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  • 1.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Mazier, Florence
    University of Toulouse, France ; Lund University.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Broström, A
    Lund University.
    Hickler, T
    Lund University.
    Kaplan, J.O.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kjellström, E
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Kokfelt, U
    Lund University.
    Kunes, P
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Lemmen, C
    Miller, P
    Olofsson, J
    Poska, A
    Rundgren, M
    Smith, B
    Strandberg, G
    Fyfe, R
    Nielsen, A.B.
    Alenius, T
    Balakauskas, L
    Barnekov, L
    Birks, H.J.B.
    Bjune, A
    Bjorkman, L
    Giesecke, T
    Hjelle, K
    Kalnina, L
    Kangur, M
    van der Knaap, W.O.
    Koff, T
    Lageras, P
    Latalowa, M
    Leydet, M
    Lechterbeck, J
    Lindbladh, M
    Odgaard, B
    Peglar, S
    Segerstrom, U
    von Stedingk, H
    Seppa, H
    Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks2010In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 6, p. 483-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/landcover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs “grassland” and “agricultural land” at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess ALCC estimates for a better understanding of the land suface-atmosphere interactions.

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  • 2. Hughes, Richard
    et al.
    Högberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Olausson, Deborah
    Lunds Universitet.
    The Chemical Composition of Some Archaeologically Significant Flint from Denmark and Sweden2012In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 779-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flint was one of the most widely employed raw materials for artefact manufacture in Denmarkand Sweden during the Stone Age, and it continued to be used during subsequent periods.Prehistoric flint mining and lithic manufacturing studies in these countries have attractedconsiderable attention, but there have been no recent attempts to chemically characterize thegeological source materials. This paper builds on a pilot study (Hughes et al. 2010) and usesenergy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis to determine quantitative compositionestimates for nine major, minor and certain trace elements in seven archaeologicallysignificant flint sources in Denmark and Sweden, along with new data on a number of othersources of prehistoric significance. These data provide a geochemical foundation for ongoingresearch devoted to determining contrasts and continuities in the time and space utilization offlint sources in Scandinavian prehistory.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Cultural Sciences.
    Olausson, Deborah
    Hughes, Richard
    Many Different Types of Scandinavian Flint: Visual Classification and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence2012In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hogberg, A.; Olausson, D. & Hughes, R., 2012. Many Different Types of Scandinavian Flint - Visual Classification and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. Fornvannen 107. Stockholm. Proceeding from previously published studies of the provenance of southern Scandinavian flint based on visual classification and chemical sourcing, this paper presents a comprehensive study of flint provenancing. Existing knowledge of the appearance and geological origin of flint types is discussed and reappraised, and new chemical analyses of flint from 25 localities are presented. The results show that although there are certain problems in identifying the provenance of south Scandinavian flint using geochemical and visual criteria, in most cases these problems can be overcome. The study ends with a discussion of how the results of the study can be applied more broadly in future archaeological research.

  • 4.
    Marquer, Laurent
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sugita, Shinya
    Tallinn Univ, Estonia.
    Trondman, Anna-Kari
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte
    Lund University.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    Univ Plymouth, UK.
    Vad Odgaard, B.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Alenius, T.
    University of Helsinki, Finland;University of Turku, Finland.
    Birks, H.J.B.
    University of Bergen, Norway;University College London, UK;University of Oxford, UK.
    Bjune, A.E.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Christiansen, J.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Dodson, J.
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    Edwards, K.J.
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Giesecke, T.
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Herzschuh, U.
    Universität Potsdam, Germany.
    Kangur, M.
    Tallinn University, Estonia.
    Lorenz, S.
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Germany.
    Poska, Anneli
    Lund University.
    Schult, M.
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Germany.
    Seppä, H.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, no 90, p. 199-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human distribution on Holocene regional, vegetation, feature that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Greisman, Annica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lanos, Philippe
    Marguerie, Dominique
    Marcoux, Nancy
    Skoglund, Peter
    Wäglind, Jonas
    A continuous record of fire covering the last 10500 calendar years from souther Sweden: The role of climate and human activities2010In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 291, p. 128-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution, continuous 10,500 cal. yrs-long macroscopic charcoal record from a peat and lake sediment deposit at Storasjö, in the hemiboreal vegetation zone of southern Sweden, is presented. This record was compared with the microscopic charcoal record from the same core, and tentatively correlated with the macroscopic and microscopic charcoal records from another site (Stavsåkra), situated 30 km West of Storasjö. The charcoal records are also compared with regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate microscopic and macroscopic charcoal records represents local history was obtained from the continuous macroscopic charcoal analysis. A tentative correlation of the charcoal records between the sites indicates that most probably of regional character. Both sites exhibit three major phases of high 7250 BC to ca. 4000 BC, and 3) 750 BC to the 19th century. These three phases are separated by periods with lower or very low from the analysis of the recently developed global charcoal database. Fire appears to have been controlled by climate during the early and middle Holocene and by humans during the late Holocene. Warmer and drier climate during the early and middle Holocene caused frequent and intensive natural was an important disturbance factor in the hemiboreal vegetation zone of Sweden and played an important role in the forest dynamics and characteristics of the — from human-induced fire activity. The results suggest that the major signal of bothfire history. The best record of local firefire episodes of the early and middle Holocene arefire activity 1) 8700–8300 BC, 2)fire activity. This general trend is in good agreement with the pattern emerging for Europefires, which suggests thatfire activity might increase under predicted future climate scenarios. The results also suggest that fireflora and fauna of the region.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Zhang, Chenyanqiu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Better Passing Waste: First Step to Cultivate Pro-environmental Behaviour for Chinese Individuals2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the economy developing in China, there is an intense struggle between industrial development and environmental sustainability where improving the individuals’ performance upon waste disposal is one of the crucial aspirations. The main concern for the Chinese government to address the phenomenon is to cultivate the individuals’ habits to classify domestic waste. Although this is a complicated field involved in long-term behaviour change, the author believes that small attempts can gradually affect the people and finally make a big difference. For a stronger impact in society, the Chinese Post-90sgenerationwas selected to be the pilots for this project outcome. To seek for the potential opportunities, the research was conducted to understanding how they view the phenomenon and what are their perceptions and expectations. Social-demographic factors, external factors, and internal factors of recycling and pro-environmental behaviour were all evaluated by the respondents for determining the most influencing factors for waste classification. Moreover, their response towards purchasing factors and preferred ideas helped target the top three among the six concept proposals generated from mind mapping. The opinions and feedback from the individuals and two recycling companies in China and Sweden instructed the concept selection. The final concept was outlined in a plan which is named “Restart” for further implementation. The “Restart” means to restart the waste’s life and restart people’s lifestyles, which will bring life into a new journey. The “Restart” Plan visualized how the social actors are involved and supervised by each other for the effort put into practice. This enables the surrounding actors to facilitate the individuals’journey for dispose of the waste, which in return connects the individuals more close to other actors for further development. Since the concept developed is a universal service, it can be adapted for all the generations.

  • 7.
    Zhang, Shengrui
    et al.
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Xu, Qinghai
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cao, Xianyong
    Hebei Normal University, China ; Research Unit Potsdam, Germany ; University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Li, Jianyong
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Liyan
    Shijiazhuang University of Economics, China.
    Li, Yuecong
    Hebei Normal University, China.
    Tian, Fang
    Research Unit Potsdam, Germany ; University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Zhou, Liping
    Peking University, China.
    Lin, Fengyou
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Yang, Xiaolan
    Hebei Institute of Geography Science, China.
    Characteristic pollen source area and vertical pollen dispersal and deposition in a mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved woodland in the Changbai mountains, northeast China.2016In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen influx (number of pollen grains cm−2 year−1) can objectively reflect the dispersal and deposition features of pollen within a certain time and space, and is often used as a basis for the quantitative reconstruction of palaeovegetation; however, little is known about the features and mechanisms of vertical dispersal of pollen. Here we present the results from a 5 year (2006–2010) monitoring program using pollen traps placed at different heights from ground level up to 60 m and surface soil samples in a mixed coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved woodland in the Changbai mountains, northeastern China. The pollen percentages and pollen influx from the traps have very similar characteristics to the highest values for Betula,FraxinusQuercus and Pinus, among the tree taxa and Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Asteraceae among the herb taxa. Pollen influx values vary significantly with height and show major differences between three distinct layers, above-canopy (≥32 m), within the trunk layer (8 ≤ 32 m) and on the ground (0 m). These differences in pollen influx are explained by differences in (i) the air flows in each of these layers and (ii) the fall speed of pollen of the various taxa. We found that the pollen recorded on the ground surface is a good representation of the major part of the pollen transported in the trunk space of the woodland. Comparison of the pollen influx values with the theoretical, calculated “characteristic pollen source area” (CPSA) of 12 selected taxa indicates that the pollen deposited on the ground surface of the woodland is a fair representation with 85–90 % of the total pollen deposited at a wind speed of 2.4 m s−1 coming from within ca. 1–5 km for Pinus and Quercus, ca. 5–10 km for UlmusTilia, Oleaceae and Betula, ca. 20–40 km for Fraxinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Populus andSalix, and ca. 30–60 km for Artemisia; it is also a good representation with 90–98 % of the total pollen deposited coming from within 60 km at a wind speed of 2.4 m s−1, or 100 km at a wind speed: 6 m s−1, for the 12 selected taxa used in the CPSA calculation. Furthermore, comparison with the vegetation map of the area around the sampling site shows that the pollen deposited on the ground represents all plant communities which grow in the study area within 70 km radius of the sampling site. In this study, the pollen percentages obtained from the soil surface samples are significantly biased towards pollen taxa with good preservation due to thick and robust pollen walls. Therefore, if mosses are available instead, soil samples should be avoided for pollen studies, in particular for the study of pollen-vegetation relationships, the estimation of pollen productivities and quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation. The results also indicate that the existing model of pollen dispersal and deposition, Prentice’s model, provides a fair description of the actual pollen dispersal and deposition in this kind of woodland, which suggests that the application of the landscape reconstruction algorithm would be relevant for reconstruction of this type of woodland in the past.

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