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  • 1.
    Eklund, Leif
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Säll, Harald
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för industriella produktionssystem.
    The influence of wind on spiral grain formation in conifer trees2000In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 14, p. 324-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between spiral grain formationand crown asymmetry was investigated in 18 Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L.) and 17 Norway spruce [Picea abies(L.) Karst.] trees selected from clones of each speciesgrowing in the south of Sweden. The angle between thelongitudinal direction of the tracheids in the outermostyear ring compared to the longitudinal direction of thestem was measured by scribing lines which followed thedirection of the tracheids. The crown asymmetry wasmeasured by taking photographs of the trees followed bya simple picture analysis of the tree. Wind data for thegrowing seasons of 1997 and 1998 were obtained fromthe Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.The results showed a significant correlation between theangle of the tracheids compared to the stem longitudinaldirection going from a left-handed angle if the trees hada crown projected to the north towards a right-handedangle the more the crown projects to the south.

  • 2.
    Eklund, Leif
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Säll, Harald
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Kliger, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Spiral grain from an environmental, genetic and economical point of view2000In: The Tree, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristic of wood is that its behavior is strongly orthotropic due to the internal structure of the material and dependent on moisture and temperature. In addition, the material is characterized by a strong variation of the properties in the radial direction.  Another important property that affects the behavior of wood is spiral grain, causing the direction of the fibers to deviate from the longitudinal direction of the tree. It is hardly possible to assess spiral grain in the woods, no rejection of severe spiraled trees are done before the log arrives into the sawmill. If a method for on site rejection is available, and the severest spiraled trees, 2-10%, could be avoided in the shipment to the sawmill substantial money could be saved in the forest industry. The causes of spiral grain have been thoroughly discussed through the years and the debate about the environmental and genetic impact on the phenomenon is still not settled. We present evidence for a direct effect of wind on the degree of spiral grain. We also present evidence for a putative thinning effect on spiral grain that is probably connected to wind. Additionally we also present evidence for a strong genetic impact on the formation of spiral grain in conifer trees. In another study mechanical properties such as shape stability has been investigated for the same trees. In some of the logs it may therefore be possible to quantify the relation between spiral grain and distortion in sawn timber.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Leif
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Säll, Harald
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för industriella produktionssystem.
    Linder, Sune
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Enhanced growth and ethylene increases spiral grain formationin Picea abies and Abies balsamea trees2003In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spiral grain angle in Norway spruce (Piceaabies) trees and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) seedlingswas investigated in relation to growth rate, endogenousand applied ethylene. Trees from stands of Norwayspruce, which were irrigated and fertilised in order to enhancegrowth, and trees having different growth rates innon-treated stands were studied. Stem growth rate at thestand level (m3 ha–1 year–1) was measured annually, orby means of microscopy on stem sections as the numberand size of tracheids produced. Enhanced growth increasedethylene evolution and maintained a high levelof left-handed spiral grain angle in comparison to slower-growing trees. An increased number of earlywoodtracheids in fast growing trees was correlated to a moreleft-handed spiral grain angle. Ethrel, applied to stems ofbalsam fir seedlings, increased the internal ethylene levelsin parallel with increased left-handed spiral grain angle.The results indicate that ethylene regulates the extentof spiral grain angle.

  • 4.
    Hargeby, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Habitat-specific pigmentation in a freshwater isopod: Adaptive evolution over a small spatiotemporal scale2004In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 81-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea) differed between habitats in two Swedish lakes. In both lakes, isopods had lighter pigmentation in stands of submerged vegetation, consisting of stoneworts (Chara spp.), than in nearby stands of reed (Phragmites australis). Experimental crossings of light and dark isopods in a common environment showed that pigmentation had a genetic basis and that genetic variance was additive. Environmental effects of diet or chromatophore adjustment to the background had minor influence on pigmentation, as shown by laboratory rearing of isopods on stonewort or reed substrates, as well as analyses of stable isotope ratios for isopods collected in the field. In both study lakes, the average phenotype became lighter with time (across generations) in recently established stonewort stands. Taken together, these results indicate that altered phenotype pigmentation result from evolutionary responses to local differences in natural selection. Based on the assumption of two generations per year, the evolutionary rate of change in pigmentationwas 0.08 standard deviations per generation (haldanes) over 20 generations in one lake and 0.22 haldanes over two generations in the other lake. This genetic change occurred during an episode of population growth in a novel habitat, a situation known to promote adaptive evolution. In addition, stonewort stands constitute large and persistent patches, characteristics that tend to preserve local adaptations produced by natural selection. Results from studies on selective forces behind the adaptivedivergence suggest that selective predation from visually oriented predators is a possible selective agent. We found no indications of phenotype-specificmovements between habitats. Mating within stonewort stands was random with respect to pigmentation, but on a whole-lake scale it is likely that mating is assortative, as a result of local differences in phenotype distribution.

  • 5.
    Härlin, Carina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Phylogeny of the eureptantic nemerteans revisited2001In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we revisit the phylogeny of the eureptantic nemerteans. Three species (Kameginemertes parmiornatus, Drepanophoriella histriana, and Polyschista curacaoensis), not present in the original analyses by Härlin & Sundberg (1995), are included, and in the light of the new results we discuss the phylogenetic taxonomy as well as biogeography of the Eureptantia. The biogeography is assessed by dispersal-vicariance analysis (Ronquist 1997), and the new phylogenetic taxonomy is based on developments (Härlin 1998b, 1999b; Härlin & Sundberg 1998) of nomenclatural ideas originally presented by de Queiroz & Gauthier (1990, 1992).

  • 6.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Namn på djur och växter: hur handskas vi med vårt Linneanska arv på 2000-talet2000In: Teknik & vetenskap, ISSN 1402-5701, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 43-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Phylogenetic approaches to nomenclature: a comparison based on a nemertean case study.1999In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 266, no 1434, p. 2201-2207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic approaches to biological nomenclature are becoming increasingly common. Here I compare the behaviour of two such approaches, the phylogenetic system of definition and the phylogenetic system of reference, when there is a shift in the preference of phylogenetic hypotheses. The comparison is based on a case study from nemertean systematics and is the first to compare two different phylogenetic approaches throughout three stages of change, including two stages of phylogenetic nomenclature. It is concluded that a phylogenetic system of reference in combination with uninomials is superior in conveying phylogenetic information.

  • 8.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Taxonomic names and phylogenetic trees1998In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of philosophy of names within the context of biological taxonomy, more specifically how names refer. By contrasting two philosophies of names, one that is based on the idea that names can be defined and one that they cannot be defined, I point out some advantages of the latter within phylogenetic systematics. Due to the changing nature of phylogenetic hypotheses, the former approach tends to rob taxonomy from its unique communicative value since a name that is defined refers to whatever fits the definition. This is particularly troublesome should the hypothesis of phylogenetic relationship change. I argue that, should we decide to accept a new phylogenetic hypothesis, it is also likely that our view of what to name may change. A system where names only refer acknowledge this, and accordingly leaves it open whether to keep a name (and accept the way it refers in the new hypothesis) or discard a name and introduce new names for the parts of the tree that we find scientifically interesting. One of the main differences between a phylogenetic system of definition (PSD) and a phylogenetic system of reference (PSR) is that the former is governed by laws of language while the latter by communicative needs of taxonomists. Thus, a PSR tends to give primacy to phylogenetic trees rather than phylogenetic definitions of names should our views of which phylogenetic hypothesis to accept change.

  • 9.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    The logical priority of the tree over characters and some of its consequences for taxonomy1999In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to explore the role of the character in phylogenetic systematics. I argue that too much emphasis is put on particular characters rather than congruence both in the choice of phylogenetic hypotheses and in taxonomic decisions. This means that the logical priority of the tree over the characters is neglected. To a large extent, this is a result of not paying enough attention to the individuality thesis which states that clades are historical individuals and hence contingent in nature.

  • 10.
    Härlin, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Towards a new biological taxonomy: let us give up the Linnean hierachy!2001In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 337-339Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Lagerstedt, Jens
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Zvyagilskaya, Renata
    Pratt, James
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Pattison-Granberg, Johanna
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Kruckeberg, A L
    Berden, J
    Persson, Bengt L.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Mutagenic and Functional Analysis of the C-terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pho84 Phosphate Transporter2002In: FEBS letters, Vol. 526, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Rupar, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    The Release of Organic Compounds during Biomass Drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering Drying Heating Medium2003In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 615-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contributeto air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may bereleased into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on theenvironmental e-ects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from di-erent green and dried biofuels that have beendried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using di-erent techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was signi2cantly a-ected by thefollowing factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from di-erent localities inSweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during dryingare monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. Therelative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shiftsfrom steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard toenvironmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity ofbiomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomassdrying rate.

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