lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 38 of 38
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Elo, Maria
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples Republic of China;Univ Turku, Finland;Migrat Inst Finland, Finland.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Servais, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Basco, Rodrigo
    Amer Univ Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Cruz, Allan Discua
    Univ Lancaster, UK.
    Riddle, Liesl
    George Washington Univ, USA.
    Taeube, Florian
    European Management Sch, Germany;Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Advancing the views on migrant and diaspora entrepreneurs in international entrepreneurship2018In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 119-133Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Elo, Maria
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Servais, Per
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Discua Cruz, Allan
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Basco, Rodrigo
    American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Editorial2019In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 36, no 1/2, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Henriksson, Viktor
    et al.
    Spiss, Martin
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    van Houten, Chris
    The role of effectuation and entrepreneurial decision-making in SMEs during times of turbulence2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Experiential knowledge profiles in internationalizing SMEs: The ability to sustain market positions in the new turbulent era of global business2011In: Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm: / [ed] Verbeke, van Tulder and Tavares, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2011, p. 77-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study sets out to establish experiential knowledge profiles of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) entering emerging markets and to examine how the different abilities contained in these profiles impact the sustainability of market positions in the new turbulent era of global business.

    Methodology – We analyse a sample of 203 entries into emerging markets by Swedish SMEs. The data collected on site at all sample firms is analysed in two sequential stages. First, an exploratory factor analysis is performed to derive four types of experiential knowledge. Second, a cluster analysis is performed to establish experiential knowledge profiles among the entering SMEs.

    Findings – The result of the analysis shows that experiential knowledge is a multi-dimensional construct consisting of four main types. Moreover, emerging market entering SMEs are shown to develop different knowledge profiles. We suggest that Masters are well prepared for such periods. Learners most probably will experience high levels of uncertainty, whereas Country and Customer Experts face less uncertainty due to their specialisation on either host market or customer knowledge.

    Originality – The chapter shows that the experiential knowledge base of emerging market entering SMEs is an important indicator of the readiness for turbulent times. Firms will be able to sustain market positions differently depending on which type of knowledge profile they belong to.

  • 5.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Jansson, Hans
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Timlon, Joachim
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Collective Internationalization Processes of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises from China2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Pourmand, Firouze
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Political knowledge, political turbulence and uncertainty in emerging market internationalization processes2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    EU-Enlargement Effects on International Trade in the Baltic Sea Region:  The Case of Exporting/Importing SMEs from Southern Sweden2007In:  , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Perceived institutional distance in the emerging market entry process2011In: International Journal of Business Environment, ISSN 1740-0589, E-ISSN 1740-0597, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 268-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We claim that difference in business environments is the result of differences between institutions. In this paper, a network perspective is taken on business markets and we set out to examine how differences in institutions are perceived in business relationships between firms originating from disparate business networks. The concept of perceived institutional distance is developed in three sequential stages. First, we conceptually develop the concept as an anchored theoretical construct. Second, we try out the concept empirically. Third, we verify the dimensions in which perceived institutional distance is manifested. The study reports from an on-site survey of 203 SMEs with experience of entering emerging markets. Five dimensions in which perceived institutional distance is manifested are presented: patience and rationality from the cognitive institutional pillar, distrust and reliability from the normative pillar, and sanctions from the regulative pillar.

  • 9.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. Halmstad University.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Pourmand Hilmersson, Firouze
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Political knowledge, political turbulence and uncertainty in the internationalization process of SMEs.2015In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 234-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of the study is to examine the political sources of uncertainty in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Design/methodology/approach– The authors theoretically derived a research model embracing three hypotheses. These hypotheses are tested on a sample of 203 on-site interviewed SMEs. Regression analysis is used to test two individual hypotheses and one interaction effect.

    Findings– The regression analysis reveals that political knowledge possessed by the firm reduces uncertainty in the internationalization process. Political turbulence is shown to increase uncertainty in the internationalization. The interaction shows that political turbulence obliterates the uncertainty reducing effect by political knowledge.

    Research limitations/implications– The authors identifies two main political sources of uncertainty in the internationalization process of SMEs. For managers and business researchers, it is shown that experiential knowledge is useful under stable conditions. When turbulence increases, however, firms need to develop alternative strategies for uncertainty management.

    Originality/value– This study is the first to test the uncertainty reducing effects of experiential knowledge in turbulent environments. Thus, by running the interaction between political knowledge and political turbulence, the authors shed new light on the usefulness of previous experiences in the internationalization process.

  • 10.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Collective Internationalization Processes of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises from China2008In: Proceedings of the 50 th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business  "Knowledge Development and Exchange in International Business Network", Milan, Italy, June 30 - July 3, 2008 / [ed] Cantwell, J and Kiyak, T, Academy of International Business , 2008, p. 127-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Experiential knowledge profiles of internationalizing SMEs: The ability to sustain market positions in the new turbulent era of global business2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The perceived institutional distance in the internationalization process of firms. A proposed model for measuring managerial pereceptions in emerging country markets2009In: Academy of International Business, San Diego, June, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Timlon, Joachim
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
     The Chinese are Coming: Entry into Europe of Firms from the P.R.C.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to describe and explain the internationalization processes of Chinese firms in Europe, studying the on-going increase in the international business activities by firms from the P.R.C. This is a consequence of the rapid growth of emerging country markets and their integration into the world economy, implying a third wave of globalization of firms from emerging markets like China. The following major aspects are taken up:i) The establishment of Chinese firms in Europe and the development of their business in this area. ii) The internationalization process of these firms, especially focusing on adaptations to local markets in the EU.iii) Major impact on the internationalization process by the changing institutional conditions of the various country markets, where the foreign firms operate, and from where they originate.The study is based on research on firms from the P.R.C. and their internationalization as well as relevant research on differences between European and overseas Chinese firms. The more common Chinese investments in manufacturing industry will be compared with the more recent investments in service industries, mainly in retailing. The research strategy is abductive, using a broad case-study approach. Collecting primary data from interviews and observations is the main source of information. Research on the Chinese international firms is mainly qualitative, and based on case studies of selected companies as well as EU countries. The study is founded on the institutional network approach to internationalization processes, which are seen to be knowledge-based, and governed by institutional developments in markets. A Five/Five stages model is established that consist of a number of relationship development stages and a number of internationalization stages. New stages are established with the firm extending its business from one major type of market to another major type or from one type of foreign environment to another. Since these foreign country market contexts are defined as institutional settings, the internationalization process is determined by the institutional distance between country markets. Establishment points in foreign market networks are defined as entry nodes.

  • 14.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region2008In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    We integrate internationalization process theory with industrial network theory to explain SME entry in emerging markets. We show that entry modes are complemented by entry nodes and entry processes. We develop a Five/Five Stages Model to consider the dynamic interaction between these factors. We undertook a survey of 116 SMEs in Southern Sweden trading with the Baltic States, Poland and Russia, as complemented by a case study of ten SMEs trading with Poland and an analysis of trade statistics of SMEs in Southern Sweden.

    We find that relationships are critical for entry as most firms rely on direct relationships with customers or dyads. The involvement of subsidiaries is uncommon, suggesting a low degree of FDI. Meanwhile, triads or indirect relationships through distributors or agents are more important. This low cost entry node creates a paradox in that the insufficient learning it provides about local markets obstructs further internationalization. By relating entries to the global internationalization process, we find that most SMEs trade with few countries in the region, indicating a low degree of regional internationalization.

     

  • 15.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Baltic Sea Region2008In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate internationalization process theory with industrial network theory to explain SME entry in emerging markets. We show that entry modes are complemented by entry nodes and entry processes. We develop a Five/Five Stages Model to consider the dynamic interaction between these factors. We undertook a survey of 116 SMEs in Southern Sweden trading with the Baltic States, Poland and Russia, as complemented by a case study of ten SMEs trading with Poland and an analysis of trade statistics of SMEs in Southern Sweden.

    We find that relationships are critical for entry as most firms rely on direct relationships with customers or dyads. The involvement of subsidiaries is uncommon, suggesting a low degree of FDI. Meanwhile, triads or indirect relationships through distributors or agents are more important. This low cost entry node creates a paradox in that the insufficient learning it provides about local markets obstructs further internationalization. By relating entries to the global internationalization process, we find that most SMEs trade with few countries in the region, indicating a low degree of regional internationalization.

  • 16.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Local adaptation of international business-to-business marketing in emerging markets: the case of Swedish firms in China2014In: Proceedings of The 56th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "Local Contexts in Global Business": Vancouver, Canada, June 23-26, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the major role taken in the global economy by emerging markets, a key issue in contemporary international marketing research is how multinational corporations adapt their marketing to these markets. This paper researches this issue for Swedish firms established in China through a case study of nine subsidiaries in Shanghai, interviewing European and Chinese managers at each firm. The comparative conceptual framework derived from business-to-business marketing theory and institutional theory was operationalized into a standardized questionnaire in order to compare European and Chinese types of network marketing. The analysis shows that the European network marketing type largely prevails among Swedish subsidiaries in China. Adaptations have been made, as also a mixture between European and Chinese network marketing types can be seen. However, a limited number of adaptations into a Chinese network marketing type were identified. European managers tend to perceive the firm to hold a view closer to a Chinese network marketing type more often than the Chinese managers do, which indicates that they regard the Swedish subsidiaries to have adapted to the Chinese market to a higher extent than the Chinese managers do.

  • 17.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Mixing Chinese and Western leadership styles: Swedish firms in China2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jansson, Hans
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    The mixture of network marketing types in emerging markets: ­the case of Swedish MNCs in China2016In: Marketing challenges in a turbulent business environment: proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) World Marketing Congress / [ed] Mark D. Groza & Charles B. Ragland, Springer, 2016, p. 389-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the major role taken in the global economy by emerging markets, a key issue in contemporary marketing research is the relevance of Western marketing ideas, both from a theoretical and practical perspective. This paper researches this issue for China, being the fastest growing emerging market in the world and therefore becoming a role model for marketing in such markets. The purpose is to specify a network marketing theory relevant for Western MNCs in emerging markets. In order to do so, an integrative framework was developed based on network marketing theory and institutional network marketing theory. From the latter four basic rules are pinpointed and thereafter applied to European and Chinese business networks respectively. The thought styles are based on symbols such as words, signs and gestures. Norms and values influence how business marketers think and act. Enforcement mechanisms concern how to construct the sanction and incentive system in order to reward or punish individuals and groups within the firm together with establishing surveillance and assessment system to control the enforcement of marketing practice.

    Based on the framework of the basic rules, a measurement instrument was developed and tested in a pilot study in spring 2013. For the standardized questionnaire the four theoretical basic rules were broken down into 15 sub-concepts and thereafter derived into 45 items. Altogether these constitute a basis of a comparative marketing framework. The items are formulated as statements on a six-point interval scale about Chinese and Western marketing. For the purpose of this paper, 24 items were selected to constitute the basis for analysis as they focus particularly on network marketing. A low number (1) expresses a wholly European perspective on network marketing and a high number (6) a wholly Chinese perspective. Two to five is a mix of these marketing types, where 3–4 represents the most even mixture of network marketing types in the emerging market. In the pilot study nine Swedish MNCs were visited at their subsidiaries in the Shanghai area. The primary data was collected through structured face-to-face interviews with two managers—one of Swedish and one of Chinese origin—per case interviewed separately, so in total 18 interviews were conducted. The interviews were undertaken in English, sitting side by side with the managers, discussing their answers while they were filling out the questionnaire. It was followed by an interview with the respondent based on a semi-structured interview guide in order to have as good control as possible of primarily the reliability, but also the validity, of the questionnaire.

    The results and analysis show that in subsidiaries of Swedish MNCs in China, the European network marketing type still prevails. Some adaptations have been made though, as also a mixture between European and Chinese network marketing types can be seen. A limited number of adaptations into a Chinese network marketing type were identified, even if the managers themselves perceive that they have made adaptations when working in Swedish subsidiaries in China. When comparing European versus Chinese manager groups, the European managers tend to perceive the firm to hold a view closer to a Chinese network marketing type more often than the Chinese managers do. This indicates that the European managers regard that the Swedish subsidiaries have adapted more to the Chinese market than the Chinese mangers regard them to have done.

  • 19.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Att leda småländska företag på en global marknad2016In: Småländskt ledarskap: inledande betraktelser / [ed] Magnus Forslund, Mikael Lundgren & Katarina Zambrell, Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2016, 1, p. 108-115Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Drivers of Relationship Development in the Internationalization Process of SMEs, and the Importance of Long-term and Direct International Relationships on Export Performance in Emerging Markets2009In: European International Business Academy, Valencia, December, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Emerging market entry node pattern and experiential knowledge of small and medium-sized enterprises2013In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 106-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To conceptualize “entry node”, to describe the entry node pattern (i.e. the initial entry node and changes in it) of SMEs entering emerging market business networks, and to determine how network nodes are associated with experiential knowledge.

    Design/methodology – Using data from an on-site survey based on a standardized questionnaire, hypotheses were tested using ANOVA on 197 SMEs in southern Sweden that entered the emerging markets of the Baltic States, Poland, Russia, or China. 

    Findings – The entry node is the establishment point into a foreign market network. Four entry situations are defined – triad via home market, triad via host market, dyad from home market, and dyad at host market – each using different entry nodes. After initial entry, one third of the firms changed their nodes, primarily into a more committed node. Various nodes display significant differences in the level of accumulated societal, business network and customer-specific experiential knowledge. A more committed node is associated with more experiential knowledge. 

    Research limitations – Knowledge is complex to measure, since various factors influence the level of accumulated experiential knowledge. This study examines the association between types of nodes and experiential knowledge, but does not aim to explain knowledge accumulation. Perceptual measures are used and possible method biases involved are safeguarded through an on-site survey method.

    Originality – This paper conceptualizes the novel concept of entry node, provides insight into the SME node pattern in emerging markets, and examines the association between nodes and experiential knowledge.

     

  • 22.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Entry node conceptualization and the impact of the current network node on SME experiential knowledge in emerging markets2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Entry Nodes and Initial Stages of Internationalization: The case of Midsized Firms from the Emerging Chinese Market2008In: Industrial Marketing and Purchasing. Uppsala, September, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Experiential knowledge antecedents of the SME network node configuration in emerging market business networks.2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to determine experiential knowledge antecedents of the network node configuration (i.e., dyad or triad) of SMEs entering emerging market business networks. Three kinds of knowledge of different degrees of specificity are assessed, namely, general internationalization, market-specific, and customer-specific knowledge. The sample consists of 203 SMEs in southern Sweden with experience of entering the Baltic State, Polish, Russian, or Chinese markets. The theoretical framework integrates network theory and internationalization process theory in order to understand and explain the internationalization of smaller firms. The hypotheses formulated are tested using logistic regression, which indicates that market- and customer-specific types of knowledge favor a dyadic network node configuration into the emerging market business network, while general internationalization knowledge has no significant effect. In addition, interaction effects were seen to moderate relationships between knowledge antecedents and the network node configuration of the sampled SMEs. 

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Internationalization of SMEs into Emerging Market Business Networks: Antecedents of the Network Entry Node Choice2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization Patterns of Chinese Private Owned SMEs: Initial Stages of Internationalization and Cluster as Take Off Node2009In: Research on Knowledge, Innovation and Internationalization / [ed] Larimo, J. and Vissak, T., Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited , 2009, p. 89-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To describe and analyze the situation prior to and during the initial stages of internationalization of Chinese SMEs, as well as analyzing the role of clusters as take-off nodes for such firms.

    Methodology – A multiple case study is conducted based on semistructured interviews with five private-owned exporting Chinese SMEs. Also, data on Chinese industrial clusters are analyzed.

    Findings – The findings complement the model presented with new knowledge. In the take-off situation, Chinese SMEs deviate from assumed paths due to disadvantages in the emerging Chinese market. In the initial stages of internationalization, the focus on indirect exports hinders the building of international relationships being the key for further international expansion. Cluster localization is a take-off node for individual dedicated exporters into international markets.

    Research limitations – Few cases, co-location of firms in the advanced Yangtze River Delta region and issues of Chinese versus Western SME definitions limits the possibility to generalize the findings of the study.

    Practical implications – Chinese as well as foreign firms can gain from this paper regarding, for example, that competitiveness built up abroad can be utilized for increasing the market share in an attractive domestic market, the pitfall of indirect exports can be overcome by developing direct international relationships, and cluster localization can spur the internationalization of (individual) Chinese SMEs.

    Originality – Empirical contribution of internationalization patterns of Chinese private-owned SMEs as well as pinpointing the importance of the domestic market as trigger for internationalization.

  • 27.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Internationalization Patterns of Chinese SMEs: Take-off Nodes and Initial Stages of Internationalization2008In: European International Business Academy, Tallinn, December, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Internationalization processes of small and medium-sized enterprises: Entering and taking off from emerging markets2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high economic growth of formerly closed markets such as China, Russia, Poland, and the Baltic states has created vast business and growth opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Although this international business expansion of SMEs occurs in highly dissimilar business contexts and fierce international competition, it remains overlooked by research. Therefore, the main aim of this thesis is to contribute to an enhanced understanding of internationalization processes of SMEs by studying the overarching research question: What are the main features of internationalization processes of SMEs in an emerging market context? Three sub-problems are researched with regard to SMEs entering and taking off from emerging markets, as well as differences and similarities between these processes, in order to identify what features characterize them. Empirically, two surveys of 116 and 203 Swedish SMEs, respectively, with experiences of entry into emerging markets were conducted through standardized questionnaires via mail and on-site visits. In addition, case studies were conducted through interviews and observations of five internationalizing Chinese SMEs and four Chinese wholesale and retail market platforms. Five essays are compiled within the thesis and major findings and conclusions provide theoretical and empirical contributions to research on the internationalization processes of SMEs. With regard to the overlooked internationally experienced manufacturing SMEs from mature markets such as Sweden, theoretical advancements are made identifying the main concepts of their entry into emerging markets: entry node (the establishment point into the foreign business network); market-specific experiential knowledge; and perceived institutional distance. With regard to the internationally novel Chinese SMEs, these were seen to diverge from traditional internationalization paths. Indications were found of a parallel expansion abroad and at home, even using foreign markets as a springboard for further growth at home. The take-off node concerns the departure from an emerging home market, where a paradox of knowledge was found: the use of indirect export via a domestic intermediary facilitates the take off, but hinders further international expansion since no international experience or relationships are built up. Moreover, institutional distance was reduced due to collective internationalization through co-locating abroad. Generally, degree of maturity of the home market; as well as degree of internationalization and type of firm; are the main features behind differences between internationalization processes of SMEs in an emerging market context.

  • 29.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The Importance of Relationships in Internationalization Processes of Firms: A Model and Analysis of International SMEs Entering Emerging Markets2010In: The Importance of Relationships in Internationalization Processes of Firms: A Model and Analysis of International SMEs Entering Emerging Markets, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Resilience of knowledge-based exporter profiles in the global economic recession: resource and network commitment of Swedish SMEs in emerging markets2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Immonen, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Kok, Sara
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Refugee entrepreneurship: taking a social network view on immigrants with refugee backgrounds starting transnational businesses in Sweden2019In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 36, no 1/2, p. 216-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global world of today is characterized by movement, both voluntarily and forced. Despite the current situation, few studies have focused on refugees and their entrepreneurial activities. The research question is: how do immigrant entrepreneurs with a refugee background start and run transnational business in their country of residence? The purposes of the paper are (1) to identify the characteristics of the refugee entrepreneur and (2) to examine how the social network is utilized for starting up and running the business. Through this, the scarce understanding of refugee entrepreneurial activities will be enhanced and particular traits of refugee entrepreneurship can be determined. Four cases of immigrant entrepreneurs with a refugee background who conduct business with transnational characteristics have been studied. Consequently, contributions of both theoretical development, integrating refugee entrepreneurship into the field of international business, as well as novel empirical contributions through a less-studied angle on refugee entrepreneurship, are made.

  • 32.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Collective internationalization: a new take off route for SMEs from China2014In: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the establishments of Chinese wholesale and retail market platforms in China and Europe, creating a new takeoff route for SMEs from China, and to theorize on this as a new collective route to internationalization.

    Methodology – An exploratory case study has been undertaken covering four Chinese market platforms: the role model in Yiwu, China, and the establishments in Warsaw, Poland; Budapest, Hungary; and Kalmar, Sweden.

    Findings – A new collective internationalization route is identified, driven by the collectivistic Chinese culture. Here Chinese SMEs diverge from traditionally suggested paths of internationalization, taking off independently from the domestic business network but form a joint market platform in the foreign market. This collective behavior compensates for the resource constraints of internationally inexperienced Chinese SMEs. From the market platform, they plug into the local market network and are provided with economies of scale and scope, ultimately making them internationally competitive. This collective route offers the potential for joint learning and risk reduction when entering distant markets in the early internationalization stages.

    Originality/value – The paper reports on an overlooked empirical phenomenon, namely the establishment of Chinese wholesale and retail market platforms in China and Europe. Through this establishment a new collective route into the global market by Chinese SMEs is identified and theorized.

    Keywords – Collective Internationalization Processes; Market Entry Modes and Nodes; Motives of Internationalization; Market Platforms; Chinese SMEs

    Paper type – Research paper

  • 33.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Jansson, Hans
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Timlon, Joachim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The Chinese are coming. Export market platforms in the Baltic Sea Region2010In: Baltic Business and Socio-Economic Development 2009: 5th International Conference, Kalmar, Sweden, September 14-15, 2009 / [ed] Gunnar Prause, Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010, p. 172-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Lejonkamp, Carina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Peer assessment of contributions into group projects as a tool for group monitoring and individual learning in the multi-cultural classroom2017In: Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business: "The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies": Dubai, United Arab Emirates, July 2-5, 2017 / [ed] Sarianna Lundan & Tunga Kiyak, Academy of International Business , 2017, p. 158-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased internationalisation of higher education creates opportunities and challenges when planning education for a cross-cultural classroom environment. Students from different nationalities and cultures are brought together for both individual and collaborative learning processes. The pedagogical topic and issues to be discussed are related to the usage of peer assessment of contributions into group projects as a tool for group monitoring and individual learning in a cross-cultural classroom environment. Students at an international master programme in international business strategy in Sweden have reported on their perceptions on both their own and the other group members’ contributions into the group work. The potential contribution and usefulness of such a tool, as well as the usage of group reports in courses with individual grading, will be further problematized and discussed for a cross-cultural learning environment.

  • 35.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sui, Sui
    Ryerson Univ, Canada.
    Baum, Matthias
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Effects of prior market experiences and firm-specific resources on developed economy SMEs' export exit from emerging markets: Complementary or compensatory?2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 98, p. 489-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has led to increased competition and risk of business failure for firms venturing abroad over the last decades. A particularly challenging situation is seen for SMEs from developed economies entering emerging markets. We theorize and empirically show that prior market experience with domestic and developed countries helps to reduce the hazard of exit from emerging markets. We further develop competing hypotheses from complementary and compensatory perspectives about the moderating influence of firm-specific resources (re-flected by size, productivity and innovation). Using data from all Canadian SMEs having exported to emerging markets between 1993 and 2008, we find that SMEs can compensate for less accumulated experience through being larger, more productive and more innovative. SMEs that lack prior market experience are – with a suf-ficient set of compensatory resources – thereby able to be resilient in dissimilar export markets.

  • 36.
    Sui, Sui
    et al.
    Ryerson University, Canada.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Firm experience and moderating effects on emerging market exit of SMEs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing flow of entries and investments of foreign firms into emerging markets have attracted vast research attention, still the different and more turbulent characteristics of such markets challenges entering firms and some face market exit. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to build a theoretical framework and derive propositions on how to explore and explain the effect of domestic and international market experience on emerging market exit of SMEs, as well as to test for moderating effects of firm resources, innovations and geographic diversification. The purpose addresses the important issues of lack of research on emerging markets, SMEs and the international performance of SMEs in the form of market exit. Theoretical contribution is then made to SME (de-)internationalization theory through a theoretical framework and research model. Future research in terms of a forthcoming study is also accounted for, together with an elaboration on tentative contributions of this research.

  • 37.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Rialp Criado, Josep
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Measuring Orientation Towards International Markets and its Effect on Performance of European Born Global and Non-Born Global Firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Torres-Ortega, Rosalina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Rialp, Joseph
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Measuring orientation towards international markets and its effect on performance of European Born Global and Non-born Global firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 38 of 38
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf