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  • 1.
    Augustsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator: En kvalitativ intervjustudie. Bakgrund: Den kritiskt sjuke intensivvårdspatienten behöver såväl resurskrävande som komplicerad behandling. Sedering administreras till patienter i ventilatorbehandling för att lindra ångest och smärta. Intensivvården bygger på multiprofessionellt samarbete och strävar efter individuellt anpassad sedering för att upprätthålla komfortabel sederingsnivå. Riktlinjer och bedömningsskalor är viktiga hjälpmedel vid bedömning och titrering av sedering. Det är utmaningar i att vårda sederade patienter och det ställer stora krav på intensivvårdssjuksköterskan. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator på intensivvårdsavdelning. Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ design genom individuella semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio intensivvårdssjuksköterskor. Nio av deltagarna var kvinnor och en var man. Data analyserades genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studiens resultat frambringade i följande tema Bedömning – En väg av utmaningar som belyste intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator. Resultatet presenteras under två kategorier: Osäkerhet vid sederingsnivå och Brister vid sedering. Osäkerhet vid sederingsnivå blev påtaglig på grund av otydliga riktlinjer, svårigheter i att upprätthålla en individuell sederingsnivå och utifrån den komplicerade kommunikationen med patienten. Brister vid sedering blev påtaglig på grund av känsla av otillräcklighet och brist på både samarbete och kunskap försvårade ytterligare intensivvårdssjuksköterskans bedömning och titrering av sedering. Slutsats: Studien identifierar utmaningar som bidrar till osäkerhet och brister vid sedering. Dessa utmaningar bör förhindras genom utbildning för att bibehålla patientsäkerheten och möjliggöra god vård. Intensivvårdssjuksköterskan bör få insikt i de samhällsekonomiska vinster som god följsamhet till riktlinjer och bedömningsskalor frambringar.

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    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bedöma sederade patienter i ventilator
  • 2.
    Briland, Isabelle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Malinn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ett komplext omhändertagande: - En intervjustudie om akut omhändertagande av svårt sjuka sepsispatienter och patienter med trauma2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The population is aging and requires more complex healthcare. This means that in the future, interaction with other healthcare departments is essential. Such interaction would lead to increased demand on the ability to cooperate among healthcare personnel. The intensivecare nurse and the nurse in the emergency department have a close cooperation when managing the acute severely ill patient. A multiprofessional team gives a faster diagnosis and management in the emergency department, which shortens the time to the final instance of care. The members of the team complement each other, increasing patient safety and enabling person-centered care. Increased knowledge with the nursing staff on the acute management in emergency department is essential to be able to enhance the care for the patient in the initial stage, but focus should also be at the nurse’s experience of the acute management to identify risk factors that could pose a negative influence on the patient.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experience of acute management of patients with trauma and patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.Method: The method used was a qualitative, inductive approach where 14 interviews were conducted, seven with nurses from the emergency department and seven intensive care nurses from the intensive care department. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative, manifest content analysis.Result:The analyzation process resulted in five different categories: ‘Communication is A&O’, ‘The importance of knowing one’s role’, ‘Work over the borders’, ‘Working from a clear structure’ and ‘Care on different terms’. Conclusion: There is an unclear structure in the emergency care of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, which was a result of unclear roles and inadequate communication in the care. It appears to be advantageous to introduce clear guidelines in the emergency care of the patient group with severe sepsis or septic shock, suggestively by checklists or some medical alert like a trauma alarm, and where a multi-professional team interacts around the patient.

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  • 3.
    Byrlind Cronqvist, Olle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ryd, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors och anestesiologers erfarenheter av intensivvårdsrelaterad posttraumatiskt stressyndrom hos intensivvårdspatienter: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD) är ett tillstånd som kännetecknas av ångest och oro relaterat till situationer som påminner om en traumatisk händelse. Intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD har fått ökad uppmärksamhet de senaste åren. Genom ett preventivt arbete och tidiga insatser minskar risken för att patienter utvecklar PTSD. För att detta ska ske krävs god kunskap av problemet hos intensivvårdspersonal. Hur deras erfarenheter ser ut är tidigare outforskat.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva intensivvårdssjuksköterskors och anestesiologers erfarenheter av intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD hos intensivvårdspatienter.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie gjordes. Semistrukturerade och individuella intervjuer genomfördes med nio intensivvårdssjuksköterskor och fyra anestesiologer. Data analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier: En känsla att vi kan göra mer, Att normalisera livet och Fortsatt stöd efter tiden på IVA. Resultatet visade att delirium upplevdes vara en ledande riskfaktor till PTSD. Relationer och kommunikation upplevdes som viktiga i det profylaktiska arbetet mot PTSD. Post-IVAmottagningar och dagböcker tros kunna bidra till bättre uppföljning och kan fungera preventivt mot PTSD.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att det finns en liten erfarenhet om PTSD efter intensivvård, ändå förekom ett omedvetet preventivt arbete. En organisatorisk satsning behövs för att öka medvetenhet hos intensivvårdspersonalen. Det behövs mer kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning om bland annat riskfaktorer och uppföljning gällande intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD.

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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Hilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Idin, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ljud från medicinsk utrustning: - Hur påverkas intensivvårdspatienter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care patients are constantly subjected to noise because of the continuously monitoring of medical equipment in a hospital environment. According to WHO’s recommendations the noise levels within the intensive care should not exceed 30-40 dB. When the patients are subjected to alarm and noise their sleep is affected and as a result recovery and healing is negatively affected for the critically ill patient.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the noise from the medical equipment at the ICU and how it affects the patients and their sleep.

    Methods: An integrative literature study.

    Result: The noise from the medical equipment in the intensive care exceeded the noise level for optimal sleep and rest for patients. The patients experienced the noise both positively and negatively. The quality of sleep could be improved by sleep-aiding measures.

    The result is presented by using two main categories: Environment and Quality of sleep including the following subcategories; Noise intensity, Patient’s interpretation of the noise, Sleep disturbance and Sleep-aiding measures.

    Conclusion: The noise from the medical equipment affects the patients to different degrees and contributes to their sleep being disturbed. Through improving the knowledge of the intensive care nurse and by introducing clear guidelines for sleep-aiding measures, the patients sleep and rest can be improved. In the literature study the current knowledge levels are mapped out, which shows a lack of knowledge with the intensive care nursing staff. Further research is needed to improve and increase the level of knowledge of the topic.

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  • 5.
    Hedberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ejdhall, Charlotte
    Intensivvårdspatienters upplevelse av den tid de vårdats i ventilator2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 6.
    Johansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Annette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur uppfattar patienten oavsiktlig vakenhet under generell anestesi - awarness? En integrativ litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 7.
    Karlsson, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson Mauléon, Annika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "Is that my leg?" patients' experiences of being awake during regional anesthesia and surgery.2012In: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, ISSN 1089-9472, E-ISSN 1532-8473, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most knee or hip replacement surgery is performed under regional anesthesia, when patients are awake. Previous research has primarily focused on patients' experiences during general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to uncover the meaning of being awake during regional anesthesia and surgery. Nine interviews with patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery comprise the data. The phenomenological analysis shows that being awake during surgery can be compared with walking a tightrope because of ambiguous feelings. Four interrelated constituents further elucidated the patients' experiences: balancing between proximity and distance in the operating theater, balancing between having control and being left out, my partly inaccessible body handled by others, and the significant role of the carer. Anesthesia providers and perioperative nurses need to understand the awake patients' intraoperative experiences to support and confirm them when they can no longer experience or have full access to their body.

  • 8.
    Klementsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hafsbrandt, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors upplevelser av samvetsstress: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stress of conscience means a stressed conscience and occurs when the nurse anaesthetist, for different reasons, does not have the ability to act according to one´s conscience. This can lead to a stress reaction which, if repeated frequently, can lead to emotional exhaustion. Aim: The aim of this study was to shed light on experiences of stress of conscience among nurse anaesthetists. Method: The study was performed by a qualitative thematic content analysis with an inductive approach. The study involved twelve informants who were interviewed regarding their experiences of stress of conscience. Results: Stress of conscience occurs among nurse anaesthetists. One theme was analyzed that describes that the nurse anaesthetist constantly manages the feeling of a stressed conscience, and at the same time strives to do what feels right. How the informants manages the feeling of stress of conscience depends on their emotional daily fitness and the current situation. Conclusions: Stress of conscience can be experienced as a heavy load, but also to be seen as a positive internal force that helps the nurse anaesthetist to act according to one´s conscience, and do things that feel right.

     

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  • 9.
    Larsson Mauléon, Annika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa
    Instituionen för Omvårdnad Karolinska Institutet.
    Difficulties in intraoperative care2012In: Journal of Perioperative Practice, ISSN 1467-1026, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 334-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties in intraoperative care

    Difficult situations which occur intraoperatively have a direct impact on nurses working within the area. A study was undertaken focusing nurses’ confrontations with difficult situations where the narrations from twelve nurses were taped. A phenomenological method was used to analyse this information and revealed how difficult intraoperative situations arise and how the nurses found different ways of handling these situations.

    by Annika Larsson Mauléon and Sirkka-Liisa EkmanCorrespondence address: Annika Larsson Mauléon, School of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnæus University, S-351 95 Växjö, Sweden. Email: Annika.larsson_mauleon@lnu.se

  • 10.
    Lundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Liza
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdande beröring på en intensivvårdsavdelning: en kvalitativ intervjustudie med intensivvårdspersonal2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Beröring har betydelse inom vården där patientenställs inför ett akut omhändertagande inom intensivsjukvård. Ett holistisktomhändertagande där vårdpersonalen med respekt och medkänsla berör patient ochnärstående kan skapa en trygghet, minska förekomsten av stress ochlindra lidande. Beröring kan uppfattas negativt om den ges på ettfelaktigt sätt. Syfte: Att beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse avden vårdande beröringens betydelse på en intensivvårdsavdelning. Metod: Kvalitativintervjustudie med vårdpersonal från en intensivvårdsavdelning i södra Sverige. Data analyserades med hjälp av en innehållsanalys. Resultat: Vårdandeberöring sker naturligt inom intensivvården och det är viktigtatt hitta rätt förutsättningar för att skapa beröring, då det finns barriärerav olika slag att ta hänsyn till och förebygga. Intensivvårdspersonal uppleveratt vårdande beröring både kan vara positiv och negativ och är därförinkännande genom ett professionellt förhållningssätt i mötet med patient ochnärstående. Beröring kan ge intensivvårdspersonal en bättre kontakt medpatienter och närstående, men ocksåinge trygghet och tröst. Slutsats: Vårdandeberöring ses dels som en nödvändig beröring i samband med vårdinsatser, delssom emotionell beröring med syftet att öka patientens och deras närståendesvälbefinnande. Emotionell beröring ökarvårdpersonalens välbefinnandedå de känner att de kan använda beröring som ett redskap och stöd i vårdandetav sina patienter.

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  • 11.
    Martinsson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Josefsson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vårda en patient som är potentiell organdonator: En kvalitativ litteraturstudie utifrån intensivvårdssjuksköterskans perspektiv2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To care for potential donors is a difficult task for nurses and due to the complexities and stressors the situation creates, it is a big challenge for nurses in the intensive care units.

    Aim: The aim was to clarify the intensive care nurse´s perceptions and experiences caring for patients with the diagnosis of brain death and that are potential organ donors.

    Method: This literature review was conducted by composing 14 qualitative scientific articles. A systematic data analysis was used where data was analysed through a manifest content analysis.

    Results: The systematic data analysis resulted in eight subcategories and three categories. The three categories described as: The nurse´s perspectives influence the care, The challenging care and A care that evokes strong emotions.

    The result showed that the concept of brain death was hard to understand when the patient actually looks alive. The knowledge of the nurse and the perception of organ donation influenced the care and it was a challenging duty to balance the care of the potential donor and the relatives. When caring for the potential donor and meeting with the relatives, strong emotions were created.

    Conclusion: The situation around the potential donor and the communication with the relatives is very challenging for the nurse. A healthy work environment and education in communication are crucial to improve the professional role of the nurse.

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    Att vårda en patient som är potentiell organdonator
  • 12.
    Petersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Conradsson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Saphenusnervblockad – En del av den multimodala smärtlindringen efter en främre korsbandsrekonstruktion med hamstringmetod2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Postoperativ smärta uppstår genom vävnadsskador i samband med operation. Numerisk Rankningsskala (NRS) är ett smärtskattningsinstrument. Postoperativ smärta behandlas oftast med analgetika, ibland ges även någon form av opioid, till exempel Fentanyl. En annan smärtlindringsmetod som används är nervblockader där lokalbedövningsmedel bedövar nerver. Smärtlindringen ska utgå ifrån patientens unika livsvärld. En vanlig ortopedisk operation är en rekonstruktion av det främre korsbandet i knäet. Hamstringmetoden är en operationsmetod för att utföra detta ingrepp. Detta ingrepp innefattar bland annat borrningar och fixering av implantat och därför är denna operation ofta starkt associerad med postoperativ smärta. Efter en främre korsbandsrekonstruktion ställs det höga förväntningar på tidig mobilisering och snabb rehabilitering och dessa fenomen ställer högre krav på bättre postoperativ smärtlindring. Studier har gjorts för att försöka få konsensus kring den bästa metoden att lindra denna smärta, dock är inte forskarna eniga. Postoperativ smärta är ett komplext fenomen som kan bidra till lidande, det är därför viktigt att anestesisjuksköterskan har kännedom om hur denne kan på bästa sätt lindra patientens lidande och öka patientens välbefinnande.

    Syftet: var att jämföra smärta enligt Numerisk Rankningsskala, NRS, de två första timmarna postoperativt efter en främre korsbandsrekonstruktion med hamstringmetod; saphenusnervblockad versus en grupp där saphenusnervblockaden inte lades. Syftet var dessutom att jämföra förbrukningen av Fentanyl de två första postoperativa timmarna i vardera grupp.

    Metod: En kvantitativ ansats antogs och designen som användes var en prospektiv enkätundersökning. Studien hade även en kvasiexprimentell design då en jämförelsegrupp användes. En enkätundersökning med deskriptiv och analytisk statistik valdes då syftet kunde belysas och undersökas.

    Resultat: Det var 40 stycken patienter som medverkade i studien. Saphenusnervblockaden lades på 20 stycken patienter och det var 20 stycken patienter som ej erhöll nervblockaden. Gruppen med saphenusnervblockad rapporterade signifikant mindre smärta än gruppen utan saphenusnervblockad, NRS på 2,5 vs NRS 3,9, p< 0,003. Gruppen med saphenusnervblockad hade även en mindre postoperativ förbrukning av Fentanyl än gruppen utan saphenusnervblockad, förbrukning av Fentanyl 46,8 μg vs förbrukning av Fentanyl 101,3 μg, p< 0,003.

    Slutsats: En saphenusnervblockad bör vara en del av den multimodala smärtlindringen efter en främre korsbandsrekonstruktion på det deltagande sjukhuset. Denna smärtlindringsmetod leder till mindre förbrukning av Fentanyl och därmed färre biverkningar ifrån opioider. Mindre förbrukning av Fentanyl tyder även på mindre smärta hos patienterna. Färre biverkningar och mindre smärta kan i sin tur minska vårdlidande hos denna patientgrupp. Vidare forskning behövs för att denna studie ska kunna överföras på andra sjukhus.

    Nyckelord: främre korbandsrekonstruktion, postoperativ smärta, NRS, livsvärld, saphenusnervblockad

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  • 13.
    Ringblom, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wåhlin, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Linköping University;Hosp Jönköping.
    A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale2018In: Pediatric Anaesthesia, ISSN 1155-5645, E-ISSN 1460-9592, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 332-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundEmergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. AimsThe aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was also tested. MethodsOne hundred and twenty-two children younger than seven years were observed at postoperative care units during recovery from anesthesia. Two or 3 observers independently assessed the children using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. ResultsThe factor analysis clearly revealed a one-factor solution, which accounted for 82% of the variation in the data. Internal consistency, calculated with Cronbachs alpha, was good (0.96). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, which was used to assess interrater reliability for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale sum score, was 0.97 (P < .001). The weighted kappa statistics were almost perfect in 4 of 5 items, with substantial agreement in the fifth (P < .001). ConclusionThe one-factor solution and the satisfactory reliability in terms of internal consistency and stability support the use of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale for assessing emergence delirium in children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The kappa statistics for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale items essentially indicated good agreement between independent raters, supporting interrater reliability.

  • 14.
    Svensson, Pamela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjalmarsson, Gabriel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Musikens inverkan på patienten vid regional anestesi: En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Music is well known to affect people and has been used to promote healing. Music is used, for example, for patients with dementia and for patients waking up during surgery. Regional anesthesia associated with surgery brings several benefits to the patient to be operated. There are several studies showing the positive impact of music on patient wellbeing before and after surgery.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to compile research into the impact of music on the patient in regional anesthesia during surgery.

    Method: The method was a literature review. In the result 13 articles were included, both qualitative and quantitative. The analysis method used was integrated data analysis and the results were presented in the form of categories and undercategories.

    Result: Patients' anxiety decreased when they listened to music under regional anesthesia. Patients described that they experienced a sense of well-being and were more satisfied after surgery if they had listened to music. Vital parameters such as blood pressure and pulse rate were found to decrease when using music. Some patients felt that the pain decreased. However, there were included studies that did not show any significant difference in the respective categories.

    Discussion: Music may have a positive effect during surgery with regional anesthesia. Different instruments are used to measure anxiety, which can affect the outcome. In some studies, patients were given the choice of music themselves. The music was recorded in various forms, such as headphones or in the operating room. These factors make it difficult to draw a generalizable result.

    Conclusion: The result shows that music can have a positive impact both physically and mentally on patients who listened to music during surgery. Nurse anesthetists should offer music at regional anesthesia and patients can benefit from choosing music themselves as it proved to be of good effect.

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  • 15.
    Talevski, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekten av premedicinering hos barn vid intranasal administrering- en systematisk litteraturstudie: Självständigt fördjupningsarbete med inriktning inom anestesisjukvård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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