lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 91
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 12018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.

    This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 2.
    Biollaz, S.
    et al.
    PSI.
    Calbry-Muzyka, A.
    PSI.
    Rodriguez, S.
    PSI.
    Sárossy, Z.
    DTU.
    Ravenni, G.
    DTU.
    Fateev, A.
    DTU.
    Seiser, R.
    UCSD.
    Eberhard, M.
    KIT.
    Kolb, T.
    KIT.
    Heikkinen, N.
    VTT.
    Reinikainen, M.
    VTT.
    Brown, R.C.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Johnston, P.A.
    Iowa State University, USA.
    Nau, P.
    DLR.
    Geigle, K.P.
    DLR.
    Kutne, P.
    DLR.
    Işık-Gülsaç, I.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Aksoy, P.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Çetin, Y.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Sarıoğlan, A.
    TÜBİTAK Mam.
    Tsekos, C.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    de Jong, W.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Benedikt, F.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Hofbauer, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Waldheim, L.
    SFC.
    Engvall, K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Neubauer, Y.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Funcia, I.
    CENER.
    Gil, J.
    CENER.
    del Campo, I.
    CENER.
    Wilson, I.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Khan, Z.
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Gall, D.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gómez-Barea, A.
    University of Seville, Spain.
    Schmidt, F.
    Umeå University.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Anca-Couce, A.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    von Berg, L.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, A.
    GoBiGas.
    Sánchez Hervás, J.M.
    CIEMAT.
    van Egmond, B.F.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Geusebroek, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Toonen, A.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Kuipers, J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Cieplik, M.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Boymans, E.H.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Grootjes, A.J.
    ECN part of TNO.
    Fischer, F.
    TUM.
    Schmid, M.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Maric, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Defoort, F.
    CEA.
    Ravel, S.
    CEA.
    Thiery, S.
    CEA.
    Balland, M.
    CEA.
    Kienzl, N.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Martini, S.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Loipersböck, J.
    Bioenergy 2020+.
    Basset, E.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Barba, A.
    ENGIE Lab CRIGEN.
    Willeboer, W.
    RWE-Essent.
    Venderbosch, R.
    BTG.
    Carpenter, D.
    NREL.
    Pinto, F.
    LNEG.
    Barisano, D.
    ENEA.
    Baratieri, M.
    UNIBZ.
    Ballesteros, R.
    UCLM.
    Mourao Vilela, C. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Vreugdenhil, B.J. (Editor)
    ECN part of TNO.
    Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

    This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

  • 3.
    Borenberg, Fredrik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Biofiltrering av luft förorenad med terpener: Biofiltration of air polluted with terpenes2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds are a growing environmental problem. Biofiltration is a relatively cost efficient method to purify air polluted with VOC:s. Biofiltraion also has the benefit of completely degrading the pollutants rather than just transferring them into another phase/form. This report describes the work on two biofilters of column type. The microbes used were extracted from wood chips and soil. As pollutants limonene and α–pinene were used.

    Furthermore, it was investigated how the presence of silicone oil in the filter bed affected the filtering results. The filtering capacity in the non oil enriched filter was during the first 25days 10-12 g/m3h and thereafter some 15-20 g/m3h. The efficiency of the oil enriched filter was stable at 15-20 g/m3h.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013In: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 5-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

    Download (pdf)
    extended abstract
  • 5.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013In: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University .
    Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2017In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, no 17-18, p. 1306-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.

  • 7.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Tunér, Martin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Small Scale Gasifiction: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint project, Linnaeus University in Växjö (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MWth, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report.

    The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone.

    The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants:

    • Meva Innovation’s VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant
    • DTU’s VIKING CHP plant
    • Güssing bio-power station
    • Harboøre CHP plant
    • Skive CHP plant

    The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries.

    Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %.

    The Harboøre, Skive, and Güssing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical University (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia.

    Areas for suggested further research and development include:

    • Gas      cleaning/upgrading
    • Utilization      of produced heat
    • System      integration/optimization
    • Small scale      oxygen production
    • Gas engine      developments
    Download full text (pdf)
    Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels.pdf
  • 8.
    Dagbro, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Studies on Industrial-Scale Thermal Modification of Wood2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood as a raw material is useful for many purposes even though some properties are less than optimal, for example, dimensional stability and durability. These characteristics can however be improved by different treatment methods. Environmental awareness has led to an increased demand for environmentally friendly processes like thermal modification that does not add any chemicals to the wood in contrast to, for example, CCA-impregnated wood.This thesis mainly focuses on thermally modified wood from species such as pine, spruce and birch. The thesis present studies of physical attributes such as color, and chemical analysis of water-soluble compounds and degradation products. Treatment intensity is compared between two different industrial processes referred as Thermowood and WTT, which use respectively superheated steam and pressurized steam as heating media.Thermal modification processes darken the color of wood throughout its cross-section. The formation of darker color is related to a degradation processes that takes place during thermal modification. During thermal modification wood is exposed to temperatures between 160 - 220°C, and the temperature causes physical and chemical transformations that change some of the wood properties. Dimensional stability and durability are typically improved, but mechanical strength properties are usually negatively affected by the treatment.The studied wood species were Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Birch (Betula pendula L.). Treatments using pressurized steam were carried out under temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C, and treatments using superheated steam at normal air pressure were carried out at temperatures of 190°C and 212°C. Results showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower temperatures using pressurized steam compared to superheated steam. The residual moisture content after completed thermal modification was approximately 10% higher in wood treated with the pressurized steam process. It was found that despite an approximately 25°C lower treatment temperature, birch modified in pressurized steam was more acidic compared to birch modified in superheated steam. This will likely have further consequences, requiring more research concerning surface treatment and fixation.The thesis also includes the development of an industrial-quality control procedure based on nondestructive color measurements verified in industrial environment. Treatment intensity in industry is today certified by inspection of documented process schedule and measuring the temperature and time of the process. Quality control in this context refers to the measurement of wood color as an indirect measure of treatment intensity. The color in our study was measured using L*C*H color space. The study shows that it is possible for quality control purposes to measure the color of thermally modified wood from the surfaces of planed boards instead of sawdust or board cross sections that have been used in other studies.The thesis has a final section about academia-industry collaboration that describes how trust building was established through a fruitful relationship involving academia and regional wood products industry in northern Sweden. The study presents an example of a successful research and development alliance between university and a group of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This alliance has been a great example on international collaboration involving researchers originating from Finland, China, Bangladesh, Spain, Russia and Sweden. Through an in-depth multi-year study of how the research cooperation developed, the paper describes how the involved companies successfully entered into a new segment of the market.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Dagbro, Ola
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, The University Administration. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Colour responses from wood, thermally modified in superheated steam and pressurized steam atmospheres2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different methods were used to produce thermally modified wood. One was carried out in a typical kiln drying chamber using superheated steam (SS) and the other used pressurized steam in an autoclave cylinder (PS). Overall, both processes followed the same principles and the wood was not treated with any chemicals. Two wood species were studied, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Treatments in the autoclave were carried out under pressure using temperatures of 160°C, 170°C and 180°C. Temperatures of 190°C and 212°C were used in treatments in the chamber at normal air pressure. The colour was measured using L*C*H colour space. Results for both species showed that similar L* (lightness) can be reached at lower (20-308C) temperatures using PS compared with SS treatment. The hue angle of PS-treated wood was smaller than that of SS-treated wood. No significant difference in C* (chroma) was detected. The difference in E value between PS- and SS-treated wood was smaller for Norway spruce than for Scots pine. The residual moisture content was about 10% higher in wood treated by the PS process compared with the SS process

  • 10.
    Dorn, Michael
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tuvendal, Helena
    Södra skogsägarna.
    Henrik, Oxfall
    Swerea.
    Serrano, Erik
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    FBBB 4.3 Biobaserade skivmaterial: Experimentella undersökningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är del av projektet Framtidens Byggande och Boende (FBBB), delprojekt 4.3 "Biobaserade skivmaterial". I denna rapport presenteras resultatet av de mekaniska drag- och böjprov såsom DTMA analys. Materialet ”Durapulp”, som tillverkas av Södra, är referensmaterialet i delprojektet. Provkroppar av Durapulp producerades med olika tillverkningsmetoder för att se skillnader i beteenden. Referensmaterialen är trä-baserade skivmaterial som anses vanligt förekommande i byggskeendet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    Gregorius, Klaus
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Towards a FRET-based immunosensor for continuous carbohydrate monitoring2008In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 333, no 1-2, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we have evaluated the potential of using fluorescence/Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a competitive immunosensor for continuous monitoring of the carbohydrate hapten maltose. The cyanine dyes Cy5 and Cy5.5 were used as a donor–acceptor pair by conjugation to maltose-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the monoclonal antibody IgG 39.5, giving Cy5–BSA–maltotriitol (3.1/1/18) and Cy5.5–mAb39.5 (2.2/1), respectively. This antibody with weak affinity towards maltose showed full reversibility to both the free maltose and the maltose-labeled conjugate. It allowed us to measure continuously the maltose content by monitoring the FRET signal change over time due to displacement of Cy5–BSA–maltotriitol from Cy5.5–mAb39.5 inside a semipermeable capsule. A near 22% total increase was seen in the fluorescence intensity ratio I670/I700 in the presence of maltose, with a calculated EC50 = 1.87 ± 0.13 mM (R2 = 0.9984) from the sigmoidal dose–response curve at 25 °C. Specificity of the immunosensor was shown with the structural analog to maltose, cellobiose, and it generated no detectable response. A minor drift in the sensor baseline was seen with 0.4% per 24 h, which was in the same magnitude as the signal-to-noise ratio, during the 4 weeks of measurements. The immunosensor was applied to crude samples of oat drinks for direct quantification of the maltose content. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential to use an immunosensor based on weakly binding antibodies and FRET technology for remote and non-invasive carbohydrate monitoring.

  • 12.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    Ohlson, Sten
    A label-free continuous total-internal-reflection-flourescence-based immunosensor2006In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, Vol. 357, no 2, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    Ohlson, Sten
    Analysis of the specificity and thermodynamics of the interaction betwwen low affinity antibodies and carbohydrate antigens using flourescence spectroscopy2005In: Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, Vol. 297, no 1, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Farinacci, Julie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Biogas upgrading by Scenedesmus grown in diluted digestate2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the work was to examine microalgae growth and nutrient elimination in various diluted digestates in the first trial, then to study CO2 removal from a simulated biogas mixture by the same strain in the second trial. Scenedesmus SCCP K-1826 was cultivated in the digestate from Sundet biogas plant diluted 10, 20 and 30 times. The cultures were open-air with occasional CO2 injections to control pH. On day 15, the best growth was obtained in the 10 times diluted sample. COD, TN and TP removal efficiencies were similar in each bottle as the strain didn’t perform better in any specific dilution. The control proved that additional mechanisms other than photosynthesis contributed to digestate cleaning. Using the 10 times diluted sludge, Scenedesmus was grown in sealed flasks filled with simulated biogas (35.3 % CO2 + 32.3 % CH4 + 32.3 % N2). More algal biomass was produced in this batch culture. Nutrient removal efficiencies were close to the ones reached in the open-air flasks. After 10 days, 96 % of carbon dioxide was reduced. Methane content was depleted as well, possibly due to undesirable methane oxidizing bacteria which infiltrated the medium.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Rowe, O. F.
    Umeå University ; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Allochthonous Carbon-a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea2016In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 789-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60 % of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2 %. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60 %. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  • 16.
    Forss, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems2011In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 227-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to develop a complete microbiological model system for the treatment of wastewater

    from textile mills in developing countries. Arti

    fi

    cial wastewater was treated by microorganisms growing

    on wood shavings from Norway spruce during unsterile conditions. The microorganisms were inoculated

    from forest residues. Mixtures of the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 were degraded in

    batch as well as continuous experiments. Reactive Red 2 mixed with the anthraquinone dye Reactive

    Blue 4 was also treated in the continuous system. The system consisted of three reservoirs

     

     

    e the fi

    rst two

    with an anaerobic environment and the third with an aerobic. The dye concentrations were 200 mg l

     

     

    1

    of

    each dye in the continuous system and the retention time was approximately 4 days and 20 h per

    reservoir. Samples from the process were analysed with spectrophotometer and LC/MS to monitor the

    degradation process. 86-90% of the colour was removed after a treatment of 4 days and 23 h in the

    continuous process. Two metabolites were found in the outlets of reactors one and two, but they were

    degraded to below the detection limit in the aerobic reactor.

     

     

     

  • 17.
    Fu, Jiapeng
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    Liu, Zhuhan
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Wei, Lin
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Li, Na
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Zhou, Qulan
    Xi'an Jiaotong University, China.
    Ma, Chunyuan
    Shandong University, China.
    Identification of the running status of membrane walls in an opposed fired model boiler under varying heating loads2020In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 173, p. 1-9, article id 115217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the running status of membrane walls in an opposite firing boiler, a scale-down model furnace was established, and the temperature, heat flux, strain and stress distributions are investigated under four heating loads. Results show that the average membrane wall temperature and heat flux present a continuous increase from 42 oC and 16 W/m2 to 96 oC and 50 W/m2, respectively, with the heating load increase from 25% to full load. The average strain and stress also rise from 88.7 µm and 0.094 MPa to 152.5 µm and 0.148 MPa when the heating load increases from 25% to 50%, but then they keep stable when further increasing the heating load. General distribution patterns of each tested parameter are found relatively similar under varying heating loads. High strain and stress distributions are always detected at the middle left zone of side walls and the middle of the rear wall, where wall temperatures are measured high. External fixed constraints and high-temperature thermal strain is found jointly affecting the strain and stress distribution of the membrane wall. A simplified mechanism of how the strain and stress on boiler membrane walls evolve is proposed after comprehensive discussion of the measurement results.

  • 18.
    Fu, Jiapeng
    et al.
    Shandong University, China.
    Zhou, Binxuan
    Shandong University, China.
    Zhang, Zhen
    North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, China.
    Wang, Tao
    Shandong University, China.
    Cheng, Xingxing
    Shandong University, China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Ma, Chunyuan
    Shandong University, China.
    One-step rapid pyrolysis activation method to prepare nanostructured activated coke powder2020In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 262, article id 116514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-step rapid pyrolysis activation method is proposed to produce activated coke powder (ACP) via a drop tube reactor by using pulverized Datong coal (DTC) and pine wood (PW) as feedstock. Small feedstock particle size, high heating rate, and effective activation agent, i.e., the mixture of oxygen and steam were arranged for the fast formation and development of various pore structure of ACPs. Detail characteristics of the ACP were investigated by using the nitrogen adsorption measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) analysis. Results showed that the ACP presented well-developed nanostructure with considerable pore volume, specific surface area and surface functional groups. The pore volume and specific surface area of PWC-O6S10 could reach 0.2373 cm3/g and 250.57 m2/g. Activation atmosphere had played an important role to develop the pore structure and morphology of the ACP. Under 6 vol% oxygen concentration, the optimum steam partial pressure for micropore development of DTC was about 15 vol%, while it mostly promoted the growth of mesopores for PWC. All ACP samples presented variety of C/O/N containing surface functional groups, including OH, CH, CC, CO, CO, COC, CN, CN, etc., which remained relatively stable as the activation agents concentration changed.

  • 19.
    Gregeby, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Provrötning av marina substrat i laboratorie- och pilotskala: Delstudie i projektet Biogas – Nya substrat från havet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar delstudie 4 av projektet Biogas-Nya substrat från havet. Inom delstudien har ett antal provrötningar av substrat från havet (vass, musslor, alger och skrapsill) genomförts. Syftet med delstudien var att få fram metanpotentialen för de olika substraten och att öka kunskapen kring hur dessa substrat uppför sig i en biogasprocess. Projektet var ett samverkansprojekt delfinansierat av EU Regionala fonden för Småland och öarna. Projektledare var Regionförbundet i Kalmar län. Inledningsvis genomfördes ett antal satsvisa försök med samtliga substrat. Metanpotentialerna för vassen, musslorna, algerna respektive skarpsillen var 400, 270, ca 210 och 460 Ndm3/kg VS. Ymp hämtades från Kalmar Biogas ABs industriella rötkammare. Vassen samrötades också med industriellt avfall i ett kontinuerligt våtrötningsförsök. Försöket genomfördes i två total omrörda tankreaktorer med volymen 30 l/st. Tillsatsen av vass gav en utökad metanproduktion med 220 Ndm3/kgVS.

    Vassen och musslorna studerades också i torrötningsförsök. Försöken i laboratorieskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioteknik i Lund medan försöket med musslor i pilotskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik, Linnéuniversitet. Metanpotentialen för vassen var i torrötningsförsöket ca 220 Ndm3/kg VS vilket är lika med potentialen i våtrötningsförsöket. För musslorna erhölls en metanpotential på 330 Ndm3/kg VS i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Pilotskaleförsöket visade att hydrolysen etablerades på likartat sätt som i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Metanhalten var ca 70 %. En visuell inspektion av musslorna efter rötningen visade också att endast skalen återstod. Det är dock inte möjligt att ange en metanpotential från detta försök beroende på ett antal tekniska problem med processen. Processen byggdes inför detta försök och det fanns inte tid att testköra den samma före försökets start.Arbetet med de satsvisa försöken och det kontinuerliga våtrötningsförsöket av vass genomfördes i samarbete med Kalmar Biogas AB. Detta bland annat genom att Kalmar Biogas AB tillhandahöll sin försöksanläggning med satsvisa och kontinuerliga reaktorer till projektet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Seemann, Martin C.
    Rodin, Jennie
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Particulate Matter in the Hot Product Gas from Indirect Steam Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasification of Wood Pellets2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1781-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study characterized the particulate matter (PM) formed during the indirect steam bubbling fluidized bed gasification of wood pellets at atmospheric pressure. A system including a dilution probe, a bed of granular activated carbon, and a thermodenuder was used to sample the PM at high temperature with the aim of separating it from condensing inorganic vapors and tars. The particle mass size distribution was bimodal with a fine mode in the <0.5-μm size range and a dominating coarse mode in the >0.5-μm size range. The coarse mode was representatively characterized while condensing inorganic vapors and tars complicated the evaluation of the results for the fine-mode PM. Morphological analysis of the PM indicated that the char content was low. The inorganic fraction was dominated by potassium and chlorine for fine-mode PM and calcium and silicon for coarse-mode PM.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characteristics of aerosol particles from steam and oxygen gasification of various biofuels2010In: 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition: From resarch to industry and markets, ETA Renewable Energies and WIP Renewable Energies , 2010, p. 900-902Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how the characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) from steam and oxygen gasification of biomass were affected by the biofuel used. The results show that the biofuel had a large impact on the fine mode PM generated during the gasification, both on the particle size distribution and on the elementary composition. When using miscanthus as fuel, high concentrations of ultrafine particles consisting of potassium chloride were formed compared to when using high- and low-quality wood (wood A and wood B) as fuels. The impact of the biofuel on the coarse mode PM was less in this study. Large amounts of bed material dominated the coarse fraction. However, heavy metals were detected in the coarse mode PM when using wood B, constituting treated wood, as fuel.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier Using Different Types of BiomassManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study characterized the particulate matter (PM) formed during gasification of different types of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Two systems were used to sample the PM, and both on- and offline analysis techniques were used to characterize the PM. Four different instruments were used to measure the particle mass size distribution and concentration in the size range 0.01–30 µm. The agreement between the instruments was good, and the particle mass size distributions upstream of any cleaning device were bimodal, dominated by the coarse mode (>0.5 µm). The particle mass concentration of the fine mode (<0.5 µm) varied, depending on which biomass was used. The variation in particle mass concentration of the coarse mode was less, and was due to different loads of bed material and various ash contents in the biomass. The morphological analysis of the PM showed that the char content was low and that the PM was dominated by ash and bed material. The coarse-mode PM was rich in magnesium and calcium, while potassium and chlorine were prevalent in the fine-mode PM. The elementary composition of the PM varied between the different types of biomass used and heavy metals, that is, zinc and lead, were detected in low concentrations when using demolition wood as fuel.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of particulate matter in the hot product gas from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. 71-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the hot product gas from three different atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers: a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier, and an indirect BFB gasifier (the latter integrated with a CFB boiler). All gasifiers displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 μm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 μm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low in all gasifiers. For both the BFB and CFB gasifiers the fine-mode PM had a similar inorganic composition, indicating an origin from the ash and the magnesite bed material used in both gasifiers. In the indirect BFB gasifier the fine-mode PM was instead dominated by potassium and chlorine, and the tar fraction properties evoked tar condensation in the sampling system that affected mainly the fine-mode PM. The coarse-mode PM in the BFB gasifier was dominated by char fragments abraded from the pyrolyzed wood pellets. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and magnesite bed material that passed through the process cyclone. In the indirect BFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash, probably originating both from the BFB gasifier and the CFB boiler.

  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dynamic impacts of forest residues on primary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions2014In: The 9th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - SDEWES. September 20 - 27, 2014, Venice-Istanbul, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bioenergy pathways for cars: Effects on primary energy use, climate change and energy system integration2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 1779-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different pathways and technologies can be used to convert woody biomass to transport services, but the biomass use and climate implications vary strongly between the alternatives. This study focuses on primary energy use and climate change effects of using bioenergy for transportation in the context of a renewable-based energy system. Integrated pathways to improve the energy efficiency of power and transportation sectors and integrated intermittent renewable energy are considered. The results show that the bioenergy pathway that produces biomotor fuels to replace fossil fuels leads to high primary energy use and instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission per km of driving distance, thus increasing global warming during the first 40e50 years, compared to fossil alternatives. The electric vehicle pathway using bioelectricity from combined heat and power plants leads to immediate global cooling and much greater climate benefits in the long run compared to biomotor fuels. Climate change effects of light-duty vehicles could be strongly reduced by changes in technology together with system integration that links the transport sector to the electricity and heating sectors. The use of biomass should be considered in the context of the overall integrated energy system, and in relation to the development of energy conversion technologies between different sectors.

  • 26.
    Hansen, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Pongthep
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Kemiska och mikrobiella hot i ett återcirkulerande reningssystem: Undersökning av möjligheten att implementera ett reningssystem som återvinner processvatten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbetet är ett avhandlingsprojekt på kandidatnivå inom programmet Energi- och miljöteknik på Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö. Projektets avsikt är att analysera möjligheten att installera ett reningssystem där processvattnet renas och återanvändas för ändamålets syfte. En av fördelarna med ett återcirkulerandesystem är att miljöpåverkan minimeras så att kommande generationer har möjligheter att tillfredsställa sina behov. Volvo CE, Braås vill förvissa om att det fotavtryck företaget lämnar jorden är så litet som möjligt. Företaget arbetar därför kontinuerligt med kvalitet och miljö för att ideligen verka för en bättre miljö.

    Genom att installera ett återcirkulerandesystem kan hälsorisker förekomma för personaler som berörs om inte projektplaneringen är noggrann genomtänkt. Risker som kan uppstå i systemet är bakterietillväxt, men även såväl som tungmetallansamling. Med hjälp av data och litteraturer inom området har det fastställt att flera lösningar är kommersiellt tillgängliga för att desinficera processvattnet. Den rekommenderande saneringsmetod är UV-desinfektion, eftersom den är mest praktiska och ekonomiskt hållbara för företaget.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Examensarbete_pongthep_gustavsson_bjorn_hansen
  • 27.
    Helgesson, Per Otto Ragnar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Båberg, Gustaf Elias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Biogasframställning på kryssningsfartyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel is one of the biggest costs in shipping today, and new technologies are being developed to save fuel. But there is potential to make fuel today aboard cruise ships. One of the biggest expenses in making biogas on land is the heating of the substrate, this cost can be eliminated on ships by using waste heat from engines and steam systems. This report explores the possibility of producing biogas by using toilet and food waste that is created daily aboard cruise ships. What components are needed, calculations of the space they would take and how much gas could be produced. The report was conducted by examining how biogas is produced on land, what are the most common technologies used today? And if they are technically possible aboard a cruise ship? To calculate gas potential, tank and reactor volume. Data has been collected from four cruise ships. The results show that it is possible to create biogas. But that the amount of gas could not justify the cost of building a biogas plant aboard cruise ships.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Biogasframställning på kryssningsfartyg
  • 28.
    Hermansson, Sven
    et al.
    SP.
    Backéus, Sofia
    Bohman, Christoffer
    Gulliksson, Hans
    Larsson, Sylvia
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Öhman, Marcu
    Testbädd Mellanskalig Biorbränsleförbränning - en förstudie2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversion of biomass to heat and power plays an important role in the transition of the Swedish energy system from fossil based to renewables. For manufacturers and users of medium scale combustion plants (0.5 – approx. 15 MWth), a spectrum of challenges are accounted with both today’s and future flexible use of modern biomass fuels. Such challenges are e.g. fuel handling and processing together with combustion instabilities caused by new fuels with resulting ware-and-tear and elevated emission levels. However, the possibilities to test and try out new innovations is very limited, which is why a Test Bed has the potential to significantly contribute to the innovation growth within the sector. The purpose of this feasibility study therefore to investigate the prerequisites for the establishment of a Test Bed for Medium Scale Biomass Combustion. The fundament of the feasibility study is a survey of the existing infrastructure for testing and innovation development of medium scale biomass combustion, which could be further developed and interconnected. Furthermore, a broad inquiry has been performed among market actors, focusing on the present and future need together with existing conditions for taking part in the development of a test bed. These first two steps has then been synthesized into recommendations on how a test bed should be developed and exploited by relevant actors. The major conclusions and recommendations of the feasibility study are:  A cost efficient and innovative Test Bed system for medium scale biomass combustion could be developed by enhanced cooperation between passive test-bed like plants and systems, industrial testing plants and research activities,  Development of a test bed system is hindered by the fact that there is no clear receiver of such system on the market. Stake holder cooperation is today weak, which makes common investments and financing impossible  There is no economic support for the erection of new, dedicated test bed facilities for medium scale biomass combustion,  Pre-treatment of biomass raw material with the purpose of enhancing fuel quality simultaneously refining products from the biomass has been found to show good potential for further development of test beds. This study therefore recommends that such investigation should be taken under consideration.

  • 29.
    Hosseinpourpia, Reza
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Parsland, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Utilization of different tall oils for improving the water resistance of cellulosic fibers2019In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 136, no 13, article id 47303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of the pulping by-products crude tall oil (CTO), distilled tall oil (DTO), andtall oil fatty acid (TOFA) on dynamic water vapor sorption behavior, interfiber strength, and thermal stability of cellulosic paper-sheets.The results were compared against those obtained in cellulose papers treated with the conventional petroleum-derived hydrophobicagent hydrowax and in untreated ones. The tall oil treatments caused strong reduction in equilibrium moisture content of the paper-sheets during adsorption and desorption runs. The same trend was noticed for the hydrowax-treated papers, however, it was lesspronounced than the CTO-treated and DTO-treated samples in the relative humidity range of 75–95%. The sorption hysteresis was con-siderably decreased after the treatments. The ultimate dry-tensile strengths of the paper-sheets were significantly reduced by TOFA andhydrowax treatments, while CTO and DTO showed comparable strength as that of untreated control. The ultimate wet-strengths of thepaper-sheets were improved after the treatments. The thermal stability of the specimens was improved by the tall oil treatments, and thehydrowax-treated samples illustrated lower degradation temperature than the untreated control. The results are promising for the use oftall oils as alternative hydrophobic agents of cellulosicfiber-based products, such as wood panels and paper packaging.

  • 30.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    A Process for Producing Acrolein2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a process for dehydrating glycerol into acrolein over an acidic catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen, minimizing side reactions forming carbon deposits on the catalyst.

  • 31.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB ( Lund University/ Chemical Engineering) .
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Method for Hydrogenating 1,2-Unsaturated Carbonylic Compounds2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a method of hydrogenating an1,2-unsaturated carbonylic compound to obtain the corresponding saturated carbonylic compound in the presence of a palladium catalyst with heterogeneous distribution of palladium

  • 32.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution I Malmö AB (Lund University/ Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Process for Preparing Lower Hydrocarbons from Glycerol2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a process of preparing hydrocarbons from oxygenated hydrocarbons by use of at least two catalysts.

  • 33.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB.
    Woods, Richard Root
    Primafuel Inc. (US).
    Porter, Brook
    Primafuel inc. (US).
    Gas Phase Process for Monoalcohol Production from Glycerol2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of producing short chain alcohols from glycerol generated as a byproduct of biodiesel production is provided.

  • 34.
    Isik, Güldem
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bifiltration of air polluted with alpha-pinene2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different physical and chemical parameters on the performance of biofilters, treating hydrophobic organic compounds. pinene was used as a model substance. Alpha-pinene is commonly found in wood, and therefore found at wood storage facilities and wood processing industries [1].

    In this experiment two biofilter which were in equal size, were used. Both of them were filled with perlite for treating the alpha pinene contaminated air. One of the columns contained perlite partially coated with silicone oil to make the surface of perlite more hydrophobic. The filters were run at 5, 2.5 and 1.5 l min-1 air flow rate. The results showed that the silicone oil amended filter performed better at 2.5 l/min with a maximum removal rate of 20 g / (m3 h) in comparison with 15 g/ (m3 h) for the filter without oil. The efficiency was approximately the same for both filters at 1.5 and 5 l/min (40 compare to 35 g/m3 bed h). The flow rate was then set to 2.5 l/min once more. The results showed that the removal rate had increased to approximately 35 g/ (m3 h) and that the efficiency of both filters was approximately the same. The difference in results between the initial run and the later at 2.5 l/min is probably depending on that the microorganisms had become adapted to the α-pinene and that the microorganism communities developed differently in the two filters.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Patinvoh, Regina J.
    Lagos State Univ, Nigeria.
    Horvath, Ilona Sarvari
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents2019In: Fermentation - Basel, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-10, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH(4)/gVS and 229 NmlCH(4)/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates.

  • 36.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery2016In: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, p. 627-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research is focused on evaluation of substrates not commonly used for biogas production and the development and optimization of processes adjusted to these substrates. This study deals with evaluation of sea weeds (Saccharina Lattisima and Laminaria digitata). Biomethane potential tests (BMP) have shown the methane potential of the algae to be 180-440 l CH4/kg organic material. These potentials are in the same range as potentials found for commonly used substrates such as sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. Sampling of produced biogas, substrate and digest were performed by using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis by a Gas Chromatograph with a Mass Spectrometrer (GC-MS) in order to develop a method to be able to characterize, monitor and possibly control the process.

  • 37.
    Jiang, Junfei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lang, Lin
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Liu, Huacai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Yin, Xiuli
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Wu, Chuang-zhi
    Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China.
    Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration failure occurs when filter media is blocked by accumulated solid particles. Suitable operating conditions were investigated for cake cleaning by partial oxidation of filter-cake particles (FCP) during biomass gasification. The mechanism of the FCP partial oxidation was investigated in a ceramic filter and by using thermo-gravimetric analysis through a temperature-programmed route in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation of the FCP in the simulated product gas environment was examined at 300–600°C in a ceramic filter that was set and heated in a laboratory-scale fixed reactor. Four reaction stages, namely drying, pre-oxidation, complex oxidation and non-oxidation, occurred in the FCP partial oxidation when the temperature increased from 30°C to 800°C in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation was more effective for FCP mass loss from 275 to 725°C. Experimental results obtained in a ceramic filter indicated that the best operating temperature and FCP loading occurred at 400°C and 1.59 g/cm2, respectively. The FCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller before and after partial oxidation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that partial oxidation of the FCP can result in a significant decrease in C–Hn (alkyl and aromatic) groups and an increase in C=O (carboxylic acids) groups. The scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that during partial oxidation, the FCP underwent pore or pit formation, expansion, amalgamation and destruction.

  • 38.
    Jiang, Wen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Kumar, Anuj
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials and its applications in wood adhesives — A review2018In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 124, p. 325-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction, a useful method of turning whole biomass into liquids, provides advantages for energy andpolymers and finds applications in many sectors. This paper reviews the different liquefaction technologies andrecent advances in the development of sustainable wood adhesives. Current liquefaction technologies includehydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and moderate acid-catalyzed liquefaction (MACL). HTL produces bio-oils asprimary products, and solid residues and gases as by-products. MACL depends on the solvent types used, whichare grouped to polyhydric alcohols and phenols. Bio-polyols from alcohol liquefaction, phenolated biomass fromphenol liquefaction and phenolic compounds rich-HTL bio-oils have been used in the production of liquefiedbiomass-based adhesives, which have shown competitive properties but face challenges for industrial uses. Yet, abetter understanding of reaction pathways and optimization of the liquefaction processes is needed.

  • 39.
    Kandušer, Maša
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ušaj, Marko
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cell electrofusion: past and future perspectives for antibody production and cancer cell vaccines2014In: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, ISSN 1742-5247, E-ISSN 1744-7593, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1885-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the past few decades, new methods for drug and gene delivery have been developed, among which electroporation and electrofusion have gained noticeable attention. Lately, advances in the field of immunotherapy have enabled new cancer therapies based on immune response, including monoclonal antibodies and cell vaccines. Efficient cell fusion is needed for both hybridoma production and cell vaccine preparation, and electrofusion is a promising method to achieve this goal.Areas covered: In the present review, we cover new strategies of cancer treatment related to antibody production and cell vaccines. In more detail, cell electroporation and electrofusion are addressed. We briefly describe principles of cell electroporation and focus on electrofusion and its influential factors, with special attention on the fusogenic state of the cell membrane, contact formation, the effect of electrofusion media and cell viability. We end the review with an overview of the very promising field of microfluidic devices for electrofusion.Expert opinion: In our opinion, electrofusion can be a very efficient method for hybridoma and cell vaccine production. Advances in the development of microfluidic devices and a better understanding of the underlying (biological) mechanisms will overcome the current limitations.

  • 40.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dagbro, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Granlund, Kurt
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Soluble degradation products in thermally modified wood2014In: Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference: “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” : May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden : book of abstracts / [ed] Dick Sandberg & Mojgan Vaziri, Skellefteå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2014, p. 16-17Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Torniainen, Petteri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Dagbro, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Granlund, Kurt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Träteknik.
    Presence of water-soluble compounds in thermally modified wood: carbohydrates and furfurals2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 3679-3689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With thermal modification, changes in properties of wood, such as the presence of VOC and water-soluble carbohydrates, may occur. Thermal modifications under saturated steam conditions (160°C or 170°C) and superheated steam conditions (170, 185, and 212°C) were investigated by analysing the presence of water-soluble 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), furfural, and carbohydrates in heat-treated wood. The influence of thermal modifications on Scots pine, Norway spruce, and silver birch was also studied. Furfurals were analysed using HPLC at 280 nm, while monosaccharides and water-soluble carbohydrates were determined by GC-FID as their acetylated alditiols and, after methanolysis, as their trimethylsilylated methyl-glycosides, respectively. The amount of furfurals was larger in boards thermally modified under saturated steam conditions than those treated under superheated steam conditions. Generally, more of HMF than furfural was found in the thermally modified boards. In process water, in which saturated steam conditions had been used, furfural and only traces of HMF were found. Higher content of water-soluble carbohydrates was found in boards treated in saturated steam rather than in superheated steam. After modification in saturated steam, substantial parts of the water-soluble carbohydrates were due to monosaccharides, but only traces of monosaccharides were found in boards treated under superheated steam conditions.

  • 42.
    Klavins, Maris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Ozola, Ruta
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Muter, Olga
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Composite clay sorbents for immobilisation of biomolecules and cells2015In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, E-ISSN 1873-4863, Vol. 208, no supplement, p. S56-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Kroon, Martin
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    A model for saccular cerebral aneurysm growth by collagen fibre remodelling2007In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 247, p. 775-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first structural model for saccular cerebral aneurysm growth is proposed. It is assumed that the development of the aneurysm isaccompanied by a loss of the media, and that only collagen fibres provide load-bearing capacity to the aneurysm wall. The aneurysm ismodelled as an axisymmetric multi-layered membrane, exposed to an inflation pressure. Each layer is characterized by an orientationangle, which changes between different layers. The collagen fibres and fibroblasts within a specific layer are perfectly aligned. The growthand the morphological changes of the aneurysm are accomplished by the turnover of collagen. Fibroblasts are responsible for collagenproduction, and the related deformations are assumed to govern the collagen production rate. There are four key parameters in themodel: a normalized pressure, the number of layers in the wall, an exponent in the collagen mass production rate law, and the pre-stretchunder which the collagen is deposited. The influence of the model parameters on the aneurysmal response is investigated, and a stabilityanalysis is performed. The model is able to predict clinical observations and mechanical test results, for example, in terms of predictedaneurysm size, shape, wall stress and wall thickness.

  • 44.
    Larsson, Henric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sjödal, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Undersökning av biogaspotential i rötat avloppsslam2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal waste treatment plant Sundet in Växjö currently has a digestion plant producing biogas. The facility consists of two digesters and a machine that dewaters the sludge after the reactors. The substrate that is used in the reactors consists of sewage sludge from Växjö. There are plans to expand the process with a third reactor in which the digested sludge will be digested a second time in order to extract more biogas. The digested sludge from reactor 1 and 2 is planned to undergo three pretreatment steps in the shape of phase separation, decomposition and sanitation before it reaches reactor 3.

    In the thesis a digestion process is carried out with digested sludge from Sundet in batch reactors that represents the planned third reactor. The purpose is to analyze how much extra biogas that can be extracted with a second digestion process.

    Calculations of how much energy that is necessary for the pretreatment stages and how much extra energy that can be extracted in the shape of biogas from the digestion process was made in the thesis.

    The results from the experiments shows that it is possible extract more methane rich gas from the sludge and that the pre treatment stages phase separation and decomposition use small amounts of energy compared to how much energy the extra gas gives. The sanitation process is estimated to cost quite a lot of energy compared to the energy extracted through biogas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Larsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tvådimensionell vattenmodellstudie av rökgasflöde i rosterugn:  2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver resultaten av en tvådimensionell vattenmodellering av gasflödet genom en 15 MW rosterugn. Den redovisar vilken påverkan fördelningen av förbränningsluft, placering av dysor för luft och rökgasåterföring, samt eldstadsutformning har för blandningen av brännbara gaser och luft i pannans sekundärzon, och därigenom vilka effekter det har på utsläpp av kväveoxider, koloxid och partiklar.

  • 46. Larsson, P O
    et al.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Mosbach, K
    New Approach to Steroid Conversion Using Immobilised Microorganisms1976In: Nature, Vol. 263, no 5580, p. 796-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The marked increase in demand for contraceptives and anti-inflammatory agents such as cortisol and prednisolone, combined with a diminishing supply of steroid raw materials may lead to shortages of steroid drugs1. Thus it is important to develop new sources for steroids as well as to devise more efficient means for steroid conversions. Here we report a new approach to steroid transformation in which activated immobilised microorganisms are utilised and which represents a promising alternative to conventional microbial transformation processes.

  • 47. Larsson, P O
    et al.
    Ohlson, Sten
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Mosbach, K
    Transformation of Steroids by Immobilized Living Microorganisms1979In: Applied Biochemistry and Bioengineering, Vol. 2, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Legrand, Catherine
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Olofsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Growing algae in Scandinavia: utopia or opportunity?2011In: Algae: The sustainable biomass for the future.: Perspectives from the submariner project algae cooperation event Trelleborg, Sweden - September 28-29, 2011., Berlin, Germany: s.Pro sustainable projects GmbH , 2011, p. 16-17Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Char conversion kinetics and aerosol characterization in biomass gasification2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification is a thermochemical conversion by partial oxidation at elevated temperature of solid biomass into a gaseous energy carrier. The product gas contains the major components CO, H2, CO2, CH4, as well as some tar and inorganic impurities and solid particles such as ash, bed material, soot and char. The aim of this work is to develop an aerosol-based method to investigate on-line the reactivity of the suspended biomass char particles at high temperatures, and to apply aerosol measurement systems for sampling and characterizing particulate matter in the hot product gas from gasifiers.

    An aerosol-based method including the steps for generating, transporting, and oxidizing suspended char particles (0.5–10 µm) was proposed and developed for investigation of char reactivity at high temperatures. An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distributions. A tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) was used to measure the change of mass concentrations of particles in the carrier gas, before and after conversion. The intrinsic kinetics of various biomass (wood, straw, miscanthus) char particles have been experimentally established in a wide temperature range for both combustion (in air/oxygen) and gasification (in 33 vol% CO2 or 33 vol% steam), up to 800°C and 1300°C, respectively, by combining the aerosol method with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The general CO2 or steam gasification reactivity of chars from different biomass could be ranked as wood > miscanthus > straw. In CO2 or steam gasification, the reactivity of char samples measured by the aerosol method at 1300°C would vary by a factor of 4-9 comparing with the extrapolated estimation from the TGA results at the low temperatures. This indicates that high-temperature reactivity estimation by extrapolation should be used with care. Variations of the morphology and the effective density of char particles during conversion indicated that in the initial stage of char conversion (either combustion or gasification), pore growth was dominant up to a certain conversion, and shrinkage or fusing would occur in the later stage. The aerosol-based method presents a set of benefits which are advantageous compared to previously established techniques: no mass transfer limitation at high temperatures; the flexibility to switch to different gas agent combined with continuous feeding of char sample; and the on-line measurement of particle mass and size. The aerosol method is not applicable under the conditions where the reaction rate is slow, since longer residence time will increase the probability of particle losses. In addition to laboratory applications, the aerosol method has potentials for on-line investigation of concentration and reactivity of suspended char fragments sampled directly from the product gas in different types of gasifiers.

    Particulate matter (10 nm–10 µm) in the product gas was characterized for the size distribution, morphology and elemental composition by both on-line and off-line techniques. An aerosol particle measurement system including a dilution probe connected in series with a packed activated carbon bed was applied to extract aerosol from the hot product gas produced in the gasifiers using wood as feedstock: an indirect bubbling fluidized bed gasifier and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier. The fine and coarse particles from the CFB gasifier contained calcium and magnesium, indicating the contributions from the ash and the magnesite bed material. From the indirect gasifier, the fine-mode (<0.5 µm) particles were dominated by potassium and chlorine whereas the coarse-mode (>0.5 µm) particles were dominated by calcium and silicon, probably from the ash and the bed material. Char fragments were identified in the hot product gas and contribute to the coarse-mode particles in both gasifiers.

     

  • 50.
    Lin, Leteng
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Aerosol-based method for investigating biomass char reactivity at high temperatures2011In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 158, no 7, p. 1426-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aerosol-based method was proposed and developed to characterize particles fragmented from biomass chars during oxidation. The chars were prepared from both wood and miscanthus pellets under various pyrolysis conditions. Char fragments with aerodynamic diameters in the range of 0.5–10 μm were suspended and transported in a reactive gas through an aerosol reactor, which was heated by an electric oven. The oxidation of char particles in the reactor was investigated by determining on-line the particle size distributions before and after passage through the reactor using an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) spectrometer. The interpretation of APS data was evaluated by both experiments and models in which the fine char particles were assumed to keep either constant density or constant diameter during the oxidation process. The results indicate that the aerosol-based method can be used to determine reaction kinetics of char particles in the high temperature range, where oxidation is normally controlled by diffusion limitation if measuring with the conventional techniques. The application of the aerosol method indicated that high pyrolysis temperature and prolonged retention time will reduce the char reactivity.

12 1 - 50 of 91
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf