signal transduction. Many Zn binding sites are located at the interface between the protein and the cellular fluid. In aqueous solutions, Zn ions adopt an octahedral coordination, while in proteins zinc can have different coordinations, with a tetrahedral conformation found most frequently. The dynainics of Zn binding to proteins and the formation of complexes that involve Zn are dictated by interactions between Zn and its binding partners. We calculated the interaction energies between Zn and its ligands in complexes that mimic protein binding sites and in Zn complexes of water and one or two amino acid moieties, using quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM). It was found that MM calculations that neglect or only approximate polarizability did not reproduce even the relative order of the QM interaction energies in these complexes. Interaction energies calculated with the CHARMM-Diode polarizable force field agreed better with the ab initio results,:although the deviations between QM and MM were still rather large (40-96 kcallmol). In order to gain further insight into Zn ligand interactions, the free energies of interaction were estimated by QM calculations with continuum solvent representation, and we performed energy decomposition analysis calculations to examine the characteristics of the different complexes. The ligand-types were found to have high impact on the relative strength of polarization and electrostatic interactions. Interestingly, ligand ligand interactions did not play a significant role in the binding of Zn. Finally) analysis of ligand exchange energies suggests that carboxylates could be exchanged with water molecules, which explains the flexibility in Zn:binding dynamics. An exchange between earboxylate (Asp/Glii) and imidazole (His) is less likely.

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