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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Claes-Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Texturvariationer i skogsmark - effekter på tillväxt och gödslingsrespons?: Studie i ett försök med behovsanpassad gödsling i Ebbegärde2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En mängd olika ståndortsfaktorer påverkar trädens tillväxt. Några av dessa kan påverkas genom olika skogsskötselmetoder, t ex näringstillförsel. I ett flertal försök de senaste decennierna har skogsgödsling visat sig kunna öka tillväxten markant. Faktorer som inte är påverkbara, som t ex markens textur och markens jorddjup kan då bli begränsande för tillväxten eftersom en finkornig textur oftast är gynnsam ur tillväxtsynpunkt. Föreliggande undersökning syftar till att se om det finns en texturvariation inom en begränsad yta och dess effekter på tillväxten. Texturen undersöktes genom torrsiktning. Resultaten visar att det förelåg en stor variation av texturen på beståndsnivå och att det kan påverka tillväxten i kombination med andra begränsande faktorer såsom vattentillgång.

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  • 2.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Transcriptomic profiling of marine bacteria between development and senescence phases of a phytoplankton bloom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton provide important ecosystem functions by carrying out biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. Playing an important role in the microbial loop they help remineralize carbon and nutrients. Bacteria also interact with phytoplankton during phytoplankton blooms. However, fundamental understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the degradation of phytoplankton-derived organic matter is still in its infancy. Therefore, we analysed data from a mesocosm experiment following a natural phytoplankton-bloom from an upwelling system in the North- East Atlantic Ocean. The purpose was to contribute a mechanistic understanding based on functional gene expression analysis of natural microbial assemblages. Our results show the difference in functional gene expression within a bacterial metacommunity and how this functional response drastically switches between bloom build up and senescence. Transcripts showed a broad change in gene expression involving major SEED categories, with the bloom senescence phase exhibiting a higher relative abundance in major categories such as Carbohydrates, Protein Metabolism and Amino Acids and Derivatives. Within these categories genes connected to carbon utilization and transport systems (Ton and Tol) as well as chemotaxis showed a higher abundance during bloom senescence. The change in functionality based on transcripts showed a different bacterial community composition appearing over a very short time. We thus conclude that the bacterial functional gene expression response between build-up and degradation bloom phases is remarkably different and associated with a change in the identity of bacteria with active expression. Our findings highlight the importance of bacterial substrate specialists with different functional roles during different time points of phytoplankton blooms.

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  • 3.
    Axelsson, Amanda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åtgärder för att minska humushalten i en dricksvattentäkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vedborme träsk är en utdikad sjö på norra Öland som utreds för restaurering till en funktionell våtmark. Åtgäderna syftar till förbättrad vattenkvalitet och biologisk mångfald. Hornsjöns ytvattentäkt som ligger nedströms avrinningsområdet behöver skyddas genom att minska belastningen av humusämnen. Humusämnen leder till brunifiering, en process som färgar vatten brunt. Höga halter kan ge negativa effekter på både vattenrening och ekosystemet. idag är Vedborme träsk torrlagt större delen av året. Jordmånen består av torv i olika nedbrytninsstadier. Tidigare utredning tyder på att våtmarken både läcker och faastlägger humus. Även andra torvmarker i området tros bidra till uppmätta höga halter av humusämnen. Åtgärder för ökad uppehållstid på vattnet och minskning av torv i träsket förelås. Detta examensarbete syftar till att undersöka de föreslagna åtärderna från tidigare utredning och få bättre kunskap om våtmarkens effekter på humusretentionen. För att svara på frågan har ett laboratorieexperiment utförts. Ett mesokosomexperiment utfördes i ett konstantrum med tre olika substrat av torv, gyttja och vatten från Vedborme träsk. Varje substrat hade 10 replikat varav hälften av replikaten blev behandlade med ljus och andra hälften utan ljus. Resultaten visar att underliggande gyttjor har en bättre renande effekt på humus jämfört med torv i testerna. Gruppen men torv skiljde sig från övriga grupper i färgtal när de hade exponerats för ljus (Medianvärden: Torv=125, Gyttja=85, Vatten=125 mg/l Pt). Samma skillnad kunde visas i testet med TOC som responsvariabel. Ljusexponering indikerade en renande effekt på substratet vatten och skulle kunna utredas vidare genom fler analyser av insamlad data från detta experiment. 

    Slutsatserna av detta experiment är följande:

    -Experimenten visar att substatet gyttja från träsket har en bättre renande effekt i ljus och mörker jämfört med torv. Vilket motiverar en bortforsling av torv för att öka reningen i våtmarken. 

    -Torv hade högst TOC och färgtal i experimenten jämfört med andra grupper.

    -Ljuset verkar ha ahft en renande effekt på vattnets halt av humus.

    -Resultaten var förväntade baserat på tidigare forskning.  

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    Sammanfattning
  • 4.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Rangarajan, MaheshAshoka University, India.
    At nature’s edge: the global present and long-term history2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an epoch when environmental issues make the headlines, this is a work that goes beyond the everyday. Ecologies as diverse as the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean coast, the Negev desert and the former military bases of Vietnam, or the Namib desert and the east African savannah all have in common a long-time human presence and the many ways people have modified nature. With research covering countries from Asia, Africa, and Australia, the authors come together to ask how and why human impacts on nature have grown in scale and pace from a long pre-history. 

    The chapters in this volume illumine specific patterns and responses across time, going beyond an overt centring of the European experience. The tapestry of life and the human reshaping of environments evoke both concern and hope, making it vital to understand when, why, and how we came to this particular turn in the road. Eschewing easy labels and questioning eurocentrism in today's climate vocabulary, this is a volume that will stimulate rethinking among scholars and citizens alike.

  • 5.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Rangarajan, Mahesh
    Ashoka University, India.
    The global present and long-term perspectives of nature and history: an introduction2018In: At nature’s edge: the global present and long-term history / [ed] Gunnel Cederlöf & Mahesh Rangarajan, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2018, 1, p. xiii-xliiChapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an epoch when environmental issues make the headlines, this is a work that goes beyond the everyday. Ecologies as diverse as the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean coast, the Negev desert and the former military bases of Vietnam, or the Namib desert and the east African savannah all have in common a long-time human presence and the many ways people have modified nature. With research covering countries from Asia, Africa, and Australia, the authors come together to ask how and why human impacts on nature have grown in scale and pace from a long pre-history. 

    The chapters in this volume illumine specific patterns and responses across time, going beyond an overt centring of the European experience. The tapestry of life and the human reshaping of environments evoke both concern and hope, making it vital to understand when, why, and how we came to this particular turn in the road. Eschewing easy labels and questioning eurocentrism in today's climate vocabulary, this is a volume that will stimulate rethinking among scholars and citizens alike.

  • 6. Eklund, B.
    et al.
    Svensson, A. P.
    Jonsson, C.
    Malm, T.
    Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms2005In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 621-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l(-1) dw red algae. The lethal concentration for L baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Fransson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elevers intressen och åsikter om biologiundervisningen i gymnasieskolan - Ett redskap för kunskapsförmedling från lärare till elev2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om elevers intresse för naturvetenskapliga ämnen, och då främst biologiämnet. Den svenska läroplanen för gymnasieskolan sägs vila på en demokratisk grund. Denna studie visar att detta inte alltid är fallet. Tidigare studier har visat att det finns en skillnad i intresse för de olika naturvetenskapliga ämnena, beroende på ditt biologiska kön, där kvinnor oftast visade ett större intresse för biologi, och särskilt inom de områden som är kopplade till vård, såsom hälsa, skönhet och medicin, medan män tenderade att ha ett större intresse för kemi, fysik och teknik (Schreiner & Sjøberg 2010; Adolfsson et al. 2011). Denna studie visar ett annat resultat, men detta motbevisar inte tidigare forskning. Nästan alla elever i denna studie uttrycker ett intresse för människokroppen och dess funktioner. Men anledningen till varför, är inte möjligt att klargöra utan vidare undersökning. Som i tidigare studier har denna studie visat att elevernas intressen för ett specifikt ämne ökar deras motivation för att lära sig mer om det. Denna typ av motivation kallas för inre motivation (Deci & Ryan 2000). Ett av de viktigaste resultaten av denna studie är lärarens roll. Denna studie är avsedd att fungera som ett verktyg för kunskapsförmedling för lärare i praktiken. Därför är det viktig kunskap att en lärares inverkan påverkar studenternas motivation att lära sig om ett specifikt ämne. Hur en lärare går till väga för att lära ut ett ämne och lärarens inställning till ämnet eller en del av ett ämne kan så småningom påverka den kunskap eleverna tar med sig.

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  • 8.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kan fiskpredation reglera populationer av storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) i Östersjön?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskbestånden i Östersjön har sedan början av 1980-talet genomgått en omfattande förändring. Stora predatorer, som torsk (Gadus morhua) och abborre (Perca fluviatilis) har minskat i antal medan det finns tecken på att storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) har ökat. Denna sannolika ökning av storspigg skulle kunna ha att göra med minskningen av både torsk och abborre som predatorer i de kustnära tångbältena. För att undersöka detta utfördes ett mesokosmexperiment där torskens och abborrens förmåga att predera på storspigg undersöktes, både i ljus och mörker. Hypoteserna som arbetet utgick ifrån var att torsk var en bättre predator i mörker än i ljus och att torsk var en bättre predator än abborre i mörker.

    Resultaten visar på att torsk är den bättre predatorn i både ljus och mörker, samt att den är lika framgångsrik i mörker som i ljus. Detta tyder på att torskens försvinnande skulle kunna vara en bidragande faktor till ökningen av storspigg. Ytterligare visades abborren vara en mer framgångsrik predator i mörker än i ljus, detta trots att den alltid anges som en visuell predator. Detta visar att även minskningen av abborre skulle kunna vara en anledning till att storspiggen ökar.

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    Kan Fiskpredation Reglera Populationer Av Storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) I Östersjön?
  • 9.
    Friedrichs, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Blomremsors effekt på biodiversiteten i odlingslandskapet på Öland: En experimentell studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en åtgärd för att försöka hjälpa den minskande populationen av rapphöna att återhämta sig tog HMKs Jaktklubb inspiration från ett lyckat projekt i England utfört av Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust. De sådde blomremsor som en åtgärd för att gynna evertebrater som är kycklingarnas huvudföda. Jaktklubben etablerade dessa blomremsorna 2011 och vill nu undersöka om det gav en effekt på mängden evertebrater. Fönsterfällor och fallfällor placerades ut i och utanför blomremsan och tömdes två gånger i juni, en gång i juli och en gång i augusti. Det insamlade materialet har identifierats till familj med hjälp av litteratur för materialet från augusti, identifierat material från juni fanns redan tillgängligt. För skalbaggar identifierades allt material till art. Resultatet visade en stor diversitet och många olika grupper fanns representerade inom de insamlade materialet. De statistiska analyserna kunde inte med säkerhet visa att blomremsorna gynnade evertebrater. Detta är troligtvis snarare på grund av problematiken med experimentdesignen än att det inte var någon skillnad. Min uppfattning är att blomremsorna har en positiv effekt på biodiversiteten, även om det inte går att visa detta indikerar resultatet på det, vilket även backas upp av litteraturen. Åtgärder som dessa skulle potentiellt kunna vara ett steg i rätt riktning för att kunna lösa den minskade biodiversiteten runt om i världen.

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  • 10.
    Gref, Rolf
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Håkansson, Charlotta
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Henningsson, Björn
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Henning, Jarl
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Influence of wood extractives on brown and white rot decay in Scots pine heart-, light- and sapwood2000In: Material und Organismen, ISSN 0025-5270, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of wood extractives such as free fatty and resin acids, pinosylvin, steryl esters and triglycerids in sapwood, heartwood and induced lightwood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., on decay resistance against Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. After incubation periods of 38 and 42 days for the brown and white rot, respectively, the wood blocks were weighed and the weight losses of the blocks were correlated to the chemical composition of the wood types. Both fungi decayed the sapwood at a greater rate than they did the heartwood and the lightwood. - If the weight losses are compared to the chemical composition it is obvious that the losses caused by both fungi are lower in the wood tissues with high levels of pinosylvin and/or resin acids. It was concluded that pinosylvin alone cannot be responsible for decay resistance in the heartwood and the lightwood. Most probably resin acids are also important factors in decay resistance in the heartwood and the lightwood. Most probably resin acids are also important factors in decay resistance because they act as waterproofing layers thus retarding the entrance of the decay fungi. - The results from the present work also suggest that triglycerides are important factors in wood decay. In wood with low decay resistance triglycerids accounted for 60-70 % of total lipids while the corresponding value for those with high resistance was about 1 %. Obviously the inhibitory effects of pinosylvin and resin acids might be overcome if nutrients like triglycerides are available in the wood.

  • 11.
    Hanzon, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A study of magnesium intake and its possible relation to inflammation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was initiated to examine magnesium intake, supplementation and their relation to inflammation. Magnesium is the second most abundant extracellular ion following potassium. Outside the cell, magnesium can be found in bone tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, other tissues and in the blood. Magnesium form compounds which operate in several essential metabolic processes in the body. Magnesium deficiency may have an impact on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which may result in an increased level of inflammation. Increased inflammation over a longer period has been seen to increase the risk of common lifestyle induced diseases such as diabetes type II and coronary heart diseases. The study of magnesium and its influence on inflammation is thereby becoming important and interesting for all societies and in their effort to find solutions to maintain and increase the well-being of its individuals.

    The study is a literature study based on searches made in One Search and Pub Med databases. A total of ten studies were included, five for magnesium intake and five for supplementation. The majority of the studies showed a significant correlation between increased magnesium intake, dietary and supplementary, with decreased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hints that magnesium might have a role in the inflammation process. What needs to be taken into account is that fiber intake in two studies attenuated magnesium’s inverse relation to inflammation. In addition of a decrease in inflammatory biomarker levels the risk for developing diabetes type II seemed to decrease as well with an increased intake of magnesium in one of the studies. Further studies need to be executed in order to establish the role of magnesium in inflammation and optimal dosage for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

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  • 12.
    Jonasson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sånt är livet: En studie om elevers uppfattningar av liv och levande organismer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har tidigare visat sig att lärare under biologilektioner ofta använder sig av begreppet liv som om detta vore ett självklart fenomen (Keeley, 2002) och enligt läroplanen ska elever lära sig skilja på levande organismer och icke levande omgivning (Skolverket, 2011). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka uppfattningar elever i årskurs 4 har om fenomenet liv. Detta för att lyfta fram svårigheter och synliggöra hur undervisningen kan anpassas och förbättras med utgångspunkt i elevernas förförståelse. Studien baseras på en enkätundersökning som gjordes av sammanlagt 46 elever från två klasser. Därefter genomfördes 13 efterföljande intervjuer med elever från de båda klasserna. Det visar sig i denna studie att eleverna framför allt använder sig av tio olika kriterier för att bestämma om någonting lever eller inte. Dessa är rörelse, kognitiv förmåga, behov av näring, växande, skapande av ljud, andning, blodomlopp, färg, behov av vatten och förökning. Det visar sig även att eleverna inte konsekvent använder sig av några specifika kriterium utan ändrar dessa beroende på organismen. Eleverna i undersökningen anser även att det finns olika typer av liv och att organismer kan leva på olika sätt. Det visar sig även att flera av elevernas kriterium kan liknas med vetenskapliga teorier om liv, men att olika tolkningar av enskilda begrepp ofta leder till att objekt i undersökningen felaktigt klassificeras som levande eller döda.

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  • 13.
    Lombard, Marlize
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Högberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Haidle, Miriam N.
    Senckenberg Research Institute, Germany.
    Cognition: From Capuchin Rock Pounding to Lomekwian Flake Production2019In: Cambridge Archaeological Journal, ISSN 0959-7743, E-ISSN 1474-0540, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 201-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is sometimes suggested that modern-day chimpanzee nut-cracking behaviour is cognitively similar to early stone-tool-knapping behaviour, few systematic comparative studies have tested this assumption. Recently, two further techno-behaviours were reported that could both represent intermediary phases in hominin cognitive evolution pertaining to our ultimate technological astuteness. These behaviours are that of bearded capuchin monkeys pounding rocks and very early stone-tool knapping from Lomekwi 3. Here we use a multi-model approach to directly compare cognitive aspects required for 11 techno-behaviours, ranging from the simplest capuchin pounding behaviour to the most complex chimpanzee nut-cracking and Lomekwi 3 knapping behaviours. We demonstrate a marked difference in broad-spectrum cognitive requirements between capuchin pounding on the one hand and Lomekwian bipolar knapping on the other. Whereas the contrast is less pronounced between chimpanzee nut-cracking scenarios and basic passive-hammer knapping at Lomekwi 3, the escalation in cognitive requirement between nut cracking and bipolar knapping is a good indication that early hominin flaking techniques are cognitively more taxing than chimpanzee nut-cracking behaviour today.

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  • 14.
    Nordin, Therese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hur påverkas dressyrhästen av ridning på kandar?: Fysiska skador och psykiska belastningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Double bridle is widely used in the sport dressage, and according to the FEI and the Swedish competition regulations (II) is it a requirement to use in the Grand Prix and within the championship classes. With this essay I want to investigate how riding on double bridle can affect the horse physically and mentally. The aim is also to put horseback riding in relation to the horse's welfare and the Swedish animal welfare law (2018: 1192), the FEI:s Code of Conduct and the competition rules in dressage. The essay is a qualitative literature study based on scientific articles, scientific books, the animal welfare law and websites from the horse industry.

    When the horse is ridden with double bridle, physical damage can occur in the mouth as sores in the soft tissue, infections in the teeth and pressure injuries. In addition, the double bridle applies a remarkable pressure to other parts of the head and to the horse's neck. The cavesson can cause pressure and abrasions when tightened too tightly and create an internal stress as it prevents the horse from opening the mouth to perform natural needs and alleviate any pain.

    The mental strain can occur when the horse cannot perform normal behaviors due to the double bridle and an internal stress can occur. The bits that is used for double bridle is not considered compatible with one another, and does not fit naturally in the horse's mouth. Double bridle can be considered contrary to Chapter 2: sections 1 and 9 in the Swedish Animal welfare law (2018: 1192), that say that equipment must not cause suffering and that it is forbidden to expose animals to unnecessary suffering. The double bridle may involve a risk of suffering if the horse does not have the morphological conditions to carry it. It is also contrary to the FEI Code of Conduct, where horse welfare should always be given priority over the rider's success, by being a requirement and not a choice for the rider.

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  • 15.
    Rosén, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Factors affecting the colour changing behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to change colour is an important adaptation for animals that live in heterogeneous environments. There is a lot of knowledge about physiological processes that contribute to behavioural changes in body colouration, but individual variation is less well-understood. In three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) there is an individual variability in the degree of colour change and individuals are consistent over time in how much they change colour. My study aimed to investigate whether there is individual variability also in the rate with which colour change occur, and whether this trait is related to the degree of colour change in vivo (behavioural colour change) as well as to the physiological colour changing properties of skin cells in vitro (physiological colour change). I also investigated how body size and infection of the parasites Schistocephalus solidus and Glugea spp., affect the colour changing behaviour and how and an individual's colour change relates to its boldness.

    Three-spined sticklebacks (n=64) were exposed to a change in the background (from black to white) in order to examine the behaviour to adaptively change colour by becoming more pale. The colour changing behaviour was video recorded using a 4K high resolution camera and individual frames were analyzed in Adobe Photoshop using CIE L*a*b* colour space. The sticklebacks underwent a test in order to measure the individual boldness, measured as the latency to emerge from a refuge. Chromatophores are pigment cells that are responsible for the great diversity, and the flexibility, of colouration in several taxa, including fishes. After the behavioural trials, the fish were euthanized, and skin biopsies were excised from each individual and placed in either noradrenaline (NA) or alpha- melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). These hormones cause opposing responses in chromatophores, which allowed me to study the physiological processes underlying colour change. The solutions (NA and α-MSH) aimed to induce maximal pigment aggregation or dispersion, respectively. The degree and rate of this in vitro physiological colour change was estimated by digital image analysis.

    There was individual variation in both the degree and the rate of colour change, both when analyzing the behaviour (live fish) and using biopsies. However, there was no relationship in the degree of colour change between the behavioural and physiological measurements, nor was there such a relationship for the rate of the colour change. Thus, the behaviour of changing colour did not seem to be limited by the physiological capacity to do so. Sticklebacks that changed their colour to a great degree, also tended to do this at a faster rate. This relationship was found both in vivo and in vitro. Smaller sticklebacks changed colour to a greater degree and fish with a smaller body mass were also faster. In addition, smaller fish had biopsies that changed colour to a greater degree and at a faster rate. The boldness test showed that individuals that had a physiological capacity to change colour to a greater degree, and at a faster rate, were also bolder. My results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between behavioural- and physiological aspects of colour changing behaviour in sticklebacks. In addition, I developed novel methods which are suitable for future studies of colour changing behaviour in fishes.

  • 16.
    Rundberg Nilsson, Antonia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Digitala enheter - på gott och ont: Mellanstadieeleveers uppfattningar om digitala enheters påverkan på hälsan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva elevers uppfattningar om digitala enheter kopplat till olika hälsoaspekter. För att undersöka detta samlades data in med hjälp av semistrukturerade, kvalitativa intervjuer av 15 stycken elever i årskurs 6. Eleverna var indelade i par samt en grupp bestående av 3 elever.

     Resultatet visar att eleverna ser både fördelar och nackdelar med digitala enheter. De menar att deras sömn inte påverkas i negativ mening av de digitala enheterna, utan istället kan hjälpa vissa att somna. Flera elever anser att digitala enheter stör deras koncentration, både i och utanför skolan. De känner sig däremot inte stressade av dem. I elevernas sociala relationer kan digitala enheter gynna relationen med vänner, både när de umgås och för att bygga upp en närmare relation. Detta förutsätter att de digitala enheterna används på rätt sätt och att de inte avskärmar varandra, vilket kan vara negativt för relationen. I relationen med familjen används digitala enheter i mindre utsträckning än med vänner eftersom familjen finner det viktigare att vara utan digitala enheter då de umgås. 

     Digitala enheter kan påverka möjligheterna till motion, eftersom eleverna ofta sitter eller ligger ned då de använder sina digitala enheter, men det finns också applikationer som främjar rörelse. Eleverna berättar att de blir inspirerade av bilder på mat som de ser i sociala medier.  

     Resultatet visar även att det varierar huruvida eleverna känner sig beroende av sina digitala enheter (främst mobiltelefonen) eller inte. Eleverna menar att det är enklare att vara utan sina digitala enheter om ingen annan heller använder dem, än om de skulle vara ensamma om att inte kunna använda sina digitala enheter. 

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  • 17.
    Sahlin, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The next-generation of aquatic effect-based monitoring?: A critical review about the application,challenges and barriers with omics in field2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional water monitoring encounter limitations due to the large number of contaminants present in our waters possible giving raise to mixture effects. This thesis aimed to investigate how the emerging omics approaches (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) can be used as an effect-based monitoring approach to assess and predict adverse effects in the freshwater environment. Moreover, this thesis analysed challenges and barrier with omics. A systematic literature search was conducted using Scopus and Web of Science to find case-studies using omics in field studies and reviews regarding challenges and barriers. The results in this thesis suggest that the use of fish species (either collected in the wild or in situ set-ups), transcriptomics and investigations of WWTP recipient was the most common way to apply omics. In order to interpret omics-data multiple studies conducted chemical monitoring in conjunction, investigated additional traditional biomarkers and/or used omics to identify altered biological or functional pathways that possible could lead to adverse effects at higher levels. According to the challenges and barriers identified in this thesis, the future of omics in environmental monitoring rely on the possibility to characterise and quantify natural variability, define appropriate critical effect sizes (i.e. thresholds of critical effects) and define baseline data. Moreover, it is necessary to develop frameworks and standardisations for omics-approaches (e.g. study-designs) to promote the interpretation of the results. Future research is also needed to develop and increase the understanding of how the proteomics and metabolomics can be applied. By improving the use of omics a more holistic water monitoring can be achieved including screenings for biological responses and the ability to detect early warnings which will enhance the prioritisation and site management of polluted water bodies, including those with limited prior knowledge regarding potential contaminants.

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  • 18.
    Tucker, Marlee A.
    et al.
    Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.
    Alexandrou, Olga
    Society for the Protection of Prespa, Prespa, Greece.
    Bierregaard Jr., Richard O.
    Biology Department, University of North Carolina.
    Bildstein, Keith L.
    Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Acopian Center for Conservation Learning.
    Böhning‐Gaese, Katrin
    Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.
    Bracis, Chloe
    Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.
    Brzorad, John N.
    Reese Institute for Conservation of Natural Resources, Lenoir‐Rhyne University.
    Buechley, Evan R.
    HawkWatch International.
    Cabot, Davi
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University College Cork.
    Calabrese, Justin M.
    Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park.
    Carrapato, Carlos
    Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas, Parque Natural do Vale do Guadiana, Centro Polivalente de Divulgação da Casa do Lanternim.
    Chiaradia, Andre
    Phillip Island Nature Parks.
    Davenport, Lisa C.
    Florida Museum of Natural History.
    Davidson, Sarah C.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University.
    Desholm, Mark
    BirdLife Denmark.
    DeSorbo, Christopher R.
    Biodiversity Research Institute.
    Domenech, Robert
    Raptor View Research Institute.
    Enggist, Peter
    Storch Schweiz.
    Fagan, William F.
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland.
    Farwig, Nina
    Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps‐University Marburg.
    Fiedler, Wolfgang
    Department of Migration and Immuno‐Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
    Fleming, Christen H.
    Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park.
    Franke, Alastair
    Arctic Raptors Project.
    Fryxell, John M.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph.
    García‐Ripollés, Clara
    Vertebrates Zoology Research Group, University of Alicante.
    Grémillet, David
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175, CNRS – Université de Montpellier.
    Griffin, Larry R.
    Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Caerlaverock Wetland Centre.
    Harel, Roi
    Movement Ecology Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    Kane, Adam
    School of Biology and Environmental Science and Earth Institute, University College Dublin.
    Kays, Roland
    North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.
    Kleyheeg, Erik
    Department of Migration and Immuno‐Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
    Lacy, Anne E.
    International Crane Foundation.
    LaPoint, Scott
    Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University.
    Limiñana, Rubén
    Departamento de Didáctica General y Didácticas Específicas, University of Alicante.
    López‐López, Pascual
    University of Valencia, Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Terrestrial Vertebrates Group.
    Maccarone, Alan D.
    Biology Department, Friends University.
    Mellone, Ugo
    Departamento de Didáctica General y Didácticas Específicas, University of Alicante.
    Mojica, Elizabeth K.
    Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Virginia Commonwealth University.
    Nathan, Ran
    Movement Ecology Laboratory, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
    Newman, Scott H.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Africa.
    Noonan, Michael J.
    Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park.
    Oppel, Steffen
    RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
    Prostor, Mark
    Arctic Raptors Project.
    Rees, Eileen C.
    Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.
    Ropert-Coudert, Yan
    Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR7372 CNRS Université de La Rochelle.
    Rösner, Sascha
    Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps‐University Marburg.
    Sapir, Nir
    Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa.
    Schabo, Dana
    Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps‐University Marburg.
    Schmidt, Matthias
    BirdLife Österreich.
    Schulz, Holger
    Storch Schweiz.
    Shariati, Mitra
    Faculty of Geo‐Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente.
    Shreading, Adam
    Raptor View Research Institute.
    Silva, João Paulo
    CIBIO/InBIO Associate Laboratory, Universidade do Porto.
    Skov, Henrik
    Ecology and Environment Department, DHI.
    Spiegel, Orr
    School of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University.
    Takekawa, John Y.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center.
    Teitelbaum, Claire S.
    Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia.
    van Toor, Mariëlle L.
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany.
    Urios, Vicente
    Departamento de Didáctica General y Didácticas Específicas, University of Alicante.
    Vidal‐Mateo, Javier
    Departamento de Didáctica General y Didácticas Específicas, University of Alicante.
    Wang, Qiang
    Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Watts, Bryan D.
    Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Virginia Commonwealth University.
    Wikelski, Martin
    Department of Migration and Immuno‐Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
    Wolter, Kerri
    VulPro NPC.
    Žydelis, Ramūnas
    Ornitela UAB.
    Mueller, Thomas
    Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung.
    Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments2019In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 28, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
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