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  • 1.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

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  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Viavattene, Christophe
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities2012In: Urban environment: proceedings of the 10th Urban Environment Symposium / [ed] Sébastien Rauch & Gregory M. Morrison, Springer, 2012, Vol. 19, p. 11p. 213-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment.

  • 3.
    Fernandez Grijalva, Nicia Ivonne
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Pro-environmental Behavior in Mass Tourism: Testing manipulation techniques in tourists for "voluntary" sustainable actions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five suggested experiments from tested Pro-environmental behavior change studies made in different advance economy countries were applied in the emerging economy tourist destination: Samalayuca Sand Dunes Park in Ciudad Juárez, Chih. México.  Results show that promoting connectivity between  the tourist and the destination, framing actions for tourists who are not aware about sustainable practices, encouraging sustainable actions with non monetary incentives, and reminding tourists faults against the environment are sucessful techniques to enhance pro-environmental behaviors in tourists; while a combination of these practices may enhance positive spillover to increase such actions and thus, helping to close the ”holiday” gap or the unsustainable behavior tourists show during travel.

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  • 4.
    Gümüş, Burcu
    et al.
    Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.
    Varnalı, Kaan
    Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.
    Ozturkcan, Selcen
    Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.
    Adoption of Really New Products: Retro Appearance and the Bandwagon Effect2014In: Marketing theory challenges in emerging markets / [ed] Maja Szymura-Tyc, Katowice: Publishing House of the University of Economics , 2014, p. 23-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature has paid far too little attention to the potential impact of retro appearance and bandwagon effect on the adoption of really new products. By integrating the retro appearance and bandwagon perspectives, we aim to contribute to the understanding of adoption of really new products. We purport that retro appearance and peer effect – familiar product appearances and observing peer usage – may attenuate the negative prejudgments towards really new products associated with perceived risks and facilitate adoption.

  • 5.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Nammari, Diauddin R.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Nimmermark, Sven
    Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Biosyst & Technol, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Marques, Marcia
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Environm Engn, BR-20559900 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav (published under the name Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav)
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Baled MSW and associated problem, in the context of fire hazard2002In: Recovering Energy from Waste: Various Aspects / [ed] Grover, V.I., Grover, V.K., and Hogland, W., Science Publishers Inc., 2002, p. 223-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Modeling of risk from improper sorting of waste at recycling centers2020In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 550-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has demonstrated the use of weighted-linear-combination approach in connection with fuzzy set functions of Total Population, Total Distance, Annual income per person and Total number of opening hours of Recycling Centers (RCs), in ArcGIS environment, to generate risk maps and characterize RCs based on risk for improper sorting of waste. Analysis of data shows that there are 73 RCs, at which, risk for improper sorting of waste is highest. On average, there is one RC for every 19,402 individuals in Sweden and a single round trip made by Swedes to nearest RC, results in emission of 1340 ktons of CO2. Furthermore, it is found that strategies needed (e.g. installation of new RCs or shifting of RCs closer to densely populated areas (DPAs) or increase in number of opening hours or availability of pre-visit sorting information etc.), to reduce risk for improper sorting of waste, are different for RCs that are operated under different management forms. Variations in tariffs, limited number of waste fractions to be collected per RC, confusing terminologies, design parameters of RCs and non-implementation of EU Directive 2018/851 with respect to packaging waste, are other factors that are affecting quality of waste sorting at RCs, and are discussed in the article. Results from this research can be utilized to identify site specific needs for improving sorting of waste and to identify priority areas for installation of new RCs.

  • 7.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Risk of spontaneous and anthropogenic fires in waste management chain and hazards of secondary fires2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 159, no 104852, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyze the risk of waste-fires in Sweden, using the national data of fire anomalies (13,053 fire hotspots), remotely sensed by the NASA's Visible-Infrared-Imaging-Radiometer-Suite (VIIRS). Risk of fires was studied at 1,837 waste storage sites of eight different categories: (a) waste-collection (520); (b) pretreatmentand sorting sites (194); (c) middle storage of waste (229); (d) recycling of electrical items (71); (e) other recycling activities (83); (f) combustion (348); (g)landfills (271) and (h) wood-related (121). In total, 143 waste-fires at 111 waste management sites, with fire radiative power (FRP) as high as 81 MW, were detectedover a period of seven years 2012-18. Data shows that landfills and RCs are two major high-risk groups for instigation of secondary fires. It is concluded that risk ofwastefires at all stages of waste management chain can be mitigated by controlling the challenges of structural over-capacities at the sites, functioning up-stream ofwaste management chain. Moreover, there is need to establish an increased number of property-close RCs to enhance quality of waste sorting. A novel technique forthe analysis of risk of wastefires, using remote sensing and GIS modeling, is presented in this article. This technique can be extrapolated for other geographicalsettings for the assessment of risk of waste-fires.

  • 8.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storages sites for organic material, waste fuels and recyclables: Quantification and mitigation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic and environmental constraints have created increasing demand for (material and energy recovery) and recycling of waste generated from households, commercial and industrial activities. A wide variety of materials waiting for sorting, recovery, recycling and disposal are stored at temporary storage sites (TSS) where physical, biotic and abiotic processes can lead the stored material to spontaneous ignition. Spontaneous fires at TSS are associated with severe social health economic and environmental implications.

    The objective of the present thesis was to access, quantify and mitigate the risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites. It was found that during the period from 2000 to 2010, spontaneous fires have caused losses of about 49 million SEK (about 5 million Euros) to the Swedish waste and recycling industry. A comparison of two groups of waste operators (non-seasonal storage sites at private companies and seasonal storage sites at municipality owned companies) showed that the number of fire incidents per storage site was higher for the former one.

    Furthermore, it was found that there is a need to improve the behavior of environmental managers related to safety issues as a group of managers was found to be under the influence of optimism, attribution and availability biases. The managers under the influence of optimism bias preferred to follow low cost risk averting strategies and fire incidents were more frequently reported at their storage sites.

    The ArcGIS spatial analysis using Boolean and Weighted Linear Combination approach and open burn/open detonation model was used to provide the screening level guidelines for siting new storage sites with a due consideration given to potential off-site consequences of spontaneous fires on downwind population. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of MSW bales. The data suggested that the unwrapped bales might pose higher hazards for adjacently stored material to catch fire than bales wrapped with low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic sheets. For future, interdisciplinary research with focus on technical solutions (e.g. development of performance based design using fire simulations and methods for early detection and extinction of fires) and economic, political and organizational solutions that ensure risk of spontaneous fires not to be trivialized is recommended.

    Keywords: temporary storage, risk of fires, spontaneous ignition, biofuels, recyclables, waste fuels

  • 9.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables2013In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 937-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  • 10.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sultana, Norin
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Perception of fire-risk at temporary storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables2014In: International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, ISSN 1478-9876, E-ISSN 1478-9868, no 2, p. 165-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of fires at municipal solid waste (MSW) storage sites is of great concern because such fires not only result in material losses worth millions of Euros annually but also have deleterious effects on both human health and the environment. Keeping in view that management decisions addressing risk of fires cannot be divorced from human psychology regarding safety, a questionnaire survey was designed for which 187 respondents gave a response rate of 33%. Survey results showed that three types of biases; optimism, attribution and availability bias, prevail among managers of waste management companies. Furthermore, biased respondents had experienced higher frequency of fire incidents and preferred low cost risk averting technologies. It is concluded that there is a need to acknowledge the existence of biases and to improve the decision making skills of managers with the help of risk awareness programmes and implementation of government steering tools to reduce risk of spontaneous fires.

  • 11.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of municipal solid waste temporary storage sites: Risks posed to surrounding areas as a consequence of fire incidents2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2296-2306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study temporary storage sites of municipal solid waste were characterized based on their potential social, health and environmental impacts as a consequence of spontaneous fires, by employing Boolean as well as weighted-linear-combination approaches in connection with various fuzzy set functions of population density around the storage sites. Sweden was used as the case study and data from 105 storage sites were analysed; of these, 38 were identified to be posing high risk for downwind residing population. Furthermore, during the past 10 years, the fire frequency and the average population residing within a radius of 1, 2, and 3 km were found to be comparatively higher for storage sites owned by private ompanies than for those owned by municipalities. The study provided first-cut information of poorly sited temporary storage sites and can help in formalizing the comprehensive risk analysis in the future.

  • 12.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Building smart cities: security against risk for spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites of waste fuels and recyclables2013In: CPEXPO community protection, 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Now a days there is high emphasis on the reuse and recycling of waste which reflects that waste management industry is flourishing all over the word. The environmental and economic benefits connected with increased recycling and reuse of materials is usually considered as paradigm of sustainability societies. However, in past few years, an increased risk of spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables have been observed which lead to a shift in this paradigm (Ibrahim et al, 2013, Li et al, 2006, Fu et al, 2006). According to an estimate, such spontaneous fires have cost more than 49 million SEK during year 2000 to 2010 to Swedish waste industry (Ibrahim et al, 2013). In past unavailability of data regarding environmental damages and associated social costs of such fires lead to underestimation of hazards posed by such fires. However now there is a growing concern that waste management and recycling industry can pose serious threats to our cities and fire incidents can involve serious social, health and economic implications.

    Previous research has showed that conventional invasive techniques (gas detectors, thermocouples) are proven to be insufficient to provide protection against risk for spontaneous fires. There is vast opportunity to do research and to investigate the use of non-invasive techniques (Infra-red Cameras) and advanced invasive techniques (Optical fibre cables) to generate early warning signals and continuous monitoring of temporary storage of waste. In our on-going research project regarding monitoring of real waste heaps using IR Thermal cameras, the preliminary data have provided us the opportunity to quantify the uncertainties associated with use of IR thermal cameras. In future we are intended to investigate different aspects regarding the use of IR cameras, such as; angle of orientation of IR camera in reference to heap, separation distance between IR camera and the surface of waste heaps and quantifying the potential of IR camera to detect hot spots inside the waste heaps. In future it is expected that there will be a growing market for such non-invasive probes that can protect our cities from the noxious emissions release from temporary storage sites of waste fuels and recyclables.

  • 13.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Organizing preliminary storage sites of organic material, waste fuels and recyclables and their separating distance from populated areas2014In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 270-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union directives have urged member countries to enhance the recycling and separation of waste fractions, and this has increased the number of temporary storage sites of recyclables and waste fuels. Spontaneous fires at temporary storage sites have become common and pose social/health/environmental risks. Storage sites should be sited sufficiently far from populated regions, so that the concentration of released pollutants from open fires falls below the critical air quality index before the plume reach the downwind population. In this study, the open-burn/ open-detonation model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was employed, and 540 simulations were performed for nine scenarios of open burning of household waste to estimate suitable sizes of storage heaps and adequate distances between storage sites and populated regions. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was performed for 1,080 additional simulations to determine the effects of variations in the burn rate, storage dimension and volume of the waste heap on the model output. The resulting chart can be directly employed by waste operators/ environmental agencies to organize storage sites to minimize externalities due to open fires. Furthermore, using ArcGIS software, first-cut information of the total Swedish population facing the risk of hazards due to spontaneous fires was provided.

  • 14.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hofer, Peter
    GEO Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Lundström, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Taverna, Ruedi
    GEO Partner AG, Switzerland.
    Werner, Frank
    Werner Environment & Development, Switzerland.
    Potential roles of Swedish forestry in the context of climate change mitigation2014In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 557-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  • 15.
    Manniche, Jesper
    et al.
    Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark.
    Topsø Larsen, Karin
    Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark.
    Brandt Broegaard, Rikke
    Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark.
    Holland, Emil
    Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark.
    Chaja, Patryk (Contributor)
    Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Kierek, Marta (Contributor)
    Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Benaim, Andre (Contributor)
    Energikontor Sydost AB.
    Svensson, Katrine (Contributor)
    Energikontor Sydost AB.
    Gunnarsson, Roger (Contributor)
    Energikontor Sydost AB.
    Paulauskas, Stasys (Contributor)
    Strategic Self-Management Institute, Lithuania.
    Paulauskas, Aleksandras (Contributor)
    Strategic Self-Management Institute, Lithuania.
    Lindell, Lina (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Sattari, Setayesh (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Kordestani, Arash (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Allmér, Hans (Contributor)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Destination: A circular tourism economy: a handbook for transitioning toward a circular economy within the tourism and hospitality sectors in the South Baltic Region2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook provides an overall understanding of the concept of the circular economy and of the societal dynamics through which innovations and transitioning processes towards a circular economy are realised. 

    It describes and discusses the specific economic and political context for applying and developing the circular economy in the CIRTOINNO project. The specific contexts are the tourism sectors in the South Baltic partner regions. 

    It investigates and discusses the opportunities for small and medium-sized tourism businesses to adopt circular economy ideas, and to identify possible ‘good practices’ among tourism SMEs in developing and applying circular economy solutions, especially in relation to the fields of foci of the CIRTOINNO project: accommodation, food and spa services. 

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  • 16.
    Matschke, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Ja just de, så har vi det här med miljön också. En kvalitativ studie om miljömålssystemets svårigheter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 17.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Solid waste management based on cost-benefit analysis using the WAMED model2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient waste management enables the protection of human health, reducing environmental pollution, saving of natural resources, and achieving sustainable and profitable management of energy. In many countries, the general guidelines for waste management are set by national or local waste management plans. Various models provide local authorities with decision-making tools in planning long-term waste management scenarios.This study aims at providing a special model framework for the evaluation of ecological–economic efficiency (ECO-EE) of waste management. This will serve as an information support tool for decision making by actors of a solid waste management (SWM) scheme, primarily at the municipal and regional levels. The objective of this study is to apply the waste management’s efficient decision (WAMED) model along with the company statistical business tool for environmental recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER) model to SWM and municipal solid waste (MSW) schemes in general in order to evaluate and improve their ECO-EE. COSTBUSTER is a mathematical indicator for the size and extent of implementation costs of a certain SWM scheme, compared with the total size of the average financial budget of a SWM actor of a certain kind. In particular, WAMED is proposed for evaluating the suitability to invest in baling technology. Baling of solid waste is an emerging technology which is extensively used worldwide to temporarily store waste for either incineration or recovery of raw materials. The model for efficient use of resources for optimal production economy (the EUROPE model) is for the first time applied to emissions from baling facilities. It has been analysed how cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and full cost accounting (FCA) can facilitate environmental optimisation of SWM schemes. The effort in this work represents a continuation of such ambitions as an enlargement of the research area of CBA based modelling within SWM. In the thesis, certain theoretical and economic aspects of SWM were analysed as case studies. A shift of viewpoints within the field of waste management is presented. This shift is in accordance with the prevailing concept of sustainable development, as commonly understood. It is concluded that in the practical SWM context, the findings of the study point at the possibilities to modify the common CBA- and FCA-based methods by WAMED, COSTBUSTER, and EUROPE. Therefore, it can be said that estimations in a SWM scheme can be carried out by using certain economic model, if properly modified in a logical and plausible way. New principles for cost allocation to SWM residual products are presented in the current work. They imply strong industrial cost saving incentives through promoting the introduction of new and improved processing technologies for rest-waste. Such incentives then strongly promote investments that are likely to improve both the environment and the corporate profitability. Thereby, the occurrence of non-commercialised, and hence not utilized, wastes is reduced. This improves the short term corporate economy through saving raw materials such as solid waste fuel, spending less time for administrating waste flows, and less wear and tear of the plant machinery. Additional environmental advantages which affect the balance sheets in a favourable way are related to the long-term business economy and extended environmental goodwill. This is due to the recently introduced way of considering solid waste as regular goods in financial terms - the equality principle. If waste is seen as goods, and not wasted in landfills, the environment will improve. This, in turn, leads to an improved quality of life. Based on the current study, it is recommended to apply WAMED to SWM schemes in order to evaluate their ECO–EE to justify decision making and investments. Also, it is recommended to apply COSTBUSTER, based on the current WAMED outcome, to SWM schemes to determine their relative size and extent. It is recommended to apply EUROPE to the emissions in case of accidental burning, treatment of leachate, andabatement with odours at any SWM scheme, based on the induced economic incentives, in order to reduce unwanted substances and phenomena.

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  • 18.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav (published under the name Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav)
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Shepeleva, Antonina
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Geog & Geoecol, Dept Ecol Safety & Sustainable Dev Reg, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Solid waste management by application of the WAMED model2010In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to develop a general model for the evaluation of ecological–economic efficiency that will serve as an information support tool for decision making at the corporate, municipal, and regional levels. It encompasses cost–benefi t analysis in solid waste management by applying a sustainability promoting approach that is explicitly related to monetary measures. A waste managements’efficient decision (WAMED) model based on cost–benefit analysis is proposed and developed to evaluate the ecological–economic efficiency of solid waste management schemes. The employment of common business administration methodology tools is featured. A classification of competing waste management models is introduced to facilitate evaluation of the relevance of the previously introduced WAMED model. Suggestions are made for how to combine the previously introduced EUROPE model, based on the equality principle, with the WAMED model to create economic incentives to reduce solid waste management-related emissions. A fictive case study presents the practical application of the proposed cost–benefit analysis-based theory to the landfilling concept. It is concluded that the presented methodology reflects an integrated approach to decreasing negative impacts on the environment and on the health of the population, while increasing economic benefits through the implementation of solid waste management projects.

  • 19.
    Nammari, Diauddin R.
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Marques, Marcia
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Environm Engn, BR-20559900 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Nimmermark, Sven
    Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Biosyst & Technol, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav (published under the name Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav)
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales2004In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and safety aspects of seasonal storage of baled municipal solid waste to be used as fuel for energy production (waste fuel), was investigated and experiments were carried out on burning of bales. The flammability, combustion processes and emissions were studied by simulating, in small-scale, potential effects of a possible fire in full-scale bale storage area. Despite the high water content and the high density of the bales, after setting fire, the bales burned well, even though no risk for self-ignition exists. The following parameters of the combustion product were measured continuously: O2, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx,THC, smoke gas rate and the temperature of the smoke. Soot particles in the smoke were collected and analysed for Hg, Pb, Cd, As,Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Sb and V concentrations. The analysis of the moisture content, concentrations of Hg, Cd, HCl, HF, HBr, NH3, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and brominated dioxins (PCDD/F and PBrDD/F, respectively) were carried out. It was found that the PCDD/F levels (TEQs) varied according to the system used: 12.53 ng (I-TEF-88)/Nm3; 14.09 ng (I-TEF-99)/Nm3;13.86 ng (Eadons)/Nm3. The PAH concentration was 3.04 mg/Nm3. The contents of the metals in the smoke (with the exceptions of Pb and Cd with mean values of 1.74 and 0.36 mg/m3, respectively) were below the limit values established by the Swedish Ministry ofEnvironment for emissions from incineration plants [Swedish Ministry of Environment, (2002:1060), Förordning 2002:1060 omavfallsförbränning. Available from http://www.notisum.se/rnp/SLS/LAG/20021060.HTM]/EU-directive [(2000/76/EC), Directive 2000/76/EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste. http://www.Scotland.gov.uk/library5/environment/iecda.pdf]. The HCl concentration was 10 times higher than the limit value (mean value of 99 mg/m3).

  • 20.
    Nammari, Diauddin R.
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav (published under the name Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav)
    University of Kalmar, Department of Technology.
    Marques, Marcia
    Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Dept Environm Engn, BR-20559900 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Nimmermark, Sven
    Univ Agr Sci, Dept Agr Biosyst & Technol, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Physical and chemical processes in baled waste fuel, with emphasis on gaseous emissions2003In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over a period of seven months, the temperature and the emissions from six cylindrical and two rectangular stored bales containing waste for later use as fuel were measured. The bales were kept at two different ranges of temperatures: 30-35˚C and 20-25˚C respectively. It was foundthat only the rectangular bales showed significant productionof CO2. The increase of emission for one of the rectangular bales kept at 30-35˚C, was 0.246% vol. CO2 per day for a 2-week period, after which there was a decrease of CO2 concentrations at a rate of 0.0224% vol. during a 32-week period. The other rectangular bale kept at 20-25˚C, exhibited a similar trend. However, the increase of CO2 concentrations was less at a rate of 0.0259% vol. per day during a 8-week period, after which the CO2 emission decreased at a rate of 0.0224% vol. per day during a 25-week period. All the bales exhibited aerobic decomposition in the sampling point. However, on measuring the leachate concentrations, it was evident that the bales were actually in the equivalent acid-generating phase of a young landfill. The temperature inside the bales did not increase higher than the ambient air temperature.

  • 21.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University.
    Forest biomass production and their potential use to mitigate climate change2012In: Tackling climate change: the contribution of forest scientific knowledge, Tours, France: INRA Editions, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how forest products can be utilized to contribute tackling climate change. An integrated model-based system analysis approach is applied to estimate forest biomass production and substitution effects of climate change and forest management goals. We estimate net primary production with the use of process based model BIOMASS incorporating climate change effects according to IPCC SRES B2 scenario. BIOMASS considers the processes of radiation absorption, photosynthesis, phenology, allocation of photosynthesis among plant organs, litter-fall, and the stand water balance. The resulting output of net primary production from BIOMASS is input into the empirical model HUGIN to calculate tree growth functions in five scenarios representing different forest management goals. These growth functions determine the total growth and the potential harvestable forest biomass. The harvested products in terms of whole tree biomass and stem wood biomass are then assumed to substitute construction materials and fossil fuels, and the substitution effect is calculated in terms of net CO2 emission reduction. We use the Q-model to estimate soil carbon changes in the forest because of litter fall and soil decomposition processes in different scenarios. The results show that the climate change effect and intensive forestry practice can increase forest production and product harvest by up to 75% and 69% respectively compared to the production in the year 2010. If the harvested biomass is used to substitute fossil fuel and building construction materials a total net carbon emission reduction up to 249 Tg carbon is possible. The carbon stock in standing biomass, forest soils, and wood products all increases. The carbon stock changes are less significant than compared to the substitution benefits. This study can conclude that the climate change effect and improved forest management practices may increase forest biomass significantly, thus will give increased opportunity to reduce carbon emission significantly to contribute to the climate change mitigation.

  • 22. Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Drössler, Lars
    Nordin, Annika
    Nilsson, Urban
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Comparison of biomass production and total carbon balance of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden2012In: IUFRO Conference, Division 5, Forest Products. 8 - 13 July. Estoril Congress Centre, Lisbon, Portugal, Estoril Conference Center, Lisbon, Portugal: IUFRO , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Moss based constructed wetland system: is it possible to use aquatic moss (warnstorfia fluitans) for removal of as in an eco-friendly approach?2018In: Book of Abstracts: Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018 / [ed] Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland, Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 17-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heavy metal and metalloid contaminated groundwater is considered as one of the major global environmental disasters that need sustainable solutions. One sustainable environment-friendly solution is using plant-based remediation, or phytoremediation. For contaminated water aquatic plant based phytofiltration could be applied. A Swedish aquatic moss species (Warnstorfia fluitans) have been discovered to accumulate high levels of As (arsenic) from the water. In a number of areas in Sweden, the As content in the groundwater is high due to mining activities and geochemical conditions. Our hypothesis was that since this moss species could accumulate As from contaminated water it would be possible to apply in constructed wetland system for removal of As from water. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of As from the outlet water by using W. fluitans in constructed mesocosm type wetland systems with various water flow speeds under greenhouse conditions. Besides these, As content in the vegetables (lettuce, Latuca sativa) grown in this outlet water was also analysed. The total As concentration was analysed with hydride generated atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS). Results showed that W. fluitans could reduce the As concentration in the water with 36 and 56% from initial As concentration at high (5 mL/min) and low (1.5 mL/min) water flow rate, respectively. The As concentration in the vegetables was also lower when low flow outlet has been applied as irrigation water. In conclusion, the result fits our hypothesis that aquatic moss could be used in the constructed wetland system to reduce As content in irrigation water and by that also in the irrigated vegetables.

    Download full text (pdf)
    LNU Eco-Tech Abstract
  • 24.
    Stenis, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Mutavchi, Viacheslav
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Solid waste management baling scheme economics methodology2011In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, E-ISSN 2079-2123, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 104-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cost structure is proposed for evaluating and improving the ecological-economic efficiency of baling sub-scheme units within solid waste management schemes that end with, for example, incineration for heat and power production. The methodology proposed employs the previously introduced WAste Managements’ Efficient Decision model (WAMED) and the COmpany STatistical BUSiness Tool for Environmental Recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER). The previously introduced equality principle and the Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE) model are applied so to in monetary terms express the emissions in case of bale related fire (sol), pollutions from leachate (liq) and odour (g) at a scheme. Previously, the EUROPE model has been applied to residuals from producing industry, the construction sector and whole landfills. A case study presents the practical application of the proposed methodology. It is concluded that the presented novel methodology for evaluation and improvement of the ecological-economic efficiency of solid waste baling management schemes simultaneously decreases the negative impact on the environment and the health of the population, provides the foundation of an investment appraisal support tool for the implementation of solid waste management projects and enables comparative analysis of estimated, actual and prevented monetary damages from the implementation of baling plant units.

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