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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Erica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Obligatorisk läxhjälp på fritidhemmet: Vårdnadshavares och lärare i fritidshem uppfattningar om läxhjälp på fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilken uppfattning vårdnadshavare och lärare i fritidshem har angående obligatorisk läxhjälp på fritidshemmet samt om fritidshemmets verksamhet får några konsekvenser om obligatorisk läxhjälp införs. Studiens metod bygger på en kvalitativ enkätundersökning med 38 vårdnadshavare samt kvalitativa personliga intervjuer med 5 olika lärare i fritidshem från 5 olika skolor. Resultatet visar att uppfattningarna som vårdnadshavare har angående obligatorisk läxhjälp på fritidshemmet var både positiv och negativ. En del anser att läxhjälp på fritidshemmet är bra eftersom många barn har långa dagar på skolan och fritidshemmet. Andra anser tvärtom att läxhjälp är skolans ansvar och inte ska förekomma på fritidshemmet. Det framkommer även att lärare i fritidshem är överens med vårdnadshavare. Argument som förs fram är rättvisa och andra menar att fritidshemmet är ett komplement till skolan inte deras förlängda arm. Fritidshemmets verksamhet påverkas enligt vårdnadshavare och lärare i fritidshem på olika sätt. Det framkommer att läxhjälp ett par gånger i veckan inte inverkar på verksamheten, dock behövs det mer personal i så fall. Medan andra menar att utevistelse och annat påverkas. 

  • 2.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Off-loading or loads of work? Teachers, teacher assistants and negotiations on professional domains2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    “Betwixt and Between”: Leisure-time Teachers and the Construction of Professional Identities2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, a newly formed group of teachers graduated from Swedish universities. In addition to their qualification as leisure-time pedagogues, their degree includes teaching practical/aesthetical subjects in compulsory school. This group of teachers thus has to relate to dual professional identities and to maintain a balance between the socially oriented leisure-time centres and a goal- and results-driven school. In this article we describe their first two years after graduation, trying to get hold of their negotiation of professional identities and orientation in the professional landscape. Results shows that the graduates try to balance own ideals and hybrid professional intentions against traditional professional identities and labour market conditions and that position in a liminal phase might be crucial for the outcome.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Upgraded curriculum?: An analysis of knowledge boundaries in teaching under the Swedish subject-based curriculum2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a contribution to the current debate about knowledge and the curriculum, especially initiated by social realist writers. The enacted Swedish subjects-based curriculum for compulsory schooling is examined and is also used as a significant case with the aim of discussing practical implications of social realist claims regarding knowledge and the curriculum. Video-recorded lessons from grade six in six different Swedish schools, in combination with teacher interviews, are explored within the scope of a curriculum theory framework with the purpose of illuminating dominant patterns of knowledge boundaries and knowledge conceptions. The study shows how the Swedish subject-based curriculum frames teaching in a direction where a disciplinary knowledge conception with fixed knowledge boundaries predominates over other knowledge forms. The subject-based curriculum also appears to produce an ‘overloading’ of content, which implies that pupils’ questions and experiences are avoided and dismissed in the teaching practice.

  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The selection of content and knowledge conceptions in the teaching of curriculum standards in compulsory schooling2018In: Transnational Curriculum Standards and Classroom Practices: The New Meaning of Teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 98-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Evaluating School Improvement Efforts: Pupils as Silent Result Suppliers, or Audible Improvement Resources?2018In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 34-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to a perspective of school development, where pupils‟ experiences of the teaching they encounter are regarded as a result of improvement work. In a three-year research collaboration with four nine-year compulsory schools in a large Swedish municipality, researchers have continuously conducted group interviews with different actors, collected relevant documentation and reported their preliminary analyses to the schools. In the light of previous research, the results show that the development areas that have been in focus in the schools have in some cases had an impact on the teaching. However, no homogenous change is evident. Rather, the variation between classrooms, teachers and subjects is great, especially if the pupils‟ perspectives are taken into consideration. The pupils‟ experiences and voices on how the improvement work materialises in the classroom contribute to explaining the connections, or lack of them, between the school and classroom levels. 

  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Håkansson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Evaluating teacher and school development by learning capital: a conceptual contribution to a fundamental problem2018In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of an international policy movement to increase focus on students’ academic achievement, the question of how to improve schools has become an important issue at all levels in the school system. Substantial resources have been invested in reforms to improve conditions for pupils’ learning. Great expectations and responsibility are often placed on teachers in terms of their professional development (PD), the aim being to improve their teaching practices. Consequently, the question of how to evaluate the results of school improvement programmes, including teachers’ PD, has arisen. However, there is a lack of theoretical concepts that can capture the outcomes of such development in a qualified way. Taking inspiration from the research on teachers’ PD and theories relating to teachers’ knowledge and capabilities, the aim of this study is to outline a conceptual framework that can serve as an analytical tool when evaluating both school improvement initiatives in general and school actors’ learning in particular. Four types of learning capital that are intended to reflect the central aspects of teachers’ and school organisations’ learning and the capabilities linked to teaching practice and its development are outlined. This conceptual framework is applied and exemplified based on the results of a three-year research project evaluating a school improvement programme in a Swedish municipality. Finally, some conclusions are drawn regarding the different types of analysis possible with the current conceptual framework related to the evaluation of school improvement efforts.

     

  • 8.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Att forskningsbasera den svenska skolan: Policyinitiativ under 25 år2018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 1-2, p. 39-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även om ”en skola på vetenskaplig grund” idag är ett högaktuellt ämne är det ingalunda något nytt fenomen. I artikeln studeras tendenser i policyinitiativ som de senaste 25 åren haft till syfte att forskningsbasera den svenska skolan. Utgångspunkt tas i de problembilder som framkommer i policy samt vilka modeller för forskningsbasering som samtidigt lyfts fram som lösningen på dessa problem. Resultatet pekar mot att det de senaste 25 år har skett en succesiv förskjutning från indirekta till mer direkta initiativ. Under 1990-talet och det tidiga 2000-talet var många policyinitiativ ordnade utifrån att främst vilja skapa de rätta förutsättningarna för en forskningsbasering av skolan. Under 2000-talet blir initiativen alltmer fokuserade och ambitiös med syfte att åstadkomma direkta förändringar i lärares undervisning. När det kommer till modeller för forskningsbasering blir det samtidigt alltmer tydligt hur policy vänder sig till och söker legitimitet hos delvis nya aktörer och institutioner, som exempelvis hälso-sjukvården. Med detta går det också att urskilja en insnävning vad gäller att definiera och innehållsligt välja ut vilken forskning som bör sprids till skolans aktörer. Konsekvensen med en sådan modell för forskningsbasering menar vi kan bli att läraren främst får inta rollen som passiva mottagare av forskning.

  • 9.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Evidently, the Broker Appear as the New Whiz-kid in the Educational Agora2018In: In: The language of quantity: Educational knowledge, activities andlegitimacy, Oslo, 2018, Kalmar, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Forsberg, Eva
    När evidensrörelsen kom till den svenska skolan2018In: Den evidensbaserade skolan: Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik / [ed] Daniel Alvunger och Ninni Wahlström, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 72-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ahlström, Amanda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Brolander, Lisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Fri och lustfylld tid: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om rekreation i fritidshem2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med forskningsstudien är att få en ökad förståelse för hur rekreation kan komma till uttryck i fritidshemmet. Intentionen är att ta reda på hur både elever och lärare uppfattar rekreation i fritidshem. Studien bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer där syftet är att få en ökad förståelse för hur lärare i fritidshem upplever sitt arbete med rekreation.  Då vårt syfte även är att ta reda på elevers upplevelse av rekreation i fritidshemmet har vi använt ett designat barnsamtal. Studien genomförs med sex lärare samt sexton elever på två olika fritidshem. Resultatet av studien visar att lärare i fritidshem upplever en viss osäkerhet kring rekreationsbegreppets innebörd samtidigt som de främst kopplar rekreation till lugna och stillsamma aktiviteter.  Studien visar även att lärarna anser att elever har större möjlighet att uppleva rekreation under sin fria tid i fritidshemmet vilket är samstämmigt med vad analysen av studiens genomförda barnsamtal visar. En central del i elevers upplevelse av rekreation i fritidshem grundar sig i deras känsla av att ha roligt vilket leder till en samlad bedömning av att elevers upplevelse av rekreation till stor del kan likställas med att ägna sig åt lustfyllda aktiviteter.

  • 12.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teachers’ curriculum agency in teaching a standards-based curriculum2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, Sweden introduced explicit standards for the curriculum used in compulsory schooling through the implementation of ‘knowledge requirements’ that align content, abilities and assessment criteria. This article explores and analyses social science teachers’ curriculum agency through a theoretical framework comprised of ‘teacher agency’ and Bernstein’s concepts of ‘pedagogic device’, ‘hierarchical knowledge structure’ and ‘horizontal knowledge structure’. Teachers’ curriculum agency, in recontextualisation of the curriculum, is described and understood through three different ‘spaces’: a collective space, an individual space and an interactive space in the classroom. The curriculum and time are important for the possibilities of agency – the teachers state that the new knowledge requirements compel them to include and assess a lot of content in each ‘curriculum task’. It is possible to identify a recontextualisation process of ‘borrowing’ and combining content from curriculum tasks across the different subjects. This process is explained by the horizontal knowledge structure and ‘weak grammar’ of the social sciences. Abilities, on the other hand, stand out as elements of a hierarchical knowledge structure in which a discursive space is opened for knowledge to transcend contexts and provides opportunities for meaning-making. The space gives teachers room for action and for integrating disciplinary content.

  • 13.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, NinniLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Den evidensbaserade skolan: svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Lärarutbildningens forskningsbasering2018In: Den evidensbaserade skolan. Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik., Natur och kultur, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Research-based teacher education? Exploring the meaning potentials of Swedish teacher education2018In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study’s aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of teacher education in Sweden. The results from the analysis of a large number of course documents and from a survey administered to teachers and students in four teacher education programmes indicate that the emerging potential meaning is that teacher education is generally a strongly framed professional education with a relatively weak and adapted research base. The analysis of the classification and framing of disciplinary content and pedagogy in the Swedish teacher education curriculum points at different pedagogic identities emerging from the different meaning potentials that are made available to the students. We argue that a thorough understanding of research-based teacher education needs to be grounded in both course content and its research base as well as other possible pedagogical aspects of research-based education; the education as a whole must be included in the concept of research-based education.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Persson, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Möjligheter och hinder för dramapedagogik i fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det utvecklingsinriktade arbetet syftar till att stärka en elevgrupp genom dramapedagogik. På fritidshemmet där utvecklingsarbetet utfördes går elever i förskoleklass upp till årskurs två. Målen med arbetet är att erbjuda en variation av dramaövningar med syfte att stärka gruppen, ge eleverna verktyg att hantera konflikter på ett konstruktivt sätt och att identifiera pedagogiska möjligheter och hinder med drama som verktyg. Med stöd av aktionsforskningsspiralen genomförs aktionen under tre veckor vid nio olika dramapass som dokumenterades genom processprotokoll och observationer. I utvecklingsarbetet används semistrukturerade intervjuer och samtal, både med lärare och elever, samt elevernas loggböcker till för- och efterarbetet. Aktionen visar att drama som verktyg kan erbjuda ett bättre gruppklimat som ett återkommande inslag i verksamheten. Identifierbara hinder är avsaknad av anpassad lokal för dramaövningar, tid för planering samt vilja. Det måste finnas ett genuint intresse och kunskap hos lärarna för att använda drama som verktyg i en fritidshemsverksamhet.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Signifikanta kunskaper och erfarenheter vid inträdet i förskoleklass: Beskrivningar från två lärare i förskoleklass2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien som genomförts är en småskalig kvalitativ studie som utifrån två lärare i förskoleklass syftar till att synliggöra vad lärare i förskoleklass beskriver som signifikanta kunskaper och erfarenheter vid barns inträde i förskoleklass samt hur lärare arbetar med variationerna i barnens erfarenheter i förskoleklass.

    Studien har genomförts genom kvalitativa intervjuer med två lärare i förskoleklass. Lärarnas utsagor har sedan ställts i relation till tidigare forskning och didaktisk teori. I den didaktiska teorin beskrivs delar som styrdokument, rapporter och lagremisser samt vedertagna teorier som behandlar de fyra f:n och den proximala utvecklingszonen.

    I analysen har lärarnas utsagor ställts i relation till tidigare forskning och valda teorier. I studien framkommer hur barns sociala förmågor för en överordnad roll och beskrivs som en förutsättning för barns utveckling och lärande i förskoleklassen. Lärarna beskriver att de variationer som återfinns i ämnesorienterade kunskaper inte är ett bekymmer, utan de sociala förmågorna blir också studiens kärnämne. Lärarna i studien beskriver också hur de utvecklat olika metoder för att får kunskap om varje barns erfarenheter och kunskapsnivå, distanserat från förskolans praktik.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Digitala verktyg i fritidshemmets vardag: En aktionsstudie om lärares inställning i förändring2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens kunskapsobjekt är huruvida en aktion kan förändra fritidslärare eller fritidspedagogers attityder gentemot digitala verktyg i fritidshemmet. Studieobjekten är pedagogerna, vars inställning kartläggs med hjälp av intervjuer i inledande och avslutande stadie. Under studiens gång genomförs tre stycken aktiviteter med eleverna som har som syfte att visa nya användningsområden med hjälp av digitala verktyg. Dessa tre kallas iMovie, Google Earth och QR-koder. I resultatet redovisas pedagogernas svar på den avslutande intervjun, vilka skiljer till viss del. Pedagogerna uttrycker större positivitet inför digitala verktyg och tycker sig ha sett andra sidor som kan användas. I diskussionen förs ett resonemang om de förändrade inställningarna kommer att leda till förändringar i arbetet med digitala verktyg i det aktuella fritidshemmet eller om det kommer att rinna ut i sanden. En metoddiskussion förs om de aktviteterna samt intervjuerna som hölls.

  • 19.
    Andrén, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Barns delaktighet och inflytande i förskolan - fyra förskollärare berättar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att belysa förskollärares arbete med barns delaktighet och inflytande i förskolans verksamhet utifrån tre frågeställningar; Hur beskriver förskollärare barns delaktighet och inflytande? Hur möjliggör förskollärare barns delaktighet och inflytande i förskolans verksamhet? Vilka hinder upplever förskollärare i arbetet kring barns delaktighet och inflytande?

    Studien har en kvalitativ metodansats och bygger på tidigare forskning om barns delaktighet och inflytande vilka också är viktiga centrala begrepp då de utgör teorin. Empirin i studien grundar sig på fyra förskollärares uppfattningar om barns delaktighet och inflytande i förskolans verksamhet. Data har inhämtats med hjälp av semi strukturerade intervjuer vilket har använts som metodverktyg i studien.

    Resultatet visar att förskollärarna tolkar barns delaktighet som att delta i en gemenskap där de interagera med barnen samt är inlyssnande och lyhörda inför deras uttryck. Inflytande tolkas som barns möjlighet att påverka, dels genom att de får göra val men också genom att förskollärarna tillvaratar barns intressen och behov i planering och utformning av verksamheten. De arbetsmetoder som förskollärarna menar möjliggör delaktighet och inflytande är att erbjuda barn val, involvera dem i beslut, skapa ett tillåtande klimat, samtala, lyssna och tillvarata deras intressen, arbeta i projekt samt dela in barn i mindre grupper. Den svårighet förskollärarna främst upplever är balansgången mellan barns inflytande och deras styrning, men svårigheter återfinns också i personalens olikheter.

  • 20.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Islam and Education in the Modern Era: Social, Cultural, Political and Economic Changes and the Responses from Islamic Education2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    slamic education in the modern era has been at the crossroad of globalization, rapid economic development, social changes, and resurgence of rival religious ideologies. Islam as a global force has affected other forces and has affected by them, and along the way the Islamic education has changed to adapt to the realities of the modern world. Such adaptation is the reflection of the diversity across the Muslim world and heavily influenced by the domestic factors and on the other hand by the nature and extent of the linkage to other global forces. Despite the contextual variations and diversity changes within the Islamic education in the modern era have certain features in common: (a) affected by the new socioeconomic development and changes within the civil society; (b) affected by the realities of the modern state and governance; (c) influenced by the cultural (traditional/religious) factors and political climate; and (d) affected by the international factors. Despite the variations, Islamic education reform across the Muslim world has one thing in common: all have lost the grandeur and glory of the past, they are struggling to meet the demands of a competing world, and they exist in the margin of a strong formal education system.

    There are endavors to synchrone traditional approaches and contents of the Islamic education with those of the formal education to inhibit or enhance the chance for the accreditation of the religious education across the Muslim world. This has partially resulted in internationalization of the institutions of Islamic education and tailoring the curricula to add new subjects such as foreign languages and natural sciences to accommodate the global discourse and attract new groups of students internationally.

  • 21.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Islam, Globalizations, and Education2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer , 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different types of globalization, and hence this chapter uses the plural form of the term. Two principal types of globalization relevant to this chapter are Islamic globalization and Western globalization each with its variety of forces. The Islamic globalization includes features such as the extension of ummah, the spread of Islamic messages via ICT and migration. The Western globalization carries various forces such as market principles and neo-liberalism, human rights, and universal educational models.

    Today, Muslims are in a majority or form important minorities of the population in some forty countries; conversion to Islam takes place in many places in the world. In fact, Islam and certain branches within Protestantism have been the most expansive – in terms of new adherents – during the past two decades. At least nonformal Islamic educational institutions exist practically everywhere on the globe. Where minorities of Muslims have settled as immigrants, there also tends to be Qur’ānic educational activities.

    Among Muslims, there are different views of what globalizations are, and one may distinguish the followings: (a) Islam as threatened by globalization; (b) Islam as marginalized from globalization; (c) Islam itself as a globalizing force; and (d) Islam as a potential globalizing force. Muslim educational perspectives tend to correspond to one or several of these four views.

    From the Western perspective, globalization has resulted in intensive encounters between and mutal penetration of world religions, such as Islam and Christianity, that more than ever before compete and challenge one another. The relativization implicit in or resulting from globalization threatens the Muslim way of life and makes Muslims defend their values and belief systems.

    Educational world models are propagated by international organizations such as the World Bank, UNESCO, OECD, and others and tend to make it necessary for Islamic educational arrangements to adapt or go through revitalization.

    This chapter makes an overview of the different globalizing forces as a context to the changes that take place in Western type as well as Islamic education.

  • 22.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Islamic Education: Historical Perspective, Origin and Foundation2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the concept of ‘ilm (knowledge) includes both religious as well as mundane knowledge, the traditional Islamic thought tends to identify the totality of and specify knowledge as religious knowledge. The typology of knowledge in Islam divides the entire human knowledge into two all-embracing categories: al-‘ulūm al-‘aqlīyah(rational/argumentative knowledge) and ‘al-ulūm al-naqlīyah (knowledge by transmission). This division conceptualizes the foundations of the Islamic epistemology and forms the educational arrangements in Islam. Four major approaches to education and knowledge acquisition include: (1) Constructive approach, which is using rules of logics and qiyās(analogical deductive reasoning) aims to attain human knowledge; (2) Theological approach which is based on kalām (dialectical theology) aims to decipher the divine knowledge as well as mundane one; (3) Philosophical approach which is inspired and informed by the Neo-Platonist movement and Peripatetic Islamic philosophy in which knowledge is attained through the process of wham (estimation) and using the active intelligence to achieve the unknowns through the known premises; and (4) Mystical/theosophical approach which argues on the notion of knowledge by presence. The mystical approach rests on the argument on the divine knowledge as the source of all knowledge and intuition as an instrument to achieve it. Such an epistemological principal has informed not only various approaches to the acquisition of knowledge but also institutions of education and learning. Although the social and political climate and the local cultures have significantly affected the development of the educational institutions across the Muslim world, a trifold model of the educational institutions prevail across the Muslim world. Madrasah as the final product of this development, however, is challenged by the waves of modernization and domination of western values across the Muslim world.

  • 23.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Islamic Education in Iran2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer , 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the arrival of Islam in the seventh century, Iran developed as the center for Shī‘ite education, and Iranians contributed significantly to the institutionalization and expansion of Islamic education both in form and content. For centuries, clergies were regarded as the custodians of education running preprimary and primary education in maktabs; postprimary and higher education were carried out and institutionalized in madrasahs.

    Iranian madrasah played also a significant role in promoting knowledge and sciences, both religious and nonreligious. With the establishment of Qom theological seminary (ḥawzah ‘ilmīyah Qom), however, Islamic education and its respective institutions (madrasahs) revitalized and started a new era and played a pivotal role in the formation of the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Operating under the institution of waqf and other forms of religious taxes, ḥawzah ‘ilmīyah today is a network of madrasahs and other educational institutions, active both through traditional methods and in the virtual world to foster the Shī‘ite communities worldwide.

    The Iranian Revolution of 1979 is considered as one of the instances in running a modern society based on Islam and contributed significantly to the revival of religious ideologies across the world. Iranian theocratic government planned a shift from a Western model of social order and education to a one deeply rooted in Islamic beliefs and values. To achieve the goal to intellectually nurture generations of committed Muslims as the human capital of Muslim ummah, among other measures, a larger proportion of the formal curricula is devoted to education of Islam, while religious education also occupied a significant status both in curricular and extracurricular activities.

  • 24.
    Arjmand, Reza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Migration, Diaspora, Muslim Transnational communities and Education2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western World (especially Europe) is struggling to cope with one of the largest waves of human migration ever. Majority of the migrants are Muslims with traumatic experiences as a result of enduring wars, violence, and various forms of suffrage. The unique feature of this migration is the number of unaccompanied minor Muslim migrants with an unprecedented rate in human history. All these pose new challenges to European societies not least to accommodate the needs and meet the demands of Muslims for moral and religious education. While European education systems fundamentally rest on a rather monolithic worldview, inspired by Christianity and based on secularism, they need to adapt to the realities of the postmigration era. The Muslim transnational communities in West complicate the matter even further as they pose new challenges in the notions of identity and belonging of the younger generation of Muslims in diaspora. The new mode of policy-making in the face of the migration and multiple transnational communities is to create and foster an education system to respond to the needs of Muslims in the West while enhancing the process of integration and teaching the western-style notion of citizenship. Sex education, religious extremism, terrorism, and pluralistic values are among the challenges that education systems in the West need to alter both in policy and practice.

  • 25.
    Arjmand, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Mandry, Antonia
    Islam and Democracy in Muslim Educational Settings2018In: Handbook of Islamic Education / [ed] Holger Daun, Reza Arjmand, Cham: Springer, 2018, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter seeks to explore the relationship between education and democracy in Muslim educational settings. The chapter will examine existing scholarship on Islam, democracy, and education with first, an overview of concepts and definitions and second, a review of educational systems regarding democracy and religion in selected Muslim-majority nations.

  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Albin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Begovic, Ermin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nätmobbning: Hur nätmobbning påverkar den sociala miljön i skolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om det mycket aktuella ämnet nätmobbning och specifikt hur nätmobbning påverkar elevers trivsel i skolan samt hur lärare och andra vuxna kan hjälpa till att hantera och stödja den som blir utsatt i skolan och hemmet. Litteraturstudien belyser vad nätmobbning innebär, olika konsekvenser, vilka konsekvenserna kan vara samt hur nätmobbning kan förhindras. Vuxnas syn på ämnet undersöktes genom intervjuer med fritidslärare medan elevernas syn undersöktes genom en enkätstudie. Den här studien visar vad som kan hända när en människa utsätts för nätmobbing, samt varför detta sker på nätet snarare än ansikte mot ansikte. Resultatet visar att elever mellan nio-tio år inte är speciellt utsatta för nätmobbning och att trivseln inte är påverkad i någon större utsträckning. Kunskapen kring ämnet är dock låg bland fritidslärarna som intervjuades och ses mer som en lillebror till den vanliga mobbningen. Resultatet visade också att nätmobbning ökar i de högre årskurserna, det visar också att tjejer är mer utsatta än killar.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Vårdnadshavares delaktighet i förskolan: Förskollärares tillvägagångssätt för att få vårdnadshavare delaktiga2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att bidra med kunskap om hur förskollärare i förskolan arbetar för att få vårdnadshavare delaktiga. Vidare undersöks vilka svårigheter och möjligheter som finns i detta. Denna kvalitativa studie har semistrukturerad intervju som metod där tre olika förskollärare är respondenter. Resultatet visar att en positiv relation är ett tillvägagångssätt för att få vårdnadshavare delaktiga. Genom en ömsesidig relation med växelverkan och dialog blir vårdnadshavaren erkänd och får en chans att kommunicera med förskolläraren om sitt barn och verksamheten.   

  • 28.
    Begicevic, Emina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Stensson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Konflikthantering i fritidshemmet: En kvalitativ studie om konflikter, konflikthantering och förebyggande arbete kring konflikter i fritidshemmet ur fritidslärarens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har syftat i att få en djupare förståelse om hur sex fritidslärare upplever elevers konflikter, hur konflikterna hanteras och förebyggs. Syftet var även att ta reda på vilka metoder som används för att elevernas konflikter ska kunna lösas och vilka konflikter som bör motverkas. För att nå en djupare kunskap i ämnet gjordes en kvalitativ studie där semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sex fritidslärare. Genom intervjuerna framkom fritidslärarnas upplevelser, tankar och åsikter kring konflikter, dess hantering samt förebyggande arbete. Därför har arbetet grundat sig i det fenomenologiska perspektivet. I studien framkom det att konflikthantering och att arbeta förebyggande tillhör vardagen för fritidslärare. Att främst prata om, lära sig förstå sin egen och andras roller i konflikter både i verkligheten och genom rollspel har visat sig vara en stark grund för att hantera och förebygga konflikter.

  • 29.
    Berg, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Att erbjuda nyckeln till språket: En intervjustudie av lärares uppfattningar om språkundervisningensförändring sedan införandet av Lgr-112018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks lärares uppfattningar om arbetet med läs- och skrivutveckling i grundskolans senare år samt hur detta arbete har påverkats av införandet av Lgr-11. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom kvalitativa samtalsintervjuer som har analyserats och sammanställts för att besvara frågeställningen: Har svensklärares arbete med läs- och skrivutveckling i grundskolans årskurs 7-9 förändrats till följd av övergången till Lgr-11 och i så fall på vilket sätt? Studien utgår från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och en dialogisk syn på läs- och skrivutveckling. Resultaten visar att lärarnas meningar är skilda gällande prioriteringar av innehållet i styrdokumenten men deras åsikter sammanfaller ändå kring en ökad tydlighet avseende kunskapskrav, bedömning och vad ämnet ska innehålla. Arbetet med läs- och skrivutveckling har påverkats av de nya styrdokumenten men lärarens tolkningsfrihet innebär att arbetet fortfarande till viss del styrs av traditioner och lärarnas individuella arbetsmönster.

     

  • 30.
    Bergman, Anton
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Projekt och Temaarbete i förskolans värld2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines and reviews themed work and projects in the realm of preschool. By interviewing a group of preschool teachers and other people in leading positions within the occupation a basic understanding of how and why themes and projects were used emerged. The answers were quite similar and gave a detailed understanding of the different reasons why the work was designed in such a way. The people interviewed implied that the main reason was that they wanted to take advantage of the children thoughts and let them influence the direction of the learning experience. That everyone within the preschool, kids and adults, benefit from learning together in unison. Together as a group they explored and discovered topics that the children deemed interesting and that gave the work and enjoyment that could otherwise be lost. The learning experience in preschool is supposed to be fun as much as it is educational.

  • 31.
    Bjervås, Lise-Lotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teaching about fairness in a preschool context2018In: Values in early childhood education: citizenship for tomorrow / [ed] Eva Johansson & Johanna Einarsdottir, Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 55-69Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Björklund, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teachers’ involvement in children’s mathematizing: beyond dichotomization between play and teaching2018In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 469-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on mathematics teaching in a play-based and goal-oriented practice, such as preschool, and on how different lines of actions may impact children’s learning opportunities. Video recordings of authentic play activities involving children and nine teachers from different preschools were analyzed qualitatively to answer the following research questions: (1) What lines of action do teachers use when they teach mathematics in play? and (2) What implications may different ways of teaching have for children’s learning opportunities? The analysis revealed four different categories: confirming direction of interest; providing strategies; situating known concepts; and challenging concept meaning. As these differ regarding both the mathematics content focused on and the kind of knowledge emphasized, they have implications for children’s learning opportunities.

  • 33.
    Bredmar, Anna-Carin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Emotionell närvaro i pedagogiskt arbete: En filosofisk analys med fokus på det mellanmänskliga mötets betydels2017In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, no 3-4, p. 255-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen av emotionell närvaro i lärares arbete utifrån ett relationellt perspektiv, samt att visa på livsvärldsfenomeno-logins teoretiska och metodologiska bidrag till detta perspektiv. Med hjälp av Bubers dialogfilosofi analyseras erfarenheter av emotionell närvaro i lärares arbete. Resultatet av analysen presenteras i två meningsbestämmande teman: uppmärksamhet och skärpa i lärares arbete och integritet och gemenskap. Ana-lysen visar på betydelsen av emotionell närvaro som en kompass för lärare för att handla omdömesfullt. I emotionell närvaro riktar lärare och elever sin uppmärksamhet mot det som upplevs som väsentligt. Emotionell närvaro innebär en förmåga hos läraren att omfatta den pedagogiska situationen som en helhet. Likaså innebär emotionell närvaro en upplevelse av samhörighet som både är gemenskap och respekt för personlig integritet. Emotionell när-varo är en mänsklig kraft som förmår motverka ett mekaniskt och instru-mentellt förhållningssätt i lärares arbete.

  • 34.
    Börjes, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Skolans och fritidshemmets gemensamma arena: En kvalitativ studie om samverkan i dagens skola2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats ämnar jag undersöka hur samverkan mellan skola och fritidshem ser ut i dagens skola. En historisk tillbakablick på fritidshemmets utveckling inleder uppsatsen innan jag går in mer på de studier som gjorts kring ämnet. Utifrån intervjuer med rektorer, lärare och fritidspersonal har jag sedan undersökt hur begreppet samverkan ser ut i de olika yrkeskategorier samt vilka möjligheter och hinder som upplevs för en god samverkan mellan skola och fritidshem. Slutsatsen av min undersökning är att samverkan är ett begrepp som alla känner till och alla vill ska fungera men som, på grund av olika anledningar, fungerar olika bra på olika skolor. Synen på de olika yrkeskategoriernas uppdrag är en faktor. Avtal, planeringstid och ledningens inställning till samverkan är andra.   

  • 35.
    Conradsson, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Stark, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Solidaritet på förskolan: En studie om sex förskollärares beskrivningar om vad värdet solidaritet med svaga och utsatta innebär i förskolans praktik2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I förskolans uppdrag ingår det att i samspel med barnen främja de grundläggande värden som vårt samhälle vilar på. Dessa är; människolivets okränkbarhet, individens frihet och integritet, alla människors lika värde, jämställdhet mellan könen och solidaritet med svaga och utsatta (Skolverket 2016). I den här studien tittar vi närmare på värdet; "solidaritet med svaga och utsatta". Anledningen till det är att vi i vår egen utbildning till förskollärare, samt på de förskolor vi arbeter på saknar reflekterande diskussioner om vad detta värde innebär i en förskolepedagogisk kontext. Studiens syfte är därför att ur ett didaktiskt perspektiv synliggöra förskollärares beskrivningar av deras värdegrundsarbete med soidaritet med svaga och utsatta.Genom de didaktiska frågorna; Vad (vilket innehåll lärs ut) och Hur (vilka metoder används) söker vi svar på hur förskollärare arbetar med detta värde. För att få svar på detta intervjuar vi sex förskollärare. Resultatet visar att på samtliga förskollärares arbetsplatser finns det inte ett planerat arbete samt att värdet inte lyfts till reflektion om dess innebörd. Dock, framkommer det i resultatet fem olika innehållsområden som förskollärarna kopplar ihop med deras arbete med solidaritet med svaga och utsatta, samt sex metoder som de anser främja detta arbete. Gemensam nämnare för de olika ämnesområdena handlar om att barnen i ord och handling visar att de bryr sig om sina kamrater. Metoder som förskollärare använder sig av är att de i den dagliga verksamheten bäddar i arbetet med solidaritet med svaga och utsatta i de vardagliga situationer som uppstår i barnens samspel.

  • 36.
    Cosovic, Arabela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Persson, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Förskolans lärmiljö i förhållande till barn med koncentartionssvårigheter: Förskollärares didaktiska val i relation till en likvärdig förskola2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med kunskap om didaktiska val som några yrkesverksamma förskollärare gör samt hur de anpassar lärmiljön till barn med koncentrationssvårigheter för att möjliggöra en likvärdig förskola.

     

    Genom en kvalitativ studie i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem verksamma legitimerade förskollärare undersöks hur informanter definierar barn med koncentrationssvårigheter vilka didaktiska val de gör samt vilka är betydelsefulla faktorer för deras arbete.

    Studien innefattar ett resonemang om en likvärdig förskola för alla barn, exempel på vilka pedagogiska metoder och arbetssättet som kan användas i arbetet med barn med koncentrationssvårigheter samt vilka hinder och förutsättningar finns i arbetet med dessa barn.

    Studien utgår ifrån ett didaktiskt perspektiv, där didaktiska frågor genomsyrar texten. Resultatet av studien visar att förskollärare definierar barn med koncentrations problematik utifrån deras svårigheter att sitta stilla, hålla fokus, avsluta påbörjad uppgift, lära sig och skapa goda relationer med andra personer. Studien visade även att en god lärmiljö för dessa barn kännetecknas av ordning, struktur, tydlighet, flexibilitet och förutsägbarhet. Förskollärarna erbjuder stödinsatser i form av bildstöd, anpassningar av pedagogiskt material och fysisk miljö, tillgänglighet, ett professionellt pedagogiskt förhållningssätt och

    extra resurspersonal, när det finns möjlighet. Studien visade även att ramfaktorer villkorar undervisningen och påverkar förskollärarens didaktiska val. 

     

  • 37.
    Edström, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Sjöqvist, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    “Jag lär mig om jag tycker att det är kul…”: En kvalitativ studie om elevers upplevelser av synligt och osynligt lärande i den styrda respektive fria leken på fritidshemmet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete behandlar upplevelsen av vad den fria respektive styrda leken lär elever på fritidshemmet utifrån elevernas eget perspektiv. Syftet med denna studie var att synliggöra elevers upplevelser av synligt och osynligt lärande i den fria och styrda leken på fritidshemmet. Frågeställningarna för studien var: ”Vad upplever elever att de lär sig under fri lek och vad upplever elever att de lär sig under styrd lek”. Vi valde att göra en kvalitativ studie med fenomenologisk ansats och semistrukturerade intervjufrågor. Urvalet bygger på intervjuer med nio barn i åk tre som är inskrivna på samma fritidshem. Vår teoretiska utgångspunkt har varit pragmatisk lärandeteori samt begreppen explicit och implicit lärande. Resultatet visar att eleverna inte alltid uppfattar sitt lärande i leken oavsett om leken är fri eller styrd. Lärandet är i stora delar osynligt för flera elever i vår studie. Det synliga lärandet handlar främst om praktiskt och socialt lärande. En slutsats av vår studie är att fritidslärare behöver bli bättre på att sätta ord på och synliggöra för eleven vad denne lär i leken.

  • 38.
    Eek-Karlsson, Liselotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Between responsibility and positioning – a study about young people’s interactions in social media2018In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines young people’s argumentation about their communication in social media. The purpose is to uncover what is taken for granted in their experiences and illuminate discursive patterns in their representation of everyday life online. 32 youths (14-15 years old) were interviewed. The result shows that there are three discourses involved that in different ways condition the youths’ acting space online. The discourses are called ‘taking responsibility’, ‘saving face’ and ‘social positioning’. There is a struggle between the discourses and they take on different power positions depending on the relation between three parameters: with whom the interaction takes place, the content that is to be published and the online characteristics. The discourse ‘taking responsibility’ is superior in interactions with close friends, unlike interactions with peripheral friends, where ‘social positioning’ is superior. The discourse ‘saving face’ is found in interactions with both close and peripheral friends.

  • 39.
    Eek-Karlsson, Liselotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The importance of belonging – a study of young people’s online communication in a Swedish context: -2018In: Presented at AERA 2018: -, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of the study presented in this session is to deepen the knowledge about young peoples’ communication in social media by focusing on positioning processes in their online interactions. Online communication has become an important arena constituting everyday practice for young people. Smart phones and mobile Internet have been of great importance for the development of interactions in social media. For example, in a survey conducted by Swedish Media Council[1] 2017, 75 percent of 12-15 year old Swedish students are found to be daily users (ibid). An American survey from 2015 reports that 88 % of American teenagers have access to smartphones and 90 % of these exchange texts. A typical American teen sends and receives 30 texts per day (Pew Research Center[2], 2017). This technology gives young people many possibilities to interact beyond time and space. Online spaces can from this perspective be regarded as more equal than offline spaces. Irrespective of background, people can be brought together around mutual interests (boyd and Ellison, 2008).

    But, for many young people adolescence is a time of turbulence, in which establishing social affiliations is an important element. Struggles about power, about popularity and status are key aspects, which include both inclusive and exclusive processes. Context-bounded expectations to act according to social norms are developed both in the class and in school as a whole, which follow into online interactions. A lot of examples of both possibilities and restrictions for being a young person, a girl or a boy, become visible online (boyd, 2008; Davis, 2012; Vallor, 2012). Certain identities are placed in the center while others are marginalized and by the youths’ acts both normality and deviation are constructed (Kumashiro, 2002).

    The students in this study are not categorized as solely boys or girls. Behind the gender category there are other categories that affect their position in thepeer group and the power to act, both offline and online. The endeavor is to uncover the relation between the students’ multiple identities and their acting space online. From the students’ point of view, this study asks the question:

    -          In what ways are the students’ acting spaces online affected by their position in the peer group?

    Theoretical framework

    In this study, focus is put on positioning processes highlighted in the students’ argumentation about their online interactions. The students actively use language to interpret the world, both offline and online, and depending on how language is used different discourses are developed in the social practice. (Foucault, 1972; Chouliaraki and Fairclough, 1999). There is a relation between discourses and power, and with the concept ‘regime of truth’ Foucault (1972) points out that power is created and embodied by discourses and in this way the discourses are allowed to rule the understanding of the world (ibid). It can also be verbalized as the world is interpreted through the discursive patterns the students are exposed to. In this way, discourses condition both the constitution of the subject and the structures in society as a whole. Structures exert power and contribute to keep the social practice in order (Foucault, 1972; Chouliaraki and Fairclough, 1999). By their acts ‘normality’ is constructed and according to Kumashiro (2002) otherness and deviation are known and maintained only by inference, often in contrast to the norm (ibid). This is a question of inclusion and exclusion, leading to both inequality and social stratification. Normalization processes concerns how certain identities become naturalized while others are unthinkable, for example on the basis of gender, sexual orientation or disability. Instead of looking at power relations as dichotomous and binary in which different groups appear as antagonistic, this study has an intersectional point of departure (Crenshaw, 1995; Foucault, 1972; Kumashiro, 2002).

    Data material and analysis process

    The empirical data is based on observations and interviews and are collected in two classes in two separated schools situated in a medium–sized city in Sweden. In one class 12 youths (4 boys and 8 girls) of 23 from Grade 8 (15 years) participated. In the other class 20 youths of 24 (9 boys and 11 girls) from Grade 7 participated. Altogether there were 13 boys and 19 girls taking part in the study. Before the interviews I attended each class as an observer for approximately 40 hours in order to get to know the students as individuals, but also to get an insight into their reciprocal friendships. The majority of interviews were designed in pairs, and the time for all interviews totaled 12 hours and 38 minutes. The interviews were semi-structured, which means that a list of questions and topics were constructed that had to be covered during the interviews (Bryman, 2016).  The endeavor was to give the students a voice by letting them, as freely as possible, describe their experiences of interacting in social media. My task, as a researcher, was to ask follow-up questions when needed to get a deeper understanding. All interviews were recorded and transcribed.

    A hermeneutic interpretation process formed the basis for the analysis process. The analysis began with a reading of the empirical data to get an overall understanding. Thereafter the data was thematized based on patterns found by reading through all the text several times. By connecting theoretical perspectives to the data, the understanding of themes and patterns deepened (Lindseth and Norberg, 2004).

    Results

    This study shed light on inequalities in students’ acting spaces online, contributing with perspectives of positioning processes in young people’s everyday lives. The results show that the online arena works as a leisure center for most of the students. There are social norms and rules connected to the online arena, irrespective who you are, which are important to be familiar with. But, there are also normative expectations, connected to different social categories in the peer group, which also affect the acting space online. Both aspects are central in order to be successful in the peer group.

    On one hand all students in this study are constructed as part of the same category. They are young people in Grade 7 or 8 interacting in social media, but on the other hand they also are constructed in different ways in the same category. The students belong to different peer groups in school and their social identities are constructed in relation to how they identify themselves as a member or not a member of these groups. There are normative expectations depending on group membership, for example what kinds of photos that can be published without risking being insulted online. ‘Horse girls’ publish photos when they jump with their horses and ‘skate boarders’ publish nice moves when they skate. These students do not publish photos exhibiting their body.  Some students are regarded as ‘geeks’ with weak social affiliations and they are closed out from social media. Being online is dangerous for them. No one will protect them if someone is mean.  

    Gender is another aspect that affects the students’ acting space online. To be an appropriate boy or girl that is accepted and respected by peers, it is important to act in accordance with the prevailing order in the specific context, but also according to the general expectations in society. It appears that successful boys are controlled, and they are acting online in accordance with appropriate masculinity. Mostly, the boys are ‘doers’; they publish photos where they act in contrast to girls who publish photos objectifying their body. Related to the hierarchical order between men and women boys and girls have different access to each other’s acting space. It is easier for girls to use the boys’ acting space, for example publishing photos when they are acting. The opposite condition prevails for most of the boys. There is a danger for boys publishing photos where they are exposing their body, since there is a great risk of being insulted.

    At the same time as there is a struggle about power related to gender and group membership, processes are also taking place, that derive from other positioning processes, in this case sexuality. It appears that it is very shameful for the boys to be looked upon as a faggot. ‘Doing’ masculinity does not relate to being homosexual. This means that boys who actively use markers to show their hetero-normativity and masculinity are more likely to be marked as real men/boys. It can also be expressed as this kind of intertwining between sexuality and gender gains hegemony in the peer group (and in society), which comes with less risk of being insulted online. Thus, this intertwining is loaded with sufficient power to guard normality in the peer group. In contrast to boys, girls in general do not need to prove their hetero-normativity in their online interactions. Instead, they need to be aware of the prevailing view upon girls’/women’s sexuality. This opinion is common in the girls’ statements in this study. They use the word ‘slut’ when they describe some girls in school and what kind of photos they publish (photos where they exhibit their body). These girls risk to get negative comments.  

    But, the analysis also shows that some positions in the peer group are loaded with adequate power and possibility to challenge the intertwining between gender and sexuality. The more status the more power to challenge normative boundaries. Some girls in school are popular, especially among boys, and they have the power to act in a norm-breaching way without risking being insulted online. If a girl publishes provocative photos without being abused, the power to act online is reinforced. On the contrary, these girls get positive comments and even higher status. Some peer groups’ positions among boys are also loaded with power and can challenge the prevailing order of how to be a proper boy/man without risking being called a faggot. These boys can publish female-coded photos, such as objectifying their bodies, without being abused.

    To conclude, the processes of belonging are complex, dynamic, and power-loaded phenomena. The students act from their social position, in terms of expectation based on their position in their peer group and fear of reprisals. The intersection between gender, sexuality, group membership and status between groups give the students different positions to act online. There is an ongoing and constant negotiation in which the students have lots of reference points to take into account in order to be an appropriate and accepted young person.

    References

    boyd, danah. (2008). Why Student Heart Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. In David Buckingham (Ed.) Student, Identity, and Digital Media. Cambridge, Mass,: MIT Press.

    boyd, danah m. and Ellison, B. Nicole. (2008). Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship. Journal of Computer–Mediated Communication, 13: 210–230.

    Bryman, Alan. (2016). Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Chouliaraki, Lilie and Fairclough, Norman. (1999). Discourse in Late Modernity. Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Crenshaw, Kimberlé. (1995). Critical race theory. The key writings that formed the movement. New York: New York Press. 

    Davis, Katie. (2012). Friendship 2.0: Adolescents’ experiences of belonging and self-disclosure online. Journal of Adolescence. 35: 1527–1536.

    Foucault, Michel. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. London: Penguin.

    Kumashiro, Kevin. (2002). Troubling Education. Queer Activism and Antioppressive Pedagogy. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

    Lindseth, Anders and Norberg, Astrid. (2004). A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 18(2): 145-153.

    Pew Research Center. (2017). Teens, Social Media and Technology Overview 2015.

    http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/ [2017-11-02].

    Statens Medieråd. (2017). Ungar and Medier 2017. Stockholm: Kulturdepartementet. [Swedish Media Council. Children and Media 2017. Stockholm: Ministry of Culture].

    Vallor, Shannon. (2012). Flourishing on Facebook: virtue friendship and new social media. Ethics and Information Technology, 14(3): 185–199.

     

     

     

    [1] Swedish Media Council is a knowledge center that investigates the media habits of children and youth. They conduct yearly studies on youths’ experiences and attitudes toward the use of different media (Statens Medieråd, 2017).

    [2] Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank based in Washington (Pew Research Center , 2017)

  • 40.
    Elmeroth, Elisabeth
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Etnisk maktordning i skola och samhälle2018 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I alla samhällen skapas hierarkier där människor lever under skilda villkor. När vissa grupper får mycket makt, leder det till andra gruppers underordning. I den här boken beskrivs hur en etnisk maktordning skapas och upprätthålls i skola och samhälle, men också vilka möjligheter som finns för att inom förskola och skola arbeta för ett interkulturellt förhållningssätt. Kanske kan du som läsare få en fördjupad syn på den etniska maktordningen. Att få syn på är att få kunskap, och kunskap ger redskap för att förändra.Och det krävs förändringar i samhället och skolan om värdegrundsbegreppet ska kunna omfatta alla oavsett etnicitet.

    Skolan är en central arena för möten mellan barn, ungdomar,föräldrar, lärare och övrig skolpersonal. Förskolan och skolan är,tillsammans med hemmen, den viktigaste normgivande arenan i socialiseringen av barn och ungdomar. I förskolan och skolan finns förutsättningar för ett demokratiskt interkulturellt samhälle – ett samhälle där människor möts på samma villkor.

    I denna andra upplaga av Etnisk maktordning i skola och samhällehar texten uppdaterats med senaste ändringar i lagar och styr­dokument och med aktuell forskning.
Etnisk maktordning i skola och samhälle vänder sig till blivande och verksamma lärare, socionomer samt studenter och verksamma inom området socialt arbete. Den kan också läsas som kompetensutveckling av övrig skolpersonal, skolpolitiker och andra med ansvar för offentlig verksamhet som vänder sig till barn och ungdomar.

  • 41.
    Emilson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Johansson, Eva
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Values in Nordic early childhood education: democracy and the child’s perspective2018In: International Handbook of Early Childhood Education / [ed] Marilyn Fleer, Bert van Oers, Springer, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 929-954Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to outline and discuss the development of Nordic research on democracy in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC). We will show how research over a relatively short time has altered from normative and political arguments for democracy in ECEC via an interest in how to implement and operationalize democratic ideas into practice, leading towards a more critical approach addressing complexity to democracy. Through this process a new concept of democracy connected with shared life and pluralism appears to emerge. Communication becomes important. In turn, ambiguity and even conflicting ideas appears to be accepted as a base for democracy.

  • 42.
    Fast, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Man behöver inte veta hans namn: En samtalsanalys om hur andraspråkselever upprätthåller ett samtal med hjälp av uppbackningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie är att undersöka samtalsstrukturer mellan fyra elever med svenska som andraspråk. Studien utgår ifrån Conversation Analysis, CA, och fokuserar på vilka former eleverna använder sig inom uppbackningar och hur de använder dessa för att upprätthålla samtalet.

         Deltagarna består av två elever i årskurs 8 och två elever i årskurs 9. Samtalet de fick genomföra var att diskutera 10 frågor utifrån ett filmklipp. Samtalen var 7 minuter respektive 11 minuter långa som transkriberades och analyserades.

         Resultatet för denna studie är att eleverna använder sig av uppbackningar för att signalera att ämnet anses avslutat och ett nytt ämne bör introduceras. Slutsatsen för denna studie är att valet av uppbackningar och deras placeringar beror på faktorn om talaren förväntas fortsätta tala, avsluta sin samtalstur eller om det förväntas ett ämnesbyte. 

  • 43.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Lund, Stefan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Pupils in upper secondary school sports: Choices based on what?2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 270-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual’s lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double dominated field. From a cultural sociological perspective, the purpose of this article is to analyse and explain how the organisational conditions and pupils’ social characteristics interact with upper secondary pupils’ choices of different school sports programmes in Sweden. Based on registry data on secondary school sports pupils, the results show that the supply of school sports requires specific forms of social dispositions that have an impact on which categories of pupils choose to participate. Among the students participating in school sports, there is a higher proportion of pupils who: are of Swedish origin (p < 0.05), are boys (p < 0.05), attend academic study programmes (p < 0.05), and have parents with high educational capital (p < 0.05). Furthermore, based on 677 pupils’ questionnaire responses, collected through two studies on school sports in Sweden, the results show that the choice between different types of school sports programmes is related to the intersection between pupils’ sex and possession of educational and sporting capital. One important conclusion is that the overlap between the fields of education and sports exacerbates gender and class biases, and that the supply of school sports in Sweden appeals to a narrow or rather specific taste for sport and education, particularly favouring boys with highly educated parents and an interest in team sports.

  • 44.
    Florentsson, Ebba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Tellander, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Den komplexa utomhuspedagogiken: En studie om fritidslärares uppfattningar av utomhuspedagogik som styrd eller ostyrd verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how teachers define, perceive and work with outdoor education. We are experiencing some uncertainty regarding outdoor education - is it about planned or unplanned activities or a combination of both? The purpose of the study is to clarify the understanding of how teachers work with outdoor education and thereby visualize there opinion about learning by planned or unplanned activities. We have interviewed six teachers. The study's results show that teachers have similar working methods and definitions of outdoor education. This we believe is due to the fact that they all have had the same education at universities, at different years, and collegial cooperation using the same methods. Teachers' perceptions are that both planned and unplanned outdoor activities are positive for learning. In the planned activities there are certained goals wich the students will achieve while the unplanned activities also provide goal fulfillment and development although not being planned. Through the unplanned outdoor activity, it is important that the teachers capture the upcoming opportunities and guide the student without this being planned in advance.

  • 45.
    Fonseca, Lars
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Av- eller belastning? En studie om lärarassistenter, lärare och förhandlingar om professionella gränser2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Konsten att få tänk på pränt2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Språkutvecklande aktiviteter: - en idébank2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Stavning - bokstavlig begrundan2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Utmaningar och motivation i läsundervisningen2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Fransson, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Social interaktion på fritidshemmet: Aktionsforskning om samarbete med hjälp av problemlösningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien var ett utvecklingsarbete som inspirerades utifrån Rönnermans (2012) aktionsforskningsspiral. Syftet var att undersöka hur social interaktion i en elevgrupp på ett fritidshem kan uttrycka sig och om det kunde ske en förändring genom samarbetsövningar i form av problemlösningar. Valet av ämne grundade sig i observationer och intervjuer med lärare i fritidshem där det framkom att det fanns flera grupperingar mellan eleverna som gjorde det mindre trivsamt. Utifrån forskningen tog arbetet avstamp i kollaborativt lärande för att försöka minska grupperingarna mellan eleverna. Eleverna blev indelade i grupper om cirka 3 elever i varje där de fick till sig en ny problemlösning vid varje tillfälle som valdes att kallas veckans utmaning för en extra motivation för eleverna. Veckans utmaning pågick under några veckor och därefter intervjuades lärare i fritidshem återigen för att mäta resultatet mot syftet samt frågeställningen. Resultatet visade att det inte blev några förändringar i elevernas sociala interaktion främst på grund av tidsbrist och valet av samarbetsövningar. I slutet av arbetet framkom det en ny forskningsfråga för att på ett annat sätt försöka undersöka hur den sociala interaktionen på ett fritidshem skulle kunna förändras.

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